Buena Vista Social Club

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For other uses, see Buena Vista Social Club (disambiguation). Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_0

Buena Vista Social Club_table_infobox_0

Buena Vista Social ClubBuena Vista Social Club_header_cell_0_0_0
Background informationBuena Vista Social Club_header_cell_0_1_0
GenresBuena Vista Social Club_header_cell_0_2_0 Son Cubano, bolero, guajira, danzónBuena Vista Social Club_cell_0_2_1
Years activeBuena Vista Social Club_header_cell_0_3_0 1996–2015Buena Vista Social Club_cell_0_3_1
LabelsBuena Vista Social Club_header_cell_0_4_0 Buena Vista Social Club_cell_0_4_1
MembersBuena Vista Social Club_header_cell_0_6_0 Buena Vista Social Club_cell_0_6_1
Past membersBuena Vista Social Club_header_cell_0_8_0 Buena Vista Social Club_cell_0_8_1

Buena Vista Social Club is an ensemble of Cuban musicians established in 1996 to revive the music of pre-revolutionary Cuba. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_1

The project was organized by World Circuit executive Nick Gold, produced by American guitarist Ry Cooder and directed by Juan de Marcos González. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_2

They named the group after the homonymous members' club in the Buenavista quarter of Havana, a popular music venue in the 1940s. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_3

To showcase the popular styles of the time, such as son, bolero and danzón, they recruited a dozen veteran musicians, many of whom had been retired for many years. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_4

The group's eponymous album was recorded in March 1996 and released in September 1997, quickly becoming an international success, which prompted the ensemble to perform with a full line-up in Amsterdam and New York in 1998. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_5

German director Wim Wenders captured the performance on film for a documentary—also called Buena Vista Social Club—that included interviews with the musicians conducted in Havana. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_6

Wenders' film was released in June 1999 to critical acclaim, receiving an Academy Award nomination for Best Documentary feature and winning numerous accolades including Best Documentary at the European Film Awards. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_7

This was followed up by a second documentary Buena Vista Social Club: Adios in 2017. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_8

The success of both the album and film sparked a revival of interest in traditional Cuban music and Latin American music in general. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_9

Some of the Cuban performers later released well-received solo albums and recorded collaborations with stars from different musical genres. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_10

The "Buena Vista Social Club" name became an umbrella term to describe these performances and releases, and has been likened to a brand label that encapsulates Cuba's "musical golden age" between the 1930s and 1950s. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_11

The new success was fleeting for the most recognizable artists in the ensemble: Compay Segundo, Rubén González, and Ibrahim Ferrer, who died at the ages of ninety-five, eighty-four, and seventy-eight respectively; Compay Segundo and González in 2003, then Ferrer in 2005. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_12

Several surviving members of the Buena Vista Social Club, such as veteran singer Omara Portuondo, trumpeter Manuel "Guajiro" Mirabal, laúd player Barbarito Torres and trombonist and conductor Jesús "Aguaje" Ramos currently tour worldwide, to popular acclaim, with new members such as singer Carlos Calunga and pianist Rolando Luna, as part of a 13-member band called Orquesta Buena Vista Social Club. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_13

The original Buenavista Social Club Buena Vista Social Club_section_0

The Buenavista Social Club was a members-only club originally located in Buenavista (literally good view), a quarter in the current neighbourhood of Playa (before 1976 part of Marianao), one of the 15 municipalities in Cuba's capital, Havana. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_14

The original club was founded in 1932 in a small wooden venue at calle Consulado y pasaje "A" (currently calle 29, n. 6007). Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_15

In 1939, due to lack of space the club relocated to number 4610 on Avenue 31, between calles 46 and 48, in Almendares, Marianao. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_16

This location is recalled by Juan Cruz, former director of the Marianao Social Club and master of ceremonies at the Salón Rosado de la Tropical (other nightclubs in Havana). Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_17

As seen in the Buena Vista Social Club documentary, when musicians Ry Cooder, Compay Segundo and a film crew attempted to identify the location of the club in the 1990s, local people could not agree on where it had stood. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_18

At the time, clubs in Cuba were segregated; there were sociedades de blancos (white societies), sociedades de negros (black societies), etc. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_19

The Buenavista Social Club operated as a black society, which was rooted in a cabildo. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_20

Cabildos were fraternities organized during the 19th century by African slaves. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_21

