CBS

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This article is about the broadcasting network. CBS_sentence_0

For other uses, see CBS (disambiguation). CBS_sentence_1

CBS_table_infobox_0

CBSCBS_table_caption_0
TypeCBS_header_cell_0_0_0 Radio network (1927–present)

Television network (1930–present)CBS_cell_0_0_1

CountryCBS_header_cell_0_1_0 United StatesCBS_cell_0_1_1
First air dateCBS_header_cell_0_2_0 January 15, 1929; 91 years ago (1929-01-15)CBS_cell_0_2_1
AvailabilityCBS_header_cell_0_3_0 NationalCBS_cell_0_3_1
FoundedCBS_header_cell_0_4_0 September 18, 1927; 93 years ago (1927-09-18)

by Arthur JudsonCBS_cell_0_4_1

SloganCBS_header_cell_0_5_0 CBS_cell_0_5_1
TV stationsCBS_header_cell_0_6_0 By stateCBS_cell_0_6_1
HeadquartersCBS_header_cell_0_7_0 CBS Building, New York City, United StatesCBS_cell_0_7_1
Broadcast areaCBS_header_cell_0_8_0 United StatesCBS_cell_0_8_1
OwnerCBS_header_cell_0_9_0 ViacomCBSCBS_cell_0_9_1
ParentCBS_header_cell_0_10_0 CBS Entertainment GroupCBS_cell_0_10_1
Key peopleCBS_header_cell_0_11_0 CBS_cell_0_11_1
Launch dateCBS_header_cell_0_12_0 CBS_cell_0_12_1
Former namesCBS_header_cell_0_13_0 CBS_cell_0_13_1
Digital channel(s)CBS_header_cell_0_14_0 VariesCBS_cell_0_14_1
AffiliatesCBS_header_cell_0_15_0 By state

By marketCBS_cell_0_15_1

GroupCBS_header_cell_0_16_0 List of assets owned by ViacomCBSCBS_cell_0_16_1
Former affiliationsCBS_header_cell_0_17_0 By marketCBS_cell_0_17_1
Official websiteCBS_header_cell_0_18_0 CBS_cell_0_18_1
ReplacedCBS_header_cell_0_19_0 United Independent Broadcasters, Inc.CBS_cell_0_19_1

CBS_table_infobox_1

The evolution of ViacomCBSCBS_table_caption_1
1912CBS_header_cell_1_0_0 Paramount Pictures is foundedCBS_cell_1_0_1
1927CBS_header_cell_1_1_0 CBS is foundedCBS_cell_1_1_1
1952CBS_header_cell_1_2_0 CBS creates the CBS Films divisionCBS_cell_1_2_1
1968CBS_header_cell_1_3_0 CBS Films renamed as CBS EnterprisesCBS_cell_1_3_1
1970CBS_header_cell_1_4_0 CBS Enterprises renamed as ViacomCBS_cell_1_4_1
1971CBS_header_cell_1_5_0 Viacom is spun off from CBS as a separate companyCBS_cell_1_5_1
1985CBS_header_cell_1_6_0 Viacom acquires full ownership of Showtime NetworksCBS_cell_1_6_1
1986CBS_header_cell_1_7_0 National Amusements acquires ViacomCBS_cell_1_7_1
1987CBS_header_cell_1_8_0 Viacom buys MTV NetworksCBS_cell_1_8_1
1994CBS_header_cell_1_9_0 Viacom acquires Paramount Communications (formerly Gulf+Western)CBS_cell_1_9_1
1995CBS_header_cell_1_10_0 Westinghouse buys CBSCBS_cell_1_10_1
1997CBS_header_cell_1_11_0 Westinghouse renamed to CBS CorporationCBS_cell_1_11_1
1999CBS_header_cell_1_12_0 Viacom buys CBS CorporationCBS_cell_1_12_1
2001CBS_header_cell_1_13_0 Viacom buys BET NetworksCBS_cell_1_13_1
2006CBS_header_cell_1_14_0 Viacom splits into second CBS Corporation and ViacomCBS_cell_1_14_1
2019CBS_header_cell_1_15_0 CBS Corporation and Viacom re-merge to form ViacomCBSCBS_cell_1_15_1

CBS is an American commercial broadcast television and radio network owned by ViacomCBS through its CBS Entertainment Group division. CBS_sentence_2

The network is headquartered at the CBS Building in New York City, with major production facilities and operations in New York City (at the CBS Broadcast Center) and Los Angeles (at CBS Television City and the CBS Studio Center). CBS_sentence_3

The name "CBS" is an initialism of its former legal name that was used from 1928 to 1974, Columbia Broadcasting System. CBS_sentence_4

CBS is also sometimes referred to as the Eye Network, in reference to the company's trademark symbol, in use since 1951. CBS_sentence_5

It has also been called the "Tiffany Network", alluding to the perceived high quality of its programming during the tenure of William S. Paley. CBS_sentence_6

It can also refer to some of CBS's first demonstrations of color television, which were held in a former Tiffany & Co. building in New York City in 1950. CBS_sentence_7

The network has its origins in United Independent Broadcasters Inc., a radio network founded in Chicago by New York City talent agent Arthur Judson in January 1927. CBS_sentence_8

In April of that year, the Columbia Phonograph Company, parent of the Columbia record label, invested in the network, resulting in its rebranding as the Columbia Phonographic Broadcasting System (CPBS). CBS_sentence_9

In early 1928, Judson and Columbia sold the network to Isaac and Leon Levy, two brothers who owned WCAU, the network's Philadelphia affiliate, as well as their partner Jerome Louchheim. CBS_sentence_10

They installed Paley, an in-law of the Levys, as president of the network. CBS_sentence_11

With the Columbia record label out of ownership, Paley rebranded the network as the Columbia Broadcasting System. CBS_sentence_12

Under Paley's guidance, CBS would first become one of the largest radio networks in the United States, and eventually one of the Big Three American broadcast television networks. CBS_sentence_13

In 1974, CBS dropped its original full name and became known simply as CBS, Inc. CBS_sentence_14

The Westinghouse Electric Corporation acquired the network in 1995, renaming its corporate entity CBS Broadcasting, Inc. two years later, and eventually adopted the name of the company it had acquired to become CBS Corporation. CBS_sentence_15

In 2000, CBS came under the control of the original incarnation of Viacom, which was formed as a spin-off of CBS in 1971. CBS_sentence_16

In 2005, Viacom split itself into two separate companies and re-established CBS Corporation through the spin-off of its broadcast television, radio and select cable television and non-broadcasting assets, with the CBS network at its core. CBS_sentence_17

CBS Corporation was controlled by Sumner Redstone through National Amusements, which also controlled the second incarnation of Viacom until December 4, 2019, when the two separated companies agreed to re-merge to become ViacomCBS. CBS_sentence_18

Following the sale, CBS and its other broadcasting and entertainment assets were reorganized into a new division, CBS Entertainment Group. CBS_sentence_19

CBS operated the CBS Radio network until 2017, when it sold its radio division to Entercom. CBS_sentence_20

Before this, CBS Radio mainly provided news and features content for its portfolio of owned-and-operated radio stations in large and mid-sized markets, as well as its affiliated radio stations in various other markets. CBS_sentence_21

While CBS Corporation shareholders own a 72% stake in Entercom, CBS no longer owns or operates any radio stations directly; however, it still provides radio news broadcasts to its radio affiliates and to the new owners of its former radio stations, and licenses the rights to use CBS trademarks under a long-term contract. CBS_sentence_22

The television network has over 240 owned-and-operated and affiliated television stations throughout the United States, some also available in Canada via pay-television providers or in border areas over-the-air. CBS_sentence_23

CBS was ranked 197th on the 2018 Fortune 500 of the largest American corporations by revenue. CBS_sentence_24

History CBS_section_0

Early radio years CBS_section_1

The origins of CBS date back to January 27, 1927, with the creation of the United Independent Broadcasters network in Chicago by New York City talent agent Arthur Judson. CBS_sentence_25

