Byzantine Empire

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"Byzantine" redirects here. Byzantine Empire_sentence_0

For other uses, see Byzantine (disambiguation). Byzantine Empire_sentence_1

Byzantine Empire_table_infobox_0

Byzantine Empire

Βασιλεία Ῥωμαίων, Basileía Rhōmaíōn Imperium RomanumByzantine Empire_header_cell_0_0_0


and largest cityByzantine Empire_header_cell_0_1_0


(395–1204, 1261–1453)Byzantine Empire_cell_0_1_1

Common languagesByzantine Empire_header_cell_0_2_0 Byzantine Empire_cell_0_2_1
ReligionByzantine Empire_header_cell_0_3_0 Byzantine Empire_cell_0_3_1
Notable emperorsByzantine Empire_header_cell_0_4_0 Byzantine Empire_cell_0_4_1
330–337Byzantine Empire_header_cell_0_5_0 Constantine IByzantine Empire_cell_0_5_1
395–408Byzantine Empire_header_cell_0_6_0 ArcadiusByzantine Empire_cell_0_6_1
402–450Byzantine Empire_header_cell_0_7_0 Theodosius IIByzantine Empire_cell_0_7_1
527–565Byzantine Empire_header_cell_0_8_0 Justinian IByzantine Empire_cell_0_8_1
610–641Byzantine Empire_header_cell_0_9_0 HeracliusByzantine Empire_cell_0_9_1
717–741Byzantine Empire_header_cell_0_10_0 Leo IIIByzantine Empire_cell_0_10_1
797–802Byzantine Empire_header_cell_0_11_0 IreneByzantine Empire_cell_0_11_1
867–886Byzantine Empire_header_cell_0_12_0 Basil IByzantine Empire_cell_0_12_1
976–1025Byzantine Empire_header_cell_0_13_0 Basil IIByzantine Empire_cell_0_13_1
1042–1055Byzantine Empire_header_cell_0_14_0 Constantine IXByzantine Empire_cell_0_14_1
1081–1118Byzantine Empire_header_cell_0_15_0 Alexius IByzantine Empire_cell_0_15_1
1259–1282Byzantine Empire_header_cell_0_16_0 Michael VIIIByzantine Empire_cell_0_16_1
1449–1453Byzantine Empire_header_cell_0_17_0 Constantine XIByzantine Empire_cell_0_17_1
Historical eraByzantine Empire_header_cell_0_18_0 Late Antiquity to Late Middle AgesByzantine Empire_cell_0_18_1
First division of the Roman Empire (diarchy)Byzantine Empire_header_cell_0_19_0 1 April 286Byzantine Empire_cell_0_19_1
Founding of ConstantinopleByzantine Empire_header_cell_0_20_0 11 May 330Byzantine Empire_cell_0_20_1
Final East–West division after the death of Theodosius IByzantine Empire_header_cell_0_21_0 17 January 395Byzantine Empire_cell_0_21_1
Fall of Rome; deposition of Romulus Augustulus by OdoacerByzantine Empire_header_cell_0_22_0 4 September 476Byzantine Empire_cell_0_22_1
Assassination of Julius Nepos; nominal end of the Western Roman EmpireByzantine Empire_header_cell_0_23_0 25 April 480Byzantine Empire_cell_0_23_1
Fourth Crusade; establishment of the Latin Empire by Catholic crusadersByzantine Empire_header_cell_0_24_0 12 April 1204Byzantine Empire_cell_0_24_1
Reconquest of Constantinople by Michael VIII PalaiologosByzantine Empire_header_cell_0_25_0 25 July 1261Byzantine Empire_cell_0_25_1
Fall of ConstantinopleByzantine Empire_header_cell_0_26_0 29 May 1453Byzantine Empire_cell_0_26_1
Fall of TrebizondByzantine Empire_header_cell_0_27_0 15 August 1461Byzantine Empire_cell_0_27_1
PopulationByzantine Empire_header_cell_0_28_0
457Byzantine Empire_header_cell_0_29_0 16,000,000Byzantine Empire_cell_0_29_1
565Byzantine Empire_header_cell_0_30_0 26,000,000Byzantine Empire_cell_0_30_1
775Byzantine Empire_header_cell_0_31_0 7,000,000Byzantine Empire_cell_0_31_1
1025Byzantine Empire_header_cell_0_32_0 12,000,000Byzantine Empire_cell_0_32_1
1320Byzantine Empire_header_cell_0_33_0 2,000,000Byzantine Empire_cell_0_33_1
CurrencyByzantine Empire_header_cell_0_34_0 Solidus, denarius and hyperpyronByzantine Empire_cell_0_34_1
Preceded by

Succeeded by

Roman Empire

Ottoman EmpireByzantine Empire_cell_0_35_0

Preceded byByzantine Empire_cell_0_36_0 Succeeded byByzantine Empire_cell_0_36_1
Roman EmpireByzantine Empire_cell_0_37_0 Ottoman EmpireByzantine Empire_cell_0_37_1
Byzantine Empire_cell_0_38_0 Roman EmpireByzantine Empire_cell_0_38_1
Ottoman EmpireByzantine Empire_cell_0_39_0 Byzantine Empire_cell_0_39_1

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern Istanbul, formerly Byzantium). Byzantine Empire_sentence_2

It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Empire in 1453. Byzantine Empire_sentence_3

During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe. Byzantine Empire_sentence_4

"Byzantine Empire" is a term created after the end of the realm; its citizens continued to refer to their empire simply as the Roman Empire (Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία Ῥωμαίων, romanized: Basileía Rhōmaíōn) or Romania (Medieval Greek: Ῥωμανία), and to themselves as Romans (Medieval Greek: Ῥωμαῖοι, romanized: Rhōmaîoi). Byzantine Empire_sentence_5

Several signal events from the 4th to 6th centuries mark the period of transition during which the Roman Empire's Greek East and Latin West diverged. Byzantine Empire_sentence_6

Constantine I (r. 324–337) reorganised the empire, made Constantinople the new capital and legalised Christianity. Byzantine Empire_sentence_7

Under Theodosius I (r. 379–395), Christianity became the state religion and other religious practices were proscribed. Byzantine Empire_sentence_8

In the reign of Heraclius (r. 610–641), the Empire's military and administration were restructured and adopted Greek for official use in place of Latin. Byzantine Empire_sentence_9

Although the Roman state continued and its traditions were maintained, modern historians distinguish Byzantium from ancient Rome insofar as it was centred on Constantinople, oriented towards Greek rather than Latin culture and characterised by Eastern Orthodox Christianity. Byzantine Empire_sentence_10

The borders of the empire fluctuated through several cycles of decline and recovery. Byzantine Empire_sentence_11

During the reign of Justinian I (r. 527–565), the empire reached its greatest extent, after reconquering much of the historically Roman western Mediterranean coast, including North Africa, Italy and Rome, which it held for two more centuries. Byzantine Empire_sentence_12

The Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628 exhausted the empire's resources, and during the Early Muslim conquests of the 7th century, it lost its richest provinces, Egypt and Syria, to the Rashidun Caliphate. Byzantine Empire_sentence_13

During the Macedonian dynasty (10th–11th centuries), the empire expanded again and experienced the two-century long Macedonian Renaissance, which came to an end with the loss of much of Asia Minor to the Seljuk Turks after the Battle of Manzikert in 1071. Byzantine Empire_sentence_14

This battle opened the way for the Turks to settle in Anatolia. Byzantine Empire_sentence_15

The empire recovered during the Komnenian restoration, and by the 12th century Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest city in Europe. Byzantine Empire_sentence_16

The Byzantine Empire was delivered a mortal blow during the Fourth Crusade, when Constantinople was sacked in 1204 and the territories that the empire formerly governed were divided into competing Byzantine Greek and Latin realms. Byzantine Empire_sentence_17

Despite the eventual recovery of Constantinople in 1261, the Byzantine Empire remained only one of several small rival states in the area for the final two centuries of its existence. Byzantine Empire_sentence_18

Its remaining territories were progressively annexed by the Ottomans in the Byzantine–Ottoman wars over the 14th and 15th centuries. Byzantine Empire_sentence_19

The fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 ended the Byzantine Empire. Byzantine Empire_sentence_20

The last of the imperial Byzantine successor states, the Empire of Trebizond, would be conquered by the Ottomans eight years later in the 1461 siege. Byzantine Empire_sentence_21

Nomenclature Byzantine Empire_section_0

See also: Names of the Greeks Byzantine Empire_sentence_22

The first use of the term "Byzantine" to label the later years of the Roman Empire was in 1557, 104 years after the empire's collapse, when the German historian Hieronymus Wolf published his work Corpus Historiæ Byzantinæ, a collection of historical sources. Byzantine Empire_sentence_23

The term comes from "Byzantium", the name of the city to which Constantine moved his capital, leaving Rome, and rebuilt under the new name of Constantinople. Byzantine Empire_sentence_24

The older name of the city would rarely be used from this point onward except in historical or poetic contexts. Byzantine Empire_sentence_25

The publication in 1648 of the Byzantine du Louvre (Corpus Scriptorum Historiae Byzantinae), and in 1680 of Du Cange's Historia Byzantina further popularised the use of "Byzantine" among French authors, such as Montesquieu. Byzantine Empire_sentence_26

However, it was not until the mid-19th century that the term came into general use in the Western world. Byzantine Empire_sentence_27

The Byzantine Empire was known to its inhabitants as the "Roman Empire" or the "Empire of the Romans" (Latin: Imperium Romanum, Imperium Romanorum; Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Ἀρχὴ τῶν Ῥωμαίων, romanized: Basileia tōn Rhōmaiōn, Archē tōn Rhōmaiōn), Romania (Latin: Romania; Medieval Greek: Ῥωμανία, romanized: Rhōmania), the Roman Republic (Latin: Res Publica Romana; Medieval Greek: Πολιτεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, romanized: Politeia tōn Rhōmaiōn), or in Greek "Rhōmais" Medieval Greek: Ῥωμαΐς). Byzantine Empire_sentence_28

The inhabitants called themselves Romaioi and even as late as the 19th century Greeks typically referred to Modern Greek as Romaiika "Romaic". Byzantine Empire_sentence_29

After 1204 when the Byzantine Empire was mostly confined to its purely Greek provinces the term 'Hellenes' was increasingly used instead. Byzantine Empire_sentence_30

While the Byzantine Empire had a multi-ethnic character during most of its history and preserved Romano-Hellenistic traditions, it became identified by its western and northern contemporaries with its increasingly predominant Greek element. Byzantine Empire_sentence_31

Western medieval sources also referred to the empire as the "Empire of the Greeks" (Latin: Imperium Graecorum) and to its emperor as Imperator Graecorum (Emperor of the Greeks); these terms were used to distinguish it from the Holy Roman Empire that claimed the prestige of the classical Roman Empire in the West. Byzantine Empire_sentence_32

No such distinction existed in the Islamic and Slavic worlds, where the Empire was more straightforwardly seen as the continuation of the Roman Empire. Byzantine Empire_sentence_33

In the Islamic world, the Roman Empire was known primarily as Rûm. Byzantine Empire_sentence_34

The name millet-i Rûm, or "Roman nation," was used by the Ottomans until the 20th century to refer to the former subjects of the Byzantine Empire, that is, the Orthodox Christian community within Ottoman realms. Byzantine Empire_sentence_35

History Byzantine Empire_section_1

Main article: History of the Byzantine Empire Byzantine Empire_sentence_36

Early history Byzantine Empire_section_2

The Roman army succeeded in conquering many territories covering the Mediterranean region and coastal regions in southwestern Europe and North Africa. Byzantine Empire_sentence_37

These territories were home to many different cultural groups, both urban populations, and rural populations. Byzantine Empire_sentence_38

Generally speaking, the eastern Mediterranean provinces were more urbanized than the western, having previously been united under the Macedonian Empire and Hellenised by the influence of Greek culture. Byzantine Empire_sentence_39

The West also suffered more heavily from the instability of the 3rd century AD. Byzantine Empire_sentence_40

This distinction between the established Hellenised East and the younger Latinised West persisted and became increasingly important in later centuries, leading to a gradual estrangement of the two worlds. Byzantine Empire_sentence_41

An early instance of the partition of the Empire into East and West occurred in 293 when Emperor Diocletian created a new administrative system (the tetrarchy), to guarantee security in all endangered regions of his Empire. Byzantine Empire_sentence_42

He associated himself with a co-emperor (Augustus), and each co-emperor then adopted a young colleague given the title of Caesar, to share in their rule and eventually to succeed the senior partner. Byzantine Empire_sentence_43

Each tetrarch was in charge of a part of the Empire. Byzantine Empire_sentence_44

The tetrarchy collapsed, however, in 313 and a few years later Constantine I reunited the two administrative divisions of the Empire as sole Augustus. Byzantine Empire_sentence_45

Christianization and partition of the Empire Byzantine Empire_section_3

See also: Byzantium under the Constantinian and Valentinian dynasties Byzantine Empire_sentence_46

In 330, Constantine moved the seat of the Empire to Constantinople, which he founded as a second Rome on the site of Byzantium, a city strategically located on the trade routes between Europe and Asia and between the Mediterranean and the Black Sea. Byzantine Empire_sentence_47

Constantine introduced important changes to the Empire's military, monetary, civil and religious institutions. Byzantine Empire_sentence_48

In regards to his economic policies he has been accused by certain scholars of "reckless fiscality", but the gold solidus he introduced became a stable currency that transformed the economy and promoted development. Byzantine Empire_sentence_49

Under Constantine, Christianity did not become the exclusive religion of the state but enjoyed imperial preference since he supported it with generous privileges. Byzantine Empire_sentence_50

Constantine established the principle that emperors could not settle questions of doctrine on their own but should summon instead general ecclesiastical councils for that purpose. Byzantine Empire_sentence_51

His convening of both the Synod of Arles and the First Council of Nicaea indicated his interest in the unity of the Church, and showcased his claim to be its head. Byzantine Empire_sentence_52

The rise of Christianity was briefly interrupted on the accession of the emperor Julian in 361, who made a determined effort to restore polytheism throughout the empire and was thus dubbed "Julian the Apostate" by the Church. Byzantine Empire_sentence_53

