Buffet Crampon

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Buffet Crampon_table_infobox_0

Buffet CramponBuffet Crampon_table_caption_0
GenreBuffet Crampon_header_cell_0_0_0 Musical instrument manufacturersBuffet Crampon_cell_0_0_1
FoundedBuffet Crampon_header_cell_0_1_0 1825Buffet Crampon_cell_0_1_1
HeadquartersBuffet Crampon_header_cell_0_2_0 Mantes-la-Ville, FranceBuffet Crampon_cell_0_2_1
Key peopleBuffet Crampon_header_cell_0_3_0 Jerôme Perrod, François Billecard, Jean-Baptiste BouvierBuffet Crampon_cell_0_3_1
WebsiteBuffet Crampon_header_cell_0_4_0 Buffet Crampon_cell_0_4_1

Buffet Crampon is a French manufacturer of woodwind musical instruments, including oboes, flutes, saxophones, english horns and bassoons; however, the company is perhaps most famous for their clarinets, as Buffet is the brand of choice for many professionals. Buffet Crampon_sentence_0

Buffet Crampon began manufacturing musical instruments in 1825 exclusively in France, but has since expanded their business to include production facilities in Germany and China as well. Buffet Crampon_sentence_1

Since the company's conception, Buffet Crampon has expanded to a worldwide market. Buffet Crampon_sentence_2

Jérôme Perrod, Buffet Group's Chief Executive Officer, runs the Buffet Crampon, Besson, B&S, Antoine Courtois, Hans Hoyer, J. Keilwerth, Meinl Weston, Powell Flutes, Scherzer, and W. Schreiber brands. Buffet Crampon_sentence_3

History Buffet Crampon_section_0

Denis Buffet-Auger, of the Buffet family of French musical instrument makers, began making quality clarinets in Paris, France in 1825. Buffet Crampon_sentence_4

The company expanded under Jean-Louis Buffet and his wife Zoé Crampon and became known as Buffet Crampon. Buffet Crampon_sentence_5

(Another family member, Auguste Buffet jeune, who worked with famous clarinetist Hyacinthe Klosé to develop the Boehm system for clarinet, had his own business separate from Buffet Crampon.) Buffet Crampon_sentence_6

In 1850, Buffet Crampon established its headquarters at Mantes-la-Ville. Buffet Crampon_sentence_7

The company continued to expand its range and quality in instrument production, beginning saxophone production in 1866, and winning numerous awards. Buffet Crampon_sentence_8

In 1877 Buffet acquired the Evette & Schaeffer Company and began to use that name as their instrument brand. Buffet Crampon_sentence_9

In 1887 Buffet obtained a patent for a mechanism to control an extra key on an extended saxophone bell, extending the lower range from B to B♭. Buffet Crampon_sentence_10

In 1908 Buffet began exporting instruments to the US. Buffet Crampon_sentence_11

In 1910 Buffet introduced the Apogee premium model saxophone, which had innovative keywork features that were later adapted by other manufacturers. Buffet Crampon_sentence_12

In 1918 Buffet began marketing their premium line instruments under their own name, while marketing lower grade instruments variously under the Evette & Schaeffer and Evette brands. Buffet Crampon_sentence_13

During the 1930s Buffet began outsourcing Evette & Schaeffer instruments to other manufacturers. Buffet Crampon_sentence_14

In 1950, Buffet developed its famous R13 clarinet, an extremely popular professional-level clarinet. Buffet Crampon_sentence_15

The company also began production of the Dynaction model saxophones that year, which would evolve into the Super Dynaction (1957) and the highly regarded S series (1973) models. Buffet Crampon_sentence_16

Buffet also became the leading distributor of student-grade instruments in Europe, marketing French and Italian made saxophones under their Evette & Schaeffer brand. Buffet Crampon_sentence_17

During the 1970s, the company's position in the student saxophone market collapsed in the face of competition from Yamaha, who offered higher quality and more up-to-date instruments, and lower cost East German, Czech, and Asian manufacturers. Buffet Crampon_sentence_18

Their collapse in the student market accompanied a deteriorating position in the market for professional saxophones that led to their being discontinued in the mid-1980s. Buffet Crampon_sentence_19

In 2008 Buffet re-entered the saxophone market with their 400 model, sourced from China. Buffet Crampon_sentence_20