The fledgling network soon needed additional investors, and the Columbia Phonograph Company, manufacturers of Columbia Records, rescued it in April 1927. CBS_sentence_26

Now the Columbia Phonographic Broadcasting System, the network went to air under its new name on September 18, 1927, with a presentation by the Howard L. Barlow Orchestra from flagship station WOR in Newark, and fifteen affiliates. CBS_sentence_27

Operational costs were steep, particularly the payments to AT&T for use of its landlines, and by the end of 1927, Columbia Phonograph wanted out. CBS_sentence_28

In early 1928 Judson sold the network to brothers Isaac and Leon Levy, owners of the network's Philadelphia affiliate WCAU, and their partner Jerome Louchheim. CBS_sentence_29

None of the three were interested in assuming day-to-day management of the network, so they installed wealthy 26-year-old William S. Paley, son of a Philadelphia cigar family and in-law of the Levys, as president. CBS_sentence_30

With the record company out of the picture, Paley quickly streamlined the corporate name to "Columbia Broadcasting System". CBS_sentence_31

He believed in the power of radio advertising since his family's La Palina cigars had doubled their sales after young William convinced his elders to advertise on radio. CBS_sentence_32

By September 1928, Paley bought out the Louchheim share of CBS and became its majority owner with 51% of the business. CBS_sentence_33

Turnaround: Paley's first year CBS_section_2

During Louchheim's brief regime, Columbia paid $410,000 to Alfred H. Grebe's Atlantic Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) for the small Brooklyn station WABC (no relation to the current WABC), which would become the network's flagship station. CBS_sentence_34

WABC was quickly upgraded, and the signal relocated to 860 kHz. CBS_sentence_35

The physical plant was also relocated to Steinway Hall on West 57th Street in Manhattan, where much of CBS's programming would originate. CBS_sentence_36

By the turn of 1929, the network had 47 affiliates. CBS_sentence_37

Paley moved right away to put his network on a firmer financial footing. CBS_sentence_38

In the fall of 1928, he entered into talks with Adolph Zukor of Paramount Pictures, who planned to move into radio in response to RCA's forays into motion pictures with the advent of talkies. CBS_sentence_39

The deal came to fruition in September 1929; Paramount acquired 49% of CBS in return for a block of its stock worth $3.8 million at the time. CBS_sentence_40

The agreement specified that Paramount would buy that same stock back for a flat $5 million by March 1, 1932, provided that CBS had earned $2 million during 1931 and 1932. CBS_sentence_41

For a brief time, there was talk that the network might be renamed "Paramount Radio", but it only lasted a month as the 1929 stock market crash sent all stock value tumbling. CBS_sentence_42

It galvanized Paley and his troops, who had no alternative but to "turn the network around and earn the $2,000,000 in two years... CBS_sentence_43

This is the atmosphere in which the CBS of today was born." CBS_sentence_44

The near-bankrupt film studio sold its CBS shares back to the network in 1932. CBS_sentence_45

In the first year of Paley's watch, CBS's gross earnings more than tripled, going from $1.4 million to $4.7 million. CBS_sentence_46

Much of the increase was a result of Paley's effort to improve affiliate relations. CBS_sentence_47

There were two types of program at the time: sponsored and sustaining, i.e., unsponsored. CBS_sentence_48

Rival network NBC paid affiliates for every sponsored show they carried, and charged them for every sustaining show they ran. CBS_sentence_49

It was onerous for small and medium stations, and resulted in both unhappy affiliates and limited carriage of sustaining programs. CBS_sentence_50

Paley had a different idea, designed to get CBS programs emanating from as many radio sets as possible: he would give the sustaining programs away for free, provided the station would run every sponsored show, and accept CBS's check for doing so. CBS_sentence_51

CBS soon had more affiliates than either NBC Red or NBC Blue. CBS_sentence_52

Paley valued style and taste, and in 1929, once he had his affiliates happy and his company's creditworthiness on the mend, he relocated his company to the sleek, new 485 Madison Avenue, the "heart of the advertising community, right where Paley wanted his company to be", and where it would stay until its move to its own Eero Saarinen-designed headquarters, the CBS Building, in 1965. CBS_sentence_53

When his new landlords expressed skepticism about the network and its fly-by-night reputation, Paley overcame their qualms by inking a lease for $1.5 million. CBS_sentence_54

CBS takes on the Red and the Blue (1930s) CBS_section_3

Since NBC was the broadcast arm of radio set manufacturer RCA, its chief David Sarnoff approached his decisions as both a broadcaster and as a hardware executive; NBC's affiliates had the latest RCA equipment, and were often the best-established stations, or were on "clear channel" frequencies. CBS_sentence_55

Yet Sarnoff's affiliates were mistrustful of him. CBS_sentence_56

Paley had no such split loyalties: his and his affiliates' success rose and fell with the quality of CBS programming. CBS_sentence_57

Paley had an innate sense of entertainment. CBS_sentence_58

David Halberstam wrote that he had "a gift of the gods, an ear totally pure", and knew "what was good and would sell, what was bad and would sell, and what was good and would not sell, and he never confused one with another." CBS_sentence_59

As the 1930s loomed closer, Paley set about building the CBS talent stable. CBS_sentence_60

The network became the home to many popular musical and comedy stars, among them Jack Benny ("Your Canada Dry Humorist"), Al Jolson, George Burns and Gracie Allen, and Kate Smith, whom Paley had personally selected for his family's La Palina Hour as she was not the type of woman to provoke jealousy in American wives. CBS_sentence_61

When Paley heard a phonograph record of Bing Crosby, then a young unknown crooner, on a mid-ocean voyage, he rushed to the ship's radio room and cabled New York to sign Crosby immediately to a contract for a daily radio show. CBS_sentence_62

While the CBS primetime lineup featured music, comedy and variety shows, the daytime schedule was a direct conduit into American homes – and into the hearts and minds of American women. CBS_sentence_63

For many, it was the bulk of their adult human contact during the course of the day. CBS_sentence_64

CBS salesmen recognized early on that this intimate connection could be a bonanza for advertisers of female-interest products. CBS_sentence_65

Starting in 1930, astrologer Evangeline Adams would consult the heavens on behalf of listeners who sent in their birthdays, a description of their problems, and a boxtop from sponsor Forhan's toothpaste. CBS_sentence_66

The low-key murmuring of smooth-voiced Tony Wons, backed by a tender violin, "made him a soul mate to millions of women" on behalf of the R. CBS_sentence_67 J. Reynolds tobacco company, whose cellophane-wrapped Camel cigarettes were "as fresh as the dew that dawn spills on a field of clover". CBS_sentence_68

The most popular radio-friend of all was M. Sayle Taylor, the Voice of Experience, though his name was never uttered on air. CBS_sentence_69

Women mailed descriptions of the most intimate of relationship problems to the Voice in the tens of thousands per week; sponsors Musterole ointment and Haley's M–O laxative enjoyed sales increases of several hundred percent in just the first month of The Voice of Experience's run. CBS_sentence_70

As the decade progressed, a new genre joined the daytime lineup: serial drama soap operas, so named for the products that sponsored them. CBS_sentence_71

These were usually in quarter-hour episodes and proliferated widely in the mid- and late 1930s. CBS_sentence_72

They all had the same basic premise, namely that characters "fell into two categories: 1) those in trouble and 2) those who helped people in trouble. CBS_sentence_73

The helping-hand figures were usually older." CBS_sentence_74

At CBS, Just Plain Bill brought human insight and Anacin pain reliever into households; Your Family and Mine came courtesy of Sealtest Dairy products; Bachelor's Children first hawked Old Dutch Cleanser, then Wonder Bread; Aunt Jenny's Real Life Stories was sponsored by Spry Vegetable Shortening. CBS_sentence_75

Our Gal Sunday (Anacin again), The Romance of Helen Trent (Angélus cosmetics), Big Sister (Rinso laundry soap), and many others filled the daytime ether. CBS_sentence_76

