United States Census Bureau

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United States Census Bureau_table_infobox_0

Census BureauUnited States Census Bureau_table_caption_0
Agency overviewUnited States Census Bureau_header_cell_0_0_0
FormedUnited States Census Bureau_header_cell_0_1_0 July 1, 1902; 118 years ago (1902-07-01)United States Census Bureau_cell_0_1_1
Preceding agencyUnited States Census Bureau_header_cell_0_2_0 United States Census Bureau_cell_0_2_1
HeadquartersUnited States Census Bureau_header_cell_0_3_0 Suitland, Maryland, U.S.United States Census Bureau_cell_0_3_1
EmployeesUnited States Census Bureau_header_cell_0_4_0 4,285 (2018)United States Census Bureau_cell_0_4_1
Annual budgetUnited States Census Bureau_header_cell_0_5_0 US$3.8 billion (est. 2019)United States Census Bureau_cell_0_5_1
Agency executivesUnited States Census Bureau_header_cell_0_6_0 United States Census Bureau_cell_0_6_1
Parent agencyUnited States Census Bureau_header_cell_0_7_0 Department of CommerceUnited States Census Bureau_cell_0_7_1
WebsiteUnited States Census Bureau_header_cell_0_8_0 United States Census Bureau_cell_0_8_1

The United States Census Bureau (USCB), officially the Bureau of the Census, is a principal agency of the U.S. United States Census Bureau_sentence_0 Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy. United States Census Bureau_sentence_1

The Census Bureau is part of the U.S. United States Census Bureau_sentence_2 Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States. United States Census Bureau_sentence_3

The Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U.S. United States Census Bureau_sentence_4 Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U.S. United States Census Bureau_sentence_5 House of Representatives to the states based on their population. United States Census Bureau_sentence_6

The Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $675 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, and businesses make informed decisions. United States Census Bureau_sentence_7

The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, hospitals, transportation infrastructure, and police and fire departments. United States Census Bureau_sentence_8

In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts over 130 surveys and programs a year, including the American Community Survey, the U.S. United States Census Bureau_sentence_9 Economic Census, and the Current Population Survey. United States Census Bureau_sentence_10

Furthermore, economic and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government typically contain data produced by the Census Bureau. United States Census Bureau_sentence_11

Legal mandate United States Census Bureau_section_0

Article One of the United States Constitution (section II) directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College. United States Census Bureau_sentence_12

The Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. United States Census Bureau_sentence_13

Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population estimates and projections. United States Census Bureau_sentence_14

In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education, transportation and more. United States Census Bureau_sentence_15

The Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, and economy. United States Census Bureau_sentence_16

The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code. United States Census Bureau_sentence_17

The Census Bureau also conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, crime, health, consumer expenditures, and housing. United States Census Bureau_sentence_18

Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial (10-year) population counts. United States Census Bureau_sentence_19

The Census Bureau also conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail, service, and other establishments and of domestic governments. United States Census Bureau_sentence_20

Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts. United States Census Bureau_sentence_21

The Census Act of 1840 established a central office which became known as the Census Office. United States Census Bureau_sentence_22

Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses, typically at the 10-year intervals. United States Census Bureau_sentence_23

In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, and in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor. United States Census Bureau_sentence_24

The department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. United States Census Bureau_sentence_25

An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years. United States Census Bureau_sentence_26

In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. United States Census Bureau_sentence_27

In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the U.S. Code. United States Census Bureau_sentence_28

By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U.S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. United States Census Bureau_sentence_29

States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year. United States Census Bureau_sentence_30

Data collection United States Census Bureau_section_1

Census regions and divisions United States Census Bureau_section_2

The United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. United States Census Bureau_sentence_31

The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". United States Census Bureau_sentence_32

The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. United States Census Bureau_sentence_33

Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: United States Census Bureau_sentence_34

United States Census Bureau_unordered_list_0

Uses of census data United States Census Bureau_section_3

Many federal, state, local and tribal governments use census data to: United States Census Bureau_sentence_35

United States Census Bureau_unordered_list_1

  • Decide the location of new housing and public facilities,United States Census Bureau_item_1_13
  • Examine the demographic characteristics of communities, states, and the US,United States Census Bureau_item_1_14
  • Plan transportation systems and roadways,United States Census Bureau_item_1_15
  • Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, andUnited States Census Bureau_item_1_16
  • Create localized areas for elections, schools, utilities, etc.United States Census Bureau_item_1_17
  • Gathers population information every 10 yearsUnited States Census Bureau_item_1_18