However, this was reversed when Julian was killed in battle in 363. Byzantine Empire_sentence_54

Theodosius I (379–395) was the last Emperor to rule both the Eastern and Western halves of the Empire. Byzantine Empire_sentence_55

In 391 and 392 he issued a series of edicts essentially banning pagan religion. Byzantine Empire_sentence_56

Pagan festivals and sacrifices were banned, as was access to all pagan temples and places of worship. Byzantine Empire_sentence_57

The last Olympic Games are believed to have been held in 393. Byzantine Empire_sentence_58

In 395, Theodosius I bequeathed the imperial office jointly to his sons: Arcadius in the East and Honorius in the West, once again dividing Imperial administration. Byzantine Empire_sentence_59

In the 5th century the Eastern part of the empire was largely spared the difficulties faced by the West – due in part to a more established urban culture and greater financial resources, which allowed it to placate invaders with tribute and pay foreign mercenaries. Byzantine Empire_sentence_60

This success allowed Theodosius II to focus on the codification of Roman law and further fortification of the walls of Constantinople, which left the city impervious to most attacks until 1204. Byzantine Empire_sentence_61

Large portions of the Theodosian Walls are preserved to the present day. Byzantine Empire_sentence_62

To fend off the Huns, Theodosius had to pay an enormous annual tribute to Attila. Byzantine Empire_sentence_63

His successor, Marcian, refused to continue to pay the tribute, but Attila had already diverted his attention to the Western Roman Empire. Byzantine Empire_sentence_64

After Attila's death in 453, the Hun Empire collapsed, and many of the remaining Huns were often hired as mercenaries by Constantinople. Byzantine Empire_sentence_65

Loss of the Western Roman Empire Byzantine Empire_section_4

After the fall of Attila, the Eastern Empire enjoyed a period of peace, while the Western Empire continued to deteriorate due to the expanding migration and invasions of the "barbarians", most prominently the Germanic nations. Byzantine Empire_sentence_66

The West's end is usually dated 476 when the East Germanic Roman foederati general Odoacer deposed the Western Emperor Romulus Augustulus, a year after the latter usurped the position from Julius Nepos. Byzantine Empire_sentence_67

In 480 with the death of Julius Nepos, Eastern Emperor Zeno became sole claimant to Emperor of the empire. Byzantine Empire_sentence_68

Odoacer, now ruler of Italy, was nominally Zeno's subordinate but acted with complete autonomy, eventually providing support to a rebellion against the Emperor. Byzantine Empire_sentence_69

Zeno negotiated with the invading Ostrogoths, who had settled in Moesia, convincing the Gothic king Theodoric to depart for Italy as magister militum per Italiam ("commander in chief for Italy") with the aim of deposing Odoacer. Byzantine Empire_sentence_70

By urging Theodoric to conquer Italy, Zeno rid the Eastern Empire of an unruly subordinate (Odoacer) and moved another (Theodoric) further from the heart of the Empire. Byzantine Empire_sentence_71

After Odoacer's defeat in 493, Theodoric ruled Italy de facto, although he was never recognised by the eastern emperors as "king" (rex). Byzantine Empire_sentence_72

In 491, Anastasius I, an aged civil officer of Roman origin, became Emperor, but it was not until 497 that the forces of the new emperor effectively took the measure of Isaurian resistance. Byzantine Empire_sentence_73

Anastasius revealed himself as an energetic reformer and an able administrator. Byzantine Empire_sentence_74

He introduced a new coinage system of the copper follis, the coin used in most everyday transactions. Byzantine Empire_sentence_75

He also reformed the tax system and permanently abolished the chrysargyron tax. Byzantine Empire_sentence_76

The State Treasury contained the enormous sum of 320,000 lb (150,000 kg) of gold when Anastasius died in 518. Byzantine Empire_sentence_77

Justinian dynasty Byzantine Empire_section_5

See also: Byzantine Empire under the Justinian dynasty Byzantine Empire_sentence_78

The Justinian dynasty was founded by Justin I, who though illiterate, rose through the ranks of the military to become Emperor in 518. Byzantine Empire_sentence_79

He was succeeded by his nephew Justinian I in 527, who may already have exerted effective control during Justin's reign. Byzantine Empire_sentence_80

One of the most important figures of late antiquity and possibly the last Roman emperor to speak Latin as a first language, Justinian's rule constitutes a distinct epoch, marked by the ambitious but only partly realised renovatio imperii, or "restoration of the Empire". Byzantine Empire_sentence_81

His wife Theodora was particularly influential. Byzantine Empire_sentence_82

In 529, Justinian appointed a ten-man commission chaired by John the Cappadocian to revise Roman law and create a new codification of laws and jurists' extracts, known as the "Corpus Juris Civilis", or the Justinian Code. Byzantine Empire_sentence_83

In 534, the Corpus was updated and, along with the enactments promulgated by Justinian after 534, formed the system of law used for most of the rest of the Byzantine era. Byzantine Empire_sentence_84

The Corpus forms the basis of civil law of many modern states. Byzantine Empire_sentence_85

In 532, attempting to secure his eastern frontier, Justinian signed a peace treaty with Khosrau I of Persia, agreeing to pay a large annual tribute to the Sassanids. Byzantine Empire_sentence_86

In the same year, he survived a revolt in Constantinople (the Nika riots), which solidified his power but ended with the deaths of a reported 30,000 to 35,000 rioters on his orders. Byzantine Empire_sentence_87

The western conquests began in 533, as Justinian sent his general Belisarius to reclaim the former province of Africa from the Vandals, who had been in control since 429 with their capital at Carthage. Byzantine Empire_sentence_88

Their success came with surprising ease, but it was not until 548 that the major local tribes were subdued. Byzantine Empire_sentence_89

In 535, a small Byzantine expedition to Sicily met with easy success, but the Goths soon stiffened their resistance, and victory did not come until 540, when Belisarius captured Ravenna, after successful sieges of Naples and Rome. Byzantine Empire_sentence_90

In 535–536, Theodahad sent Pope Agapetus I to Constantinople to request the removal of Byzantine forces from Sicily, Dalmatia, and Italy. Byzantine Empire_sentence_91

Although Agapetus failed in his mission to sign a peace with Justinian, he succeeded in having the Monophysite Patriarch Anthimus I of Constantinople denounced, despite Empress Theodora's support and protection. Byzantine Empire_sentence_92

The Ostrogoths captured Rome in 546. Byzantine Empire_sentence_93

Belisarius, who had been sent back to Italy in 544, was eventually recalled to Constantinople in 549. Byzantine Empire_sentence_94

The arrival of the Armenian eunuch Narses in Italy (late 551) with an army of 35,000 men marked another shift in Gothic fortunes. Byzantine Empire_sentence_95

Totila was defeated at the Battle of Taginae and his successor, Teia, was defeated at the Battle of Mons Lactarius (October 552). Byzantine Empire_sentence_96

Despite continuing resistance from a few Gothic garrisons and two subsequent invasions by the Franks and Alemanni, the war for the Italian peninsula was at an end. Byzantine Empire_sentence_97

In 551, Athanagild, a noble from Visigothic Hispania, sought Justinian's help in a rebellion against the king, and the emperor dispatched a force under Liberius, a successful military commander. Byzantine Empire_sentence_98

The empire held on to a small slice of the Iberian Peninsula coast until the reign of Heraclius. Byzantine Empire_sentence_99

In the east, the Roman–Persian Wars continued until 561 when the envoys of Justinian and Khosrau agreed on a 50-year peace. Byzantine Empire_sentence_100

By the mid-550s, Justinian had won victories in most theatres of operation, with the notable exception of the Balkans, which were subjected to repeated incursions from the Slavs and the Gepids. Byzantine Empire_sentence_101

Tribes of Serbs and Croats were later resettled in the northwestern Balkans, during the reign of Heraclius. Byzantine Empire_sentence_102

Justinian called Belisarius out of retirement and defeated the new Hunnish threat. Byzantine Empire_sentence_103

The strengthening of the Danube fleet caused the Kutrigur Huns to withdraw and they agreed to a treaty that allowed safe passage back across the Danube. Byzantine Empire_sentence_104

Although polytheism had been suppressed by the state since at least the time of Constantine in the 4th century, traditional Greco-Roman culture was still influential in the Eastern empire in the 6th century. Byzantine Empire_sentence_105

Hellenistic philosophy began to be gradually amalgamated into newer Christian philosophy. Byzantine Empire_sentence_106

Philosophers such as John Philoponus drew on neoplatonic ideas in addition to Christian thought and empiricism. Byzantine Empire_sentence_107

Because of active paganism of its professors Justinian closed down the Neoplatonic Academy in 529. Byzantine Empire_sentence_108

Other schools continued in Constantinople, Antioch and Alexandria, which were the centers of Justinian's empire. Byzantine Empire_sentence_109

Hymns written by Romanos the Melodist marked the development of the Divine Liturgy, while the architects Isidore of Miletus and Anthemius of Tralles worked to complete the new Church of the Holy Wisdom, Hagia Sophia, which was designed to replace an older church destroyed during the Nika Revolt. Byzantine Empire_sentence_110

Completed in 537, the Hagia Sophia stands today as one of the major monuments of Byzantine architectural history. Byzantine Empire_sentence_111

During the 6th and 7th centuries, the Empire was struck by a series of epidemics, which greatly devastated the population and contributed to a significant economic decline and a weakening of the Empire. Byzantine Empire_sentence_112

After Justinian died in 565, his successor, Justin II, refused to pay the large tribute to the Persians. Byzantine Empire_sentence_113

Meanwhile, the Germanic Lombards invaded Italy; by the end of the century, only a third of Italy was in Byzantine hands. Byzantine Empire_sentence_114

Justin's successor, Tiberius II, choosing between his enemies, awarded subsidies to the Avars while taking military action against the Persians. Byzantine Empire_sentence_115

Although Tiberius' general, Maurice, led an effective campaign on the eastern frontier, subsidies failed to restrain the Avars. Byzantine Empire_sentence_116

They captured the Balkan fortress of Sirmium in 582, while the Slavs began to make inroads across the Danube. Byzantine Empire_sentence_117

Maurice, who meanwhile succeeded Tiberius, intervened in a Persian civil war, placed the legitimate Khosrau II back on the throne, and married his daughter to him. Byzantine Empire_sentence_118

Maurice's treaty with his new brother-in-law enlarged the territories of the Empire to the East and allowed the energetic Emperor to focus on the Balkans. Byzantine Empire_sentence_119

By 602, a series of successful Byzantine campaigns had pushed the Avars and Slavs back across the Danube. Byzantine Empire_sentence_120

However, Maurice's refusal to ransom several thousand captives taken by the Avars, and his order to the troops to winter in the Danube, caused his popularity to plummet. Byzantine Empire_sentence_121

A revolt broke out under an officer named Phocas, who marched the troops back to Constantinople; Maurice and his family were murdered while trying to escape. Byzantine Empire_sentence_122

Shrinking borders Byzantine Empire_section_6

Early Heraclian dynasty Byzantine Empire_section_7

Further information: Byzantine Empire under the Heraclian dynasty Byzantine Empire_sentence_123

After Maurice's murder by Phocas, Khosrau used the pretext to reconquer the Roman province of Mesopotamia. Byzantine Empire_sentence_124

Phocas, an unpopular ruler invariably described in Byzantine sources as a "tyrant", was the target of a number of Senate-led plots. Byzantine Empire_sentence_125

He was eventually deposed in 610 by Heraclius, who sailed to Constantinople from Carthage with an icon affixed to the prow of his ship. Byzantine Empire_sentence_126

Following the accession of Heraclius, the Sassanid advance pushed deep into the Levant, occupying Damascus and Jerusalem and removing the True Cross to Ctesiphon. Byzantine Empire_sentence_127

The counter-attack launched by Heraclius took on the character of a holy war, and an acheiropoietos image of Christ was carried as a military standard (similarly, when Constantinople was saved from a combined Avar–Sassanid–Slavic siege in 626, the victory was attributed to the icons of the Virgin that were led in procession by Patriarch Sergius about the walls of the city). Byzantine Empire_sentence_128

In this very siege of Constantinople of the year 626, amidst the climactic Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628, the combined Avar, Sassanid, and Slavic forces unsuccessfully besieged the Byzantine capital between June and July. Byzantine Empire_sentence_129

After this, the Sassanid army was forced to withdraw to Anatolia. Byzantine Empire_sentence_130

The loss came just after news had reached them of yet another Byzantine victory, where Heraclius's brother Theodore scored well against the Persian general Shahin. Byzantine Empire_sentence_131

Following this, Heraclius led an invasion into Sassanid Mesopotamia once again. Byzantine Empire_sentence_132

The main Sassanid force was destroyed at Nineveh in 627, and in 629 Heraclius restored the True Cross to Jerusalem in a majestic ceremony, as he marched into the Sassanid capital of Ctesiphon, where anarchy and civil war reigned as a result of the enduring war. Byzantine Empire_sentence_133

Eventually, the Persians were obliged to withdraw all armed forces and return Sassanid-ruled Egypt, the Levant and whatever imperial territories of Mesopotamia and Armenia were in Roman hands at the time of an earlier peace treaty in c. 595. Byzantine Empire_sentence_134

The war had exhausted both the Byzantines and Sassanids, however, and left them extremely vulnerable to the Muslim forces that emerged in the following years. Byzantine Empire_sentence_135

The Byzantines suffered a crushing defeat by the Arabs at the Battle of Yarmouk in 636, while Ctesiphon fell in 637. Byzantine Empire_sentence_136

First Arab Siege of Constantinople (674–678) and the theme system Byzantine Empire_section_8

The Arabs, now firmly in control of Syria and the Levant, sent frequent raiding parties deep into Asia Minor, and in 674–678 laid siege to Constantinople itself. Byzantine Empire_sentence_137

The Arab fleet was finally repulsed through the use of Greek fire, and a thirty-years' truce was signed between the Empire and the Umayyad Caliphate. Byzantine Empire_sentence_138

However, the Anatolian raids continued unabated, and accelerated the demise of classical urban culture, with the inhabitants of many cities either refortifying much smaller areas within the old city walls, or relocating entirely to nearby fortresses. Byzantine Empire_sentence_139