Thanks to its daytime and primetime schedules, CBS prospered in the 1930s. CBS_sentence_77

In 1935, gross sales were $19.3 million, yielding a profit of $2.27 million. CBS_sentence_78

By 1937, the network took in $28.7 million and had 114 affiliates, almost all of which cleared 100% of network-fed programming, thus keeping ratings, and revenue, high. CBS_sentence_79

In 1938 CBS even acquired the American Record Corporation, parent of its one-time investor Columbia Records. CBS_sentence_80

In 1938, NBC and CBS each opened studios on Sunset Boulevard in Hollywood in order to attract the entertainment industry's top talent to their networks. CBS_sentence_81

CBS launches an independent news division CBS_section_4

The extraordinary potential of radio news showed itself in 1930, when CBS suddenly found itself with a live telephone connection to a prisoner called "the Deacon", who described, from the inside and in real time, a riot and conflagration at the Ohio Penitentiary; for CBS, it was "a shocking journalistic coup". CBS_sentence_82

Yet as late as 1934, there was still no regularly scheduled newscast on network radio; "most sponsors did not want network news programming; those that did were inclined to expect veto rights over it." CBS_sentence_83

There had been a longstanding wariness between radio and the newspapers as well; the papers had rightly concluded that the upstart radio business would compete with them in both advertising dollars and news coverage. CBS_sentence_84

By 1933, the newspapers began fighting back, many no longer publishing radio schedules for readers' convenience, or allowing their own news to be read on the air for radio's profit. CBS_sentence_85

Radio, in turn, pushed back when urban department stores, newspapers' largest advertisers and themselves owners of many radio stations, threatened to withhold their ads from print. CBS_sentence_86

A short-lived truce in 1933 even saw the papers proposing that radio be forbidden from running news before 9:30 a.m., and then only after 9:00 p.m., and that no news story could air until it was 12 hours old. CBS_sentence_87

It was in this climate that Paley set out to "enhance the prestige of CBS, to make it seem in the public mind the more advanced, dignified and socially aware network". CBS_sentence_88

He did it by sustaining programming of the New York Philharmonic, Norman Corwin's drama, and an in-house news division to gather and present news, free of fickle suppliers such as the newspapers or wire services. CBS_sentence_89

In the fall of 1934, CBS launched an independent news division, shaped in its first years by Paley's vice-president, former New York Times columnist Ed Klauber, and news director Paul White. CBS_sentence_90

Since there was no blueprint or precedent for real-time news coverage, early efforts of the new division used the shortwave link-up CBS had been using for five years to bring live feeds of European events to its American air. CBS_sentence_91

A key early hire was Edward R. Murrow in 1935; his first corporate title was Director of Talks. CBS_sentence_92

He was mentored in microphone technique by Robert Trout, the lone full-time member of the News Division, and quickly found himself in a growing rivalry with his boss White. CBS_sentence_93

Murrow was glad to "leave the hothouse atmosphere of the New York office behind" when he was dispatched to London as CBS's European Director in 1937, when the growing Hitler menace underscored the need for a robust European Bureau. CBS_sentence_94

Halberstam described Murrow in London as "the right man in the right place in the right era". CBS_sentence_95

Murrow began assembling the staff of broadcast journalists who would become known as the "Murrow Boys", including such men as William L. Shirer, Charles Collingwood, Bill Downs, and Eric Sevareid. CBS_sentence_96

They were "in [Murrow's] own image, sartorially impeccable, literate, often liberal, and prima donnas all". CBS_sentence_97

They covered history in the making, and sometimes made it themselves. CBS_sentence_98

On March 12, 1938, Hitler boldly annexed nearby Austria, and Murrow and the Boys quickly assembled coverage with Shirer in London, Edgar Ansel Mowrer in Paris, Pierre Huss in Berlin, Frank Gervasi in Rome, and Trout in New York. CBS_sentence_99

This bore the now-ubiquitous News Round-Up format. CBS_sentence_100

Murrow's nightly reports from the rooftops during the dark days of the London Blitz galvanized American listeners. CBS_sentence_101

Even before Pearl Harbor, the conflict became "the story of the survival of Western civilization, the most heroic of all possible wars and stories. CBS_sentence_102

He was indeed reporting on the survival of the English-speaking peoples." CBS_sentence_103

With his "manly, tormented voice", Murrow contained and mastered the panic and danger he felt, thereby communicating it all the more effectively to his audience. CBS_sentence_104

Using his trademark self-reference "this reporter", he did not so much report news as interpret it, combining simplicity of expression with subtlety of nuance. CBS_sentence_105

Murrow himself said he tried to "describe things in terms that make sense to the truck driver without insulting the intelligence of the professor". CBS_sentence_106

When he returned home for a visit late in 1941, Paley threw an "extraordinarily elaborate reception" for Murrow at the Waldorf-Astoria. CBS_sentence_107

This reception also served as an announcement to the world that Paley's network was finally more than just a pipeline carrying other people's programming and had now become a cultural force in its own right. CBS_sentence_108

When the war was over and Murrow returned for good, it was as "a superstar with prestige and freedom and respect within his profession and within his company". CBS_sentence_109

He possessed enormous capital within that company, and as the unknown form of television news loomed large, he would spend it freely, first in radio news, then in television, first taking on Senator Joseph McCarthy, then eventually – and unsuccessfully – William S. Paley himself. CBS_sentence_110

Panic: The War of the Worlds radio broadcast CBS_section_5

Main article: The War of the Worlds (1938 radio drama) CBS_sentence_111

On October 30, 1938, CBS gained a taste of infamy when The Mercury Theatre on the Air broadcast a radio adaptation of H. CBS_sentence_112 G. Wells' The War of the Worlds, performed by Orson Welles. CBS_sentence_113

Its unique format, a contemporary version of the story in the form of faux news broadcasts, told listeners that invaders from Mars were actually invading and devastating Grover's Mill, New Jersey, despite three disclaimers during the broadcast stating that it was a work of fiction. CBS_sentence_114

The flood of publicity after the broadcast had two effects: an FCC ban on faux news bulletins within dramatic programming, and sponsorship for The Mercury Theatre on the Air, becoming The Campbell Playhouse to sell soup. CBS_sentence_115

Welles, for his part, summarized the episode as "the Mercury Theatre's own radio version of dressing up in a sheet and jumping out of a bush and saying 'Boo!'" CBS_sentence_116

CBS recruits Edmund A. Chester CBS_section_6

Before the United States joined World War II, in 1940, CBS recruited Edmund A. Chester from his position as Bureau Chief for Latin America at the Associated Press to serve as Director of Latin American Relations and Director of Short Wave Broadcasts for the CBS radio network. CBS_sentence_117

In this capacity, Chester coordinated the development of the Network of the Americas (La Cadena de las Americas) with the Department of State, the Office for Inter-American Affairs (chaired by Nelson Rockefeller), and the Voice of America as part of President Roosevelt's support for Pan-Americanism during World War II. CBS_sentence_118

This network provided vital news and cultural programming throughout South America and Central America during the crucial World War II era, and fostered diplomatic relations between the United States and the other nations. CBS_sentence_119

It featured such popular radio broadcasts as Viva América, which showcased leading musical talent from both North and South America, including John Serry Sr., as accompanied by the CBS Pan American Orchestra under the musical direction of Alfredo Antonini. CBS_sentence_120

The post-war era also marked the beginning of CBS's dominance in the field of radio. CBS_sentence_121

Zenith of network radio (1940s) CBS_section_7

As 1939 wound down, Paley announced that 1940 would be "the greatest year in the history of radio in the United States". CBS_sentence_122

Indeed, the 1940s would turn out to be the apogee of network radio by every metric. CBS_sentence_123

Nearly 100% of the advertisers who made sponsorship deals in 1939 renewed their contracts for 1940; manufacturers of farm tractors made radios standard equipment on their machines; wartime rationing of paper limited the size of newspapers and thus print advertisements, causing a shift toward radio sponsorship. CBS_sentence_124