Data stewardship United States Census Bureau_section_4

The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, and guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. United States Census Bureau_sentence_36

Title 13 of the U.S. United States Census Bureau_sentence_37 Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. United States Census Bureau_sentence_38

All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment. United States Census Bureau_sentence_39

The Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government and law enforcement agencies such as the IRS or the FBI or Interpol. United States Census Bureau_sentence_40

"Providing quality data, for public good—while respecting individual privacy and, at the same time, protecting confidentiality—is the Census Bureau's core responsibility"; "Keeping the public's trust is critical to the Census's ability to carry out the mission as the leading source of quality data about the Nation's people and economy." United States Census Bureau_sentence_41

Only after 72 years does the information collected become available to other agencies or the general public. United States Census Bureau_sentence_42

Seventy-two years was picked because usually by 72 years since the census is taken, most participants would be deceased. United States Census Bureau_sentence_43

Despite these guarantees of confidentiality, the Census Bureau has some history of disclosures to other government agencies. United States Census Bureau_sentence_44

In 1918, the Census Bureau released individual information regarding several hundred young men to the Justice Department and Selective Service system for the purpose of prosecutions for draft evasion. United States Census Bureau_sentence_45

During World War II, the United States Census Bureau assisted the government's Japanese American internment efforts by providing confidential neighborhood information on Japanese-Americans. United States Census Bureau_sentence_46

The Bureau's role was denied for decades but was finally proven in 2007. United States Census Bureau_sentence_47

United States census data are valuable for the country's political parties; Democrats and Republicans are highly interested in knowing the accurate number of persons in their respective districts. United States Census Bureau_sentence_48

These insights are often linked to financial and economic strategies that are central to federal, state and city investments for locations of particular populations. United States Census Bureau_sentence_49

Such apportionments are designed to distribute political power across neutral spatial allocations; however, "because so much is at stake, the census also runs the risk of being politicized." United States Census Bureau_sentence_50

Such political tensions highlight the complexity of identity and classification; some argue that unclear results from the population data "is due to distortions brought about by political pressures." United States Census Bureau_sentence_51

One frequently used example includes ambiguous ethnic counts, which often involves underenumeration and/or undercounting of minority populations. United States Census Bureau_sentence_52

Ideas about race, ethnicity and identity have also evolved in the United States, and such changes warrant examination of how these shifts have impacted the accuracy of census data over time. United States Census Bureau_sentence_53

The United States Census Bureau began pursuing technological innovations to improve the precision of its census data collection in the 1980s. United States Census Bureau_sentence_54

Robert W. Marx, the Chief of the Geography Division of the USCB teamed up with the U.S. United States Census Bureau_sentence_55 Geological Survey and oversaw the creation of the Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing (TIGER) database system. United States Census Bureau_sentence_56

Census officials were able to evaluate the more sophisticated and detailed results that the TIGER system produced; furthermore, TIGER data is also available to the public. United States Census Bureau_sentence_57

And while the TIGER system does not directly amass demographic data, as a geographic information system (GIS), it can be used to merge demographics to conduct more accurate geospatial and mapping analysis. United States Census Bureau_sentence_58

In July 2019 the Census Bureau deprecated American Fact Finder for the new platform , providing support for data users accessing the new site. United States Census Bureau_sentence_59

Ongoing surveys United States Census Bureau_section_5

Other surveys conducted United States Census Bureau_section_6

The Census Bureau collects information in many other surveys and provides the data to the survey sponsor for release. United States Census Bureau_sentence_60

These sponsors include: United States Census Bureau_sentence_61

United States Census Bureau_unordered_list_2

Organizational structure United States Census Bureau_section_7

See also: Director of the United States Census Bureau United States Census Bureau_sentence_62

Since 1903, the official census-taking agency of the United States government has been the Bureau of the Census. United States Census Bureau_sentence_63

The Census Bureau is headed by a Director, assisted by a Deputy Director and an Executive Staff composed of the associate directors. United States Census Bureau_sentence_64

The Census Bureau has had headquarters in Suitland, Maryland, since 1942. United States Census Bureau_sentence_65

A new headquarters complex there was completed in 2007 and supports over 4,000 employees. United States Census Bureau_sentence_66

The Bureau operates regional offices in 6 cities: New York City, Philadelphia, Chicago, Atlanta, Dallas, and Los Angeles. United States Census Bureau_sentence_67