In 1981, Buffet joined Boosey & Hawkes, which sold the French company to The Music Group in 2003. Buffet Crampon_sentence_21

Two years later Buffet was bought by a French group. Buffet Crampon_sentence_22

In 2006 Buffet Crampon acquired two brass instrument manufacturers, Antoine Courtois Paris and Besson. Buffet Crampon_sentence_23

In 2008 Buffet Crampon acquired the Leblanc clarinet factory in La Couture-Boussey, Département of Eure, Haute-Normandie in France. Buffet Crampon_sentence_24

In 2010, Buffet acquired the Julius Keilwerth company of Germany, taking charge of distribution of their distinctive saxophones. Buffet Crampon_sentence_25

In 2014, Buffet introduced the professional level Senzo alto saxophone. Buffet Crampon_sentence_26

The Senzo, built in a co-operative arrangement between Buffet and Keilwerth facilities, marked the return of Buffet saxophone production to France for the first time since the mid-1980s. Buffet Crampon_sentence_27

Recently, Buffet has made some efforts to protect the African Blackwood trees, which provide grenadilla wood for clarinets, from being eliminated by introducing some wood composite products to its line up. Buffet Crampon_sentence_28

However, Buffet has decided not to adopt the Forest Stewardship Council's standard of sustainable forestry management. Buffet Crampon_sentence_29

Buffet composite wood models do not have the grain structure of a true wood product and as such they do not have the issue of cracking due to environmental changes that are typically seen in clarinets and other wood instruments. Buffet Crampon_sentence_30

Evette and Evette & Schaeffer clarinets Buffet Crampon_section_1

Until the 1980s, only professional level clarinets carried the Buffet name. Buffet Crampon_sentence_31

Lower priced clarinets for the beginner and intermediate market were branded "Evette" and "Evette & Schaeffer", respectively. Buffet Crampon_sentence_32

For a time, the Evette clarinets actually were built by other manufacturers under Buffet's sponsorship, and these instruments are marked "Evette sponsored by Buffet". Buffet Crampon_sentence_33

By the early 1970s, Buffet was making the Evettes in their own factory in Paris, and around 1979, manufacture was moved to a Buffet-owned factory in Germany. Buffet Crampon_sentence_34

Evette & Schaeffer clarinets were made in Paris. Buffet Crampon_sentence_35

Use of the Evette and Evette & Schaeffer brands ended around 1985, when the company began using the Buffet name on all its clarinets. Buffet Crampon_sentence_36

Clarinet models Buffet Crampon_section_2

Buffet Crampon has released several clarinet models from the mid-20th century onwards, with models ranging from student to professional in marketing. Buffet Crampon_sentence_37

The development of new models has sometimes led to the discontinuation of older models. Buffet Crampon_sentence_38

The student models tend to be made from ABS resin, whereas intermediate and professional models are usually made from grenadilla wood. Buffet Crampon_sentence_39

The professional models are usually made from more select grenadilla wood, and are usually unstained. Buffet Crampon_sentence_40

Various options have been made available for select professional models, including the Greenline option, additional keywork, and gold-plated keys. Buffet Crampon_sentence_41

B♭ soprano clarinets Buffet Crampon_section_3

Student Buffet Crampon_section_4

Buffet Crampon_table_general_1

ModelBuffet Crampon_header_cell_1_0_0 Currently in production?Buffet Crampon_header_cell_1_0_1 BodyBuffet Crampon_header_cell_1_0_2 NotesBuffet Crampon_header_cell_1_0_3
EvetteBuffet Crampon_cell_1_1_0 NoBuffet Crampon_cell_1_1_1 ABS resinBuffet Crampon_cell_1_1_2 Succeeded by B12 modelBuffet Crampon_cell_1_1_3
B10Buffet Crampon_cell_1_2_0 NoBuffet Crampon_cell_1_2_1 ABS resinBuffet Crampon_cell_1_2_2 Buffet Crampon_cell_1_2_3
B12Buffet Crampon_cell_1_3_0 NoBuffet Crampon_cell_1_3_1 ABS resinBuffet Crampon_cell_1_3_2 Succeeded by Prodige modelBuffet Crampon_cell_1_3_3

