Bucharest

From Wikipedia for FEVERv2
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Bucharest_table_infobox_0

Bucharest

BucureștiBucharest_header_cell_0_0_0

CountryBucharest_header_cell_0_1_0 RomaniaBucharest_cell_0_1_1
CountyBucharest_header_cell_0_2_0 NoneBucharest_cell_0_2_1
First attestedBucharest_header_cell_0_3_0 1459Bucharest_cell_0_3_1
GovernmentBucharest_header_cell_0_4_0
MayorBucharest_header_cell_0_5_0 Nicușor Dan (Ind.)Bucharest_cell_0_5_1
AreaBucharest_header_cell_0_6_0
Capital cityBucharest_header_cell_0_7_0 228 km (88 sq mi)Bucharest_cell_0_7_1
MetroBucharest_header_cell_0_8_0 1,811 km (699 sq mi)Bucharest_cell_0_8_1
ElevationBucharest_header_cell_0_9_0 55.8–91.5 m (183.1–300.2 ft)Bucharest_cell_0_9_1
Population (2011-census)Bucharest_header_cell_0_10_0
Capital cityBucharest_header_cell_0_11_0 1,883,425Bucharest_cell_0_11_1
Estimate (1 January 2020)Bucharest_header_cell_0_12_0 2,151,665Bucharest_cell_0_12_1
RankBucharest_header_cell_0_13_0 1st in Romania (4th in the EU)Bucharest_cell_0_13_1
DensityBucharest_header_cell_0_14_0 8,026/km (20,790/sq mi)Bucharest_cell_0_14_1
MetroBucharest_header_cell_0_15_0 2,315,173 (Bucharest-Ilfov)Bucharest_cell_0_15_1
DemonymsBucharest_header_cell_0_16_0 Bucharester (en)

bucureștean, bucureșteancă (ro)Bucharest_cell_0_16_1

Time zoneBucharest_header_cell_0_17_0 UTC+02:00 (EET)Bucharest_cell_0_17_1
Summer (DST)Bucharest_header_cell_0_18_0 UTC+03:00 (EEST)Bucharest_cell_0_18_1
GDP (Nominal)Bucharest_header_cell_0_19_0 2019Bucharest_cell_0_19_1
- TotalBucharest_header_cell_0_20_0 € 52.2 billion (23.9% of Romania)Bucharest_cell_0_20_1
- Per capitaBucharest_header_cell_0_21_0 € 28,573Bucharest_cell_0_21_1
HDI (2018)Bucharest_header_cell_0_22_0 0.917 – very highBucharest_cell_0_22_1
WebsiteBucharest_header_cell_0_23_0 Bucharest_cell_0_23_1

Bucharest (UK: /ˌbuːkəˈrɛst/ BOO-kə-REST, US: /ˈbuːkərɛst/ -⁠rest; Romanian: București [bukuˈreʃtʲ (listen)) is the capital and largest city of Romania, as well as its cultural, industrial, and financial centre. Bucharest_sentence_0

It is in the southeast of the country, at , on the banks of the Dâmbovița River, less than 60 km (37.3 mi) north of the Danube River and the Bulgarian border. Bucharest_sentence_1

Bucharest was first mentioned in documents in 1459. Bucharest_sentence_2

It became the capital of Romania in 1862 and is the centre of Romanian media, culture, and art. Bucharest_sentence_3

Its architecture is a mix of historical (Neoclassical and Art Nouveau), interbellum (Bauhaus, and Art Deco), communist era and modern. Bucharest_sentence_4

In the period between the two World Wars, the city's elegant architecture and the sophistication of its elite earned Bucharest the nickname of 'Paris of the East' (Romanian: Parisul Estului) or 'Little Paris' (Romanian: Micul Paris). Bucharest_sentence_5

Although buildings and districts in the historic city centre were heavily damaged or destroyed by war, earthquakes, and even Nicolae Ceaușescu's program of systematization, many survived and have been renovated. Bucharest_sentence_6

In recent years, the city has been experiencing an economic and cultural boom. Bucharest_sentence_7

It is one of the fastest-growing high-tech cities in Europe, according to Financial Times, CBRE, TechCrunch, and others. Bucharest_sentence_8

UiPath, a global startup founded in Bucharest, has reached over $10 billion in valuation. Bucharest_sentence_9

Since 2019, Bucharest hosts the largest high tech summit in Southeast Europe (Romania Blockchain Summit). Bucharest_sentence_10

In 2016, the historical city centre was listed as 'endangered' by the World Monuments Watch. Bucharest_sentence_11

In 2017, Bucharest was the European city with the highest growth of tourists who stay over night, according to the Mastercard Global Index of Urban Destinations. Bucharest_sentence_12

As for the past two consecutive years, 2018 and 2019, Bucharest ranked as the European destination with the highest potential for development according to the same study. Bucharest_sentence_13

According to the 2011 census, 1,883,425 inhabitants live within the city limits, a decrease from the 2002 census. Bucharest_sentence_14

Adding the satellite towns around the urban area, the proposed metropolitan area of Bucharest would have a population of 2.27 million people. Bucharest_sentence_15

During the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic, the Romanian government used 2.5 million people as the basis for reporting infection rate in the city. Bucharest_sentence_16

Bucharest is the fourth largest city in the European Union by population within city limits, after Berlin, Madrid, and Rome. Bucharest_sentence_17

Economically, Bucharest is the most prosperous city in Romania. Bucharest_sentence_18

The city has a number of large convention facilities, educational institutes, cultural venues, traditional 'shopping arcades' and recreational areas. Bucharest_sentence_19

The city proper is administratively known as the 'Municipality of Bucharest' (Municipiul București), and has the same administrative level as that of a national county, being further subdivided into six sectors, each governed by a local mayor. Bucharest_sentence_20

Etymology Bucharest_section_0

The Romanian name București has an unverified origin. Bucharest_sentence_21

Tradition connects the founding of Bucharest with the name of Bucur, who was a prince, an outlaw, a fisherman, a shepherd or a hunter, according to different legends. Bucharest_sentence_22

In Romanian, the word stem bucurie means 'joy' ('happiness'), and it is believed to be of Dacian origin, hence the city Bucharest means 'city of joy'. Bucharest_sentence_23

Other etymologies are given by early scholars, including the one of an Ottoman traveller, Evliya Çelebi, who said that Bucharest was named after a certain 'Abu-Kariș', from the tribe of 'Bani-Kureiș'. Bucharest_sentence_24

In 1781, Austrian historian Franz Sulzer claimed that it was related to bucurie (joy), bucuros (joyful), or a se bucura (to be joyful), while an early 19th-century book published in Vienna assumed its name to be derived from 'Bukovie', a beech forest. Bucharest_sentence_25

In English, the city's name was formerly rendered as Bukarest. Bucharest_sentence_26

A native or resident of Bucharest is called a 'Bucharester' (Romanian: bucureștean). Bucharest_sentence_27

History Bucharest_section_1

Main articles: History of Bucharest and Timeline of Bucharest Bucharest_sentence_28

Bucharest's history alternated periods of development and decline from the early settlements in antiquity until its consolidation as the national capital of Romania late in the 19th century. Bucharest_sentence_29

First mentioned as the 'Citadel of București' in 1459, it became the residence of the Voivode of Wallachia, Vlad III the Impaler. Bucharest_sentence_30

The Ottomans appointed Greek administrators (Phanariotes) to run the town from the 18th century. Bucharest_sentence_31

A short-lived revolt initiated by Tudor Vladimirescu in 1821 led to the end of the rule of Constantinople Greeks in Bucharest. Bucharest_sentence_32

The Old Princely Court (Curtea Veche) was erected by Mircea Ciobanul in the mid-16th century. Bucharest_sentence_33

Under subsequent rulers, Bucharest was established as the summer residence of the royal court. Bucharest_sentence_34

During the years to come, it competed with Târgoviște on the status of capital city after an increase in the importance of southern Muntenia brought about by the demands of the suzerain power – the Ottoman Empire. Bucharest_sentence_35

Bucharest finally became the permanent location of the Wallachian court after 1698 (starting with the reign of Constantin Brâncoveanu). Bucharest_sentence_36