Constantinople itself dropped substantially in size, from 500,000 inhabitants to just 40,000–70,000, and, like other urban centres, it was partly ruralised. Byzantine Empire_sentence_140

The city also lost the free grain shipments in 618, after Egypt fell first to the Persians and then to the Arabs, and public wheat distribution ceased. Byzantine Empire_sentence_141

The void left by the disappearance of the old semi-autonomous civic institutions was filled by the system called theme, which entailed dividing Asia Minor into "provinces" occupied by distinct armies that assumed civil authority and answered directly to the imperial administration. Byzantine Empire_sentence_142

This system may have had its roots in certain ad hoc measures taken by Heraclius, but over the course of the 7th century it developed into an entirely new system of imperial governance. Byzantine Empire_sentence_143

The massive cultural and institutional restructuring of the Empire consequent on the loss of territory in the 7th century has been said to have caused a decisive break in east Mediterranean Romanness and that the Byzantine state is subsequently best understood as another successor state rather than a real continuation of the Roman Empire. Byzantine Empire_sentence_144

Late Heraclian dynasty Byzantine Empire_section_9

See also: Twenty Years' Anarchy Byzantine Empire_sentence_145

The withdrawal of large numbers of troops from the Balkans to combat the Persians and then the Arabs in the east opened the door for the gradual southward expansion of Slavic peoples into the peninsula, and, as in Asia Minor, many cities shrank to small fortified settlements. Byzantine Empire_sentence_146

In the 670s, the Bulgars were pushed south of the Danube by the arrival of the Khazars. Byzantine Empire_sentence_147

In 680, Byzantine forces sent to disperse these new settlements were defeated. Byzantine Empire_sentence_148

In 681, Constantine IV signed a treaty with the Bulgar khan Asparukh, and the new Bulgarian state assumed sovereignty over a number of Slavic tribes that had previously, at least in name, recognised Byzantine rule. Byzantine Empire_sentence_149

In 687–688, the final Heraclian emperor, Justinian II, led an expedition against the Slavs and Bulgarians, and made significant gains, although the fact that he had to fight his way from Thrace to Macedonia demonstrates the degree to which Byzantine power in the north Balkans had declined. Byzantine Empire_sentence_150

Justinian II attempted to break the power of the urban aristocracy through severe taxation and the appointment of "outsiders" to administrative posts. Byzantine Empire_sentence_151

He was driven from power in 695, and took shelter first with the Khazars and then with the Bulgarians. Byzantine Empire_sentence_152

In 705, he returned to Constantinople with the armies of the Bulgarian khan Tervel, retook the throne, and instituted a reign of terror against his enemies. Byzantine Empire_sentence_153

With his final overthrow in 711, supported once more by the urban aristocracy, the Heraclian dynasty came to an end. Byzantine Empire_sentence_154

Second Arab Siege of Constantinople (717–718) and the Isaurian dynasty Byzantine Empire_section_10

Further information: Byzantine Empire under the Isaurian dynasty Byzantine Empire_sentence_155

In 717 the Umayyad Caliphate launched the Siege of Constantinople (717–718) which lasted for one year. Byzantine Empire_sentence_156

However, the combination of Leo III the Isaurian's military genius, the Byzantines' use of Greek Fire, a cold winter in 717–718, and Byzantine diplomacy with the Khan Tervel of Bulgaria resulted in a Byzantine victory. Byzantine Empire_sentence_157

After Leo III turned back the Muslim assault in 718, he addressed himself to the task of reorganising and consolidating the themes in Asia Minor. Byzantine Empire_sentence_158

In 740 a major Byzantine victory took place at the Battle of Akroinon where the Byzantines destroyed the Umayyad army once again. Byzantine Empire_sentence_159

Leo III the Isaurian's son and successor, Constantine V, won noteworthy victories in northern Syria and also thoroughly undermined Bulgarian strength. Byzantine Empire_sentence_160

In 746, profiting by the unstable conditions in the Umayyad Caliphate, which was falling apart under Marwan II, Constantine V invaded Syria and captured Germanikeia and the Battle of Keramaia resulted in a major Byzantine naval victory over the Umayyad fleet. Byzantine Empire_sentence_161

Coupled with military defeats on other fronts of the Caliphate and internal instability, Umayyad expansion came to an end. Byzantine Empire_sentence_162

Religious dispute over iconoclasm Byzantine Empire_section_11

Main article: Byzantine iconoclasm Byzantine Empire_sentence_163

The 8th and early 9th centuries were also dominated by controversy and religious division over Iconoclasm, which was the main political issue in the Empire for over a century. Byzantine Empire_sentence_164

Icons (here meaning all forms of religious imagery) were banned by Leo and Constantine from around 730, leading to revolts by iconodules (supporters of icons) throughout the empire. Byzantine Empire_sentence_165

After the efforts of empress Irene, the Second Council of Nicaea met in 787 and affirmed that icons could be venerated but not worshipped. Byzantine Empire_sentence_166

Irene is said to have endeavoured to negotiate a marriage between herself and Charlemagne, but, according to Theophanes the Confessor, the scheme was frustrated by Aetios, one of her favourites. Byzantine Empire_sentence_167

In the early 9th century, Leo V reintroduced the policy of iconoclasm, but in 843 Empress Theodora restored the veneration of icons with the help of Patriarch Methodios. Byzantine Empire_sentence_168

Iconoclasm played a part in the further alienation of East from West, which worsened during the so-called Photian schism, when Pope Nicholas I challenged the elevation of Photios to the patriarchate. Byzantine Empire_sentence_169

Macedonian dynasty and resurgence (867–1025) Byzantine Empire_section_12

See also: Byzantine Empire under the Macedonian dynasty Byzantine Empire_sentence_170

The accession of Basil I to the throne in 867 marks the beginning of the Macedonian dynasty, which would rule for the next two and a half centuries. Byzantine Empire_sentence_171

This dynasty included some of the most able emperors in Byzantium's history, and the period is one of revival and resurgence. Byzantine Empire_sentence_172

The Empire moved from defending against external enemies to reconquest of territories formerly lost. Byzantine Empire_sentence_173

In addition to a reassertion of Byzantine military power and political authority, the period under the Macedonian dynasty is characterised by a cultural revival in spheres such as philosophy and the arts. Byzantine Empire_sentence_174

There was a conscious effort to restore the brilliance of the period before the Slavic and subsequent Arab invasions, and the Macedonian era has been dubbed the "Golden Age" of Byzantium. Byzantine Empire_sentence_175

Although the Empire was significantly smaller than during the reign of Justinian, it had regained significant strength, as the remaining territories were less geographically dispersed and more politically, economically, and culturally integrated. Byzantine Empire_sentence_176

Wars against the Abbasids Byzantine Empire_section_13

Main article: Arab–Byzantine wars Byzantine Empire_sentence_177

Taking advantage of the Empire's weakness after the Revolt of Thomas the Slav in the early 820s, the Arabs re-emerged and captured Crete. Byzantine Empire_sentence_178

They also successfully attacked Sicily, but in 863 general Petronas gained a decisive victory against Umar al-Aqta, the emir of Melitene (Malatya). Byzantine Empire_sentence_179

Under the leadership of emperor Krum, the Bulgarian threat also re-emerged, but in 815–816 Krum's son, Omurtag, signed a peace treaty with Leo V. Byzantine Empire_sentence_180

In the 830s Abbasid Caliphate started military excursions culminating with a victory in the Sack of Amorium. Byzantine Empire_sentence_181

The Byzantines then counter-attacked and sacked Damietta in Egypt. Byzantine Empire_sentence_182

Later the Abbasid Caliphate responded by sending their troops into Anatolia again, sacking and marauding until they were eventually annihilated by the Byzantines in 863. Byzantine Empire_sentence_183

In the early years of Basil I's reign, Arab raids on the coasts of Dalmatia were successfully repelled, and the region once again came under secure Byzantine control. Byzantine Empire_sentence_184

This enabled Byzantine missionaries to penetrate to the interior and convert the Serbs and the principalities of modern-day Herzegovina and Montenegro to Christianity. Byzantine Empire_sentence_185

By contrast, the Byzantine position in Southern Italy was gradually consolidated so that by 873 Bari was once again under Byzantine rule, and most of Southern Italy would remain in the Empire for the next 200 years. Byzantine Empire_sentence_186

On the more important eastern front, the Empire rebuilt its defences and went on the offensive. Byzantine Empire_sentence_187

The Paulicians were defeated and their capital of Tephrike (Divrigi) taken, while the offensive against the Abbasid Caliphate began with the recapture of Samosata. Byzantine Empire_sentence_188

Under Basil's son and successor, Leo VI the Wise, the gains in the east against the now-weak Abbasid Caliphate continued. Byzantine Empire_sentence_189

However, Sicily was lost to the Arabs in 902, and in 904 Thessaloniki, the Empire's second city, was sacked by an Arab fleet. Byzantine Empire_sentence_190

The naval weakness of the Empire was rectified. Byzantine Empire_sentence_191

Despite this revenge the Byzantines were still unable to strike a decisive blow against the Muslims, who inflicted a crushing defeat on the imperial forces when they attempted to regain Crete in 911. Byzantine Empire_sentence_192

The death of the Bulgarian tsar Simeon I in 927 severely weakened the Bulgarians, allowing the Byzantines to concentrate on the eastern front. Byzantine Empire_sentence_193

Melitene was permanently recaptured in 934, and in 943 the famous general John Kourkouas continued the offensive in Mesopotamia with some noteworthy victories, culminating in the reconquest of Edessa. Byzantine Empire_sentence_194

Kourkouas was especially celebrated for returning to Constantinople the venerated Mandylion, a relic purportedly imprinted with a portrait of Christ. Byzantine Empire_sentence_195

The soldier-emperors Nikephoros II Phokas (r. 963–969) and John I Tzimiskes (969–976) expanded the empire well into Syria, defeating the emirs of north-west Iraq. Byzantine Empire_sentence_196

The great city of Aleppo was taken by Nikephoros in 962 and the Arabs were decisively expelled from Crete in 963. Byzantine Empire_sentence_197

The recapture of Crete put an end to Arab raids in the Aegean allowing mainland Greece to flourish once again. Byzantine Empire_sentence_198

Cyprus was permanently retaken in 965 and the successes of Nikephoros culminated in 969 with the recapture of Antioch, which he incorporated as a province of the Empire. Byzantine Empire_sentence_199

His successor John Tzimiskes recaptured Damascus, Beirut, Acre, Sidon, Caesarea, and Tiberias, putting Byzantine armies within striking distance of Jerusalem, although the Muslim power centres in Iraq and Egypt were left untouched. Byzantine Empire_sentence_200

After much campaigning in the north, the last Arab threat to Byzantium, the rich province of Sicily, was targeted in 1025 by Basil II, who died before the expedition could be completed. Byzantine Empire_sentence_201

Nevertheless, by that time the Empire stretched from the straits of Messina to the Euphrates and from the Danube to Syria. Byzantine Empire_sentence_202

Wars against the Bulgarian Empire Byzantine Empire_section_14

Further information: Byzantine–Bulgarian wars Byzantine Empire_sentence_203

The traditional struggle with the See of Rome continued through the Macedonian period, spurred by the question of religious supremacy over the newly Christianised state of Bulgaria. Byzantine Empire_sentence_204

Ending eighty years of peace between the two states, the powerful Bulgarian tsar Simeon I invaded in 894 but was pushed back by the Byzantines, who used their fleet to sail up the Black Sea to attack the Bulgarian rear, enlisting the support of the Hungarians. Byzantine Empire_sentence_205

The Byzantines were defeated at the Battle of Boulgarophygon in 896, however, and agreed to pay annual subsidies to the Bulgarians. Byzantine Empire_sentence_206

Leo the Wise died in 912, and hostilities soon resumed as Simeon marched to Constantinople at the head of a large army. Byzantine Empire_sentence_207

Although the walls of the city were impregnable, the Byzantine administration was in disarray and Simeon was invited into the city, where he was granted the crown of basileus (emperor) of Bulgaria and had the young emperor Constantine VII marry one of his daughters. Byzantine Empire_sentence_208

When a revolt in Constantinople halted his dynastic project, he again invaded Thrace and conquered Adrianople. Byzantine Empire_sentence_209

The Empire now faced the problem of a powerful Christian state within a few days' marching distance from Constantinople, as well as having to fight on two fronts. Byzantine Empire_sentence_210

A great imperial expedition under Leo Phocas and Romanos I Lekapenos ended with another crushing Byzantine defeat at the Battle of Achelous in 917, and the following year the Bulgarians were free to ravage northern Greece. Byzantine Empire_sentence_211

Adrianople was plundered again in 923, and a Bulgarian army laid siege to Constantinople in 924. Byzantine Empire_sentence_212

Simeon died suddenly in 927, however, and Bulgarian power collapsed with him. Byzantine Empire_sentence_213

Bulgaria and Byzantium entered a long period of peaceful relations, and the Empire was now free to concentrate on the eastern front against the Muslims. Byzantine Empire_sentence_214

In 968, Bulgaria was overrun by the Rus' under Sviatoslav I of Kiev, but three years later, John I Tzimiskes defeated the Rus' and re-incorporated Eastern Bulgaria into the Byzantine Empire. Byzantine Empire_sentence_215

Bulgarian resistance revived under the rule of the Cometopuli dynasty, but the new Emperor Basil II (r. 976–1025) made the submission of the Bulgarians his primary goal. Byzantine Empire_sentence_216

Basil's first expedition against Bulgaria, however, resulted in a defeat at the Gates of Trajan. Byzantine Empire_sentence_217

For the next few years, the emperor would be preoccupied with internal revolts in Anatolia, while the Bulgarians expanded their realm in the Balkans. Byzantine Empire_sentence_218

The war dragged on for nearly twenty years. Byzantine Empire_sentence_219

The Byzantine victories of Spercheios and Skopje decisively weakened the Bulgarian army, and in annual campaigns, Basil methodically reduced the Bulgarian strongholds. Byzantine Empire_sentence_220