A 1942 act by Congress made advertising expenses a tax benefit, which sent even automobile and tire manufacturers – who had no products to sell since they had been converted to war production – scurrying to sponsor symphony orchestras and serious drama on radio. CBS_sentence_125

In 1940, only one-third of radio programs were sponsored, while two-thirds were sustaining; by the middle of the decade, the statistics had swapped. CBS_sentence_126

CBS in the 1940s was vastly different from that of its early days; many of the old guard veterans had died, retired, or simply left the network. CBS_sentence_127

No change was greater than that in Paley himself, who had become difficult to work for, and had "gradually shifted from leader to despot". CBS_sentence_128

He spent much of his time seeking social connections and in cultural pursuits; his hope was that CBS "could somehow learn to run itself". CBS_sentence_129

His brief to an interior designer remodeling his townhouse included a requirement for closets that would accommodate 300 suits and 100 shirts, and had special racks for 100 neckties. CBS_sentence_130

As Paley grew more remote, he installed a series of buffer executives who sequentially assumed more and more power at CBS: first Ed Klauber, then Paul Kesten, and finally Frank Stanton. CBS_sentence_131

Second only to Paley as the author of CBS's style and ambitions in its first half-century, Stanton was "a magnificent mandarin who functioned as company superintendent, spokesman, and image-maker". CBS_sentence_132

He had come to the network in 1933 after sending copies of his Ph.D. thesis "A Critique Of Present Methods and a New Plan for Studying Radio Listening Behavior" to CBS top brass, and they responded with a job offer. CBS_sentence_133

He scored an early hit with his study "Memory for Advertising Copy Presented Visually vs. CBS_sentence_134

Orally", which CBS salesmen used to great effect, bringing in new sponsors. CBS_sentence_135

In 1946, Paley appointed Stanton as President of CBS and promoted himself to Chairman. CBS_sentence_136

Stanton's colorful but impeccable wardrobe – slate-blue pinstripe suit, ecru shirt, robin's egg blue necktie with splashes of saffron – made him, in the mind of one sardonic CBS vice president, "the greatest argument we have for color television". CBS_sentence_137

Despite the influx of advertisers and their money – or perhaps because of them – the 1940s were not without bumps for the radio networks. CBS_sentence_138

The biggest challenge came in the form of the FCC's chain broadcasting investigation, often called the "monopoly probe". CBS_sentence_139

Though it started in 1938, the investigation only gathered steam in 1940 under new-broom chairman James L. Fly. CBS_sentence_140

By the time the smoke had cleared in 1943, NBC had already spun off its Blue Network, which became the American Broadcasting Company (ABC). CBS_sentence_141

CBS was also hit, though not as severely: Paley's 1928 affiliate contract, which had given CBS first claim on local stations' air during sponsored time – the network option – came under attack as being restrictive to local programming. CBS_sentence_142

The final compromise permitted the network option for three out of four hours during the daytime, but the new regulations had virtually no practical effect, since most all stations accepted the network feed, especially the sponsored hours that earned them money. CBS_sentence_143

Fly's panel also forbade networks from owning artists' representation bureaus, so CBS sold its bureau to Music Corporation of America, and it became Management Corporation of America. CBS_sentence_144

On the air, the war affected almost every show. CBS_sentence_145

Variety shows wove patriotism through their comedy and music segments; dramas and soaps had characters join the service and go off to fight. CBS_sentence_146

Even before hostilities commenced in Europe, one of the most played songs on radio was Irving Berlin's "God Bless America", popularized by CBS personality Kate Smith. CBS_sentence_147

Although an Office of Censorship sprang up within days of Pearl Harbor, censorship would be totally voluntary. CBS_sentence_148

A few shows submitted scripts for review, but most did not. CBS_sentence_149

The guidelines that the Office did issue banned weather reports (including announcement of sports rainouts), as well as news about war production or troop, ship, or plane movements, and live man-on-the-street interviews. CBS_sentence_150

The ban on ad-libbing caused quizzes, game shows, and amateur hours to wither for the duration. CBS_sentence_151

Surprising was the "granite permanence" of the shows at the top of the ratings. CBS_sentence_152

The vaudevillians and musicians who were hugely popular after the war were the same stars who had been huge in the 1930s; Jack Benny, Bing Crosby, Burns and Allen, and Edgar Bergen all had been on the radio almost as long as there had been network radio. CBS_sentence_153

A notable exception to this was relative newcomer Arthur Godfrey, who was still doing a local morning show in Washington, D.C. as late as 1942. CBS_sentence_154

Godfrey, who had been a cemetery lot salesman and a cab driver, pioneered the style of talking directly to the listener as an individual, with a singular "you" rather than phrases like "Now, folks..." or "Yes, friends...". CBS_sentence_155

His combined shows contributed as much as 12% of all CBS revenues; by 1948, he was making $500,000 a year. CBS_sentence_156

In 1947, Paley, still the undisputed "head talent scout" of CBS, led a much-publicized "talent raid" on NBC. CBS_sentence_157

One day, while Freeman Gosden and Charles Correll were hard at work at NBC writing their venerable Amos and Andy series, Paley came to the door with an astonishing offer: "Whatever you are getting now I will give you twice as much." CBS_sentence_158

Capturing NBC's cornerstone show was enough of a coup, but Paley repeated in 1948 with longtime NBC stars Edgar Bergen, Charlie McCarthy, and Red Skelton, as well as former CBS defectors Jack Benny, who was radio's top-rated comedian, and Burns and Allen. CBS_sentence_159

Paley achieved this rout with a legal agreement reminiscent of his 1928 contract that caused some NBC radio affiliates to jump ship and join CBS. CBS_sentence_160

CBS would buy the stars' names as a property in exchange for a large lump sum and salary. CBS_sentence_161

The plan relied on the vastly different tax rates between income and capital gains, so not only would the stars enjoy more than twice their income after taxes, but CBS would preclude any NBC counterattack because CBS owned the performers' names. CBS_sentence_162

As a result of this, CBS finally beat NBC in the ratings in 1949, but it was not just to one-up rival Sarnoff that Paley led his talent raid; he and all of radio had their eye on the coming force that threw a shadow over radio throughout the 1940s – television. CBS_sentence_163

Primetime radio gives way to television (1950s) CBS_section_8

In the spring of 1940, CBS staff engineer Peter Goldmark devised a system for color television that CBS management hoped would leapfrog the network over NBC and its existing black-and-white RCA system. CBS_sentence_164

The CBS system "gave brilliant and stable colors", while NBC's was "crude and unstable but 'compatible'". CBS_sentence_165

Ultimately, the FCC rejected the CBS system because it was incompatible with RCA's, along with the fact that CBS had moved to secure many ultra high frequency (UHF), not very high frequency (VHF), television licenses, leaving them flatfooted in the early television age. CBS_sentence_166

In 1946, only 6,000 television sets were in operation, most in greater New York City where there were already three stations; by 1949, the number had increased to 3 million sets, and by 1951, had risen to 12 million. CBS_sentence_167

There were 64 American cities with television stations, though most of them only had one. CBS_sentence_168

Radio continued to be the backbone of the company in the early 1950s, but it was "a strange, twilight period" where some cities had often multiple television stations which siphoned the audience from radio, while other cities such as Denver and Portland had no television stations at all. CBS_sentence_169

In those areas, as well as rural areas and some entire states, network radio remained the sole nationally broadcast service. CBS_sentence_170

NBC's venerable Fred Allen saw his ratings plummet when he was pitted against upstart ABC's game show Stop The Music! CBS_sentence_171

within weeks, he was dropped by longtime sponsor Ford Motor Company and was shortly gone from the scene. CBS_sentence_172

Radio powerhouse Bob Hope's ratings plunged from a 23.8 share in 1949 to 5.4 in 1953. CBS_sentence_173