Partly destroyed by natural disasters and rebuilt several times during the following 200 years, and hit by Caragea's plague in 1813–14, the city was wrested from Ottoman control and occupied at several intervals by the Habsburg Monarchy (1716, 1737, 1789) and Imperial Russia (three times between 1768 and 1806). Bucharest_sentence_37

It was placed under Russian administration between 1828 and the Crimean War, with an interlude during the Bucharest-centred 1848 Wallachian revolution. Bucharest_sentence_38

Later, an Austrian garrison took possession after the Russian departure (remaining in the city until March 1857). Bucharest_sentence_39

On 23 March 1847, a fire consumed about 2,000 buildings, destroying a third of the city. Bucharest_sentence_40

In 1862, after Wallachia and Moldavia were united to form the Principality of Romania, Bucharest became the new nation's capital city. Bucharest_sentence_41

In 1881, it became the political centre of the newly proclaimed Kingdom of Romania under King Carol I. Bucharest_sentence_42

During the second half of the 19th century, the city's population increased dramatically, and a new period of urban development began. Bucharest_sentence_43

During this period, gas lighting, horse-drawn trams, and limited electrification were introduced. Bucharest_sentence_44

The Dâmbovița River was also massively channelled in 1883, thus putting a stop to previously endemic floods like the 1865 flooding of Bucharest. Bucharest_sentence_45

The Fortifications of Bucharest were built. Bucharest_sentence_46

The extravagant architecture and cosmopolitan high culture of this period won Bucharest the nickname of 'Little Paris' (Micul Paris) of the east, with Calea Victoriei as its Champs-Élysées. Bucharest_sentence_47

Between 6 December 1916 and November 1918, the city was occupied by German forces as a result of the Battle of Bucharest, with the official capital temporarily moved to Iași (also called Jassy), in the Moldavia region. Bucharest_sentence_48

After World War I, Bucharest became the capital of Greater Romania. Bucharest_sentence_49

In the interwar years, Bucharest's urban development continued, with the city gaining an average of 30,000 new residents each year. Bucharest_sentence_50

Also, some of the city's main landmarks were built in this period, including Arcul de Triumf and Palatul Telefoanelor. Bucharest_sentence_51

However, the Great Depression took its toll on Bucharest's citizens, culminating in the Grivița Strike of 1933. Bucharest_sentence_52

In January 1941, the city was the scene of the Legionnaires' rebellion and Bucharest pogrom. Bucharest_sentence_53

As the capital of an Axis country and a major transit point for Axis troops en route to the Eastern Front, Bucharest suffered heavy damage during World War II due to Allied bombings. Bucharest_sentence_54

On 23 August 1944, Bucharest was the site of the royal coup which brought Romania into the Allied camp. Bucharest_sentence_55

The city suffered a short period of Nazi Luftwaffe bombings, as well as a failed attempt by German troops to regain the city. Bucharest_sentence_56

After the establishment of communism in Romania, the city continued growing. Bucharest_sentence_57

New districts were constructed, most of them dominated by tower blocks. Bucharest_sentence_58

During Nicolae Ceaușescu's leadership (1965–89), much of the historic part of the city was demolished and replaced by 'Socialist realism' style development: (1) the Centrul Civic (the Civic Centre) and (2) the Palace of the Parliament, for which an entire historic quarter was razed to make way for Ceaușescu's megalomaniac plans. Bucharest_sentence_59

On 4 March 1977, an earthquake centred in Vrancea, about 135 km (83.89 mi) away, claimed 1,500 lives and caused further damage to the historic centre. Bucharest_sentence_60

The Romanian Revolution of 1989 began with massive anti-Ceaușescu protests in Timișoara in December 1989 and continued in Bucharest, leading to the overthrow of the Communist regime. Bucharest_sentence_61

Dissatisfied with the postrevolutionary leadership of the National Salvation Front, some student leagues and opposition groups organised anti-Communist rallies in early 1990, which caused the political change. Bucharest_sentence_62

Since 2000, the city has been continuously modernised. Bucharest_sentence_63

Residential and commercial developments are underway, particularly in the northern districts; Bucharest's old historic centre is being restored. Bucharest_sentence_64

In 2015, Bucharest experienced drama, 64 people were killed in the Colectiv nightclub fire. Bucharest_sentence_65

Later the Romanian capital saw the 2017–2019 Romanian protests against the judicial reforms. Bucharest_sentence_66

On 10 August 2018 a protest under the motto 'Diaspora at Home' was held in Bucharest and was marked by significant violence, with over 450 persons injured. Bucharest_sentence_67

Treaties Bucharest_section_2

The following treaties were signed in Bucharest: Bucharest_sentence_68

Bucharest_unordered_list_0

Geography Bucharest_section_3

General Bucharest_section_4

The city is situated on the banks of the Dâmbovița River, which flows into the Argeș River, a tributary of the Danube. Bucharest_sentence_69

Several lakes – the most important of which are Lake Herăstrău, Lake Floreasca, Lake Tei, and Lake Colentina – stretch across the northern parts of the city, along the Colentina River, a tributary of the Dâmbovița. Bucharest_sentence_70

In addition, in the centre of the capital is a small artificial lake – Lake Cișmigiu – surrounded by the Cișmigiu Gardens. Bucharest_sentence_71

These gardens have a rich history, having been frequented by poets and writers. Bucharest_sentence_72

Opened in 1847 and based on the plans of German architect Carl F.W. Bucharest_sentence_73

Meyer, the gardens are the main recreational facility in the city centre. Bucharest_sentence_74

Bucharest parks and gardens also include Herăstrău Park, Tineretului Park and the Botanical Garden. Bucharest_sentence_75

Herăstrău Park is located in the northern part of the city, around Lake Herăstrău, and includes the site the Village Museum. Bucharest_sentence_76

Grigore Antipa Museum is also near in the Victoriei Square. Bucharest_sentence_77

One of its best known locations are Hard Rock Cafe Bucharest and Berăria H (one of the largest beer halls in Europe). Bucharest_sentence_78

Tineretului Park was created in 1965 and designed as the main recreational space for southern Bucharest. Bucharest_sentence_79

It contains a Mini Town which is a play area for kids. Bucharest_sentence_80

The Botanical Garden, located in the Cotroceni neighbourhood a bit west of the city centre, is the largest of its kind in Romania and contains over 10,000 species of plants (many of them exotic); it originated as the pleasure park of the royal family. Bucharest_sentence_81

Besides them, there are many other smaller parks that should be visited, some of them being still large. Bucharest_sentence_82

Alexandru Ioan Cuza Park, Kiseleff Park, Carol Park, Izvor Park, Grădina Icoanei, Circului Park and Moghioroş Park are a few of them. Bucharest_sentence_83

Other large parks in Bucharest are: National Park, Tei Park, Eroilor Park and Crângași Park with Morii Lake. Bucharest_sentence_84

Lake Văcărești is located in the southern part of the city. Bucharest_sentence_85

Over 190 hectares, including 90 hectares of water, host 97 species of birds, half of them protected by law, and at least seven species of mammals. Bucharest_sentence_86

The lake is surrounded by buildings of flats and is an odd result of human intervention and nature taking its course. Bucharest_sentence_87

The area was a small village that Ceaușescu attempted to convert into a lake. Bucharest_sentence_88

After demolishing the houses and building the concrete basin, the plan was abandoned following the 1989 revolution. Bucharest_sentence_89

For nearly two decades, the area shifted from being an abandoned green space where children could play and sunbathe, to being contested by previous owners of the land there, to being closed for redevelopment into a sports centre. Bucharest_sentence_90

The redevelopment deal failed, and over the following years, the green space grew into a unique habitat. Bucharest_sentence_91

In May 2016, the lake was declared a national park, the Văcărești Nature Park. Bucharest_sentence_92

Dubbed the 'Delta of Bucharest', the area is protected. Bucharest_sentence_93

Bucharest is situated in the southeastern corner of the Romanian Plain, in an area once covered by the Vlăsiei Forest, which after it was cleared, gave way for a fertile flatland. Bucharest_sentence_94

As with many cities, Bucharest is traditionally considered to be built upon seven hills, similar to the seven hills of Rome. Bucharest_sentence_95

Bucharest's seven hills are: Mihai Vodă, Dealul Mitropoliei, Radu Vodă, Cotroceni, Dealul Spirii, Văcărești, and Sfântu Gheorghe Nou. Bucharest_sentence_96