Intermediate Buffet Crampon_section_5

Buffet Crampon_table_general_2

ModelBuffet Crampon_header_cell_2_0_0 Currently in production?Buffet Crampon_header_cell_2_0_1 NotesBuffet Crampon_header_cell_2_0_2
EvetteBuffet Crampon_cell_2_1_0 NoBuffet Crampon_cell_2_1_1 Succeeded by E11 modelBuffet Crampon_cell_2_1_2
Evette Master ModelBuffet Crampon_cell_2_2_0 NoBuffet Crampon_cell_2_2_1 Succeeded by E12 modelBuffet Crampon_cell_2_2_2
Evette & SchaefferBuffet Crampon_cell_2_3_0 NoBuffet Crampon_cell_2_3_1 Succeeded by E13 modelBuffet Crampon_cell_2_3_2
Evette & Schaeffer Master ModelBuffet Crampon_cell_2_4_0 NoBuffet Crampon_cell_2_4_1 Buffet Crampon_cell_2_4_2
E11Buffet Crampon_cell_2_5_0 YesBuffet Crampon_cell_2_5_1 Made in China / Germany; more commonly sold in the United StatesBuffet Crampon_cell_2_5_2
E11 FranceBuffet Crampon_cell_2_6_0 NoBuffet Crampon_cell_2_6_1 Made in China / France; succeeded by E12F modelBuffet Crampon_cell_2_6_2
E12Buffet Crampon_cell_2_7_0 NoBuffet Crampon_cell_2_7_1 Referred to as the E45 prior to 1992 fanBuffet Crampon_cell_2_7_2
E12FBuffet Crampon_cell_2_8_0 YesBuffet Crampon_cell_2_8_1 Made in France / Germany; introduced September 2012Buffet Crampon_cell_2_8_2
E13Buffet Crampon_cell_2_9_0 YesBuffet Crampon_cell_2_9_1 Made in FranceBuffet Crampon_cell_2_9_2
ProdigeBuffet Crampon_cell_2_10_0 YesBuffet Crampon_cell_2_10_1 Newest Student ModelBuffet Crampon_cell_2_10_2

Professional Buffet Crampon_section_6

Buffet Crampon_table_general_3

ModelBuffet Crampon_header_cell_3_0_0 Currently in production?Buffet Crampon_header_cell_3_0_1 Greenline option?Buffet Crampon_header_cell_3_0_2 NotesBuffet Crampon_header_cell_3_0_3
InternationalBuffet Crampon_cell_3_1_0 NoBuffet Crampon_cell_3_1_1 NoBuffet Crampon_cell_3_1_2 Entry level semi-professional model, also known as the C13 modelBuffet Crampon_cell_3_1_3
ConservatoireBuffet Crampon_cell_3_2_0 YesBuffet Crampon_cell_3_2_1 NoBuffet Crampon_cell_3_2_2 Semi-professional model, also known as the C12 modelBuffet Crampon_cell_3_2_3
R13Buffet Crampon_cell_3_3_0 YesBuffet Crampon_cell_3_3_1 YesBuffet Crampon_cell_3_3_2 Most popular professional model, named after its designer, Robert CarréeBuffet Crampon_cell_3_3_3
RCBuffet Crampon_cell_3_4_0 YesBuffet Crampon_cell_3_4_1 YesBuffet Crampon_cell_3_4_2 Evolved from the R13 model with distinctive barrel and bell shape; developed in 1974 with the assistance of the luthier Robert Carrée, for whom the model is namedBuffet Crampon_cell_3_4_3
S1Buffet Crampon_cell_3_5_0 No (1970–1985)Buffet Crampon_cell_3_5_1 NoBuffet Crampon_cell_3_5_2 Equivalent to the R13; manufactured in the 1970s and early 80s; designed to have an inverse taper barrel and a bore similar to earlier R13 clarinetsBuffet Crampon_cell_3_5_3
VintageBuffet Crampon_cell_3_6_0 No (1996–2015)Buffet Crampon_cell_3_6_1 NoBuffet Crampon_cell_3_6_2 Replaced the S1; closer to the original 1950's R13 bore designBuffet Crampon_cell_3_6_3
FestivalBuffet Crampon_cell_3_7_0 YesBuffet Crampon_cell_3_7_1 YesBuffet Crampon_cell_3_7_2 Has R13 bore with denser wood; register key is 1 mm higher than on a standard R13; has additional alternate left-hand Eb/Ab leverBuffet Crampon_cell_3_7_3
R13 PrestigeBuffet Crampon_cell_3_8_0 YesBuffet Crampon_cell_3_8_1 YesBuffet Crampon_cell_3_8_2 Made from highest quality unstained grenadilla wood; has additional alternate left-hand Eb/Ab leverBuffet Crampon_cell_3_8_3
RC PrestigeBuffet Crampon_cell_3_9_0 YesBuffet Crampon_cell_3_9_1 YesBuffet Crampon_cell_3_9_2 Smaller bore than R13 model; more popular in Europe; has additional alternate left-hand Eb/Ab leverBuffet Crampon_cell_3_9_3
EliteBuffet Crampon_cell_3_10_0 No (1980–2002)Buffet Crampon_cell_3_10_1 NoBuffet Crampon_cell_3_10_2 Currently being produced only for Lohff and Pfeiffer of Denmark; replaced on a larger scale by the Tosca; all reinforcing rings were of black polycarbonate fiberBuffet Crampon_cell_3_10_3
ToscaBuffet Crampon_cell_3_11_0 YesBuffet Crampon_cell_3_11_1 YesBuffet Crampon_cell_3_11_2 Introduced in 2003; has unique bore design and reshaped keywork; has auxiliary Eb key and low F correction keyBuffet Crampon_cell_3_11_3
DivineBuffet Crampon_cell_3_12_0 YesBuffet Crampon_cell_3_12_1 NoBuffet Crampon_cell_3_12_2 Introduced in March 2012 as Buffet's top of the line modelBuffet Crampon_cell_3_12_3
LegendeBuffet Crampon_cell_3_13_0 YesBuffet Crampon_cell_3_13_1 NoBuffet Crampon_cell_3_13_2 Introduced in July 2017 as Buffet's top of the line modelBuffet Crampon_cell_3_13_3