At the Battle of Kleidion in 1014 the Bulgarians were annihilated: their army was captured, and it is said that 99 out of every 100 men were blinded, with the hundredth man left with one eye so he could lead his compatriots home. Byzantine Empire_sentence_221

When Tsar Samuil saw the broken remains of his once formidable army, he died of shock. Byzantine Empire_sentence_222

By 1018, the last Bulgarian strongholds had surrendered, and the country became part of the Empire. Byzantine Empire_sentence_223

This victory restored the Danube frontier, which had not been held since the days of the Emperor Heraclius. Byzantine Empire_sentence_224

Relations with the Kievan Rus' Byzantine Empire_section_15

Between 850 and 1100, the Empire developed a mixed relationship with the new state of the Kievan Rus', which had emerged to the north across the Black Sea. Byzantine Empire_sentence_225

This relationship would have long-lasting repercussions in the history of the East Slavs, and the Empire quickly became the main trading and cultural partner for Kiev. Byzantine Empire_sentence_226

The Rus' launched their first attack against Constantinople in 860, pillaging the suburbs of the city. Byzantine Empire_sentence_227

In 941, they appeared on the Asian shore of the Bosphorus, but this time they were crushed, an indication of the improvements in the Byzantine military position after 907, when only diplomacy had been able to push back the invaders. Byzantine Empire_sentence_228

Basil II could not ignore the emerging power of the Rus', and, following the example of his predecessors, he used religion as a means for the achievement of political purposes. Byzantine Empire_sentence_229

Rus'–Byzantine relations became closer following the marriage of Anna Porphyrogeneta to Vladimir the Great in 988, and the subsequent Christianisation of the Rus'. Byzantine Empire_sentence_230

Byzantine priests, architects, and artists were invited to work on numerous cathedrals and churches around Rus', expanding Byzantine cultural influence even further, while numerous Rus' served in the Byzantine army as mercenaries, most notably as the famous Varangian Guard. Byzantine Empire_sentence_231

Even after the Christianisation of the Rus', however, relations were not always friendly. Byzantine Empire_sentence_232

The most serious conflict between the two powers was the war of 968–971 in Bulgaria, but several Rus' raiding expeditions against the Byzantine cities of the Black Sea coast and Constantinople itself are also recorded. Byzantine Empire_sentence_233

Although most were repulsed, they were often followed by treaties that were generally favourable to the Rus', such as the one concluded at the end of the war of 1043, during which the Rus' gave an indication of their ambitions to compete with the Byzantines as an independent power. Byzantine Empire_sentence_234

Campaigns in the Caucasus Byzantine Empire_section_16

Main article: Byzantine–Georgian wars Byzantine Empire_sentence_235

Between 1021 and 1022, following years of tensions, Basil II led a series of victorious campaigns against the Kingdom of Georgia, resulting in the annexation of several Georgian provinces to the Empire. Byzantine Empire_sentence_236

Basil's successors also annexed Bagratid Armenia in 1045. Byzantine Empire_sentence_237

Importantly, both Georgia and Armenia were significantly weakened by the Byzantine administration's policy of heavy taxation and abolishing of the levy. Byzantine Empire_sentence_238

The weakening of Georgia and Armenia would play a significant role in the Byzantine defeat at Manzikert in 1071. Byzantine Empire_sentence_239

Apex Byzantine Empire_section_17

Basil II is considered among the most capable Byzantine emperors and his reign as the apex of the empire in the Middle Ages. Byzantine Empire_sentence_240

By 1025, the date of Basil II's death, the Byzantine Empire stretched from Armenia in the east to Calabria in Southern Italy in the west. Byzantine Empire_sentence_241

Many successes had been achieved, ranging from the conquest of Bulgaria to the annexation of parts of Georgia and Armenia, and the reconquest of Crete, Cyprus, and the important city of Antioch. Byzantine Empire_sentence_242

These were not temporary tactical gains but long-term reconquests. Byzantine Empire_sentence_243

Leo VI achieved the complete codification of Byzantine law in Greek. Byzantine Empire_sentence_244

This monumental work of 60 volumes became the foundation of all subsequent Byzantine law and is still studied today. Byzantine Empire_sentence_245

Leo also reformed the administration of the Empire, redrawing the borders of the administrative subdivisions (the Themata, or "Themes") and tidying up the system of ranks and privileges, as well as regulating the behaviour of the various trade guilds in Constantinople. Byzantine Empire_sentence_246

Leo's reform did much to reduce the previous fragmentation of the Empire, which henceforth had one center of power, Constantinople. Byzantine Empire_sentence_247

However, the increasing military success of the Empire greatly enriched and empowered the provincial nobility with respect to the peasantry, who were essentially reduced to a state of serfdom. Byzantine Empire_sentence_248

Under the Macedonian emperors, the city of Constantinople flourished, becoming the largest and wealthiest city in Europe, with a population of approximately 400,000 in the 9th and 10th centuries. Byzantine Empire_sentence_249

During this period, the Byzantine Empire employed a strong civil service staffed by competent aristocrats that oversaw the collection of taxes, domestic administration, and foreign policy. Byzantine Empire_sentence_250

The Macedonian emperors also increased the Empire's wealth by fostering trade with Western Europe, particularly through the sale of silk and metalwork. Byzantine Empire_sentence_251

Split between Orthodoxy and Catholicism (1054) Byzantine Empire_section_18

Further information: East–West Schism Byzantine Empire_sentence_252

The Macedonian period also included events of momentous religious significance. Byzantine Empire_sentence_253

The conversion of the Bulgarians, Serbs and Rus' to Orthodox Christianity drew the religious map of Europe which still resonates today. Byzantine Empire_sentence_254

Cyril and Methodius, two Byzantine Greek brothers from Thessaloniki, contributed significantly to the Christianization of the Slavs and in the process devised the Glagolitic alphabet, ancestor to the Cyrillic script. Byzantine Empire_sentence_255

In 1054, relations between the Eastern and Western traditions of the Chalcedonian Christian Church reached a terminal crisis, known as the East–West Schism. Byzantine Empire_sentence_256

Although there was a formal declaration of institutional separation, on 16 July, when three papal legates entered the Hagia Sophia during Divine Liturgy on a Saturday afternoon and placed a bull of excommunication on the altar, the so-called Great Schism was actually the culmination of centuries of gradual separation. Byzantine Empire_sentence_257

Crisis and fragmentation Byzantine Empire_section_19

The Byzantine Empire soon fell into a period of difficulties, caused to a large extent by the undermining of the theme system and the neglect of the military. Byzantine Empire_sentence_258

Nikephoros II, John Tzimiskes, and Basil II shifted the emphasis of the military divisions (τάγματα, tagmata) from a reactive, defence-oriented citizen army into an army of professional career soldiers, increasingly dependent on foreign mercenaries. Byzantine Empire_sentence_259

Mercenaries were expensive, however, and as the threat of invasion receded in the 10th century, so did the need for maintaining large garrisons and expensive fortifications. Byzantine Empire_sentence_260

Basil II left a burgeoning treasury upon his death, but he neglected to plan for his succession. Byzantine Empire_sentence_261

None of his immediate successors had any particular military or political talent and the imperial administration increasingly fell into the hands of the civil service. Byzantine Empire_sentence_262

Incompetent efforts to revive the Byzantine economy resulted in severe inflation and a debased gold currency. Byzantine Empire_sentence_263

The army was now seen as both an unnecessary expense and a political threat. Byzantine Empire_sentence_264

A number of standing local units were demobilised, further augmenting the army's dependence on mercenaries, who could be retained and dismissed on an as-needed basis. Byzantine Empire_sentence_265

At the same time, Byzantium was faced with new enemies. Byzantine Empire_sentence_266

Its provinces in southern Italy were threatened by the Normans, who arrived in Italy at the beginning of the 11th century. Byzantine Empire_sentence_267

During a period of strife between Constantinople and Rome culminating in the East-West Schism of 1054, the Normans began to advance, slowly but steadily, into Byzantine Italy. Byzantine Empire_sentence_268

Reggio, the capital of the tagma of Calabria, was captured in 1060 by Robert Guiscard, followed by Otranto in 1068. Byzantine Empire_sentence_269

Bari, the main Byzantine stronghold in Apulia, was besieged in August 1068 and fell in April 1071. Byzantine Empire_sentence_270

About 1053, Constantine IX disbanded what the historian John Skylitzes calls the "Iberian Army", which consisted of 50,000 men and it was turned into a contemporary Drungary of the Watch. Byzantine Empire_sentence_271

Two other knowledgeable contemporaries, the former officials Michael Attaleiates and Kekaumenos, agree with Skylitzes that by demobilising these soldiers Constantine did catastrophic harm to the Empire's eastern defences. Byzantine Empire_sentence_272

The emergency lent weight to the military aristocracy in Anatolia, who in 1068 secured the election of one of their own, Romanos Diogenes, as emperor. Byzantine Empire_sentence_273

In the summer of 1071, Romanos undertook a massive eastern campaign to draw the Seljuks into a general engagement with the Byzantine army. Byzantine Empire_sentence_274

At the Battle of Manzikert, Romanos suffered a surprise defeat by Sultan Alp Arslan, and he was captured. Byzantine Empire_sentence_275

Alp Arslan treated him with respect and imposed no harsh terms on the Byzantines. Byzantine Empire_sentence_276

In Constantinople, however, a coup put in power Michael Doukas, who soon faced the opposition of Nikephoros Bryennios and Nikephoros Botaneiates. Byzantine Empire_sentence_277

By 1081, the Seljuks had expanded their rule over virtually the entire Anatolian plateau from Armenia in the east to Bithynia in the west, and they had founded their capital at Nicaea, just 90 kilometres (56 miles) from Constantinople. Byzantine Empire_sentence_278

Komnenian dynasty and the Crusades Byzantine Empire_section_20

See also: Byzantine Empire under the Komnenos dynasty and Komnenian restoration Byzantine Empire_sentence_279

During the Komnenian, or Comnenian, period from about 1081 to about 1185, the five emperors of the Komnenos dynasty (Alexios I, John II, Manuel I, Alexios II, and Andronikos I) presided over a sustained, though ultimately incomplete, restoration of the military, territorial, economic, and political position of the Byzantine Empire. Byzantine Empire_sentence_280

Although the Seljuk Turks occupied the heartland of the Empire in Anatolia, most Byzantine military efforts during this period were directed against Western powers, particularly the Normans. Byzantine Empire_sentence_281

The Empire under the Komnenoi played a key role in the history of the Crusades in the Holy Land, which Alexios I had helped bring about, while also exerting enormous cultural and political influence in Europe, the Near East, and the lands around the Mediterranean Sea under John and Manuel. Byzantine Empire_sentence_282

Contact between Byzantium and the "Latin" West, including the Crusader states, increased significantly during the Komnenian period. Byzantine Empire_sentence_283

Venetian and other Italian traders became resident in large numbers in Constantinople and the empire (there were an estimated 60,000 Latins in Constantinople alone, out of a population of three to four hundred thousand), and their presence together with the numerous Latin mercenaries who were employed by Manuel helped to spread Byzantine technology, art, literature and culture throughout the Latin West, while also leading to a flow of Western ideas and customs into the Empire. Byzantine Empire_sentence_284

In terms of prosperity and cultural life, the Komnenian period was one of the peaks in Byzantine history, and Constantinople remained the leading city of the Christian world in size, wealth, and culture. Byzantine Empire_sentence_285

There was a renewed interest in classical Greek philosophy, as well as an increase in literary output in vernacular Greek. Byzantine Empire_sentence_286

Byzantine art and literature held a pre-eminent place in Europe, and the cultural impact of Byzantine art on the west during this period was enormous and of long lasting significance. Byzantine Empire_sentence_287

Alexios I and the First Crusade Byzantine Empire_section_21

Further information: Alexios I Komnenos Byzantine Empire_sentence_288

See also: First Crusade Byzantine Empire_sentence_289

After Manzikert, a partial recovery (referred to as the Komnenian restoration) was made possible by the Komnenian dynasty. Byzantine Empire_sentence_290

The Komnenoi attained power again under Alexios I in 1081. Byzantine Empire_sentence_291

From the outset of his reign, Alexios faced a formidable attack by the Normans under Robert Guiscard and his son Bohemund of Taranto, who captured Dyrrhachium and Corfu, and laid siege to Larissa in Thessaly. Byzantine Empire_sentence_292

Robert Guiscard's death in 1085 temporarily eased the Norman problem. Byzantine Empire_sentence_293

The following year, the Seljuq sultan died, and the sultanate was split by internal rivalries. Byzantine Empire_sentence_294

By his own efforts, Alexios defeated the Pechenegs; they were caught by surprise and annihilated at the Battle of Levounion on 28 April 1091. Byzantine Empire_sentence_295

Having achieved stability in the West, Alexios could turn his attention to the severe economic difficulties and the disintegration of the Empire's traditional defences. Byzantine Empire_sentence_296

However, he still did not have enough manpower to recover the lost territories in Asia Minor and to advance against the Seljuks. Byzantine Empire_sentence_297

At the Council of Piacenza in 1095, envoys from Alexios spoke to Pope Urban II about the suffering of the Christians of the East, and underscored that without help from the West they would continue to suffer under Muslim rule. Byzantine Empire_sentence_298

Urban saw Alexios's request as a dual opportunity to cement Western Europe and reunite the Eastern Orthodox Church with the Roman Catholic Church under his rule. Byzantine Empire_sentence_299

On 27 November 1095, Pope Urban II called together the Council of Clermont, and urged all those present to take up arms under the sign of the Cross and launch an armed pilgrimage to recover Jerusalem and the East from the Muslims. Byzantine Empire_sentence_300

The response in Western Europe was overwhelming. Byzantine Empire_sentence_301

Alexios had anticipated help in the form of mercenary forces from the West, but he was totally unprepared for the immense and undisciplined force that soon arrived in Byzantine territory. Byzantine Empire_sentence_302

It was no comfort to Alexios to learn that four of the eight leaders of the main body of the Crusade were Normans, among them Bohemund. Byzantine Empire_sentence_303

Since the crusade had to pass through Constantinople, however, the Emperor had some control over it. Byzantine Empire_sentence_304