The city has an area of 226 km (87 sq mi). Bucharest_sentence_97

The altitude varies from 55.8 m (183.1 ft) at the Dâmbovița bridge in Cățelu, southeastern Bucharest and 91.5 m (300.2 ft) at the Militari church. Bucharest_sentence_98

The city has a roughly round shape, with the centre situated in the cross-way of the main north–south/east-west axes at University Square. Bucharest_sentence_99

The milestone for Romania's Kilometre Zero is placed just south of University Square in front of the New St. George Church (Sfântul Gheorghe Nou) at St. George Square (Piața Sfântul Gheorghe). Bucharest_sentence_100

Bucharest's radius, from University Square to the city limits in all directions, varies from 10 to 12 km (6 to 7 mi). Bucharest_sentence_101

Until recently, the regions surrounding Bucharest were largely rural, but after 1989, suburbs started to be built around Bucharest, in the surrounding Ilfov County. Bucharest_sentence_102

Further urban consolidation is expected to take place in the late 2010s, when the 'Bucharest Metropolitan Area' plan will become operational, incorporating additional communes and cities from the Ilfov and other neighbouring counties. Bucharest_sentence_103

Climate Bucharest_section_5

Bucharest has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen: Cfa, by the -3 °C isotherm), though not subtropical by nature, but instead, close to a Humid continental climate (Dfa/Dfb), with warm to hot, humid summers and cold, snowy winters. Bucharest_sentence_104

Owing to its position on the Romanian Plain, the city's winters can get windy, though some of the winds are mitigated due to urbanisation. Bucharest_sentence_105

Winter temperatures often dip below 0 °C (32 °F), sometimes even to −20 °C (−4 °F). Bucharest_sentence_106

In summer, the average temperature is 23 °C (73 °F) (the average for July and August). Bucharest_sentence_107

Temperatures frequently reach 35 to 40 °C (95 to 104 °F) in midsummer in the city centre. Bucharest_sentence_108

Although average precipitation and humidity during summer are low, occasional heavy storms occur. Bucharest_sentence_109

During spring and autumn, daytime temperatures vary between 17 and 22 °C (63 and 72 °F), and precipitation during spring tends to be higher than in summer, with more frequent yet milder periods of rain. Bucharest_sentence_110

Government Bucharest_section_6

Administration Bucharest_section_7

See also: Bucharest metropolitan area Bucharest_sentence_111

Bucharest has a unique status in Romanian administration, since it is the only municipal area that is not part of a county. Bucharest_sentence_112

Its population, however, is larger than that of any other Romanian county, hence the power of the Bucharest General Municipality (Primăria Generală), which is the capital's local government body, is the same as any other Romanian county council. Bucharest_sentence_113

The Municipality of Bucharest, along with the surrounding Ilfov County, is part of the București – Ilfov development region project, which is equivalent to NUTS-II regions in the European Union and is used both by the EU and the Romanian government for statistical analysis, and to co-ordinate regional development projects and manage funds from the EU. Bucharest_sentence_114

The Bucharest-Ilfov development region is not, however, an administrative entity yet. Bucharest_sentence_115

The city government is headed by a general mayor (Primar General). Bucharest_sentence_116

From October 29, 2020, the general mayor of Bucharest is Nicușor Dan. Bucharest_sentence_117

Decisions are approved and discussed by the capital's General Council (Consiliu General) made up of 55 elected councilors. Bucharest_sentence_118

Furthermore, the city is divided into six administrative sectors (sectoare), each of which has its own 27-seat sectoral council, town hall, and mayor. Bucharest_sentence_119

The powers of the local government over a certain area are, therefore, shared both by the Bucharest municipality and the local sectoral councils with little or no overlapping of authority. Bucharest_sentence_120

The general rule is that the main capital municipality is responsible for citywide utilities such as the water and sewage system, the overall transport system, and the main boulevards, while sectoral town halls manage the contact between individuals and the local government, secondary streets and parks maintenance, schools administration, and cleaning services. Bucharest_sentence_121

The six sectors are numbered from one to six and are disposed radially so that each one has under its administration a certain area of the city centre. Bucharest_sentence_122

They are numbered clockwise and are further divided into sectoral quarters (cartiere) which are not part of the official administrative division: Bucharest_sentence_123

Bucharest_unordered_list_1

Each sector is governed by a local mayor, as follows: Sector 1 – Clotilde Armand (USR, since 2020), Sector 2 – Radu Mihaiu (USR, since 2020), Sector 3 – Robert Negoiță (PRO B, since 2012), Sector 4 – Daniel Băluță (PSD, since 2016), Sector 5 – Cristian Popescu Piedone (PPU SL, since 2020), Sector 6 – Ciprian Ciucu (PNL, since 2020). Bucharest_sentence_124

Like all other local councils in Romania, the Bucharest sectoral councils, the capital's general council, and the mayors are elected every four years by the population. Bucharest_sentence_125

Additionally, Bucharest has a prefect, who is appointed by Romania's national government. Bucharest_sentence_126

The prefect is not allowed to be a member of a political party and his role is to represent the national government at the municipal level. Bucharest_sentence_127

The prefect is acting as a liaison official facilitating the implementation of national development plans and governing programs at local level. Bucharest_sentence_128

The prefect of Bucharest (as of 2020) is Traian Berbeceanu. Bucharest_sentence_129

City general council Bucharest_section_8

The city's general council has the following political composition, based on the results of the 2020 local elections: Bucharest_sentence_130

Justice system Bucharest_section_9

Bucharest's judicial system is similar to that of the Romanian counties. Bucharest_sentence_131

Each of the six sectors has its own local first-instance court (judecătorie), while more serious cases are directed to the Bucharest Tribunal (Tribunalul Bucureşti), the city's municipal court. Bucharest_sentence_132

The Bucharest Court of Appeal (Curtea de Apel Bucureşti) judges appeals against decisions taken by first-instance courts and tribunals in Bucharest and in five surrounding counties (Teleorman, Ialomița, Giurgiu, Călărași, and Ilfov). Bucharest_sentence_133

Bucharest is also home to Romania's supreme court, the High Court of Cassation and Justice, as well as to the Constitutional Court of Romania. Bucharest_sentence_134

Bucharest has a municipal police force, the Bucharest Police (Poliția București), which is responsible for policing crime within the whole city, and operates a number of divisions. Bucharest_sentence_135

The Bucharest Police are headquartered on Ștefan cel Mare Blvd. Bucharest_sentence_136

in the city centre, and at precincts throughout the city. Bucharest_sentence_137

From 2004 onwards, each sector city hall also has under its administration a community police force (Poliția Comunitară), dealing with local community issues. Bucharest_sentence_138

Bucharest also houses the general inspectorates of the Gendarmerie and the national police. Bucharest_sentence_139

Crime Bucharest_section_10

Main article: Crime in Bucharest Bucharest_sentence_140

Bucharest's crime rate is rather low in comparison to other European capital cities, with the number of total offences declining by 51% between 2000 and 2004, and by 7% between 2012 and 2013. Bucharest_sentence_141

The violent crime rate in Bucharest remains very low, with 11 murders and 983 other violent offences taking place in 2007. Bucharest_sentence_142

Although violent crimes fell by 13% in 2013 compared to 2012, 19 murders (18 of which the suspects were arrested) were recorded. Bucharest_sentence_143

Although in the 2000s, a number of police crackdowns on organised crime gangs occurred, such as the Cămătaru clan, organised crime generally has little impact on public life. Bucharest_sentence_144

Petty crime, however, is more common, particularly in the form of pickpocketing, which occurs mainly on the city's public transport network. Bucharest_sentence_145

Confidence tricks were common in the 1990s, especially in regards to tourists, but the frequency of these incidents has since declined. Bucharest_sentence_146

However, in general, theft was reduced by 13.6% in 2013 compared to 2012. Bucharest_sentence_147

Levels of crime are higher in the southern districts of the city, particularly in Ferentari, a socially disadvantaged area. Bucharest_sentence_148

Although the presence of street children was a problem in Bucharest in the 1990s, their numbers have declined in recent years, now lying at or below the average of major European capital cities. Bucharest_sentence_149

Quality of life Bucharest_section_11

As stated by the Mercer international surveys for quality of life in cities around the world, Bucharest occupied the 94th place in 2001 and slipped lower, to the 108th place in 2009 and the 107th place in 2010. Bucharest_sentence_150