The existence of many other black societies such as Marianao Social Club, Unión Fraternal, Club Atenas (whose members included doctors and engineers), and Buenavista Social Club, exemplified the remnants of institutionalized racial discrimination against Afro-Cubans. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_22

These societies operated as recreational centers where workers went to drink, play games, dance and listen to music. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_23

In the words of Ry Cooder, Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_24

As a music venue, the Buenavista Social Club experienced the peak of Havana's nightclub life, when charangas and conjuntos played several sets every night, going from club to club over the course of a week. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_25

Often, bands would dedicate songs to the clubs where they played. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_26

In the case of the Buenavista Social Club, an eponymous danzón was composed by Israel López "Cachao" in 1938, and performed with Arcaño y sus Maravillas. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_27

In addition, Arsenio Rodríguez dedicated "Buenavista en guaguancó" to the same place. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_28

Together with Orquesta Melodías del 40, the Maravillas and Arsenio's conjunto were known as Los Tres Grandes (The Big Three), drawing the largest audiences wherever they played. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_29

These vibrant times in Havana were described by pianist Rubén González, who played in Arsenio's conjunto, as "an era of real musical life in Cuba, when there was very little money to earn, but everyone played because they really wanted to". Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_30

After the Revolution Buena Vista Social Club_section_1

Shortly after the Cuban Revolution of 1959, newly elected Cuban President Manuel Urrutia Lleó, a devout Christian, began a program of closing gambling outlets, nightclubs, and other establishments associated with Havana's hedonistic lifestyle. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_31

This had an immediate impact on the livelihoods of local entertainers. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_32

As the Cuban government rapidly shifted towards the left in an effort to build a "classless and colourblind society", it struggled to define policy toward forms of cultural expression in the black community; expressions which had implicitly emphasized cultural differences. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_33

Consequently, the cultural and social centers were abolished, including the Afro-Cuban mutual aid Sociedades de Color in 1962, to make way for racially integrated societies. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_34

Private festivities were limited to weekend parties and organizers' funds were confiscated. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_35

The measures meant the closure of the Buena Vista Social Club. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_36

Although the Cuban government continued to support traditional music after the revolution, certain favor was given to the politically charged nueva trova, and poetic singer-songwriters such as Silvio Rodríguez and Pablo Milanés. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_37

The emergence of pop music and salsa, a style derived from Cuban music but developed in the United States, meant that son music became even less common. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_38

Cuban music experienced quite a radical change in the 1960s, as National Geographic notes: Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_39

The occurrence of these closures and the change in traditions is the simplest explanation of why many musicians were out of work, and why their style of music had declined before the Buena Vista Social Club made it popular again. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_40

Album Buena Vista Social Club_section_2

Main article: Buena Vista Social Club (album) Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_41

In 1996, American guitarist Ry Cooder had been invited to Havana by British world music producer Nick Gold of World Circuit Records to record a session in which African musicians from Mali were to collaborate with Cuban musicians. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_42

On Cooder's arrival (via Mexico to avoid the ongoing U.S. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_43 trade and travel embargo against Cuba), it transpired that the musicians from Mali had not received their visas and were unable to travel to Havana. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_44

Cooder and Gold changed their plans and decided to record an album of Cuban son music with local musicians. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_45

Already on board the African collaboration project were Cuban musicians including bassist Orlando "Cachaíto" López, guitarist Eliades Ochoa and musical director Juan de Marcos González, who had himself been organizing a similar project for the Afro-Cuban All Stars. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_46

A search for additional musicians led the team to singer Manuel "Puntillita" Licea, pianist Rubén González and octogenarian singer Compay Segundo, who all agreed to record for the project. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_47

Within three days of the project's birth, Cooder, Gold and de Marcos had organized a large group of performers and arranged for recording sessions to commence at Havana's EGREM Studios, formerly owned by RCA records, where the equipment and atmosphere had remained unchanged since the 1950s. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_48

Communication between the Spanish and English speakers at the studio was conducted via an interpreter, although Cooder reflected that "musicians understand each other through means other than speaking". Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_49

The album was recorded in just six days and contained fourteen tracks; opening with "Chan Chan" written by Compay Segundo, a four chord son that was to become what Cooder described as "the Buena Vista's calling card"; and ending with a rendition of "La Bayamesa", a romantic criolla composed by Sindo Garay (not to be confused with the Cuban national anthem of the same name). Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_50