He required its leaders to swear to restore to the empire any towns or territories they might reconquer from the Turks on their way to the Holy Land. Byzantine Empire_sentence_305

In return, he gave them guides and a military escort. Byzantine Empire_sentence_306

Alexios was able to recover a number of important cities and islands, and in fact much of western Asia Minor. Byzantine Empire_sentence_307

The Crusaders agreed to become Alexios' vassals under the Treaty of Devol in 1108, which marked the end of the Norman threat during Alexios' reign. Byzantine Empire_sentence_308

John II, Manuel I and the Second Crusade Byzantine Empire_section_22

Main articles: John II Komnenos and Manuel I Komnenos Byzantine Empire_sentence_309

Alexios's son John II Komnenos succeeded him in 1118 and ruled until 1143. Byzantine Empire_sentence_310

John was a pious and dedicated Emperor who was determined to undo the damage to the empire suffered at the Battle of Manzikert, half a century earlier. Byzantine Empire_sentence_311

Famed for his piety and his remarkably mild and just reign, John was an exceptional example of a moral ruler at a time when cruelty was the norm. Byzantine Empire_sentence_312

For this reason, he has been called the Byzantine Marcus Aurelius. Byzantine Empire_sentence_313

During his twenty-five-year reign, John made alliances with the Holy Roman Empire in the West and decisively defeated the Pechenegs at the Battle of Beroia. Byzantine Empire_sentence_314

He thwarted Hungarian and Serbian threats during the 1120s, and in 1130 he allied himself with the German emperor Lothair III against the Norman king Roger II of Sicily. Byzantine Empire_sentence_315

In the later part of his reign, John focused his activities on the East, personally leading numerous campaigns against the Turks in Asia Minor. Byzantine Empire_sentence_316

His campaigns fundamentally altered the balance of power in the East, forcing the Turks onto the defensive, while restoring many towns, fortresses, and cities across the peninsula to the Byzantines. Byzantine Empire_sentence_317

He defeated the Danishmend Emirate of Melitene and reconquered all of Cilicia, while forcing Raymond of Poitiers, Prince of Antioch, to recognise Byzantine suzerainty. Byzantine Empire_sentence_318

In an effort to demonstrate the Emperor's role as the leader of the Christian world, John marched into the Holy Land at the head of the combined forces of the Empire and the Crusader states; yet despite his great vigour pressing the campaign, his hopes were disappointed by the treachery of his Crusader allies. Byzantine Empire_sentence_319

In 1142, John returned to press his claims to Antioch, but he died in the spring of 1143 following a hunting accident. Byzantine Empire_sentence_320

John's chosen heir was his fourth son, Manuel I Komnenos, who campaigned aggressively against his neighbours both in the west and in the east. Byzantine Empire_sentence_321

In Palestine, Manuel allied with the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem and sent a large fleet to participate in a combined invasion of Fatimid Egypt. Byzantine Empire_sentence_322

Manuel reinforced his position as overlord of the Crusader states, with his hegemony over Antioch and Jerusalem secured by agreement with Raynald, Prince of Antioch, and Amalric, King of Jerusalem. Byzantine Empire_sentence_323

In an effort to restore Byzantine control over the ports of southern Italy, he sent an expedition to Italy in 1155, but disputes within the coalition led to the eventual failure of the campaign. Byzantine Empire_sentence_324

Despite this military setback, Manuel's armies successfully invaded the Southern parts of the Kingdom of Hungary in 1167, defeating the Hungarians at the Battle of Sirmium. Byzantine Empire_sentence_325

By 1168, nearly the whole of the eastern Adriatic coast lay in Manuel's hands. Byzantine Empire_sentence_326

Manuel made several alliances with the Pope and Western Christian kingdoms, and he successfully handled the passage of the Second Crusade through his empire. Byzantine Empire_sentence_327

In the east, however, Manuel suffered a major defeat in 1176 at the Battle of Myriokephalon, against the Turks. Byzantine Empire_sentence_328

Yet the losses were quickly recovered, and in the following year Manuel's forces inflicted a defeat upon a force of "picked Turks". Byzantine Empire_sentence_329

The Byzantine commander John Vatatzes, who destroyed the Turkish invaders at the Battle of Hyelion and Leimocheir, not only brought troops from the capital but also was able to gather an army along the way, a sign that the Byzantine army remained strong and that the defensive program of western Asia Minor was still successful. Byzantine Empire_sentence_330

12th-century Renaissance Byzantine Empire_section_23

Further information: Byzantine civilisation in the 12th century Byzantine Empire_sentence_331

See also: Komnenian Byzantine army Byzantine Empire_sentence_332

John and Manuel pursued active military policies, and both deployed considerable resources on sieges and on city defences; aggressive fortification policies were at the heart of their imperial military policies. Byzantine Empire_sentence_333

Despite the defeat at Myriokephalon, the policies of Alexios, John and Manuel resulted in vast territorial gains, increased frontier stability in Asia Minor, and secured the stabilisation of the Empire's European frontiers. Byzantine Empire_sentence_334

From c. 1081 to c. 1180, the Komnenian army assured the Empire's security, enabling Byzantine civilisation to flourish. Byzantine Empire_sentence_335

This allowed the Western provinces to achieve an economic revival that continued until the close of the century. Byzantine Empire_sentence_336

It has been argued that Byzantium under the Komnenian rule was more prosperous than at any time since the Persian invasions of the 7th century. Byzantine Empire_sentence_337

During the 12th century, population levels rose and extensive tracts of new agricultural land were brought into production. Byzantine Empire_sentence_338

Archaeological evidence from both Europe and Asia Minor shows a considerable increase in the size of urban settlements, together with a notable upsurge in new towns. Byzantine Empire_sentence_339

Trade was also flourishing; the Venetians, the Genoese and others opened up the ports of the Aegean to commerce, shipping goods from the Crusader kingdoms of Outremer and Fatimid Egypt to the west and trading with the Empire via Constantinople. Byzantine Empire_sentence_340

In artistic terms, there was a revival in mosaic, and regional schools of architecture began producing many distinctive styles that drew on a range of cultural influences. Byzantine Empire_sentence_341

During the 12th century, the Byzantines provided their model of early humanism as a renaissance of interest in classical authors. Byzantine Empire_sentence_342

In Eustathius of Thessalonica, Byzantine humanism found its most characteristic expression. Byzantine Empire_sentence_343

In philosophy, there was resurgence of classical learning not seen since the 7th century, characterised by a significant increase in the publication of commentaries on classical works. Byzantine Empire_sentence_344

In addition, the first transmission of classical Greek knowledge to the West occurred during the Komnenian period. Byzantine Empire_sentence_345

Decline and disintegration Byzantine Empire_section_24

Main article: Decline of the Byzantine Empire Byzantine Empire_sentence_346

Angelid dynasty Byzantine Empire_section_25

Main article: Byzantine Empire under the Angelos dynasty Byzantine Empire_sentence_347

Manuel's death on 24 September 1180 left his 11-year-old son Alexios II Komnenos on the throne. Byzantine Empire_sentence_348

Alexios was highly incompetent in the office, and with his mother Maria of Antioch's Frankish background, made his regency unpopular. Byzantine Empire_sentence_349

Eventually, Andronikos I Komnenos, a grandson of Alexios I, launched a revolt against his younger relative and managed to overthrow him in a violent coup d'état. Byzantine Empire_sentence_350

Utilizing his good looks and his immense popularity with the army, he marched on to Constantinople in August 1182 and incited a massacre of the Latins. Byzantine Empire_sentence_351

After eliminating his potential rivals, he had himself crowned as co-emperor in September 1183. Byzantine Empire_sentence_352

He eliminated Alexios II, and took his 12-year-old wife Agnes of France for himself. Byzantine Empire_sentence_353

Andronikos began his reign well; in particular, the measures he took to reform the government of the Empire have been praised by historians. Byzantine Empire_sentence_354

According to George Ostrogorsky, Andronikos was determined to root out corruption: Under his rule, the sale of offices ceased; selection was based on merit, rather than favouritism; officials were paid an adequate salary so as to reduce the temptation of bribery. Byzantine Empire_sentence_355

In the provinces, Andronikos's reforms produced a speedy and marked improvement. Byzantine Empire_sentence_356

The aristocrats were infuriated against him, and to make matters worse, Andronikos seems to have become increasingly unbalanced; executions and violence became increasingly common, and his reign turned into a reign of terror. Byzantine Empire_sentence_357

Andronikos seemed almost to seek the extermination of the aristocracy as a whole. Byzantine Empire_sentence_358

The struggle against the aristocracy turned into wholesale slaughter, while the Emperor resorted to ever more ruthless measures to shore up his regime. Byzantine Empire_sentence_359

Despite his military background, Andronikos failed to deal with Isaac Komnenos, Béla III of Hungary (r. 1172–1196) who reincorporated Croatian territories into Hungary, and Stephen Nemanja of Serbia (r. 1166–1196) who declared his independence from the Byzantine Empire. Byzantine Empire_sentence_360

Yet, none of these troubles would compare to William II of Sicily's (r. 1166–1189) invasion force of 300 ships and 80,000 men, arriving in 1185. Byzantine Empire_sentence_361

Andronikos mobilised a small fleet of 100 ships to defend the capital, but other than that he was indifferent to the populace. Byzantine Empire_sentence_362

He was finally overthrown when Isaac Angelos, surviving an imperial assassination attempt, seized power with the aid of the people and had Andronikos killed. Byzantine Empire_sentence_363

The reign of Isaac II, and more so that of his brother Alexios III, saw the collapse of what remained of the centralised machinery of Byzantine government and defence. Byzantine Empire_sentence_364

Although the Normans were driven out of Greece, in 1186 the Vlachs and Bulgars began a rebellion that led to the formation of the Second Bulgarian Empire. Byzantine Empire_sentence_365

The internal policy of the Angeloi was characterised by the squandering of the public treasure and fiscal maladministration. Byzantine Empire_sentence_366

Imperial authority was severely weakened, and the growing power vacuum at the center of the Empire encouraged fragmentation. Byzantine Empire_sentence_367

There is evidence that some Komnenian heirs had set up a semi-independent state in Trebizond before 1204. Byzantine Empire_sentence_368

According to Alexander Vasiliev, "the dynasty of the Angeloi, Greek in its origin, ... accelerated the ruin of the Empire, already weakened without and disunited within." Byzantine Empire_sentence_369

Fourth Crusade Byzantine Empire_section_26

Further information: Fourth Crusade Byzantine Empire_sentence_370

In 1198, Pope Innocent III broached the subject of a new crusade through legates and encyclical letters. Byzantine Empire_sentence_371

The stated intent of the crusade was to conquer Egypt, now the centre of Muslim power in the Levant. Byzantine Empire_sentence_372

The crusader army that arrived at Venice in the summer of 1202 and hired the Venetian fleet to transport them to Egypt. Byzantine Empire_sentence_373

As payment to the Venetians, they captured the (Christian) port of Zara in Dalmatia (vassal city of Venice, which had rebelled and placed itself under Hungary's protection in 1186). Byzantine Empire_sentence_374

Shortly afterwards, Alexios Angelos, son of the deposed and blinded Emperor Isaac II Angelos, made contacts with the crusaders. Byzantine Empire_sentence_375

Alexios offered to reunite the Byzantine church with Rome, pay the crusaders 200,000 silver marks, join the crusade, and provide all the supplies they needed to reach Egypt. Byzantine Empire_sentence_376

Crusader sack of Constantinople (1204) Byzantine Empire_section_27

Further information: Siege of Constantinople (1203) and Siege of Constantinople (1204) Byzantine Empire_sentence_377

The crusaders arrived at Constantinople in the summer of 1203 and quickly attacked, starting a major fire that damaged large parts of the city, and briefly seized control. Byzantine Empire_sentence_378

Alexios III fled from the capital and Alexios Angelos was elevated to the throne as Alexios IV along with his blind father Isaac. Byzantine Empire_sentence_379

Alexios IV and Isaac II were unable to keep their promises and were deposed by Alexios V. The crusaders again took the city on 13 April 1204 and Constantinople was subjected to pillage and massacre by the rank and file for three days. Byzantine Empire_sentence_380

Many priceless icons, relics and other objects later turned up in Western Europe, a large number in Venice. Byzantine Empire_sentence_381

According to Choniates, a prostitute was even set up on the Patriarchal throne. Byzantine Empire_sentence_382

When order had been restored, the crusaders and the Venetians proceeded to implement their agreement; Baldwin of Flanders was elected Emperor of a new Latin Empire and the Venetian Thomas Morosini was chosen as Patriarch. Byzantine Empire_sentence_383

The lands divided up among the leaders included most of the former Byzantine possessions, though resistance would continue through the Byzantine remnants of Nicaea, Trebizond, and Epirus. Byzantine Empire_sentence_384

Although Venice was more interested in commerce than conquering territory, it took key areas of Constantinople and the Doge took the title of "Lord of a Quarter and Half a Quarter of the Roman Empire". Byzantine Empire_sentence_385

Fall Byzantine Empire_section_28

Empire in exile Byzantine Empire_section_29

Further information: Frankokratia Byzantine Empire_sentence_386

After the sack of Constantinople in 1204 by Latin crusaders, two Byzantine successor states were established: the Empire of Nicaea, and the Despotate of Epirus. Byzantine Empire_sentence_387

A third, the Empire of Trebizond, was created after Alexios Komnenos, commanding the Georgian expedition in Chaldia a few weeks before the sack of Constantinople, found himself de facto emperor, and established himself in Trebizond. Byzantine Empire_sentence_388

Of the three successor states, Epirus and Nicaea stood the best chance of reclaiming Constantinople. Byzantine Empire_sentence_389

The Nicaean Empire struggled to survive the next few decades, however, and by the mid-13th century it had lost much of southern Anatolia. Byzantine Empire_sentence_390

The weakening of the Sultanate of Rûm following the Mongol invasion in 1242–43 allowed many beyliks and ghazis to set up their own principalities in Anatolia, weakening the Byzantine hold on Asia Minor. Byzantine Empire_sentence_391

In time, one of the Beys, Osman I, created an empire that would eventually conquer Constantinople. Byzantine Empire_sentence_392