Compared to it, Vienna occupied number one worldwide in 2011 and 2009. Bucharest_sentence_151

Warsaw ranked 84th, Istanbul 112th, and neighbours Sofia 114th and Belgrade 136th (in the 2010 rankings). Bucharest_sentence_152

Mercer Human Resource Consulting issues yearly a global ranking of the world's most livable cities based on 39 key quality-of-life issues. Bucharest_sentence_153

Among them: political stability, currency-exchange regulations, political and media censorship, school quality, housing, the environment, and public safety. Bucharest_sentence_154

Mercer collects data worldwide, in 215 cities. Bucharest_sentence_155

The difficult situation of the quality of life in Bucharest is confirmed also by a vast urbanism study, done by the Ion Mincu University of Architecture and Urbanism. Bucharest_sentence_156

In 2016, Bucharest's urban situation was described as 'critical' by a Romanian Order of Architects (OAR) report that criticised the city's weak, incoherent and arbitrary public management policies, its elected officials' lack of transparency and public engagement, as well as its inadequate and unsustainable use of essential urban resources. Bucharest_sentence_157

Bucharest's historical city centre is listed as 'endangered' by the World Monuments Watch (as of 2016). Bucharest_sentence_158

Although many neighbourhoods, particularly in the southern part of the city, lack sufficient green space, being formed of cramped high density block of flats, Bucharest also has many parks. Bucharest_sentence_159

Demographics Bucharest_section_12

As per the 2011 census, 1,883,425 inhabitants lived within the city limits, a decrease from the figure recorded at the 2002 census. Bucharest_sentence_160

This decrease is due to low natural increase, but also to a shift in population from the city itself to its smaller satellite towns such as Voluntari, Buftea, and Otopeni. Bucharest_sentence_161

In a study published by the United Nations, Bucharest placed 19th in among 28 cities that recorded sharp declines in population from 1990 to the mid-2010s. Bucharest_sentence_162

In particular, the population fell by 3.77%. Bucharest_sentence_163

The city's population, according to the 2002 census, was 1,926,334 inhabitants, or 8.9% of the total population of Romania. Bucharest_sentence_164

A significant number of people commute to the city every day, mostly from the surrounding Ilfov County, but official statistics regarding their numbers do not exist. Bucharest_sentence_165

Bucharest's population experienced two phases of rapid growth, the first beginning in the late 19th century when the city was consolidated as the national capital and lasting until the Second World War, and the second during the Ceaușescu years (1965–1989), when a massive urbanization campaign was launched and many people migrated from rural areas to the capital. Bucharest_sentence_166

At this time, due to Ceaușescu's decision to ban abortion and contraception, natural increase was also significant. Bucharest_sentence_167

Bucharest is a city of high population density: 8,260/km (21,400/sq mi), owing to the fact that most of the population lives in high-density communist era apartment blocks (blocuri). Bucharest_sentence_168

However, this also depends on the part of the city: the southern boroughs have a higher density than the northern ones. Bucharest_sentence_169

Of the European Union country capital-cities, only Paris and Athens have a higher population density (see List of European Union cities proper by population density). Bucharest_sentence_170

About 97.3% of the population of Bucharest for whom data are available is Romanian. Bucharest_sentence_171

Other significant ethnic groups are Romani, Hungarians, Turks, Jews, Germans (mostly Regat Germans), Chinese, Russians, Ukrainians, and Italians. Bucharest_sentence_172

A relatively small number of Bucharesters are also the Greeks, Armenians, Bulgarians, French, Arabs, Africans (including the Afro-Romanians), Vietnamese, Filipinos, Nepalis, Afghans Sri Lankans, Bangladeshis, Pakistanis, and the Indians. Bucharest_sentence_173

226,943 people did not declare their ethnicity. Bucharest_sentence_174

In terms of religious affiliation, 96.1% of the population is Romanian Orthodox, 1.2% is Roman Catholic, 0.5% is Muslim, and 0.4% is Romanian Greek Catholic. Bucharest_sentence_175

Despite this, only 18% of the population, of any religion, attends a place of worship once a week or more. Bucharest_sentence_176

The life expectancy of residents of Bucharest in 2015 was 77.8 years old, which is 2.4 years above the national average. Bucharest_sentence_177

Economy Bucharest_section_13

Main article: Economy of Bucharest Bucharest_sentence_178

Bucharest is the centre of the Romanian economy and industry, accounting for around 24% (2017) of the country's GDP and about one-quarter of its industrial production, while being inhabited by 9% of the country's population. Bucharest_sentence_179

Almost one-third of national taxes is paid by Bucharest's citizens and companies. Bucharest_sentence_180

The living standard in the Bucharest-Ilfov region was 145% of the EU average in 2017, according to GDP per capita at the purchasing power parity standard (adjusted to the national price level). Bucharest_sentence_181

Bucharest area surpassed, on comparable terms, European metropolitan areas such as Budapest (139%), Madrid (125%), Berlin (118%), Rome (110%), Lisbon (102%), or Sofia (79%), and more than twice the Romanian average. Bucharest_sentence_182

After relative stagnation in the 1990s, the city's strong economic growth has revitalised infrastructure and led to the development of shopping malls, residential estates, and high-rise office buildings. Bucharest_sentence_183

In January 2013, Bucharest had an unemployment rate of 2.1%, significantly lower than the national unemployment rate of 5.8%. Bucharest_sentence_184

Bucharest's economy is centred on industry and services, with services particularly growing in importance in the last 10 years. Bucharest_sentence_185

The headquarters of 186,000 firms, including nearly all large Romanian companies, are located in Bucharest. Bucharest_sentence_186

An important source of growth since 2000 has been the city's rapidly expanding property and construction sector. Bucharest_sentence_187

Bucharest is also Romania's largest centre for information technology and communications and is home to several software companies operating offshore delivery centres. Bucharest_sentence_188

Romania's largest stock exchange, the Bucharest Stock Exchange, which was merged in December 2005 with the Bucharest-based electronic stock exchange Rasdaq, plays a major role in the city's economy. Bucharest_sentence_189

International supermarket chains such as Kaufland, Lidl, Metro, Selgros, Penny Market, Carrefour, Auchan, Cora, Profi, and Mega Image are all operating in Bucharest. Bucharest_sentence_190

The city is undergoing a retail boom. Bucharest_sentence_191

Bucharest hosts luxury brands such as Armani, Versace, Ralph Lauren, Dior, Prada, Chanel, Hermes, Louis Vuitton, and Gucci. Bucharest_sentence_192

Malls and large shopping centres have been built since the late 1990s, such as Băneasa Shopping City, AFI Palace Cotroceni, Mega Mall, București Mall, ParkLake Shopping Centre, Sun Plaza, Promenada Mall and longest Unirea Shopping Centre. Bucharest_sentence_193

Bucharest has over 20 malls as of 2019. Bucharest_sentence_194

It corporations Amazon, Microsoft, Oracle Corporation, or IBM are all present in the Romanian capital. Bucharest_sentence_195

The top ten is also dominated by companies operating in automotive, oil & gas (such as Petrom), as well as companies in telecommunication and FMCG. Bucharest_sentence_196

Bucharest_unordered_list_2

  • Bucharest_item_2_11
  • Bucharest_item_2_12
  • Bucharest_item_2_13
  • Bucharest_item_2_14
  • Bucharest_item_2_15
  • Bucharest_item_2_16

Transport Bucharest_section_14

Bucharest in crossed by two major international routes: Pan-European transport corridor IV and IX. Bucharest_sentence_197

Public transport Bucharest_section_15

Main article: Transport in Bucharest Bucharest_sentence_198

Bucharest's public transport system is the largest in Romania and one of the largest in Europe. Bucharest_sentence_199

It is made up of the Bucharest Metro, run by Metrorex, as well as a surface transport system run by STB (Societatea de Transport București, previously known as the RATB), which consists of buses, trams, trolleybuses, and light rail. Bucharest_sentence_200

In addition, a private minibus system operates there. Bucharest_sentence_201

As of 2007, a limit of 10,000 taxicab licences was imposed. Bucharest_sentence_202

Railways Bucharest_section_16

It is the hub of Romania's national railway network, run by Căile Ferate Române. Bucharest_sentence_203