Harmony clarinets Buffet Crampon_section_7

All of Buffet Crampon's harmony clarinets are professional models released under the "Prestige" label. Buffet Crampon_sentence_42

Buffet Crampon_table_general_4

InstrumentBuffet Crampon_header_cell_4_0_0 Currently available?Buffet Crampon_header_cell_4_0_1 Greenline option?Buffet Crampon_header_cell_4_0_2 NotesBuffet Crampon_header_cell_4_0_3
Basset ABuffet Crampon_cell_4_1_0 YesBuffet Crampon_cell_4_1_1 NoBuffet Crampon_cell_4_1_2 Pitched in A; descends to low CBuffet Crampon_cell_4_1_3
Basset horn FBuffet Crampon_cell_4_2_0 YesBuffet Crampon_cell_4_2_1 NoBuffet Crampon_cell_4_2_2 Pitched in FBuffet Crampon_cell_4_2_3
Alto clarinetBuffet Crampon_cell_4_3_0 YesBuffet Crampon_cell_4_3_1 NoBuffet Crampon_cell_4_3_2 Buffet Crampon_cell_4_3_3
Contra-altoBuffet Crampon_cell_4_4_0 YesBuffet Crampon_cell_4_4_1 NoBuffet Crampon_cell_4_4_2 Buffet Crampon_cell_4_4_3

Bass clarinets Buffet Crampon_section_8

Buffet Crampon_table_general_5

ModelBuffet Crampon_header_cell_5_0_0 LevelBuffet Crampon_header_cell_5_0_1 Greenline option?Buffet Crampon_header_cell_5_0_2 NotesBuffet Crampon_header_cell_5_0_3
1180Buffet Crampon_cell_5_1_0 StudentBuffet Crampon_cell_5_1_1 NoBuffet Crampon_cell_5_1_2 Reintroduced in 2013Buffet Crampon_cell_5_1_3
1183Buffet Crampon_cell_5_2_0 ProfessionalBuffet Crampon_cell_5_2_1 YesBuffet Crampon_cell_5_2_2 Extends to low EbBuffet Crampon_cell_5_2_3
1193Buffet Crampon_cell_5_3_0 ProfessionalBuffet Crampon_cell_5_3_1 YesBuffet Crampon_cell_5_3_2 Extends to low CBuffet Crampon_cell_5_3_3
Tosca(1195)Buffet Crampon_cell_5_4_0 ProfessionalBuffet Crampon_cell_5_4_1 NoBuffet Crampon_cell_5_4_2 Extends to low CBuffet Crampon_cell_5_4_3