However, the Mongol invasion also gave Nicaea a temporary respite from Seljuk attacks, allowing it to concentrate on the Latin Empire to its north. Byzantine Empire_sentence_393

Reconquest of Constantinople Byzantine Empire_section_30

Main article: Byzantine Empire under the Palaiologos dynasty Byzantine Empire_sentence_394

The Empire of Nicaea, founded by the Laskarid dynasty, managed to effect the Recapture of Constantinople from the Latins in 1261 and defeat Epirus. Byzantine Empire_sentence_395

This led to a short-lived revival of Byzantine fortunes under Michael VIII Palaiologos but the war-ravaged Empire was ill-equipped to deal with the enemies that surrounded it. Byzantine Empire_sentence_396

To maintain his campaigns against the Latins, Michael pulled troops from Asia Minor and levied crippling taxes on the peasantry, causing much resentment. Byzantine Empire_sentence_397

Massive construction projects were completed in Constantinople to repair the damage of the Fourth Crusade but none of these initiatives was of any comfort to the farmers in Asia Minor suffering raids from Muslim ghazis. Byzantine Empire_sentence_398

Rather than holding on to his possessions in Asia Minor, Michael chose to expand the Empire, gaining only short-term success. Byzantine Empire_sentence_399

To avoid another sacking of the capital by the Latins, he forced the Church to submit to Rome, again a temporary solution for which the peasantry hated Michael and Constantinople. Byzantine Empire_sentence_400

The efforts of Andronikos II and later his grandson Andronikos III marked Byzantium's last genuine attempts in restoring the glory of the Empire. Byzantine Empire_sentence_401

However, the use of mercenaries by Andronikos II would often backfire, with the Catalan Company ravaging the countryside and increasing resentment towards Constantinople. Byzantine Empire_sentence_402

Rise of the Ottomans and fall of Constantinople Byzantine Empire_section_31

Main articles: Byzantine–Ottoman Wars and Fall of Constantinople Byzantine Empire_sentence_403

The situation became worse for Byzantium during the civil wars after Andronikos III died. Byzantine Empire_sentence_404

A six-year-long civil war devastated the empire, allowing the Serbian ruler Stefan Dušan (r. 1331–1346) to overrun most of the Empire's remaining territory and establish a Serbian Empire. Byzantine Empire_sentence_405

In 1354, an earthquake at Gallipoli devastated the fort, allowing the Ottomans (who were hired as mercenaries during the civil war by John VI Kantakouzenos) to establish themselves in Europe. Byzantine Empire_sentence_406

By the time the Byzantine civil wars had ended, the Ottomans had defeated the Serbians and subjugated them as vassals. Byzantine Empire_sentence_407

Following the Battle of Kosovo, much of the Balkans became dominated by the Ottomans. Byzantine Empire_sentence_408

The Byzantine emperors appealed to the West for help, but the Pope would only consider sending aid in return for a reunion of the Eastern Orthodox Church with the See of Rome. Byzantine Empire_sentence_409

Church unity was considered, and occasionally accomplished by imperial decree, but the Orthodox citizenry and clergy intensely resented the authority of Rome and the Latin Rite. Byzantine Empire_sentence_410

Some Western troops arrived to bolster the Christian defence of Constantinople, but most Western rulers, distracted by their own affairs, did nothing as the Ottomans picked apart the remaining Byzantine territories. Byzantine Empire_sentence_411

Constantinople by this stage was underpopulated and dilapidated. Byzantine Empire_sentence_412

The population of the city had collapsed so severely that it was now little more than a cluster of villages separated by fields. Byzantine Empire_sentence_413

On 2 April 1453, Sultan Mehmed's army of 80,000 men and large numbers of irregulars laid siege to the city. Byzantine Empire_sentence_414

Despite a desperate last-ditch defence of the city by the massively outnumbered Christian forces (c. 7,000 men, 2,000 of whom were foreign), Constantinople finally fell to the Ottomans after a two-month siege on 29 May 1453. Byzantine Empire_sentence_415

The last Byzantine emperor, Constantine XI Palaiologos, was last seen casting off his imperial regalia and throwing himself into hand-to-hand combat after the walls of the city were taken. Byzantine Empire_sentence_416

Political aftermath Byzantine Empire_section_32

By the time of the fall of Constantinople, the only remaining territory of the Byzantine Empire was the Despotate of the Morea (Peloponnese), which was ruled by brothers of the last Emperor, Thomas Palaiologos and Demetrios Palaiologos. Byzantine Empire_sentence_417

The Despotate continued on as an independent state by paying an annual tribute to the Ottomans. Byzantine Empire_sentence_418

Incompetent rule, failure to pay the annual tribute and a revolt against the Ottomans finally led to Mehmed II's invasion of Morea in May 1460. Byzantine Empire_sentence_419

A few holdouts remained for a time. Byzantine Empire_sentence_420

The island of Monemvasia refused to surrender and it was first ruled for a short time by an Aragonese corsair. Byzantine Empire_sentence_421

When the population drove him out they obtained the consent of Thomas to place themselves under the Pope's protection before the end of 1460. Byzantine Empire_sentence_422

The Mani Peninsula, on the Morea's south end, resisted under a loose coalition of the local clans and then that area came under Venice's rule. Byzantine Empire_sentence_423

The last holdout was Salmeniko, in the Morea's northwest. Byzantine Empire_sentence_424

Graitzas Palaiologos was the military commander there, stationed at Salmeniko Castle. Byzantine Empire_sentence_425

While the town eventually surrendered, Graitzas and his garrison and some town residents held out in the castle until July 1461, when they escaped and reached Venetian territory. Byzantine Empire_sentence_426

The Empire of Trebizond, which had split away from the Byzantine Empire just weeks before Constantinople was taken by the Crusaders in 1204, became the last remnant and last de facto successor state to the Byzantine Empire. Byzantine Empire_sentence_427

Efforts by the Emperor David to recruit European powers for an anti-Ottoman crusade provoked war between the Ottomans and Trebizond in the summer of 1461. Byzantine Empire_sentence_428

After a month-long siege, David surrendered the city of Trebizond on 14 August 1461. Byzantine Empire_sentence_429

The Empire of Trebizond's Crimean principality, the Principality of Theodoro (part of the Perateia), lasted another 14 years, falling to the Ottomans in December 1475. Byzantine Empire_sentence_430

A nephew of the last Emperor, Constantine XI, Andreas Palaiologos claimed to have inherited the title of Byzantine Emperor. Byzantine Empire_sentence_431

He lived in the Morea until its fall in 1460, then escaped to Rome where he lived under the protection of the Papal States for the remainder of his life. Byzantine Empire_sentence_432

Since the office of emperor had never been technically hereditary, Andreas' claim would have been without merit under Byzantine law. Byzantine Empire_sentence_433

However, the Empire had vanished, and Western states generally followed the Roman-church-sanctioned principles of hereditary sovereignty. Byzantine Empire_sentence_434

Seeking a life in the west, Andreas styled himself Imperator Constantinopolitanus ("Emperor of Constantinople"), and sold his succession rights to both Charles VIII of France and the Catholic Monarchs. Byzantine Empire_sentence_435

Constantine XI died without producing an heir, and had Constantinople not fallen he might have been succeeded by the sons of his deceased elder brother, who were taken into the palace service of Mehmed II after the fall of Constantinople. Byzantine Empire_sentence_436

The oldest boy, renamed Has Murad, became a personal favourite of Mehmed and served as Beylerbey (Governor-General) of the Balkans. Byzantine Empire_sentence_437

The younger son, renamed Mesih Pasha, became Admiral of the Ottoman fleet and Sancak Beg (Governor) of the Province of Gallipoli. Byzantine Empire_sentence_438

He eventually served twice as Grand Vizier under Mehmed's son, Bayezid II. Byzantine Empire_sentence_439

Mehmed II and his successors continued to consider themselves heirs to the Roman Empire until the demise of the Ottoman Empire in the early 20th century following World War 1. Byzantine Empire_sentence_440

They considered that they had simply shifted its religious basis as Constantine had done before, and they continued to refer to their conquered Eastern Roman inhabitants (Orthodox Christians) as Rûm. Byzantine Empire_sentence_441

Meanwhile, the Danubian Principalities (whose rulers also considered themselves the heirs of the Eastern Roman Emperors) harboured Orthodox refugees, including some Byzantine nobles. Byzantine Empire_sentence_442

At his death, the role of the emperor as a patron of Eastern Orthodoxy was claimed by Ivan III, Grand duke of Muscovy. Byzantine Empire_sentence_443

He had married Andreas' sister, Sophia Palaiologina, whose grandson, Ivan IV, would become the first Tsar of Russia (tsar, or czar, meaning caesar, is a term traditionally applied by Slavs to the Byzantine Emperors). Byzantine Empire_sentence_444

Their successors supported the idea that Moscow was the proper heir to Rome and Constantinople. Byzantine Empire_sentence_445

The idea of the Russian Empire as the successive Third Rome was kept alive until its demise with the Russian Revolution. Byzantine Empire_sentence_446

Government and bureaucracy Byzantine Empire_section_33

Main article: Byzantine bureaucracy Byzantine Empire_sentence_447

In the Byzantine state, the emperor was the sole and absolute ruler, and his power was regarded as having divine origin. Byzantine Empire_sentence_448

The Senate had ceased to have real political and legislative authority but remained as an honorary council with titular members. Byzantine Empire_sentence_449

By the end of the 8th century, a civil administration focused on the court was formed as part of a large-scale consolidation of power in the capital (the rise to pre-eminence of the position of sakellarios is related to this change). Byzantine Empire_sentence_450

The most important administrative reform, which probably started in the mid-7th century, was the creation of themes, where civil and military administration was exercised by one person, the strategos. Byzantine Empire_sentence_451

Despite the occasionally derogatory use of the terms "Byzantine" and "Byzantinism", the Byzantine bureaucracy had a distinct ability for reconstituting itself in accordance with the Empire's situation. Byzantine Empire_sentence_452

The elaborate system of titulature and precedence gave the court prestige and influence. Byzantine Empire_sentence_453

Officials were arranged in strict order around the emperor, and depended upon the imperial will for their ranks. Byzantine Empire_sentence_454

There were also actual administrative jobs, but authority could be vested in individuals rather than offices. Byzantine Empire_sentence_455

In the 8th and 9th centuries, civil service constituted the clearest path to aristocratic status, but, starting in the 9th century, the civil aristocracy was rivalled by an aristocracy of nobility. Byzantine Empire_sentence_456

According to some studies of Byzantine government, 11th-century politics were dominated by competition between the civil and the military aristocracy. Byzantine Empire_sentence_457

During this period, Alexios I undertook important administrative reforms, including the creation of new courtly dignities and offices. Byzantine Empire_sentence_458

Diplomacy Byzantine Empire_section_34

Main article: Byzantine diplomacy Byzantine Empire_sentence_459

After the fall of Rome, the key challenge to the Empire was to maintain a set of relations between itself and its neighbours. Byzantine Empire_sentence_460

When these nations set about forging formal political institutions, they often modelled themselves on Constantinople. Byzantine Empire_sentence_461

Byzantine diplomacy soon managed to draw its neighbours into a network of international and inter-state relations. Byzantine Empire_sentence_462

This network revolved around treaty making, and included the welcoming of the new ruler into the family of kings, and the assimilation of Byzantine social attitudes, values and institutions. Byzantine Empire_sentence_463

Whereas classical writers are fond of making ethical and legal distinctions between peace and war, Byzantines regarded diplomacy as a form of war by other means. Byzantine Empire_sentence_464

For example, a Bulgarian threat could be countered by providing money to the Kievan Rus'. Byzantine Empire_sentence_465

Diplomacy in the era was understood to have an intelligence-gathering function on top of its pure political function. Byzantine Empire_sentence_466

The Bureau of Barbarians in Constantinople handled matters of protocol and record keeping for any issues related to the "barbarians", and thus had, perhaps, a basic intelligence function itself. Byzantine Empire_sentence_467

John B. Byzantine Empire_sentence_468

Bury believed that the office exercised supervision over all foreigners visiting Constantinople, and that they were under the supervision of the Logothetes tou dromou. Byzantine Empire_sentence_469

While on the surface a protocol office – its main duty was to ensure foreign envoys were properly cared for and received sufficient state funds for their maintenance, and it kept all the official translators – it probably had a security function as well. Byzantine Empire_sentence_470

Byzantines availed themselves of a number of diplomatic practices. Byzantine Empire_sentence_471

For example, embassies to the capital would often stay on for years. Byzantine Empire_sentence_472

A member of other royal houses would routinely be requested to stay on in Constantinople, not only as a potential hostage, but also as a useful pawn in case political conditions where he came from changed. Byzantine Empire_sentence_473

Another key practice was to overwhelm visitors by sumptuous displays. Byzantine Empire_sentence_474

According to Dimitri Obolensky, the preservation of the ancient civilisation in Europe was due to the skill and resourcefulness of Byzantine diplomacy, which remains one of Byzantium's lasting contributions to the history of Europe. Byzantine Empire_sentence_475

Science, medicine and law Byzantine Empire_section_35

See also: Byzantine science, Byzantine medicine, Byzantine law, and List of Byzantine inventions Byzantine Empire_sentence_476

The writings of Classical antiquity were cultivated and extended in Byzantium. Byzantine Empire_sentence_477

Therefore, Byzantine science was in every period closely connected with ancient philosophy, and metaphysics. Byzantine Empire_sentence_478

In the field of engineering Isidore of Miletus, the Greek mathematician and architect of the Hagia Sophia, produced the first compilation of Archimedes' works c. 530, and it is through this manuscript tradition, kept alive by the school of mathematics and engineering founded c. 850 during the "Byzantine Renaissance" by Leo the Mathematician, that such works are known today (see Archimedes Palimpsest). Byzantine Empire_sentence_479

Pendentive architecture, a specific spherical form in the upper corners to support a dome, is a Byzantine invention. Byzantine Empire_sentence_480

Although the first experimentation was made in the 200s, it was in the 6th century in the Byzantine Empire that its potential was fully achieved. Byzantine Empire_sentence_481