The main railway station is Gara de Nord ('North Station'), which provides connections to all major cities in Romania, as well as international destinations: Belgrade, Sofia, Varna, Chișinău, Kyiv, Chernivtsi, Lviv, Thessaloniki, Vienna, Budapest, Istanbul, Moscow etc. Bucharest_sentence_204

The city has five other railway stations run by CFR, of which the most important are Basarab (adjacent to North Station), Obor, Băneasa, and Progresul. Bucharest_sentence_205

These are in the process of being integrated into a commuter railway serving Bucharest and the surrounding Ilfov County. Bucharest_sentence_206

Seven main lines radiate out of Bucharest. Bucharest_sentence_207

The oldest station in Bucharest is Filaret. Bucharest_sentence_208

It was inaugurated in 1869, and in 1960, the communist government turned it in a bus terminal. Bucharest_sentence_209

Air Bucharest_section_17

Bucharest has two international airports: Bucharest_sentence_210

Bucharest_unordered_list_3

  • Henri Coandă International Airport (IATA: OTP, ICAO: LROP), located 16.5 km (10.3 mi) north of the Bucharest city centre, in the town of Otopeni, Ilfov. It is the busiest airport in Romania, in terms of passenger traffic: 12,807,032 in 2017.Bucharest_item_3_17
  • Aurel Vlaicu International Airport (IATA: BBU, ICAO: LRBS) is Bucharest's business and VIP airport. It is situated only 8 km (5.0 mi) north of the Bucharest city centre, within city limits.Bucharest_item_3_18

Roads Bucharest_section_18

Bucharest is a major intersection of Romania's national road network. Bucharest_sentence_211

A few of the busiest national roads and motorways link the city to all of Romania's major cities, as well as to neighbouring countries such as Hungary, Bulgaria and Ukraine. Bucharest_sentence_212

The A1 to Pitești, the A2 Sun Motorway to the Dobrogea region and Constanța and the A3 to Ploiești all start from Bucharest. Bucharest_sentence_213

A series of high-capacity boulevards, which generally radiate out from the city centre to the outskirts, provides a framework for the municipal road system. Bucharest_sentence_214

The main axes, which run north–south, east–west and northwest–southeast, as well as one internal and one external ring road, support the bulk of the traffic. Bucharest_sentence_215

The city's roads are usually very crowded during rush hours, due to an increase in car ownership in recent years. Bucharest_sentence_216

In 2013, the number of cars registered in Bucharest amounted to 1,125,591. Bucharest_sentence_217

This results in wear and potholes appearing on busy roads, particularly secondary roads, this being identified as one of Bucharest's main infrastructural problems. Bucharest_sentence_218

A comprehensive effort on behalf of the City Hall to boost road infrastructure was made, and according to the general development plan, 2,000 roads have been repaired by 2008. Bucharest_sentence_219

The huge number of cars registered in the city forced the Romanian Auto Registry to switch to 3-digit numbers on registration plates in 2010. Bucharest_sentence_220

On 17 June 2011, the Basarab Overpass was inaugurated and opened to traffic, thus completing the inner city traffic ring. Bucharest_sentence_221

The overpass took five years to build and is the longest cable-stayed bridge in Romania and the widest such bridge in Europe; upon completion, traffic on the Grant Bridge and in the Gara de Nord area became noticeably more fluid. Bucharest_sentence_222

Bucharest_unordered_list_4

  • Bucharest_item_4_19
  • Bucharest_item_4_20
  • Bucharest_item_4_21
  • Bucharest_item_4_22
  • Bucharest_item_4_23

Water Bucharest_section_19

Although it is situated on the banks of a river, Bucharest has never functioned as a port city, with other Romanian cities such as Constanța and Galați acting as the country's main ports. Bucharest_sentence_223

The unfinished Danube-Bucharest Canal, which is 73 km (45 mi) long and around 70% completed, could link Bucharest to the Danube River, and via the Danube-Black Sea Canal, to the Black Sea. Bucharest_sentence_224

Works on the canal were suspended in 1989, but proposals have been made to resume construction as part of the European Strategy for the Danube Region. Bucharest_sentence_225

Culture Bucharest_section_20

Main article: Culture of Romania Bucharest_sentence_226

Bucharest has a growing cultural scene, in fields including the visual arts, performing arts, and nightlife. Bucharest_sentence_227

Unlike other parts of Romania, such as the Black Sea coast or Transylvania, Bucharest's cultural scene has no defined style, and instead incorporates elements of Romanian and international culture. Bucharest_sentence_228

Landmarks Bucharest_section_21

Bucharest has landmark buildings and monuments. Bucharest_sentence_229

Perhaps the most prominent of these is the Palace of the Parliament, built in the 1980s during the reign of Communist dictator Nicolae Ceaușescu. Bucharest_sentence_230

The largest Parliament building in the world, the palace houses the Romanian Parliament (the Chamber of Deputies, and the Senate), as well as the National Museum of Contemporary Art. Bucharest_sentence_231

The building boasts one of the largest convention centres in the world. Bucharest_sentence_232

Another landmark in Bucharest is Arcul de Triumf (The Triumphal Arch), built in its current form in 1935 and modelled after the Arc de Triomphe in Paris. Bucharest_sentence_233

A newer landmark of the city is the Memorial of Rebirth, a stylised marble pillar unveiled in 2005 to commemorate the victims of the Romanian Revolution of 1989, which overthrew Communism. Bucharest_sentence_234

The abstract monument sparked controversy when it was unveiled, being dubbed with names such as 'the olive on the toothpick', (măslina-n scobitoare), as many argued that it does not fit in its surroundings and believed that its choice was based on political reasons. Bucharest_sentence_235

The Romanian Athenaeum building is considered a symbol of Romanian culture and since 2007 is on the list of the Label of European Heritage sites. Bucharest_sentence_236

It was built from 1886 to 1888 by the architect Paul Louis Albert Galeron, through public funding. Bucharest_sentence_237

InterContinental Bucharest is a high-rise five-star hotel situated near University Square and is also a landmark of the city. Bucharest_sentence_238

The building is designed so that each room has a unique panorama of the city. Bucharest_sentence_239

House of the Spark (Casa Scânteii) is a replica of the famous 'Lomonosov' Moscow State University. Bucharest_sentence_240

This edifice built in the characteristic style of the large-scale Soviet projects, was intended to be representative to the new political regime and to assert the superiority of the Communist doctrine. Bucharest_sentence_241

Construction started in 1952 and was completed in 1957, a few years after Stalin's death that occurred in 1953. Bucharest_sentence_242

Popularly known as Casa Scânteii ('House of the Spark') after the name of the official gazette of the Central Committee of the Romanian Communist Party, Scânteia, it was made for the purpose of bringing together under one roof all of Bucharest's official press and publishing houses. Bucharest_sentence_243

It is the only building in Bucharest featuring the 'Hammer and Sickle', the Red Star and other communist insignia carved into medallions adorning the façade. Bucharest_sentence_244

Other cultural venues include the National Museum of Art of Romania, Grigore Antipa National Museum of Natural History, Museum of the Romanian Peasant, National History Museum and the Military Museum. Bucharest_sentence_245

Bucharest_unordered_list_5

  • Bucharest_item_5_24
  • Bucharest_item_5_25
  • Bucharest_item_5_26
  • Bucharest_item_5_27
  • Bucharest_item_5_28
  • Bucharest_item_5_29

Visual arts Bucharest_section_22

In terms of visual arts, the city has museums featuring both classical and contemporary Romanian art, as well as selected international works. Bucharest_sentence_246

The National Museum of Art of Romania is perhaps the best-known of Bucharest museums. Bucharest_sentence_247

It is located in the royal palace and features collections of medieval and modern Romanian art, including works by sculptor Constantin Brâncuși, as well as an international collection assembled by the Romanian royal family. Bucharest_sentence_248

Other, smaller, museums contain specialised collections. Bucharest_sentence_249

The Zambaccian Museum, which is situated in the former home of art collector Krikor H. Zambaccian, contains works by well-known Romanian artists and international artists such as Paul Cézanne, Eugène Delacroix, Henri Matisse, Camille Pissarro, and Pablo Picasso. Bucharest_sentence_250