By 1952, "death seemed imminent for network radio" in its familiar form; most tellingly, the big sponsors were eager for the switch. CBS_sentence_174

Gradually, as the television network took shape, radio stars began to migrate to the new medium. CBS_sentence_175

Many programs ran on both media while making the transition. CBS_sentence_176

The radio soap opera The Guiding Light moved to television in 1952, where it would run for another 57 years; Burns & Allen, back "home" from NBC, made the move in 1950; Lucille Ball a year later; Our Miss Brooks in 1952 (though it continued simultaneously on radio for its full television life). CBS_sentence_177

The high-rated Jack Benny Program ended its radio run in 1955, and Edgar Bergen's Sunday night show went off the air a year later. CBS_sentence_178

In 1956, CBS announced that its radio operations had lost money, while the television network had made money. CBS_sentence_179

When the soap opera Ma Perkins went off the air on November 25, 1960, only eight series remained, all relatively minor. CBS_sentence_180

Primetime radio ended on September 30, 1962, when Yours Truly, Johnny Dollar and Suspense aired for the final time. CBS_sentence_181

CBS's radio programming after 1972 CBS_section_9

The retirement of Arthur Godfrey in April 1972 marked the end of long-form programming on CBS radio; programming thereafter consisted of hourly news summaries and news features, known in the 1970s as Dimension, and commentaries, including the Spectrum series that evolved into the "Point/Counterpoint" feature on the television network's 60 Minutes and First Line Report, a news and analysis feature delivered by CBS correspondents. CBS_sentence_182

The network also continued to offer traditional radio programming through its nightly CBS Radio Mystery Theater during week. CBS_sentence_183

This was the lone holdout of dramatic programming, which ran from 1974 to 1982, though shorter runs were given to the General Mills Radio Adventure Theater and the Sears Radio Theater in the 1970s; otherwise, most new dramatic radio was carried on public and to some extent religious stations. CBS_sentence_184

The CBS Radio Network continues to this day, offering hourly newscasts, including its centerpiece CBS World News Roundup in the morning and evening, its weekend sister program CBS News Weekend Roundup, the news-related feature segment The Osgood File, What's in the News, a one-minute summary of one story, and various other segments such as commentary from Seattle radio personality Dave Ross, tip segments from various other sources, and technology coverage from CBS Interactive property CNET. CBS_sentence_185

On November 17, 2017, CBS Radio was sold to Entercom, becoming the last of the original Big Four radio networks to be owned by its founding company. CBS_sentence_186

Although the CBS parent itself ceased to exist when it was acquired by Westinghouse Electric in 1995, CBS Radio continued to be run by CBS until its sale to Entercom. CBS_sentence_187

Prior to its acquisition, ABC Radio was sold to Citadel Broadcasting in 2007 (and is now a part of Cumulus Media), while Mutual (now defunct) and NBC Radio were acquired by Westwood One in the 1980s. CBS_sentence_188

Westwood One and CBS were under common ownership from 1993 to 2007; the former would be acquired outright by Dial Global in October 2011. CBS_sentence_189

Television years: expansion and growth CBS_section_10

"CBS Television" redirects here. CBS_sentence_190

For other uses, see CBS Television (disambiguation). CBS_sentence_191

CBS's involvement in television dates back to the opening of experimental station W2XAB in New York City on July 21, 1931, using the mechanical television system that had more or less been perfected in the late 1920s. CBS_sentence_192

Its initial broadcast featured New York mayor Jimmy Walker, Kate Smith, and George Gershwin. CBS_sentence_193

The station boasted the first regular seven-day broadcasting schedule in American television, broadcasting 28 hours a week. CBS_sentence_194

Announcer-director Bill Schudt was the station's only paid employee; all other talent was volunteer. CBS_sentence_195

W2XAB pioneered program development including small-scale dramatic acts, monologues, pantomime, and the use of projection slides to simulate sets. CBS_sentence_196

Engineer Bill Lodge devised the first synchronized sound wave for a television station in 1932, enabling W2XAB to broadcast picture and sound on a single shortwave channel instead of the two previously needed. CBS_sentence_197

On November 8, 1932, W2XAB broadcast the first television coverage of presidential election returns. CBS_sentence_198

The station suspended operations on February 20, 1933, as monochrome television transmission standards were in flux, and in the process of changing from a mechanical to an all-electronic system. CBS_sentence_199

W2XAB returned to the air with an all-electronic system in 1939 from a new studio complex in Grand Central Station and a transmitter atop the Chrysler Building, broadcasting on channel 2. CBS_sentence_200

W2XAB transmitted the first color broadcast in the United States on August 28, 1940. CBS_sentence_201

On June 24, 1941, W2XAB received a commercial construction permit and program authorization as WCBW. CBS_sentence_202

The station went on the air at 2:30 p.m. on July 1, an hour after rival WNBT (channel 1, formerly W2XBS and now WNBC), making it the second authorized, fully commercial television station in the United States. CBS_sentence_203

The FCC issued permits to CBS and NBC at the same time, and intended WNBT and WCBW to sign on simultaneously on July 1, so no one station could claim to be the "first". CBS_sentence_204

During World War II, commercial television broadcasting was reduced dramatically. CBS_sentence_205

Towards the end of the war, however, it began to ramp up again, with an increased level of programming evident from 1944 to 1947 on the three New York television stations which operated in those years: the local stations of NBC, CBS and DuMont. CBS_sentence_206

As RCA and DuMont raced to establish networks and offer upgraded programming, CBS lagged, advocating an industry-wide shift and restart to UHF for their incompatible (with black and white) color system. CBS_sentence_207

The FCC putting an indefinite "freeze" on television licenses that lasted until 1952 did not help matters. CBS_sentence_208

Only in 1950, when NBC was dominant in television and black and white transmission was widespread, did CBS begin to buy or build their own stations (outside of New York City) in Los Angeles, Chicago, and other major cities. CBS_sentence_209

Up to that point, CBS programming was seen on such stations as KTTV in Los Angeles, in which CBS – as a bit of insurance and to guarantee program clearance in that market – quickly purchased a 50% interest, partnering with the Los Angeles Times. CBS_sentence_210

CBS then sold its interest in KTTV (now the West Coast flagship station of the Fox network) and purchased outright Los Angeles pioneer station KTSL in 1950, renaming it KNXT (after CBS's existing Los Angeles radio property KNX), later to become KCBS-TV. CBS_sentence_211

In 1953, CBS bought pioneer Chicago television station WBKB, which had been signed on by former investor Paramount Pictures (and would again become a sister company of CBS decades later) as a commercial station in 1946, and changed that station's call sign to WBBM-TV, moving the CBS affiliation away from WGN-TV. CBS_sentence_212

WCBS-TV would ultimately be the only station (as of 2013) built and signed on by CBS. CBS_sentence_213

The rest of the stations would be acquired by CBS, either in an ownership stake or outright purchase. CBS_sentence_214

In television's early years, the network bought Washington, D.C. affiliate WOIC (now WUSA) in a joint venture with The Washington Post in 1950, only to sell its stake to the newspaper in 1954 due to tighter FCC ownership regulations. CBS_sentence_215

CBS would also temporarily return to relying on its own UHF technology by owning WXIX in Milwaukee (now CW affiliate WVTV) and WHCT in Hartford (now Univision affiliate WUVN). CBS_sentence_216

However, as UHF was not viable for broadcasting at the time (due to the fact that most television sets of the time were not equipped with UHF tuners), CBS decided to sell those stations off and affiliate with VHF stations WITI and WTIC-TV (now WFSB). CBS_sentence_217

In Milwaukee alone, CBS has gone through several affiliation changes since 1953, when its original primary affiliate WCAN-TV (now defunct) first signed on the air. CBS_sentence_218

Prior to WCAN's sign-on, selected CBS programming aired on WTMJ-TV, an NBC affiliate since 1947. CBS_sentence_219