Double Reeds Buffet Crampon_section_9

Buffet Crampon_table_general_6

InstrumentBuffet Crampon_header_cell_6_0_0 ModelBuffet Crampon_header_cell_6_0_1 LevelBuffet Crampon_header_cell_6_0_2 Greenline option?Buffet Crampon_header_cell_6_0_3 NotesBuffet Crampon_header_cell_6_0_4
OboeBuffet Crampon_cell_6_1_0 ConservatoireBuffet Crampon_cell_6_1_1 StudentBuffet Crampon_cell_6_1_2 NoBuffet Crampon_cell_6_1_3 Buffet Crampon_cell_6_1_4
OboeBuffet Crampon_cell_6_2_0 PrestigeBuffet Crampon_cell_6_2_1 ProfessionalBuffet Crampon_cell_6_2_2 YesBuffet Crampon_cell_6_2_3 Buffet Crampon_cell_6_2_4
OboeBuffet Crampon_cell_6_3_0 OrfeoBuffet Crampon_cell_6_3_1 ProfessionalBuffet Crampon_cell_6_3_2 YesBuffet Crampon_cell_6_3_3 Introduced March 2012Buffet Crampon_cell_6_3_4
English hornBuffet Crampon_cell_6_4_0 PrestigeBuffet Crampon_cell_6_4_1 ProfessionalBuffet Crampon_cell_6_4_2 NoBuffet Crampon_cell_6_4_3 Buffet Crampon_cell_6_4_4
BassoonBuffet Crampon_cell_6_5_0 PrestigeBuffet Crampon_cell_6_5_1 ProfessionalBuffet Crampon_cell_6_5_2 NoBuffet Crampon_cell_6_5_3 Buffet Crampon_cell_6_5_4

Flute models Buffet Crampon_section_10

Originally Buffet Crampon flutes were made in Paris, France. Buffet Crampon_sentence_43

But in 1981 the company was bought out by Boosey & Hawkes and their flutes were manufactured in Boosey & Hawkes factories in England (and later in Germany) over the period 1981 to 2004. Buffet Crampon_sentence_44

In 2005 the Buffet Crampon company returned to French hands. Buffet Crampon_sentence_45

In 2016 Buffet Crampon purchased Powell Flutes, Maynard, Massachusetts, which continues as a separate brand. Buffet Crampon_sentence_46

Modern Buffet Crampon flutes utilize the Cooper scale (see Albert Cooper) and have a reputation for accurate tuning. Buffet Crampon_sentence_47

The 200 series flutes were of average construction quality and needed regular maintenance to play well. Buffet Crampon_sentence_48

In the 1980s Boosey & Hawkes redesigned the Buffet Crampon flute as the 6000 series with improved key cups and stiffer keys. Buffet Crampon_sentence_49

The 6000 series is generally regarded as mechanically superior to the 200 instruments. Buffet Crampon_sentence_50

200 Series Buffet Crampon_section_11

Buffet Crampon_unordered_list_0

  • 225 – Silver-plated, inline G, closed keysBuffet Crampon_item_0_0
  • 227 – Silver-plated body, offset G closed keys, solid silver headjointBuffet Crampon_item_0_1
  • 228 – Silver-plated, offset G closed keys and in line open hole (French style)Buffet Crampon_item_0_2

Redesigned 6000 series Buffet Crampon_section_12

Buffet Crampon_unordered_list_1

  • 6010 – Silver-plated, inline G, closed keysBuffet Crampon_item_1_3
  • 6020 – Silver-plated, offset G, split E, closed keysBuffet Crampon_item_1_4
  • 6040 – Silver-plated, offset G, open hole (French style)Buffet Crampon_item_1_5
  • 6050 – Silver-plated, inline G, split E, open holeBuffet Crampon_item_1_6

7000 series Buffet Crampon_section_13

Intermediate models with silver heads and plated bodies. Buffet Crampon_sentence_51

Model sub-numbers are similar to the 6000 series as above. Buffet Crampon_sentence_52