The Gheorghe Tattarescu Museum contains portraits of Romanian revolutionaries in exile such as Gheorghe Magheru, ștefan Golescu, and Nicolae Bălcescu, and allegorical compositions with revolutionary (Romania's rebirth, 1849) and patriotic (The Principalities' Unification, 1857) themes. Bucharest_sentence_251

Another impressive art collection gathering important Romanian painters, can be found at the Ligia and Pompiliu Macovei residence, which is open to visitors as it is now part of the Bucharest Museum patrimony. Bucharest_sentence_252

The Theodor Pallady Museum is situated in one of the oldest surviving merchant houses in Bucharest and includes works by Romanian painter Theodor Pallady, as well as European and oriental furniture pieces. Bucharest_sentence_253

The Museum of Art Collections contains the collections of Romanian art aficionados, including Krikor Zambaccian and Theodor Pallady. Bucharest_sentence_254

Despite the classical art galleries and museums in the city, a contemporary arts scene also exists. Bucharest_sentence_255

The National Museum of Contemporary Art (MNAC), situated in a wing of the Palace of the Parliament, was opened in 2004 and contains Romanian and international contemporary art. Bucharest_sentence_256

The MNAC also manages the Kalinderu MediaLab, which caters to multimedia and experimental art. Bucharest_sentence_257

Private art galleries are scattered throughout the city centre. Bucharest_sentence_258

The palace of the National Bank of Romania houses the national numismatic collection. Bucharest_sentence_259

Exhibits include banknotes, coins, documents, photographs, maps, silver and gold bullion bars, bullion coins, and dies and moulds. Bucharest_sentence_260

The building was constructed between 1884 and 1890. Bucharest_sentence_261

The thesaurus room contains notable marble decorations. Bucharest_sentence_262

Performing arts Bucharest_section_23

Performing arts are some of the strongest cultural elements of Bucharest. Bucharest_sentence_263

The most famous symphony orchestra is National Radio Orchestra of Romania. Bucharest_sentence_264

One of the most prominent buildings is the neoclassical Romanian Athenaeum, which was founded in 1852, and hosts classical music concerts, the George Enescu Festival, and is home to the George Enescu Philharmonic Orchestra. Bucharest_sentence_265

Bucharest is home to the Romanian National Opera and the I.L. Bucharest_sentence_266 Caragiale National Theatre. Bucharest_sentence_267

Another well-known theatre in Bucharest is the State Jewish Theatre, which features plays starring world-renowned Romanian-Jewish actress Maia Morgenstern. Bucharest_sentence_268

Smaller theatres throughout the city cater to specific genres, such as the Comedy Theatre, the Nottara Theatre, the Bulandra Theatre, the Odeon Theatre, and the revue theatre of Constantin Tănase. Bucharest_sentence_269

Music and nightlife Bucharest_section_24

Bucharest is home to Romania's largest recording labels, and is often the residence of Romanian musicians. Bucharest_sentence_270

Romanian rock bands of the 1970s and 1980s, such as Iris and Holograf, continue to be popular, particularly with the middle-aged, while since the beginning of the 1990s, the hip hop/rap scene has developed. Bucharest_sentence_271

Hip-hop bands and artists from Bucharest such as B.U.G. Bucharest_sentence_272 Mafia, Paraziții, and La Familia enjoy national and international recognition. Bucharest_sentence_273

The pop-rock band Taxi have been gaining international respect, as has Spitalul de Urgență's raucous updating of traditional Romanian music. Bucharest_sentence_274

While many neighbourhood discos play manele, an Oriental- and Roma-influenced genre of music that is particularly popular in Bucharest's working-class districts, the city has a rich jazz and blues scene, and to an even larger extent, house music/trance and heavy metal/punk scenes. Bucharest_sentence_275

Bucharest's jazz profile has especially risen since 2002, with the presence of two venues, Green Hours and Art Jazz, as well as an American presence alongside established Romanians. Bucharest_sentence_276

With no central nightlife strip, entertainment venues are dispersed throughout the city, with clusters in Lipscani and Regie. Bucharest_sentence_277

Cultural events and festivals Bucharest_section_25

A number of cultural festivals are held in Bucharest throughout the year, but most festivals take place in June, July, and August. Bucharest_sentence_278

The National Opera organises the International Opera Festival every year in May and June, which includes ensembles and orchestras from all over the world. Bucharest_sentence_279

The Romanian Athaeneum Society hosts the George Enescu Festival at locations throughout the city in September every two years (odd years). Bucharest_sentence_280

The Museum of the Romanian Peasant and the Village Museum organise events throughout the year, showcasing Romanian folk arts and crafts. Bucharest_sentence_281

In the 2000s, due to the growing prominence of the Chinese community in Bucharest, Chinese cultural events took place. Bucharest_sentence_282

The first officially organised Chinese festival was the Chinese New Year's Eve Festival of February 2005, which took place in Nichita Stănescu Park and was organised by the Bucharest City Hall. Bucharest_sentence_283

In 2005, Bucharest was the first city in Southeastern Europe to host the international CowParade, which resulted in dozens of decorated cow sculptures being placed across the city. Bucharest_sentence_284

In 2004, Bucharest imposed in the circle of important festivals in Eastern Europe with the Bucharest International Film Festival, an event widely acknowledged in Europe, having as guests of honour famous names from the world cinema: Andrei Konchalovsky, Danis Tanović, Nikita Mikhalkov, Rutger Hauer, Jerzy Skolimowski, Jan Harlan, Radu Mihăileanu, and many others. Bucharest_sentence_285

Since 2005, Bucharest has its own contemporary art biennale, the Bucharest Biennale. Bucharest_sentence_286

Traditional culture Bucharest_section_26

Traditional Romanian culture continues to have a major influence in arts such as theatre, film, and music. Bucharest_sentence_287

Bucharest has two internationally renowned ethnographic museums, the Museum of the Romanian Peasant and the open-air Dimitrie Gusti National Village Museum, in King Michael I Park. Bucharest_sentence_288

It contains 272 authentic buildings and peasant farms from all over Romania. Bucharest_sentence_289

The Museum of the Romanian Peasant was declared the European Museum of the Year in 1996. Bucharest_sentence_290

Patronised by the Ministry of Culture, the museum preserves and exhibits numerous collections of objects and monuments of material and spiritual culture. Bucharest_sentence_291

The Museum of the Romanian Peasant holds one of the richest collections of peasant objects in Romania, its heritage being nearly 90,000 pieces, those being divided into several collections: ceramics, costumes, textiles, wooden objects, religious objects, customs, etc. Bucharest_sentence_292

The Museum of Romanian History is another important museum in Bucharest, containing a collection of artefacts detailing Romanian history and culture from the prehistoric times, Dacian era, medieval times, and the modern era. Bucharest_sentence_293

Religion Bucharest_section_27

Bucharest is the seat of the Patriarch of the Romanian Orthodox Church, one of the Eastern Orthodox churches in communion with the Patriarch of Constantinople, and also of its subdivisions, the Metropolis of Muntenia and Dobrudja and the Archbishopric of Bucharest. Bucharest_sentence_294

Orthodox believers consider Demetrius Basarabov to be the patron saint of the city. Bucharest_sentence_295

The city is a centre for other Christian organizations in Romania, including the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Bucharest, established in 1883, and the Romanian Greek-Catholic Eparchy of Saint Basil the Great, founded in 2014. Bucharest_sentence_296

Bucharest also hosts 6 synagogues, including the Choral Temple of Bucharest, the Great Synagogue of Bucharest and the Holy Union Temple. Bucharest_sentence_297

The latter was converted into the Museum of the History of the Romanian Jewish Community, while the Great Synagogue and the Choral Temple are both active and hold regular services. Bucharest_sentence_298

A mosque with a capacity of 2,000 people was in the planning stages on 22–30 Expoziției Boulevard. Bucharest_sentence_299

Later, the project was abandoned. Bucharest_sentence_300

Bucharest_unordered_list_6

  • Bucharest_item_6_30
  • Bucharest_item_6_31
  • Bucharest_item_6_32
  • Bucharest_item_6_33
  • Bucharest_item_6_34
  • Bucharest_item_6_35
  • Bucharest_item_6_36
  • Bucharest_item_6_37
  • Bucharest_item_6_38
  • Bucharest_item_6_39