A mechanical sundial device consisting of complex gears made by the Byzantines has been excavated which indicates that the Antikythera mechanism, a sort of analogue device used in astronomy and invented around the late second century BC, continued to be (re)active in the Byzantine period. Byzantine Empire_sentence_482

J. Byzantine Empire_sentence_483 R. Partington writes that Byzantine Empire_sentence_484

Such mechanical devices reached a high level of sophistication and were made in order to impress visitors. Byzantine Empire_sentence_485

Leo the Mathematician has also been credited with the system of beacons, a sort of optical telegraph, stretching across Anatolia from Cilicia to Constantinople, which gave advance warning of enemy raids, and which was used as diplomatic communication as well. Byzantine Empire_sentence_486

The Byzantines knew and used the concept of hydraulics: in the 900s the diplomat Liutprand of Cremona, when visiting the Byzantine emperor, explained that he saw the emperor sitting on a hydraulic throne and that it was "made in such a cunning manner that at one moment it was down on the ground, while at another it rose higher and was seen to be up in the air". Byzantine Empire_sentence_487

John Philoponus, an Alexandrian philologist, Aristotelian commentator and Christian theologian, author of a considerable number of philosophical treatises and theological works, was the first who questioned Aristotle's teaching of physics, despite its flaws. Byzantine Empire_sentence_488

Unlike Aristotle, who based his physics on verbal argument, Philoponus relied on observation. Byzantine Empire_sentence_489

In his Commentaries on Aristotle, Philoponus wrote: Byzantine Empire_sentence_490

John Philoponus' criticism of Aristotelian principles of physics was an inspiration for Galileo Galilei's refutation of Aristotelian physics during the Scientific Revolution many centuries later, as Galileo cited Philoponus substantially in his works. Byzantine Empire_sentence_491

The ship mill is a Byzantine invention, designed to mill grains using hydraulic power. Byzantine Empire_sentence_492

The technology eventually spread to the rest of Europe and was in use until c. 1800. Byzantine Empire_sentence_493

In 438, the Codex Theodosianus, named after Theodosius II, codified Byzantine law. Byzantine Empire_sentence_494

It went into force not just in the Eastern Roman/Byzantine Empire, but also in the Western Roman Empire. Byzantine Empire_sentence_495

It not only summarised the laws, but also gave direction on interpretation. Byzantine Empire_sentence_496

Under the reign of Justinian I it was Tribonian, a notable jurist, who supervised the revision of the legal code known today as Corpus Juris Civilis. Byzantine Empire_sentence_497

In the field of law, Justinian I's reforms had a clear effect on the evolution of jurisprudence, with his Corpus Juris Civilis becoming the basis for revived Roman law in the Western world, while Leo III's Ecloga influenced the formation of legal institutions in the Slavic world. Byzantine Empire_sentence_498

In the 10th century, Leo VI the Wise achieved the complete codification of the whole of Byzantine law in Greek with the Basilika, which became the foundation of all subsequent Byzantine law with an influence extending through to modern Balkan legal codes. Byzantine Empire_sentence_499

The Byzantines pioneered the concept of the hospital as an institution offering medical care and possibility of a cure for the patients, as a reflection of the ideals of Christian charity, rather than merely a place to die. Byzantine Empire_sentence_500

Although the concept of uroscopy was known to Galen, he did not see the importance of using it to diagnose disease. Byzantine Empire_sentence_501

It was Byzantine physicians, such as Theophilus Protospatharius, who realised the diagnostic potential of uroscopy in a time when no microscope or stethoscope existed. Byzantine Empire_sentence_502

That practice eventually spread to the rest of Europe. Byzantine Empire_sentence_503

In medicine the works of Byzantine doctors, such as the Vienna Dioscorides (6th century), and works of Paul of Aegina (7th century) and Nicholas Myrepsos (late 13th century), continued to be used as the authoritative texts by Europeans through the Renaissance. Byzantine Empire_sentence_504

The latter one invented the Aurea Alexandrina which was a kind of opiate or antidote. Byzantine Empire_sentence_505

The first known example of separating conjoined twins happened in the Byzantine Empire in the 10th century when a pair of conjoined twins from Armenia came to Constantinople. Byzantine Empire_sentence_506

Many years later one of them died, so the surgeons in Constantinople decided to remove the body of the dead one. Byzantine Empire_sentence_507

The result was partly successful, as the surviving twin lived three days before dying, a result so impressive that it was mentioned a century and half later by historians. Byzantine Empire_sentence_508

The next case of separating conjoined twins would not occur until 1689 in Germany. Byzantine Empire_sentence_509

Greek fire, an incendiary weapon which could even burn on water is also attributed to the Byzantines. Byzantine Empire_sentence_510

It played a crucial role in the Empire's victory over the Umayyad Caliphate during the Siege of Constantinople (717–718). Byzantine Empire_sentence_511

The discovery is attributed to Callinicus of Heliopolis from Syria who fled during the Arab conquest of Syria. Byzantine Empire_sentence_512

However, it has also been argued that no single person invented Greek fire, but rather, that it was "invented by the chemists in Constantinople who had inherited the discoveries of the Alexandrian chemical school...". Byzantine Empire_sentence_513

The first example of a grenade also appeared in Byzantine Empire, consisting of ceramic jars holding glass and nails, and filled with the explosive component of Greek Fire. Byzantine Empire_sentence_514

It was used on battlefields. Byzantine Empire_sentence_515

The first examples of hand-held flamethrower also occurred in the Byzantine Empire in the 10th century, where infantry units were equipped with hand pumps and swivel tubes used to project the flame. Byzantine Empire_sentence_516

The counterweight trebuchet was invented in the Byzantine Empire during the reign of Alexios I Komnenos (1081–1118) under the Komnenian restoration when the Byzantines used this new-developed siege weaponry to devastate citadels and fortifications. Byzantine Empire_sentence_517

This siege artillery marked the apogee of siege weaponry prior to the use of the cannon. Byzantine Empire_sentence_518

From the Byzantines the armies of Europe and Asia eventually learned and adopted this siege weaponry. Byzantine Empire_sentence_519

In the final century of the Empire, astronomy and other mathematical sciences were taught in Trebizond; medicine attracted the interest of almost all scholars. Byzantine Empire_sentence_520

The Fall of Constantinople in 1453 fuelled the era later commonly known as the "Italian Renaissance". Byzantine Empire_sentence_521

During this period, refugee Byzantine scholars were principally responsible for carrying, in person and in writing, ancient Greek grammatical, literary studies, mathematical, and astronomical knowledge to early Renaissance Italy. Byzantine Empire_sentence_522

They also brought with them classical learning and texts on botany, medicine and zoology, as well as the works of Dioscorides and John Philoponus' criticism of Aristotelian physics. Byzantine Empire_sentence_523

Culture Byzantine Empire_section_36

Religion Byzantine Empire_section_37

Main articles: State church of the Roman Empire and Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople Byzantine Empire_sentence_524

The Byzantine Empire was a theocracy, said to be ruled by God working through the Emperor. Byzantine Empire_sentence_525

Jennifer Fretland VanVoorst argues, "The Byzantine Empire became a theocracy in the sense that Christian values and ideals were the foundation of the empire's political ideals and heavily entwined with its political goals." Byzantine Empire_sentence_526

Steven Runciman says in his book on The Byzantine Theocracy (2004): Byzantine Empire_sentence_527

The survival of the Empire in the East assured an active role of the Emperor in the affairs of the Church. Byzantine Empire_sentence_528

The Byzantine state inherited from pagan times the administrative, and financial routine of administering religious affairs, and this routine was applied to the Christian Church. Byzantine Empire_sentence_529

Following the pattern set by Eusebius of Caesarea, the Byzantines viewed the Emperor as a representative or messenger of Christ, responsible particularly for the propagation of Christianity among pagans, and for the "externals" of the religion, such as administration and finances. Byzantine Empire_sentence_530

As Cyril Mango points out, the Byzantine political thinking can be summarised in the motto "One God, one empire, one religion". Byzantine Empire_sentence_531

The imperial role in the affairs of the Church never developed into a fixed, legally defined system. Byzantine Empire_sentence_532

Additionally, due to the decline of Rome and internal dissension in the other Eastern Patriarchates, the Church of Constantinople became, between the 6th and 11th centuries, the richest and most influential center of Christendom. Byzantine Empire_sentence_533

Even when the Empire was reduced to only a shadow of its former self, the Church continued to exercise significant influence both inside and outside of the imperial frontiers. Byzantine Empire_sentence_534

As George Ostrogorsky points out: Byzantine Empire_sentence_535

Byzantine monasticism especially came to be an "ever-present feature" of the empire, with monasteries becoming "powerful landowners and a voice to be listened to in imperial politics". Byzantine Empire_sentence_536

The official state Christian doctrine was determined by the first seven ecumenical councils, and it was then the emperor's duty to impose it on his subjects. Byzantine Empire_sentence_537

An imperial decree of 388, which was later incorporated into the Codex Justinianeus, orders the population of the Empire "to assume the name of Catholic Christians", and regards all those who will not abide by the law as "mad and foolish persons"; as followers of "heretical dogmas". Byzantine Empire_sentence_538

Despite imperial decrees and the stringent stance of the state church itself, which came to be known as the Eastern Orthodox Church or Eastern Christianity, the latter never represented all Christians in Byzantium. Byzantine Empire_sentence_539

Mango believes that, in the early stages of the Empire, the "mad and foolish persons", those labelled "heretics" by the state church, were the majority of the population. Byzantine Empire_sentence_540

Besides the pagans, who existed until the end of the 6th century, and the Jews, there were many followers – sometimes even emperors – of various Christian doctrines, such as Nestorianism, Monophysitism, Arianism, and Paulicianism, whose teachings were in some opposition to the main theological doctrine, as determined by the Ecumenical Councils. Byzantine Empire_sentence_541

Another division among Christians occurred, when Leo III ordered the destruction of icons throughout the Empire. Byzantine Empire_sentence_542

This led to a significant religious crisis, which ended in the mid-9th century with the restoration of icons. Byzantine Empire_sentence_543

During the same period, a new wave of pagans emerged in the Balkans, originating mainly from Slavic people. Byzantine Empire_sentence_544

These were gradually Christianised, and by Byzantium's late stages, Eastern Orthodoxy represented most Christians and, in general, most people in what remained of the Empire. Byzantine Empire_sentence_545

Jews were a significant minority in the Byzantine state throughout its history, and, according to Roman law, they constituted a legally recognised religious group. Byzantine Empire_sentence_546

In the early Byzantine period they were generally tolerated, but then periods of tensions and persecutions ensued. Byzantine Empire_sentence_547

In any case, after the Arab conquests, the majority of Jews found themselves outside the Empire; those left inside the Byzantine borders apparently lived in relative peace from the 10th century onwards. Byzantine Empire_sentence_548

Arts Byzantine Empire_section_38

Art and literature Byzantine Empire_section_39

Main articles: Byzantine art and Byzantine literature Byzantine Empire_sentence_549

See also: Byzantine dress Byzantine Empire_sentence_550

Surviving Byzantine art is mostly religious and with exceptions at certain periods is highly conventionalised, following traditional models that translate carefully controlled church theology into artistic terms. Byzantine Empire_sentence_551

Painting in fresco, illuminated manuscripts and on wood panel and, especially in earlier periods, mosaic were the main media, and figurative sculpture very rare except for small carved ivories. Byzantine Empire_sentence_552

Manuscript painting preserved to the end some of the classical realist tradition that was missing in larger works. Byzantine Empire_sentence_553

Byzantine art was highly prestigious and sought-after in Western Europe, where it maintained a continuous influence on medieval art until near the end of the period. Byzantine Empire_sentence_554

This was especially so in Italy, where Byzantine styles persisted in modified form through the 12th century, and became formative influences on Italian Renaissance art. Byzantine Empire_sentence_555

But few incoming influences affected Byzantine style. Byzantine Empire_sentence_556

With the expansion of the Eastern Orthodox church, Byzantine forms and styles spread throughout the Orthodox world and beyond. Byzantine Empire_sentence_557

Influences from Byzantine architecture, particularly in religious buildings, can be found in diverse regions from Egypt and Arabia to Russia and Romania. Byzantine Empire_sentence_558

In Byzantine literature, three different cultural elements are recognised: the Greek, the Christian, and the Oriental. Byzantine Empire_sentence_559

Byzantine literature is often classified in five groups: historians and annalists, encyclopaedists (Patriarch Photios, Michael Psellus, and Michael Choniates are regarded as the greatest encyclopaedists of Byzantium) and essayists, and writers of secular poetry. Byzantine Empire_sentence_560

The only genuine heroic epic of the Byzantines is the Digenis Acritas. Byzantine Empire_sentence_561

The remaining two groups include the new literary species: ecclesiastical and theological literature, and popular poetry. Byzantine Empire_sentence_562

Of the approximately two to three thousand volumes of Byzantine literature that survive, only 330 consist of secular poetry, history, science and pseudo-science. Byzantine Empire_sentence_563

While the most flourishing period of the secular literature of Byzantium runs from the 9th to the 12th century, its religious literature (sermons, liturgical books and poetry, theology, devotional treatises, etc.) developed much earlier with Romanos the Melodist being its most prominent representative. Byzantine Empire_sentence_564

Music Byzantine Empire_section_40

Main article: Byzantine music Byzantine Empire_sentence_565

See also: List of Byzantine composers Byzantine Empire_sentence_566

The ecclesiastical forms of Byzantine music, composed to Greek texts as ceremonial, festival, or church music, are, today, the most well-known forms. Byzantine Empire_sentence_567

Ecclesiastical chants were a fundamental part of this genre. Byzantine Empire_sentence_568

Greek and foreign historians agree that the ecclesiastical tones and in general the whole system of Byzantine music is closely related to the ancient Greek system. Byzantine Empire_sentence_569

It remains the oldest genre of extant music, of which the manner of performance and (with increasing accuracy from the 5th century onwards) the names of the composers, and sometimes the particulars of each musical work's circumstances, are known. Byzantine Empire_sentence_570