The sessions also produced material for the subsequent release, Introducing...Rubén González, which showcased the work of the Cuban pianist. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_51

One of the songs that featured on the album was "Buena Vista Social Club", a danzón written by Orestes López, the father of bass player "Cachaíto." Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_52

The song spotlighted the piano work of Rubén González and it was recorded after Cooder heard González improvising around the tune's musical theme before a day's recording session. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_53

After playing the piece, González explained to Cooder the history of the social club and that the song was the club's "mascot tune". Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_54

When searching for a name for the overall project, manager Nick Gold chose the song's title. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_55

According to Cooder, Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_56

Upon release on 17 September 1997, the CD became a huge "word of mouth hit", far beyond that of most world music releases. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_57

It sold more than one million copies and won a Grammy award in 1998. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_58

In 2003 it was listed by the New York-based Rolling Stone magazine as #260 in The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_59

Musicians Buena Vista Social Club_section_3

A total of twenty musicians contributed to the recording including Ry Cooder's son Joachim Cooder, who at the time was a 19-year-old scholar of Latin percussion and provided drums for the band. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_60

Ry Cooder himself played slide guitar on several songs and helped produce and mix the album, afterwards describing the sessions as "the greatest musical experience of my life". Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_61

Ry Cooder had been a successful American guitarist since the 1960s, recording with Captain Beefheart and the Rolling Stones. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_62

Known for his slide guitar work, his interest in roots music led him to record music from diverse genres including Tex-Mex, Hawaiian and Tuvan throat singing. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_63

He was later prosecuted and fined $25,000 by U.S. authorities for his work on the Buena Vista Social Club, having broken the Trading with the Enemy Act, a clause that forms part of the ongoing United States embargo. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_64

Many of the Cuban musicians who featured on the album were at their musical prime in the 1940s and 1950s. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_65

After the success of the 1997 record they became known in Cuba as "Los Superabuelos" (the Super-Grandfathers). Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_66

Juan de Marcos González, a Cuban folk revivalist who was younger than the bulk of performers introduced Cooder to veteran singer Ibrahim Ferrer. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_67

Ferrer (1927–2005) had been lead vocalist for bandleader Pacho Alonso, and also sang for Beny Moré, Cuba's most prominent performer in the 1940s, before his soft singing style fell out of fashion. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_68

Having found the semi-retired seventy-year-old Ferrer taking his daily stroll on the streets of Havana and shining shoes for extra money, González signed him up for the project. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_69

Cooder later described the discovery as something that happens "perhaps once in your life", and Ferrer as "the Cuban Nat King Cole". Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_70

Ferrer became a prominent member of the group, and the success of the record was attributed in part to the popularity of his vocal performances. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_71

The singer went on to record a number of successful solo albums and performed with contemporary acts such as the Gorillaz before his death in 2005 at the age of 78. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_72

Virtuoso pianist Rubén González (1919–2003) also had further success releasing two solo albums after working on the initial project. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_73

González was a pianist for bandleader Arsenio Rodríguez in the 1940s, and is attributed with helping establish Cuban piano styles that were to dominate Latin music for the remainder of the century. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_74

Despite suffering from arthritis and not even owning a piano at the time of recording with Cooder, (due to an infestation of termites whilst living in South America) the American guitarist described him as "the greatest piano soloist I have ever heard". Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_75

After the success of the 1997 record, González recorded and toured with bassist Orlando "Cachaíto" López, who was the only musician to play on all of the songs on the Buena Vista Social Club album. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_76

"Cachaito" (1933–2009) was the son of multi-instrumentalist Orestes López and the nephew of fellow bassist Israel "Cachao" López, the brothers often attributed with inventing the mambo. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_77

Named after his prestigious uncle, "Cachaito" (little Cachao) was a leading Descarga musician in the 1950s and 1960s, a musical form that takes its influence from modern jazz, and he became the ever-present bassist at Buena Vista Social Club performances and recordings. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_78

One of the first to come on board the project was Compay Segundo (born Máximo Francisco Repilado Muñoz) (1907–2003), who at 89 years old was the oldest of the performers. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_79

During a discussion about politics, the veteran Segundo said: "Politics? Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_80

This new guy [Fidel Castro] is good. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_81

The 1930s were rough. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_82

That's when we had the really bad times." Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_83

Segundo was an accomplished guitarist and tres player who started his career playing with established bands of the 1920s and 1930s. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_84