Architecture Bucharest_section_28

The city centre is a mixture of medieval, neoclassical, Art Deco, and Art Nouveau buildings, as well as 'neo-Romanian' buildings dating from the beginning of the 20th century and a collection of modern buildings from the 1920s and 1930s. Bucharest_sentence_301

The mostly utilitarian Communist-era architecture dominates most southern boroughs. Bucharest_sentence_302

Recently built contemporary structures such as skyscrapers and office buildings complete the landscape. Bucharest_sentence_303

Historical architecture Bucharest_section_29

Of the city's medieval architecture, most of what survived into modern times was destroyed by Communist systematization, fire, and military incursions. Bucharest_sentence_304

Some medieval and renaissance edifices remain, the most notable are in the Lipscani area. Bucharest_sentence_305

This precinct contains notable buildings such as Manuc's Inn (Hanul lui Manuc) and the ruins of the Old Court (Curtea Veche); during the late Middle Ages, this area was the heart of commerce in Bucharest. Bucharest_sentence_306

From the 1970s onwards, the area went through urban decline, and many historical buildings fell into disrepair. Bucharest_sentence_307

In 2005, the Lipscani area was restored. Bucharest_sentence_308

To execute a massive redevelopment project during the rule of Nicolae Ceausescu, the government conducted extensive demolition of churches and many other historic structures in Romania. Bucharest_sentence_309

According to Alexandru Budişteanu, former chief architect of Bucharest, 'The sight of a church bothered Ceauşescu. Bucharest_sentence_310

It didn't matter if they demolished or moved it, as long as it was no longer in sight'. Bucharest_sentence_311

Nevertheless, a project organised by Romanian engineer Eugeniu Iordǎchescu was able to move many historic structures to less-prominent sites and save them. Bucharest_sentence_312

The city centre has retained architecture from the late 19th and early 20th centuries, particularly the interwar period, which is often seen as the 'golden age' of Bucharest architecture. Bucharest_sentence_313

During this time, the city grew in size and wealth, therefore seeking to emulate other large European capitals such as Paris. Bucharest_sentence_314

Much of the architecture of the time belongs to a Modern (rationalist) Architecture current, led by Horia Creangă and Marcel Iancu. Bucharest_sentence_315

In Romania, the tendencies of innovation in the architectural language met the need of valorisation and affirmation of the national cultural identity. Bucharest_sentence_316

The Art Nouveau movement finds expression through new architectural style initiated by Ion Mincu and taken over by other prestigious architects who capitalise important references of Romanian laic and medieval ecclesiastical architecture (for example the Mogoșoaia Palace, the Stavropoleos Church or the disappeared church of Văcărești Monastery) and Romanian folk motifs. Bucharest_sentence_317

Two notable buildings from this time are the Crețulescu Palace, housing cultural institutions including UNESCO's European Centre for Higher Education, and the Cotroceni Palace, the residence of the Romanian President. Bucharest_sentence_318

Many large-scale constructions such as the Gara de Nord, the busiest railway station in the city, National Bank of Romania's headquarters, and the Telephone Palace date from these times. Bucharest_sentence_319

In the 2000s, historic buildings in the city centre underwent restoration. Bucharest_sentence_320

In some residential areas of the city, particularly in high-income central and northern districts, turn-of-the-20th-century villas were mostly restored beginning in the late 1990s. Bucharest_sentence_321

Bucharest_unordered_list_7

  • Bucharest_item_7_40
  • Bucharest_item_7_41
  • Bucharest_item_7_42
  • Bucharest_item_7_43
  • Bucharest_item_7_44

Communist era architecture Bucharest_section_30

A major part of Bucharest's architecture is made up of buildings constructed during the Communist era replacing the historical architecture with high-density apartment blocks – significant portions of the historic centre of Bucharest were demolished to construct one of the largest buildings in the world, the Palace of the Parliament (then officially called the House of the Republic). Bucharest_sentence_322

In Nicolae Ceaușescu's project of systematization, new buildings were built in previously historical areas, which were razed and then built upon. Bucharest_sentence_323

One of the singular examples of this type of architecture is Centrul Civic, a development that replaced a major part of Bucharest's historic city centre with giant utilitarian buildings, mainly with marble or travertine façades, inspired by North Korean architecture. Bucharest_sentence_324

The mass demolitions that occurred in the 1980s, under which an overall area of eight square kilometres of the historic centre of Bucharest were levelled, including monasteries, churches, synagogues, a hospital, and a noted Art Deco sports stadium, changed drastically the appearance of the city. Bucharest_sentence_325

Communist-era architecture can also be found in Bucharest's residential districts, mainly in blocuri, which are high-density apartment blocks that house the majority of the city's population. Bucharest_sentence_326

Initially, these apartment blocks started to be constructed in the 1960s, on relatively empty areas and fields (good examples include Pajura, Drumul Taberei, Berceni and Titan), however with the 1970s, they mostly targeted peripheral neighbourhoods such as Colentina, Pantelimon, Militari and Rahova. Bucharest_sentence_327

Construction of these apartment blocks were also often randomised, for instance some small streets were demolished and later widened with the blocks being built next to them, but other neighbouring streets were left intact (like in the example of Calea Moșilor from 1978 to 1982), or built in various patterns such as the Piața Iancului-Lizeanu apartment buildings from 1962 to 1963. Bucharest_sentence_328

There is also communist architecture that was built in the early years of the system, in the late 1940s and 1950s. Bucharest_sentence_329

Buildings constructed in this era followed the Soviet Stalinist trend of Socialist Realism, and include the House of the Free Press (which was named Casa Scînteii during communism). Bucharest_sentence_330

Bucharest_unordered_list_8

  • Bucharest_item_8_45
  • Bucharest_item_8_46
  • Bucharest_item_8_47
  • Bucharest_item_8_48

Contemporary architecture Bucharest_section_31

Since the fall of Communism in 1989, several Communist-era buildings have been refurbished, modernised, and used for other purposes. Bucharest_sentence_331

Perhaps the best example of this is the conversion of obsolete retail complexes into shopping malls and commercial centres. Bucharest_sentence_332

These giant, circular halls, which were unofficially called hunger circuses due to the food shortages experienced in the 1980s, were constructed during the Ceaușescu era to act as produce markets and refectories, although most were left unfinished at the time of the revolution. Bucharest_sentence_333

Modern shopping malls such as the Unirea Shopping Centre, Bucharest Mall, Plaza Romania, and City Mall emerged on pre-existent structures of former hunger circuses. Bucharest_sentence_334

Another example is the conversion of a large utilitarian construction in Centrul Civic into a Marriott Hotel. Bucharest_sentence_335

This process was accelerated after 2000, when the city underwent a property boom, and many Communist-era buildings in the city centre became prime real estate due to their location. Bucharest_sentence_336

Many Communist-era apartment blocks have also been refurbished to improve urban appearance. Bucharest_sentence_337

The newest contribution to Bucharest's architecture took place after the fall of Communism, particularly after 2000, when the city went through a period of urban renewal – and architectural revitalization – on the back of Romania's economic growth. Bucharest_sentence_338

Buildings from this time are mostly made of glass and steel, and often have more than 10 storeys. Bucharest_sentence_339

Examples include shopping malls (particularly the Bucharest Mall, a conversion and extension of an abandoned building), office buildings, bank headquarters, etc. Bucharest_sentence_340

During the last ten years, several high rise office buildings were built, particularly in the northern and eastern parts of the city. Bucharest_sentence_341

Additionally, a trend to add modern wings and façades to historic buildings has occurred, the most prominent example of which is the Bucharest Architects' Association Building, which is a modern glass-and-steel construction built inside a historic stone façade. Bucharest_sentence_342

In 2013, the Bucharest skyline enriched with a 137-m-high office building (SkyTower of Floreasca City Centre), the tallest building in Romania. Bucharest_sentence_343

Examples of modern skyscrapers built in the 21st century include Bucharest Tower Centre, Euro Tower, Nusco Tower, Cathedral Plaza, City Gate Towers, Rin Grand Hotel, Premium Plaza, Bucharest Corporate Centre, Millennium Business Centre, PGV Tower, Charles de Gaulle Plaza, Business Development Centre Bucharest, BRD Tower, and Bucharest Financial Plaza. Bucharest_sentence_344