The National Processing Center is in Jeffersonville, Indiana. United States Census Bureau_sentence_68

Additional temporary processing facilities facilitate the decennial census, which employs more than a million people. United States Census Bureau_sentence_69

The cost of the 2000 Census was $4.5 billion. United States Census Bureau_sentence_70

During the years just prior to the decennial census, parallel census offices, known as "Regional Census Centers" are opened in the field office cities. United States Census Bureau_sentence_71

The decennial operations are carried out from these facilities. United States Census Bureau_sentence_72

The Regional Census Centers oversee the openings and closings of smaller "Area Census Offices" within their collection jurisdictions. United States Census Bureau_sentence_73

The estimated cost of the 2010 Census is $14.7 billion. United States Census Bureau_sentence_74

On January 1, 2013, the Census Bureau was to consolidate its 12 regional offices into 6. United States Census Bureau_sentence_75

Increasing costs of data collection, changes in survey management tools such as laptops and the increasing use of multi-modal surveys (i.e. internet, telephone, and in-person) has led the Census Bureau to consolidate. United States Census Bureau_sentence_76

The remaining regional offices will be in: New York City, Philadelphia, Chicago, Atlanta, Dallas, and Los Angeles. United States Census Bureau_sentence_77

The Census Bureau also runs the Census Information Center cooperative program that involves 58 "national, regional, and local non-profit organizations". United States Census Bureau_sentence_78

The CIC program aims to represent the interests of underserved communities. United States Census Bureau_sentence_79

Computer equipment United States Census Bureau_section_8

The 1890 census was the first to use the electric tabulating machines invented by Herman Hollerith. United States Census Bureau_sentence_80

For 1890–1940 details, see Truesdell, Leon E. (1965). United States Census Bureau_sentence_81

The Development of Punch Card Tabulation in the Bureau of the Census, 1890–1940: With outlines of actual tabulation programs. United States Census Bureau_sentence_82

U.S. United States Census Bureau_sentence_83 GPO. United States Census Bureau_sentence_84

In 1946, knowing of the Bureau's funding of Hollerith and, later, Powers, John Mauchly approached the Bureau about early funding for UNIVAC development. United States Census Bureau_sentence_85

A UNIVAC I computer was accepted by the Bureau in 1951. United States Census Bureau_sentence_86

Handheld computers (HHC) United States Census Bureau_section_9

Historically, the census information was gathered by census takers going door-to-door collecting information in a ledger. United States Census Bureau_sentence_87

Beginning in 1970 information was gathered via mailed forms. United States Census Bureau_sentence_88

To reduce paper usage, reduce payroll expense and acquire the most comprehensive list of addresses ever compiled, 500,000 handheld computers (HHCs) (specifically designed, single purpose devices) were used for the first time in 2009 during the address canvassing portion of the 2010 Decennial Census Project. United States Census Bureau_sentence_89

Projected savings were estimated to be over $1 billion. United States Census Bureau_sentence_90

Security precautions United States Census Bureau_section_10

Main article: Device fingerprint United States Census Bureau_sentence_91

The HHC was manufactured by Harris Corporation, an established Department of Defense contractor, via a controversial contract with the Department of Commerce. United States Census Bureau_sentence_92

Secured access via a fingerprint swipe guaranteed only the verified user could access the unit. United States Census Bureau_sentence_93

A GPS capacity was integral to the daily address management and the transfer of gathered information. United States Census Bureau_sentence_94

Of major importance was the security and integrity of the populace's private information. United States Census Bureau_sentence_95

Success and failure United States Census Bureau_section_11

Enumerators (information gatherers) that had operational problems with the device understandably made negative reports. United States Census Bureau_sentence_96

During the 2009 Senate confirmation hearings for Robert Groves, President Obama's Census Director appointee, there was much mention of problems but very little criticism of the units. United States Census Bureau_sentence_97

In rural areas, the sparsity of cell phone towers caused problems with data transmission to and from the HHC. United States Census Bureau_sentence_98

Since the units were updated nightly with important changes and updates, operator implementation of proper procedure was imperative. United States Census Bureau_sentence_99

Dramatic dysfunction and delays occurred if the units were not put into sleep mode overnight. United States Census Bureau_sentence_100

Notable alumni United States Census Bureau_section_12

See also United States Census Bureau_section_13

United States Census Bureau_unordered_list_3

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United States Census Bureau.