Saxophone models Buffet Crampon_section_14

As early as 1866, Buffet Crampon was producing its first saxophones, 20 years after the invention of this instrument by the Belgian Adolphe Sax. Buffet Crampon_sentence_53

They were the first to manufacture saxophones, besides those made by Adolphe Sax himself. Buffet Crampon_sentence_54

Today, Buffet Crampon produces three series of saxophones: 100 Series, 400 Series and since 2013, the Senzo alto saxophone. Buffet Crampon_sentence_55

Soprano Buffet Crampon_section_15

Buffet Crampon_unordered_list_2

  • Dynaction (Lacquer/Silver, discontinued)Buffet Crampon_item_2_7
  • Super Dynaction (Lacquer/Silver, discontinued)Buffet Crampon_item_2_8
  • S1 (Lacquer/Silver, discontinued)Buffet Crampon_item_2_9
  • S1 PRESTIGE (Copper, discontinued)Buffet Crampon_item_2_10

Alto Buffet Crampon_section_16

Buffet Crampon_unordered_list_3

  • 18–20Buffet Crampon_item_3_11
  • Dynaction (Lacquer/Silver, discontinued)Buffet Crampon_item_3_12
  • Super Dynaction (Lacquer/Silver, discontinued)Buffet Crampon_item_3_13
  • Super Dynaction/S1 (Lacquer/Silver, discontinued)Buffet Crampon_item_3_14
  • S1 (Lacquer/Silver, Silver/Copper, discontinued)Buffet Crampon_item_3_15
  • S2 (Lacquer/Silver, discontinued)Buffet Crampon_item_3_16
  • S3 PRESTIGE (Lacquer/Silver, discontinued)Buffet Crampon_item_3_17
  • S3Buffet Crampon_item_3_18
  • 400 Series (Lacquer/Antique matte)Buffet Crampon_item_3_19
  • 100 Series (Student Model)Buffet Crampon_item_3_20
  • Senzo copper (Lacquer/Silver)Buffet Crampon_item_3_21

Evette Buffet Crampon_section_17

Buffet Crampon_unordered_list_4

  • Masterpiece (Lacquer, discontinued)Buffet Crampon_item_4_22

Tenor Buffet Crampon_section_18

Buffet Crampon_unordered_list_5

  • 18–20Buffet Crampon_item_5_23
  • Dynaction (Lacquer/Silver, discontinued)Buffet Crampon_item_5_24
  • Super Dynaction (Lacquer/Silver, discontinued)Buffet Crampon_item_5_25
  • S1 (Lacquer/Silver, discontinued)Buffet Crampon_item_5_26
  • S1 PRESTIGE (Lacquer/Silver/Copper, discontinued)Buffet Crampon_item_5_27
  • S2 (Lacquer/Silver, discontinued)Buffet Crampon_item_5_28
  • 400 Series (Lacquer/Antique matte)Buffet Crampon_item_5_29
  • 100 Series (Student Model)Buffet Crampon_item_5_30

Baritone Buffet Crampon_section_19

Buffet Crampon_unordered_list_6

  • 18–20Buffet Crampon_item_6_31
  • Dynaction (Lacquer/Silver, discontinued )Buffet Crampon_item_6_32
  • Super Dynaction (Lacquer/Silver, discontinued)Buffet Crampon_item_6_33
  • S1 (Lacquer/Silver, discontinued)Buffet Crampon_item_6_34

100 Series Buffet Crampon_section_20

These are beginner instruments made in China Buffet Crampon_sentence_56

Buffet Crampon_unordered_list_7

  • Series 100 alto saxophone, lacquerBuffet Crampon_item_7_35
  • Series 100 tenor saxophone, lacquerBuffet Crampon_item_7_36

400 Series Buffet Crampon_section_21

These are intermediate models made in China Buffet Crampon_sentence_57

Buffet Crampon_unordered_list_8

  • Series 400 alto saxophone, lacquer and matteBuffet Crampon_item_8_37
  • Series 400 tenor saxophone, lacquer and matteBuffet Crampon_item_8_38
  • Series 400 baritone saxophone, lacquer and matteBuffet Crampon_item_8_39

Senzo Buffet Crampon_section_22

This is their top model Buffet Crampon_sentence_58

Buffet Crampon_unordered_list_9

  • Senzo alto saxophoneBuffet Crampon_item_9_40


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buffet Crampon.