Despite this development on vertical, Romanian architects avoid designing very tall buildings due to vulnerability to earthquakes. Bucharest_sentence_345

Aside from buildings used for business and institutions, residential developments have also been built, many of which consist of high-rise office buildings and suburban residential communities. Bucharest_sentence_346

An example of a new high rise residential complex is Asmita Gardens. Bucharest_sentence_347

These developments are increasingly prominent in northern Bucharest, which is less densely populated and is home to middle- and upper-class Bucharesters due to the process of gentrification. Bucharest_sentence_348

Bucharest_unordered_list_9

  • Bucharest_item_9_49
  • Bucharest_item_9_50
  • Bucharest_item_9_51
  • Bucharest_item_9_52
  • Bucharest_item_9_53
  • Bucharest_item_9_54

Education Bucharest_section_32

Overall, 159 faculties are in 34 universities. Bucharest_sentence_349

Sixteen public universities are in Bucharest, the largest of which are the University of Bucharest, the Politehnica University of Bucharest, the Bucharest Academy of Economic Studies, the Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, the National University of Political Studies and Public Administration and the University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Bucharest. Bucharest_sentence_350

These are supplemented by nineteen private universities, such as the Romanian-American University. Bucharest_sentence_351

Private universities, however, have a mixed reputation due to irregularities. Bucharest_sentence_352

In the 2020 QS World University Rankings, from Bucharest, only the University of Bucharest was included in the top universities of the world. Bucharest_sentence_353

The Politehnica University disappeared from the ranking. Bucharest_sentence_354

Also, in recent years, the city has had increasing numbers of foreign students enrolling in its universities. Bucharest_sentence_355

The first modern educational institution was the Princely Academy from Bucharest, founded in 1694 and divided in 1864 to form the present-day University of Bucharest and the Saint Sava National College, both of which are among the most prestigious of their kind in Romania. Bucharest_sentence_356

Over 450 public primary and secondary schools are in the city, all of which are administered by the Bucharest Municipal Schooling Inspectorate. Bucharest_sentence_357

Each sector also has its own Schooling Inspectorate, subordinated to the municipal one. Bucharest_sentence_358

Bucharest_unordered_list_10

  • Bucharest_item_10_55
  • Bucharest_item_10_56
  • Bucharest_item_10_57
  • Bucharest_item_10_58
  • Bucharest_item_10_59
  • Bucharest_item_10_60

Media Bucharest_section_33

The city is well-served by a modern landline and mobile network. Bucharest_sentence_359

Offices of Poșta Română, the national postal operator, are spread throughout the city, with the central post office (Romanian: Oficiul Poștal București 1) located at 12 Matei Millo Street. Bucharest_sentence_360

Public telephones are located in many places and are operated by Telekom Romania, a subsidiary of Deutsche Telekom and successor of the former monopoly Romtelecom. Bucharest_sentence_361

Bucharest is headquarters of most of the national television networks and national newspapers, radio stations and online news websites. Bucharest_sentence_362

The largest daily newspapers in Bucharest include Evenimentul Zilei, Jurnalul Național, Cotidianul, România Liberă, and Adevărul, while the biggest news websites are Hotnews.ro (with an English and Spanish version), , and Gândul. Bucharest_sentence_363

During the rush hours, tabloid newspapers Click! Bucharest_sentence_364 , Libertatea, and Cancan are popular for commuters. Bucharest_sentence_365

A number of newspapers and media publications are based in Casa Presei Libere (The House of the Free Press), a landmark of northern Bucharest, originally named Casa Scânteii after the Communist Romania-era official newspaper Scînteia. Bucharest_sentence_366

Casa Presei Libere is not the only Bucharest landmark that grew out of the media and communications industry. Bucharest_sentence_367

Palatul Telefoanelor ('The Telephone Palace') was the first major modernist building on Calea Victoriei in the city's centre, and the massive, unfinished communist-era Casa Radio looms over a park a block away from the Opera. Bucharest_sentence_368

English-language newspapers first became available in the early 1930s and reappeared in the 1990s. Bucharest_sentence_369

The two daily English-language newspapers are the Bucharest Daily News and Nine O' Clock; several magazines and publications in other languages are available, such as the Hungarian-language daily Új Magyar Szó. Bucharest_sentence_370

Observator Cultural covers the city's arts, and the free weekly magazines Șapte Seri ('Seven Evenings') and B24FUN, list entertainment events. Bucharest_sentence_371

The city is home to the intellectual journal Dilema veche and the satire magazine Academia Cațavencu. Bucharest_sentence_372

Healthcare Bucharest_section_34

One of the most modern hospitals in the capital is Colțea that has been re-equipped after a 90-million-euro investment in 2011. Bucharest_sentence_373

It specialises in oncological and cardiac disorders. Bucharest_sentence_374

It was built by Mihai Cantacuzino between 1701 and 1703, composed of many buildings, each with 12 to 30 beds, a church, three chapels, a school, and doctors' and teachers' houses. Bucharest_sentence_375

Another conventional hospital is Pantelimon, which was established in 1733 by Grigore II Ghica. Bucharest_sentence_376

The surface area of the hospital land property was 400,000 m (4,305,564 sq ft). Bucharest_sentence_377

The hospital had in its inventory a house for infectious diseases and a house for persons with disabilities. Bucharest_sentence_378

Other hospitals or clinics are Bucharest Emergency Hospital, Floreasca Emergency Clinic Hospital, Bucharest University Emergency Hospital, and Fundeni Clinical Institute or Biomedica International and Euroclinic, which are private. Bucharest_sentence_379

Sports Bucharest_section_35

Football is the most widely followed sport in Bucharest, with the city having numerous club teams, some of them being known throughout Europe: Steaua București, Dinamo București or Rapid București. Bucharest_sentence_380

Arena Națională, a new stadium inaugurated on 6 September 2011, hosted the 2012 Europa League Final and has a 55,600-seat capacity, making it one of the largest stadiums in Southeastern Europe and one of the few with a roof. Bucharest_sentence_381

Sport clubs have formed for handball, water polo, volleyball, rugby union, basketball and ice hockey. Bucharest_sentence_382

The majority of Romanian track and field athletes and most gymnasts are affiliated with clubs in Bucharest. Bucharest_sentence_383

The largest indoor arena in Bucharest is the Romexpo Dome with a seating capacity of 40,000. Bucharest_sentence_384

It can be used for boxing, kickboxing, handball and tennis. Bucharest_sentence_385

Starting in 2007, Bucharest has hosted annual races along a temporary urban track surrounding the Palace of the Parliament, called Bucharest Ring. Bucharest_sentence_386

The competition is called the Bucharest City Challenge, and has hosted FIA GT, FIA GT3, British F3, and Logan Cup races in 2007 and 2008. Bucharest_sentence_387

The 2009 and 2010 edition have not been held in Bucharest due to a lawsuit. Bucharest_sentence_388

Bucharest GP won the lawsuit that it initiated and will host city races around the Parliament starting 2011 with the Auto GP. Bucharest_sentence_389

Since 2009, Bucharest has the largest Ferrari Shop in Eastern Europe and the 2nd largest in Europe after Milan shop. Bucharest_sentence_390

Every year, Bucharest hosts the Bucharest Open international tennis tournament, which is included in the WTA Tour. Bucharest_sentence_391

The outdoor tournament is hosted by the tennis complex BNR Arenas. Bucharest_sentence_392

Ice hockey games are held at the Mihai Flamaropol Arena, which holds 8,000 spectators. Bucharest_sentence_393

Rugby games are held in different locations, but the most modern stadium is Arcul de Triumf Stadium, which is also home to the Romanian national rugby team. Bucharest_sentence_394

Bucharest was elected to host 4 matches from the UEFA Euro 2020 championship at the Arena Națională or Bucharest National Arena. Bucharest_sentence_395

The championship was postponed for 2021 due to the COVID-19 outbreak. Bucharest_sentence_396

Notable people Bucharest_section_36

Main article: List of people from Bucharest Bucharest_sentence_397

Bucharest_unordered_list_11

International relations Bucharest_section_37

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Romania Bucharest_sentence_398

The twin towns and sister cities of Bucharest are: Bucharest_sentence_399

Partnerships: Bucharest_sentence_400

Bucharest_unordered_list_12

See also Bucharest_section_38

Bucharest_unordered_list_13


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bucharest.