In the 1940s, he gained fame as one half of the Los Compadres duo, and then formed Los Muchachos, a band that he led until his death in 2003. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_85

For the Buena Vista Social Club recording and performances, Segundo played a unique seven-stringed instrument, a hybrid between a guitar and a tres, which he devised himself and called an armónico. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_86

He also sang, mostly doing background vocals, in a number of songs in his baritone voice, including the self-penned opening track, Chan Chan, with Eliades Ochoa as the leading voice. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_87

Cowboy hat wearing Eliades Ochoa (b. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_88

1946), who had collaborated previously with Segundo and was a well established traditional Cuban folk performer, played guitar and sang for the group. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_89

Omara Portuondo (b. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_90

1930), a bolero singer and the only female in the collective, sang "Veinte Años" on the record and duets with Segundo and Ibrahim Ferrer during live performances. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_91

Other performers included singer Pío Leyva (1917–2006) who had been working with Segundo since the early 1950s, and fellow and singer Manuel "Puntillita" Licea (1927–2000), who had performed with Celia Cruz and Benny Moré. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_92

Additional improvised percussion was provided by Amadito Valdés and Carlos González. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_93

The youngest established member of the group was Barbarito Torres, (b. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_94

1956) a virtuoso player of the laúd, a Cuban offshoot of the lute. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_95

Trumpet was provided by Manuel "Guajiro" Mirabal, (b. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_96

1933) who went on to release solo records under the Buena Vista presents... title. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_97

Film Buena Vista Social Club_section_4

Main article: Buena Vista Social Club (film) Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_98

Shortly after returning from Havana to record the Buena Vista Social Club album, Ry Cooder began working with German film director Wim Wenders on the soundtrack to Wenders' film The End of Violence, the third such collaboration between the two artists. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_99

According to Wenders, it was an effort to force Cooder to focus on the project, "He always sort of looked in the distance and smiled, and I knew he was back in Havana." Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_100

Although Wenders knew nothing about Cuban music at the time, he became enthused by tapes of the Havana sessions provided by Cooder, and agreed to travel to the island to film the recording of Buena Vista Social Club Presents: Ibrahim Ferrer, the singer's first solo album, in 1998. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_101

Wenders filmed the recording sessions on the recently enhanced format Digital Video with the help of cinematographer Robert Müller, and then shot interviews with each "Buena Vista" ensemble member in different Havana locations. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_102

Wenders was also present to film the group's first performance with a full line-up in Amsterdam in April 1998 (two nights) and a second time in Carnegie Hall, New York City on 1 July 1998. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_103

The completed documentary was released on 17 September 1999, and included scenes in New York of the Cubans, some of whom had never left the island, window shopping and visiting tourist sites. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_104

According to Sight & Sound magazine, these scenes of "innocents abroad" were the film's most moving moments, as the contrasts between societies of Havana and New York become evident on the faces of the performers. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_105

Ferrer, from an impoverished background and staunchly anti consumerist, was shown describing the city as "beautiful" and finding the experience overwhelming. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_106

Upon completion of filming, Wenders felt that the film "didn't feel really like it was a documentary anymore. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_107

It felt like it was a true character piece". Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_108

The film became a box office success, grossing $23,002,182 worldwide. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_109

Critics were generally enthusiastic about the story and especially the music, although leading U.S. film critic Roger Ebert and the British Film Institute's Peter Curran felt that Wenders had lingered too long on Cooder during the performances; and the editing, which interspersed interviews with music, had disrupted the continuity of the songs. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_110

The film was nominated for an Academy Award for best documentary feature in 1999. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_111

It won best documentary at the European Film Awards and received seventeen other major accolades internationally. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_112

Live performances Buena Vista Social Club_section_5

The first performances by the full line up of Buena Vista Social Club, including Cooder, were those filmed by Wenders in Amsterdam and New York. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_113

Other international shows and T.V. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_114

appearances soon followed with varying line ups. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_115

Ibrahim Ferrer and Rubén González performed together in Los Angeles in 1998 to an audience that included Alanis Morissette, Sean Combs, and Jennifer Lopez, Ferrer dedicating the song Mami Me Gusto to the Hispanic Lopez. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_116

Performances in Florida, which has a large Cuban exile and Cuban American community, were rare after the release of the film due to the political climate. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_117

In the late 1990s, a concert by Cuban jazz pianist Gonzalo Rubalcaba turned into a near riot when concert goers were attacked and spat at by protesters opposed to the Cuban government. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_118