In February 1955, when WCAN went off the air for good, CBS moved its programming to WXIX, which it had purchased several months earlier. CBS_sentence_220

In April 1959, CBS decided to move its programming to WITI, the city's newer VHF station at the time. CBS_sentence_221

In turn, CBS shut down WXIX, sold its license to local investors, and returned to the air that July as an independent station. CBS_sentence_222

The first WITI-CBS union only lasted exactly two years, as the network moved its programming to WISN-TV on April 2, 1961, with WITI taking the ABC affiliation; the two stations reversed the network swap in March 1977, with WITI returning to the CBS station lineup. CBS_sentence_223

CBS was later forced back onto UHF in Milwaukee due to an affiliation agreement with New World Communications in 1994; it is now affiliated with WDJT-TV in that market, which has the longest-lasting relationship with CBS of any Milwaukee station that carried the network's programming. CBS_sentence_224

More long-term, CBS bought stations in Philadelphia (WCAU, now owned by NBC) and St. Louis (KMOX-TV, now KMOV), but would eventually sell these stations off as well. CBS_sentence_225

Before buying KMOX-TV, CBS had attempted to purchase and sign on the channel 11 license in St. Louis, now KPLR-TV. CBS_sentence_226

CBS did attempt to sign on a station in Pittsburgh after the freeze was lifted, as it was the sixth-largest market at the time, but had just one commercial VHF station in DuMont-owned WDTV, while the rest were either on UHF (the modern-day WPGH-TV and WINP-TV) or public television (WQED). CBS_sentence_227

Although the FCC turned down CBS's request to buy the channel 9 license in nearby Steubenville, Ohio and move it to Pittsburgh (that station, initially CBS affiliate WSTV-TV, is now NBC affiliate WTOV-TV), CBS did score a major coup when Pittsburgh-based Westinghouse Electric, co-founder of NBC, bought WDTV from struggling DuMont and opted to affiliate the now-recalled KDKA-TV with CBS instead of NBC (like KDKA radio) due to NBC extorting and coercing Westinghouse to trade KYW radio and WPTZ (now KYW-TV) for Cleveland stations WTAM, WTAM-FM (now WMJI), and WNBK (now WKYC); the trade ended up being reversed by order of the FCC and the Department of Justice in 1965 after an eight-year investigation. CBS_sentence_228

Had CBS not been able to affiliate with KDKA-TV, it would have affiliated with eventual NBC affiliate WIIC-TV (now WPXI) once it signed on in 1957 instead. CBS_sentence_229

This coup would eventually lead to a much stronger relationship between Westinghouse and CBS. CBS_sentence_230

Programming (1945–1970) CBS_section_11

The mid-1940s "talent raid" on NBC had brought over established radio stars, who became stars of CBS television programs as well. CBS_sentence_231

One reluctant CBS star refused to bring her radio show My Favorite Husband to television unless the network would recast the show with her real-life husband in the lead. CBS_sentence_232

I Love Lucy debuted in October 1951, and was an immediate sensation, with 11 million of the 15 million total television sets watching (a 73% share). CBS_sentence_233

Paley and network president Frank Stanton had so little faith in the future of Lucille Ball's series that they granted her wish and allowed her husband Desi Arnaz to take financial control of the comedy's production. CBS_sentence_234

This was the foundation of the Ball-Arnaz Desilu empire, and is now considered a template for series production; it also served as the template for some television conventions that continue to exist including the use of multiple cameras to film scenes, the use of a studio audience, and the airing of past episodes for syndication to other television outlets. CBS_sentence_235

The phenomenal success of the primetime, big-money quiz show The $64,000 Question, propelled its creator Louis G. Cowan, first to an executive position as CBS's vice-president of creative services, then to the presidency of the CBS television network itself. CBS_sentence_236

When quiz show scandals involving "rigged" questions surfaced in 1959, he was fired by CBS. CBS_sentence_237

CBS dominated television, now at the forefront of American entertainment and information, as it once had radio. CBS_sentence_238

In 1953, the CBS television network would make its first profit, and would maintain dominance on television between 1955 and 1976. CBS_sentence_239

By the late 1950s, the network often controlled seven or eight of the slots on the "top ten" ratings list with well-respected shows such as Route 66. CBS_sentence_240

Under James T. Aubrey (1958–1965), CBS was able to balance prestigious television projects (befitting the "Tiffany Network" image), with more low culture, broad appeal programs. CBS_sentence_241

As such, the network had challenging fare like The Twilight Zone, The Defenders, and East Side/West Side, as well as The Andy Griffith Show, The Beverly Hillbillies, Gomer Pyle, U.S.M.C. CBS_sentence_242 , and Gilligan's Island. CBS_sentence_243

This success would continue for many years, with CBS being bumped from first place only due to the rise of ABC in the mid-1970s. CBS_sentence_244

Perhaps because of its status as the top-rated network, CBS felt freer to gamble with controversial properties like the Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour and All in the Family (and its many spinoffs) during the late 1960s and early 1970s. CBS_sentence_245

Programming: "Rural purge" and success in the 1970s and early-mid 1980s (1971–1986) CBS_section_12

Main article: Rural purge CBS_sentence_246

By the end of the 1960s, CBS was very successful in television ratings, but many of its shows, including The Beverly Hillbillies, Gunsmoke, Mayberry R.F.D. CBS_sentence_247 , Petticoat Junction, Hee Haw, and Green Acres, were appealing to older and more rural audiences, rather than to the young, urban, and more affluent audiences that advertisers sought to target. CBS_sentence_248

Fred Silverman, who would later head ABC and later NBC, made the decision to cancel most of those otherwise hit shows by mid-1971 in what became colloquially referred to as the "rural purge", with Green Acres cast member Pat Buttram remarking that the network cancelled "anything with a tree in it". CBS_sentence_249

While the "rural" shows got the axe, new hits like The Mary Tyler Moore Show, All in the Family, The Bob Newhart Show, Cannon, Barnaby Jones, Kojak, and The Sonny & Cher Comedy Hour took their place on the network's schedule and kept it at the top of the ratings through the early 1970s. CBS_sentence_250

The majority of these hits were overseen by then-East Coast vice president Alan Wagner. CBS_sentence_251

60 Minutes also moved to the 7:00 p.m. slot on Sundays in 1975, and became the first ever primetime television news program to enter the Nielsen Top 10 in 1978. CBS_sentence_252

One of CBS's most popular shows during the period was M*A*S*H, which ran for 11 seasons from 1972 to 1983, and was based on the hit Robert Altman film of the same name. CBS_sentence_253

The 2​⁄2-hour series finale, in its initial airing on February 28, 1983, had peak viewership of up to 125 million Americans (77% of all television viewership in the U.S. that night), which established it as the most watched television episode in the United States. CBS_sentence_254

It also held the distinction of having the largest single-night primetime viewership of any television program in U.S. history, until it was surpassed by the Super Bowl, which has taken the record consistently since 2010 (through the annual championship game alternates between being broadcast by CBS and rival networks Fox and NBC). CBS_sentence_255

Silverman also first developed his strategy of spinning new shows off from established hit series while at CBS, with Rhoda and Phyllis spun from The Mary Tyler Moore Show, Maude and The Jeffersons from All in the Family, and Good Times from Maude. CBS_sentence_256

After Silverman's departure, CBS dropped to second place behind ABC in the 1976–77 season, but still rated strongly, based on its earlier hits and some new ones, including One Day at a Time, Alice, Lou Grant, WKRP in Cincinnati, The Dukes of Hazzard, and Dallas, which was the biggest hit of the early 1980s and holds the record for the most watched non-series finale television episode in the U.S. – the primetime telecast of the resolution episode of the internationally prominent "Who Shot J.R.?" CBS_sentence_257

cliffhanger on November 21, 1980. CBS_sentence_258

By 1982, ABC had run out of steam and NBC was in dire straits, with many failed programming efforts greenlighted by Silverman during his tenure as network president. CBS_sentence_259