The 9th century Persian geographer Ibn Khordadbeh (d. 911); in his lexicographical discussion of instruments cited the lyra (lūrā) as the typical instrument of the Byzantines along with the urghun (organ), shilyani (probably a type of harp or lyre) and the salandj (probably a bagpipe). Byzantine Empire_sentence_571

The first of these, the early bowed stringed instrument known as the Byzantine lyra, would come to be called the lira da braccio, in Venice, where it is considered by many to have been the predecessor of the contemporary violin, which later flourished there. Byzantine Empire_sentence_572

The bowed "lyra" is still played in former Byzantine regions, where it is known as the Politiki lyra (lit. Byzantine Empire_sentence_573

'lyra of the City', i.e. Constantinople) in Greece, the Calabrian lira in Southern Italy, and the Lijerica in Dalmatia. Byzantine Empire_sentence_574

The second instrument, the organ, originated in the Hellenistic world (see Hydraulis) and was used in the Hippodrome during races. Byzantine Empire_sentence_575

A pipe organ with "great leaden pipes" was sent by the emperor Constantine V to Pepin the Short, King of the Franks in 757. Byzantine Empire_sentence_576

Pepin's son Charlemagne requested a similar organ for his chapel in Aachen in 812, beginning its establishment in Western church music. Byzantine Empire_sentence_577

The aulos was a double reeded woodwind like the modern oboe or Armenian duduk. Byzantine Empire_sentence_578

Other forms include the plagiaulos (πλαγίαυλος, from πλάγιος "sideways"), which resembled the flute, and the askaulos (ἀσκός askos – wine-skin), a bagpipe. Byzantine Empire_sentence_579

Bagpipes, also known as Dankiyo (from ancient Greek: angion (Τὸ ἀγγεῖον) "the container"), had been played even in Roman times and continued to be played throughout the empire's former realms through to the present. Byzantine Empire_sentence_580

(See Balkan Gaida, Greek Tsampouna, Pontic Tulum, Cretan Askomandoura, Armenian Parkapzuk, and Romanian Cimpoi.) Byzantine Empire_sentence_581

The modern descendant of the aulos is the Greek Zourna. Byzantine Empire_sentence_582

Other instruments used in Byzantine Music were Kanonaki, Oud, Laouto, Santouri, Tambouras, Seistron (defi tambourine), Toubeleki and Daouli. Byzantine Empire_sentence_583

Some claim that Lavta may have been invented by the Byzantines before the arrival of the Turks. Byzantine Empire_sentence_584

Cuisine Byzantine Empire_section_41

Main article: Byzantine cuisine Byzantine Empire_sentence_585

Byzantine culture was initially the same as Late Greco-Roman, but over the following millennium of the empire's existence it slowly changed into something more similar to modern Balkan and Anatolian culture. Byzantine Empire_sentence_586

The cuisine still relied heavily on the Greco-Roman fish-sauce condiment garos, but it also contained foods still familiar today, such as the cured meat pastirma (known as "paston" in Byzantine Greek), baklava (known as koptoplakous κοπτοπλακοῦς), tiropita (known as plakountas tetyromenous or tyritas plakountas), and the famed medieval sweet wines (Commandaria and the eponymous Rumney wine). Byzantine Empire_sentence_587

Retsina, wine flavoured with pine resin, was also drunk, as it still is in Greece today, producing similar reactions from unfamiliar visitors; "To add to our calamity the Greek wine, on account of being mixed with pitch, resin, and plaster was to us undrinkable," complained Liutprand of Cremona, who was the ambassador sent to Constantinople in 968 by the German Holy Roman Emperor Otto I. Byzantine Empire_sentence_588

The garos fish sauce condiment was also not much appreciated by the unaccustomed; Liutprand of Cremona described being served food covered in an "exceedingly bad fish liquor." Byzantine Empire_sentence_589

The Byzantines also used a soy sauce like condiment, murri, a fermented barley sauce, which, like soy sauce, provided umami flavouring to their dishes. Byzantine Empire_sentence_590

Flags and insignia Byzantine Empire_section_42

Main article: Byzantine flags and insignia Byzantine Empire_sentence_591

For most of its history, the Byzantine Empire did not know or use heraldry in the West European sense. Byzantine Empire_sentence_592

Various emblems (Greek: σημεία, sēmeia; sing. Byzantine Empire_sentence_593

σημείον, sēmeion) were used in official occasions and for military purposes, such as banners or shields displaying various motifs such as the cross or the labarum. Byzantine Empire_sentence_594

The use of the cross, and of images of Christ, the Virgin Mary and various saints is also attested on seals of officials, but these were personal rather than family emblems. Byzantine Empire_sentence_595

Byzantine Empire_unordered_list_0

Language Byzantine Empire_section_43

Further information: Medieval Greek Byzantine Empire_sentence_596

Apart from the Imperial court, administration and military, the primary language used in the eastern Roman provinces even before the decline of the Western Empire was Greek, having been spoken in the region for centuries before Latin. Byzantine Empire_sentence_597

Following Rome's conquest of the east its 'Pax Romana', inclusionist political practices and development of public infrastructure, facilitated the further spreading and entrenchment of Greek language in the east. Byzantine Empire_sentence_598

Indeed, early on in the life of the Roman Empire, Greek had become the common language of the Church, the language of scholarship and the arts, and to a large degree the lingua franca for trade between provinces and with other nations. Byzantine Empire_sentence_599

Greek for a time became diglossic with the spoken language, known as Koine (eventually evolving into Demotic Greek), used alongside an older written form (Attic Greek) until Koine won out as the spoken and written standard. Byzantine Empire_sentence_600

The emperor Diocletian (r. 284–305) sought to renew the authority of Latin, making it the official language of the Roman administration also in the East, and the Greek expression ἡ κρατοῦσα διάλεκτος (hē kratousa dialektos) attests to the status of Latin as "the language of power." Byzantine Empire_sentence_601

In the early 5th century, Greek gained equal status with Latin as official language in the East and emperors gradually began to legislate in Greek rather than Latin starting with the reign of Leo I the Thracian in the 460s. Byzantine Empire_sentence_602

The last Eastern emperor to stress the importance of Latin was Justinian I (r. 527–565), whose Corpus Juris Civilis was written almost entirely in Latin. Byzantine Empire_sentence_603

He may also have been the last native Latin-speaking emperor. Byzantine Empire_sentence_604

The use of Latin as the language of administration persisted until adoption of Greek as the sole official language by Heraclius in the 7th century. Byzantine Empire_sentence_605

Scholarly Latin would rapidly fall into disuse among the educated classes although the language would continue to be at least a ceremonial part of the Empire's culture for some time. Byzantine Empire_sentence_606

Additionally, Latin remained a minority language in the Empire, mainly on the Italian peninsula and along the Dalmatian coast, eventually developing into various Romance languages like Dalmatian. Byzantine Empire_sentence_607

Many other languages existed in the multi-ethnic Empire, and some of these were given limited official status in their provinces at various times. Byzantine Empire_sentence_608

Notably, by the beginning of the Middle Ages, Syriac had become more widely used by the educated classes in the far eastern provinces. Byzantine Empire_sentence_609

Similarly Coptic, Armenian, and Georgian became significant among the educated in their provinces. Byzantine Empire_sentence_610

Later foreign contacts made Old Church Slavic, Middle Persian, and Arabic important in the Empire and its sphere of influence. Byzantine Empire_sentence_611

There was a revival of Latin studies in the 10th century for the same reason and by the 11th century knowledge of Latin was no longer unusual at Constantinople. Byzantine Empire_sentence_612

There was widespread use of the Armenian and various Slavic languages, which became more pronounced in the border regions of the empire. Byzantine Empire_sentence_613

Aside from these languages, since Constantinople was a prime trading center in the Mediterranean region and beyond, virtually every known language of the Middle Ages was spoken in the Empire at some time, even Chinese. Byzantine Empire_sentence_614

As the Empire entered its final decline, the Empire's citizens became more culturally homogeneous and the Greek language became integral to their identity and religion. Byzantine Empire_sentence_615

Recreation Byzantine Empire_section_44

Byzantines were avid players of tavli (Byzantine Greek: τάβλη), a game known in English as backgammon, which is still popular in former Byzantine realms, and still known by the name tavli in Greece. Byzantine Empire_sentence_616

Byzantine nobles were devoted to horsemanship, particularly tzykanion, now known as polo. Byzantine Empire_sentence_617

The game came from Sassanid Persia in the early period and a Tzykanisterion (stadium for playing the game) was built by Theodosius II (r. 408–450) inside the Great Palace of Constantinople. Byzantine Empire_sentence_618

Emperor Basil I (r. 867–886) excelled at it; Emperor Alexander (r. 912–913) died from exhaustion while playing, Emperor Alexios I Komnenos (r. 1081–1118) was injured while playing with Tatikios, and John I of Trebizond (r. 1235–1238) died from a fatal injury during a game. Byzantine Empire_sentence_619

Aside from Constantinople and Trebizond, other Byzantine cities also featured tzykanisteria, most notably Sparta, Ephesus, and Athens, an indication of a thriving urban aristocracy. Byzantine Empire_sentence_620

The game was introduced to the West by crusaders, who developed a taste for it particularly during the pro-Western reign of emperor Manuel I Komnenos. Byzantine Empire_sentence_621

Economy Byzantine Empire_section_45

Further information: Byzantine economy and Byzantine silk Byzantine Empire_sentence_622

Further information: Sino-Roman relations Byzantine Empire_sentence_623

The Byzantine economy was among the most advanced in Europe and the Mediterranean for many centuries. Byzantine Empire_sentence_624

Europe, in particular, could not match Byzantine economic strength until late in the Middle Ages. Byzantine Empire_sentence_625

Constantinople operated as a prime hub in a trading network that at various times extended across nearly all of Eurasia and North Africa, in particular as the primary western terminus of the famous Silk Road. Byzantine Empire_sentence_626

Until the first half of the 6th century and in sharp contrast with the decaying West, the Byzantine economy was flourishing and resilient. Byzantine Empire_sentence_627

The Plague of Justinian and the Arab conquests would represent a substantial reversal of fortunes contributing to a period of stagnation and decline. Byzantine Empire_sentence_628

Isaurian reforms and Constantine V's repopulation, public works and tax measures marked the beginning of a revival that continued until 1204, despite territorial contraction. Byzantine Empire_sentence_629

From the 10th century until the end of the 12th, the Byzantine Empire projected an image of luxury and travellers were impressed by the wealth accumulated in the capital. Byzantine Empire_sentence_630

The Fourth Crusade resulted in the disruption of Byzantine manufacturing and the commercial dominance of the Western Europeans in the eastern Mediterranean, events that amounted to an economic catastrophe for the Empire. Byzantine Empire_sentence_631

The Palaiologoi tried to revive the economy, but the late Byzantine state would not gain full control of either the foreign or domestic economic forces. Byzantine Empire_sentence_632

Gradually, Constantinople also lost its influence on the modalities of trade and the price mechanisms, and its control over the outflow of precious metals and, according to some scholars, even over the minting of coins. Byzantine Empire_sentence_633

One of the economic foundations of Byzantium was trade, fostered by the maritime character of the Empire. Byzantine Empire_sentence_634

Textiles must have been by far the most important item of export; silks were certainly imported into Egypt, and appeared also in Bulgaria, and the West. Byzantine Empire_sentence_635

The state strictly controlled both the internal and the international trade, and retained the monopoly of issuing coinage, maintaining a durable and flexible monetary system adaptable to trade needs. Byzantine Empire_sentence_636

The government attempted to exercise formal control over interest rates, and set the parameters for the activity of the guilds and corporations, in which it had a special interest. Byzantine Empire_sentence_637

The emperor and his officials intervened at times of crisis to ensure the provisioning of the capital, and to keep down the price of cereals. Byzantine Empire_sentence_638

Finally, the government often collected part of the surplus through taxation, and put it back into circulation, through redistribution in the form of salaries to state officials, or in the form of investment in public works. Byzantine Empire_sentence_639

Legacy Byzantine Empire_section_46

See also: Third Rome and Greek scholars in the Renaissance Byzantine Empire_sentence_640

Byzantium has been often identified with absolutism, orthodox spirituality, orientalism and exoticism, while the terms "Byzantine" and "Byzantinism" have been used as bywords for decadence, complex bureaucracy, and repression. Byzantine Empire_sentence_641

Both Eastern and Western European authors have often perceived Byzantium as a body of religious, political, and philosophical ideas contrary to those of the West. Byzantine Empire_sentence_642

Even in 19th-century Greece, the focus was mainly on the classical past, while Byzantine tradition had been associated with negative connotations. Byzantine Empire_sentence_643

This traditional approach towards Byzantium has been partially or wholly disputed and revised by modern studies, which focus on the positive aspects of Byzantine culture and legacy. Byzantine Empire_sentence_644

Averil Cameron regards as undeniable the Byzantine contribution to the formation of medieval Europe, and both Cameron and Obolensky recognise the major role of Byzantium in shaping Orthodoxy, which in turn occupies a central position in the history and societies of Greece, Romania, Bulgaria, Russia, Georgia, Serbia and other countries. Byzantine Empire_sentence_645

The Byzantines also preserved and copied classical manuscripts, and they are thus regarded as transmitters of classical knowledge, as important contributors to modern European civilisation, and as precursors of both Renaissance humanism and Slavic-Orthodox culture. Byzantine Empire_sentence_646

As the only stable long-term state in Europe during the Middle Ages, Byzantium isolated Western Europe from newly emerging forces to the East. Byzantine Empire_sentence_647

Constantly under attack, it distanced Western Europe from Persians, Arabs, Seljuk Turks, and for a time, the Ottomans. Byzantine Empire_sentence_648

From a different perspective, since the 7th century, the evolution and constant reshaping of the Byzantine state were directly related to the respective progress of Islam. Byzantine Empire_sentence_649

Following the conquest of Constantinople by the Ottoman Turks in 1453, Sultan Mehmed II took the title "Kaysar-i Rûm" (the Ottoman Turkish equivalent of Caesar of Rome), since he was determined to make the Ottoman Empire the heir of the Eastern Roman Empire. Byzantine Empire_sentence_650

See also Byzantine Empire_section_47

Byzantine Empire_unordered_list_1

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: Empire.