When "Buena Vista" musicians played for a music industry conference at Miami Beach in 1998, hundreds of protesters chanted outside and the convention center hall was cleared briefly because of a bomb threat. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_119

In 1999, Ferrer and Ruben González were forced to cancel Miami shows citing fears for their safety after fellow-Cubans Los Van Van drew 4,000 protesters at a previous show, and Compay Segundo was forced to cut short a 1999 Miami performance due to another bomb threat. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_120

When touring the U.S., the Cubans are only entitled to their per diem (transportation and lodging) and are not permitted performance fees due to the U.S. embargo. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_121

In 2001 a Buena Vista Social Club (with Ibrahim Ferrer) performance was recorded in Austin for PBS and broadcast on Austin City Limits in 2002. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_122

Buena Vista Social Club continue to tour throughout the world as Orquesta Buena Vista Social Club, and despite the deaths of six of the original members, the collective performs with many of the remaining ensemble members including Barbarito Torres and "Guajiro" Mirabal. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_123

Ry Cooder's guitar parts are handled by Manuel Galbán, a former member of Cuban vocal group Los Zafiros, who played on Ibrahim Ferrer's first solo record with Cooder and appeared in Wim Wenders' film. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_124

Following a 2007 performance in London, a reviewer at The Independent described the ensemble as "something of an anomaly in music business terms, due to their changing line-up and the fact that they've never really had one defining front person", adding, "It's hard to know what to expect from what is more of a brand than a band." Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_125

Cultural impact Buena Vista Social Club_section_6

The international success of the Buena Vista Social Club generated a revival of interest in traditional Cuban music and Latin American music as a whole. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_126

Musical director Juan de Marcos felt that the recordings serve "as a symbol of the power of Cuban music, and which to a certain degree have contributed to Cuban music regaining the status it always had in Latin American and world music." Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_127

Cuba's burgeoning tourist industry of the late 1990s benefited from this rebirth of interest. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_128

According to The Economist, "In the tourist quarters of Old Havana it can seem at times as if every Cuban with a guitar has come out to sing the songs that Buena Vista made famous. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_129

It's as if you were to go to Liverpool and find bands singing Beatles songs on every street corner." Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_130

The songs Buena Vista sings are often not their own compositions. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_131

Some songs they sing have long been popular in Cuba and people have always performed them in the street. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_132

Despite the appeal of the "Buena Vista" ambience to tourists, Cubans themselves were less aware of the "Buena Vista Social Club" than international music listeners. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_133

This was due to the foreign nature of the production, and the dominance of modern Timba, Songo and other musical forms on the island. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_134

Some explain that Buena Vista did not impact the Cuban audience, as they were not creating anything new; they were just playing the same songs that Cubans know and have been playing for many years. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_135

Mari Marques, a Cuban American who leads cultural tours to Cuba, contests that the preponderance of traditional musicians was not solely a consequence of the "Buena Vista Social Club". Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_136

Marques believes the notion that some music had been completely neglected in Cuba is "a romantic exaggeration that was propagated by U.S. media coverage", and the reality is that son trios have existed "everywhere in cities such as Santiago de Cuba in the east of the island." Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_137

British world music record label Tumi Music, who had worked with de Marcos and many of the ensemble musicians prior to Cooder, asserted that Cuba has over 50,000 musicians, all as good as, and some as old as the "Buena Vista" participants, "but these people hardly ever have the opportunity to share their talents with the outside world." Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_138

The label lamented that, "for the West to pay any real attention and consume the product, you needed someone like Ry Cooder to give it a stamp of approval first." Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_139

British Socialist Workers Party member and Marxist writer Mike Gonzalez believes the ensemble provoked a backward glance to "timeless, sensual places where dreams and desire merged in a comfortable, evocative music". Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_140

Gonzalez asserts that the aura evoked did not represent "the real Cuba" before the revolution of 1959, nor Cuba in the modern era, but that the Cuban government were happy for the tourist industry to "enjoy the fruits of this confusion". Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_141

The American Historical Review suggested that the Buena Vista Social Club's mise en scène fueled nostalgic, idealistic feelings not only of many Americans and Cubans in the United States who remember the Havana of the 1950s, but also of Cubans in Cuba. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_142

The result was a reminiscence about the pre-revolutionary era—dominated by the politics of Gerardo Machado in the 1920s–30s and then General Fulgencio Batista until 1959—which "no longer seems so bad". Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_143