CBS nosed ahead once more thanks to the major success of Dallas (and its spin-off Knots Landing), as well as hits in Falcon Crest, Magnum, P.I. CBS_sentence_260 , Simon & Simon, and 60 Minutes. CBS_sentence_261

CBS also acquired the broadcast rights to the NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Tournament in 1982, which it now broadcasts every March since. CBS_sentence_262

CBS bought Emmy-winning documentary producer Dennis B. Kane's production company and formed CBS/Kane Productions International. CBS_sentence_263

The network managed to pull out a few new hits over the next couple of years, including Kate & Allie, Newhart, Cagney & Lacey, Scarecrow and Mrs. King, and Murder, She Wrote. CBS_sentence_264

However, this resurgence was short-lived, as CBS had become mired in debt as a result of a failed takeover effort by Ted Turner, which CBS chairman Thomas Wyman successfully helped to fend off. CBS_sentence_265

The network sold its St. Louis owned-and-operated station KMOX-TV, and allowed the purchase of a large portion of its shares (under 25 percent) by Loew's Inc. chairman Laurence Tisch. CBS_sentence_266

Collaboration between Paley and Tisch led to the slow dismissal of Wyman, with Tisch taking over as chief operating officer and Paley returning as chairman. CBS_sentence_267

Programming: Tiffany Network in distress (1986–2002) CBS_section_13

By the end of the 1987–88 season, CBS had fallen to third place behind both ABC and NBC for the first time. CBS_sentence_268

In 1984, The Cosby Show and Miami Vice debuted on NBC and immediately garnered high ratings, allowing NBC to rise back to first place by the 1985–86 season with a slate that included several other hits such as Amen, Family Ties, Cheers, The Golden Girls, The Facts Of Life, L.A. CBS_sentence_269 Law, and 227. CBS_sentence_270

ABC had also rebounded with hits such as Dynasty, Who's the Boss? CBS_sentence_271 , Hotel, Growing Pains, The Wonder Years, and Roseanne. CBS_sentence_272

Some of the groundwork had been laid as CBS fell in the ratings, with hits Simon & Simon, Falcon Crest, Murder, She Wrote, Kate & Allie, and Newhart still on the schedule from the most recent resurgence, and to-be-hits Designing Women, Murphy Brown, Jake and the Fatman, and newsmagazine 48 Hours all debuting in the late 1980s. CBS_sentence_273

The network was also still getting decent ratings for 60 Minutes, Dallas, and Knots Landing. CBS_sentence_274

During the early 1990s, the network would bolster its sports lineup by obtaining the broadcast television rights to Major League Baseball from ABC and NBC, and the Winter Olympics from ABC, despite losing the National Basketball Association to NBC after the 1989–90 NBA season. CBS_sentence_275

Under network president Jeff Sagansky, the network was able to earn strong ratings from new shows Diagnosis: Murder, Touched by an Angel, Dr. CBS_sentence_276 Quinn, Medicine Woman, Walker, Texas Ranger, Picket Fences, and a resurgent Jake and the Fatman. CBS_sentence_277

CBS was briefly able to reclaim first place during the 1992–93 season. CBS_sentence_278

However, the network's programming slate skewed toward an older demographic than ABC, NBC, or even the fledgling Fox network. CBS_sentence_279

A common joke during this period was that CBS was "the network for the living dead". CBS_sentence_280

In 1993, the network made a breakthrough in establishing a successful late-night talk show franchise to compete with NBC's The Tonight Show when it signed David Letterman away from NBC after the Late Night host was passed over as Johnny Carson's successor on Tonight in favor of Jay Leno. CBS_sentence_281

Despite having success with the Late Show with David Letterman, CBS as a whole suffered in 1993. CBS_sentence_282

The network lost the rights to two major sports leagues; it terminated its rights to the MLB after losing approximately $500 million over a four-year span, and the league reached a new contract with NBC and ABC. CBS_sentence_283

On December 17, 1993, in a move that surprised many media analysts and television viewers, Fox – then a fledgling network which had begun to accrue several popular programs in the Nielsen Top 20 during its seven years on air – outbid CBS for the broadcast rights to the National Football Conference, stripping CBS of National Football League telecasts for the first time since CBS began broadcasting games from the pre-merger NFL in 1955. CBS_sentence_284

Fox bid $1.58 billion for the NFC television rights, significantly higher than CBS's reported offer of $290 million to retain the contract. CBS_sentence_285

The acquisition of the NFC rights, which took effect with the 1994 NFL season and led to CBS being nicknamed "Can't Broadcast Sports", resulted in Fox striking a series of affiliation deals with longtime affiliates of each of the Big Three networks. CBS_sentence_286

CBS bore the brunt of the switches, losing many of its existing affiliates to Fox, especially those owned by New World Communications. CBS_sentence_287

Most of the stations with which CBS ended up affiliating to replace the previous affiliates it lost to Fox were former Fox affiliates and independent stations, but had limited local news presence prior to joining CBS. CBS_sentence_288

The network attempted to fill its loss of the NFL by going after the rights to the National Hockey League, which it again lost to Fox. CBS_sentence_289

In early 1995, CBS would begin to rebuild its sports division by acquiring the rights to additional NASCAR races. CBS_sentence_290

However, the network would be stripped of its contract with NASCAR in December 1999, and Fox and NBC acquired the rights in 2001. CBS_sentence_291

The loss of the NFL, along with an ill-fated effort to court younger viewers, led to a drop in CBS's ratings. CBS_sentence_292

One of the affected shows was the Late Show with David Letterman, which saw its viewership decline in large part due to the affiliation switches, at times even landing in third place in its timeslot behind ABC's Nightline. CBS_sentence_293

As a result, NBC's The Tonight Show with Jay Leno, which had previously been dominated by the Late Show, became the top-rated late-night talk show. CBS_sentence_294

However, CBS was able to produce some hits during the mid-1990s such as The Nanny, JAG (which moved to the network from NBC), Chicago Hope, Cosby, Cybill, Touched by an Angel, and Everybody Loves Raymond. CBS_sentence_295

During the 1997–98 season, CBS attempted to court families on Fridays with the launch of a family-oriented comedy block known as the CBS Block Party. CBS_sentence_296

This block consisted of shows like Meego, and The Gregory Hines Show, all but the last coming from Miller-Boyett Productions. CBS_sentence_297

The lineup failed to compete against ABC's TGIF lineup, as Meego and Hines were canceled by November. CBS_sentence_298

That winter, CBS aired its last Olympic Games to date with its telecast of the 1998 Winter Games in Nagano. CBS_sentence_299

In 1997, CBS regained the NFL through its acquisition of the broadcast television rights to the American Football Conference, effective with the 1998 season. CBS_sentence_300

The contract was struck shortly before the AFC's emergence as the dominant NFL conference over the NFC, spurred in part by the turnaround of the New England Patriots during the 2000s. CBS_sentence_301

With the help of the AFC package, CBS surpassed NBC for first place in the 1998–99 season, although it was beaten by ABC the following year. CBS_sentence_302

The network gained additional hits in the late 1990s and early 2000s with series such as The King of Queens, Nash Bridges, Judging Amy, Becker, and Yes, Dear. CBS_sentence_303

Programming: Return to first place and rivalry with Fox (2002–present) CBS_section_14

Another turning point for CBS came in the summer of 2000, when it debuted the summer reality shows Survivor and Big Brother, which became surprise summer hits for the network. CBS_sentence_304

In January 2001, CBS debuted the second season of Survivor after its broadcast of Super Bowl XXXV, and scheduled it on Thursdays at 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time; it also moved the investigative crime drama CSI (which had debuted that fall in the Friday 9:00 p.m. time slot) to follow Survivor at 9:00 p.m. on Thursdays. CBS_sentence_305

The pairing of the two shows was both able to chip away at and eventually beat NBC's Thursday night lineup. CBS_sentence_306

During the 2000s, CBS found additional successes with a slew of police procedurals, several of which were produced by Jerry Bruckheimer. CBS_sentence_307