Discography Buena Vista Social Club_section_7

Buena Vista Social Club albums Buena Vista Social Club_section_8

Buena Vista Social Club_unordered_list_0

Other releases Buena Vista Social Club_section_9

Solo albums Buena Vista Social Club_section_10

The below discography includes solo albums released since the first Buena Vista Social Club album that feature the musicians in the ensemble, and that are considered to be under the "Buena Vista Social Club" aegis. Buena Vista Social Club_sentence_144

Buena Vista Social Club_unordered_list_1

  • Rubén GonzálezBuena Vista Social Club_item_1_3
    • Introducing... Rubén González (World Circuit/Nonesuch Records, 17 September 1997) – with Orlando "Cachaito" Lopez, Manuel "El Guajiro" Mirabal, Ry Cooder and Manuel GalbánBuena Vista Social Club_item_1_4
    • Chanchullo (World Circuit/Nonesuch Records, 17 September 2000) – with Ibrahim Ferrer, Eliades Ochoa, Cheikh Lô, Amadito Valdés and Joachim CooderBuena Vista Social Club_item_1_5
  • Barbarito TorresBuena Vista Social Club_item_1_6
    • Havana Cafe (Atlantic Records, 6 April 1999) – with Manuel "El Guajiro" Mirabal, Ibrahim Ferrer, Pío Leyva and Omara PortuondoBuena Vista Social Club_item_1_7
  • Ibrahim FerrerBuena Vista Social Club_item_1_8
    • Buena Vista Social Club Presents Ibrahim Ferrer (World Circuit/Nonesuch Records, 8 June 1999) – with Rubén González, Orlando "Cachaito" Lopez, Ry Cooder, Manuel GalbánBuena Vista Social Club_item_1_9
    • Buenos Hermanos (World Circuit/Nonesuch Records, 18 March 2003) – with Orlando "Cachaito" Lopez, Ry Cooder and Manuel GalbánBuena Vista Social Club_item_1_10
    • Mi Sueño (World Circuit/Nonesuch Records, 26 March 2007) – with Orlando "Cachaíto" López, Manuel Galbán, Rubén González, Manuel "Guajiro" Mirabal, Omara Portuondo, Amadito ValdésBuena Vista Social Club_item_1_11
  • Eliades OchoaBuena Vista Social Club_item_1_12
    • Sublime Illusion (Higher Octave, 29 June 1999) – with Ry CooderBuena Vista Social Club_item_1_13
  • Omara PortuondoBuena Vista Social Club_item_1_14
    • Buena Vista Social Club Presents: Omara Portuondo (World Circuit/Nonesuch Records, 25 April 2000) – with Pío Leyva, Rubén González, Orlando "Cachaito" Lopez, Eliades Ochoa, Compay Segundo and Amadito ValdésBuena Vista Social Club_item_1_15
    • Flor de Amor (World Circuit/Nonesuch Records, 25 May 2004) – with Barbarito Torres, Orlando "Cachaito" Lopez and Manuel GalbánBuena Vista Social Club_item_1_16
  • Orlando "Cachaíto" LópezBuena Vista Social Club_item_1_17
    • Cachaito (World Circuit/Nonesuch Records, 22 May 2001) – with Juan de Marcos González, Amadito Valdés and Ibrahim FerrerBuena Vista Social Club_item_1_18
  • Amadito ValdésBuena Vista Social Club_item_1_19
    • Bajando Gervasio (Primienta Records, 10 December 2002) – with Barbarito TorresBuena Vista Social Club_item_1_20
  • Manuel "Guajiro" MirabalBuena Vista Social Club_item_1_21
    • Buena Vista Social Club Presents: Manuel "Guajiro" Mirabal (World Circuit/Nonesuch Records, 4 January 2005) – with Ibrahim Ferrer, Pío Leyva, Orlando "Cachaito" Lopez, Omara Portuondo, Juan de Marcos González and Manuel GalbánBuena Vista Social Club_item_1_22

Various artists Buena Vista Social Club_section_11

Buena Vista Social Club_unordered_list_2

See also Buena Vista Social Club_section_12

Buena Vista Social Club_unordered_list_3

  • Afro-Cuban All Stars, parallel projectBuena Vista Social Club_item_3_24
  • AfroCubism, successful collaboration with African musiciansBuena Vista Social Club_item_3_25

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