These included Cold Case, Without a Trace, Criminal Minds, NCIS, and The Mentalist, along with CSI spinoffs CSI: Miami and CSI: NY. CBS_sentence_308

The network also featured several prominent sitcoms like Still Standing, Two and a Half Men, How I Met Your Mother, The New Adventures of Old Christine, Rules of Engagement, and The Big Bang Theory, as well as the reality show The Amazing Race. CBS_sentence_309

The network's programming slate, buoyed largely by the success of CSI, briefly led it to retake first place in the ratings from NBC during the 2002–03 season. CBS_sentence_310

The 2000s also saw CBS finally make ratings headway on Friday nights, a perennial weak spot for the network, with a focus toward drama series such as Ghost Whisperer and the relatively short-lived but acclaimed Joan of Arcadia. CBS_sentence_311

CBS became the most watched American broadcast television network once again in the 2005–06 season. CBS_sentence_312

The next year, Fox overtook CBS for first place, becoming the first non-Big Three network to earn the title as the most watched network overall in the United States. CBS_sentence_313

Fox's first-place finish that season was primarily due to its reliance on American Idol (the longest reigning number-one primetime U.S. television program from 2004 to 2011) and the effects of the 2007–08 Writers Guild of America strike. CBS_sentence_314

CBS retook its place as the top-rated network in the 2008–09 season, where it has remained every season since. CBS_sentence_315

Fox and CBS, both having ranked as the highest rated of the major broadcast networks during the 2000s, tend to nearly equal one another in the 18–34, 18–49, and 25–54 demographics. CBS_sentence_316

NCIS, which has been the flagship of CBS's Tuesday lineup for much of its run, became the network's highest-rated drama during the 2007–08 season. CBS_sentence_317

The 2010s saw additional hits for the network, including drama series The Good Wife; police procedurals Person of Interest, Blue Bloods, Elementary, Hawaii Five-0, and NCIS spin-off NCIS: Los Angeles; reality series Undercover Boss; and sitcoms 2 Broke Girls and Mike & Molly. CBS_sentence_318

The Big Bang Theory, one of several sitcoms from veteran writer/producer Chuck Lorre, started off with modest ratings, but saw its viewership skyrocket, earning ratings of up to 17 million viewers per episode. CBS_sentence_319

It became the top-rated network sitcom in the U.S. by the 2010–11 season, as well as the second most watched U.S. television program by the 2013–14 season, when the series became the anchor of the network's Thursday lineup. CBS_sentence_320

Meanwhile, Two and a Half Men saw its ratings decline to respectable levels for its final four seasons following the 2011 firing of original star Charlie Sheen and the addition of Ashton Kutcher as its primary lead. CBS_sentence_321

Until 2012, CBS ranked in second place among adults 18–49, but after the ratings declines Fox experienced during the 2012–13 season, CBS was able to take the top spot in the demographic, as well as in total viewership (for the fifth year in a row) by the start of 2013. CBS_sentence_322

At the end of the 2012–13 season, the tenth season of NCIS took the top spot among the season's most watched network programs, giving CBS its first top-rated show since the 2002–03 season, when CSI: Crime Scene Investigation led Nielsen's seasonal primetime network ratings. CBS_sentence_323

The strength of CBS's 2013–14 slate led to a surplus of series on its 2014–15 schedule, with 21 series held over from the previous season along with eight new series, including moderate hits in Madam Secretary, NCIS: New Orleans, and Scorpion. CBS_sentence_324

The network also aired midseason hits The Odd Couple and CSI spinoff CSI: Cyber. CBS_sentence_325

CBS also expanded its NFL coverage through a partnership with the NFL Network to carry Thursday Night Football games during the first eight weeks of the NFL season. CBS_sentence_326

On September 29, 2016, National Amusements, the owner of both CBS's parent company CBS Corporation and its sister company Viacom, sent a letter to both companies, encouraging them to merge back into one company. CBS_sentence_327

The deal was called off on December 12. CBS_sentence_328

However, on January 12, 2018, it was reported that both CBS and Viacom were re-entering talks to merge. CBS_sentence_329

On August 13, 2019, CEO Shari Redstone announced that Viacom and CBS agreed to a merger which would reunite the two media giants after 14 years. CBS_sentence_330

The two companies have also been reported as in talks to acquire Lionsgate, following the proposed acquisition of 21st Century Fox and its assets by the Walt Disney Company. CBS_sentence_331

Amazon, Verizon, and Comcast (the owner of NBC) have also shown interest in acquiring Lionsgate. CBS_sentence_332

Lionsgate Vice Chairman Michael Burns stated in an interview with CNBC that Lionsgate was mostly interested in merging with CBS and Viacom. CBS_sentence_333

CBS television news operations CBS_section_15

Main article: CBS News CBS_sentence_334

Upon becoming commercial station WCBW in 1941, the pioneer CBS television station in New York City broadcast two daily news programs, at 2:30 and 7:30 p.m. weekdays, anchored by Richard Hubbell. CBS_sentence_335

Most of the newscasts featured Hubbell reading a script with only occasional cutaways to a map or still photograph. CBS_sentence_336

When Pearl Harbor was bombed on December 7, 1941, WCBW, usually off-the-air on Sundays to give the engineers a day off, took to the air at 8:45 p.m. that evening with an extensive special report. CBS_sentence_337

The national emergency even broke down the unspoken wall between CBS radio and television. CBS_sentence_338

WCBW executives convinced radio announcers and experts such as George Fielding Elliot and Linton Wells to come down to the station's Grand Central Station studios during the evening and to give information and commentary on the attack. CBS_sentence_339

Although WCBW's special report that night lasted less than 90 minutes, that special broadcast pushed the limits of live television in 1941, and opened up new possibilities for future broadcasts. CBS_sentence_340

As CBS wrote in a special report to the FCC, the unscheduled live news broadcast on December 7 was "unquestionably the most stimulating challenge and marked the greatest advance of any single problem faced up to that time". CBS_sentence_341

Additional newscasts were scheduled in the early days of the war. CBS_sentence_342

In May 1942, WCBW, like almost all television stations, sharply cut back its live program schedule and canceled its newscasts, as the station temporarily suspended studio operations, resorting exclusively to the occasional broadcast of films. CBS_sentence_343

This was primarily because much of the staff had either joined the service or had been redeployed to war-related technical research, as well as because it was necessary to prolong the life of the cameras, which were now impossible to repair due to the lack of parts available during wartime. CBS_sentence_344

In May 1944, as the war began to turn in favor of the Allies, WCBW reopened its studios and resumed production of its newscasts, which were briefly anchored by Ned Calmer and then by Everett Holles. CBS_sentence_345

After the war, WCBW, which changed its call letters to WCBS-TV in 1946, introduced expanded news programs on its schedule. CBS_sentence_346

These were first anchored by Milo Boulton and later by Douglas Edwards. CBS_sentence_347

On May 3, 1948, Edwards began anchoring CBS Television News, a regular 15-minute nightly newscast on the rudimentary CBS television network, including WCBS-TV. CBS_sentence_348

Airing every weeknight at 7:30 p.m., it was the first regularly scheduled, network television news program featuring an anchor; the nightly Lowell Thomas NBC radio network newscast was simulcast on television locally on NBC's WNBT (now WNBC) for a time in the early 1940s, and Hubbell, Calmer, Holles and Boulton on WCBW in the early and mid-1940s, but these were local television broadcasts seen only in the New York City area. CBS_sentence_349

In contrast, the NBC Television Newsreel, the NBC television network's offering at the time which premiered in February 1948, was simply film footage with voice narration to provide illustration of the stories. CBS_sentence_350

In 1949, CBS offered the first live television coverage of the proceedings of the United Nations General Assembly. CBS_sentence_351

This journalistic tour-de-force was under the direction of Edmund A. Chester, who was appointed to the post of Director for News, Special Events, and Sports at CBS Television in 1948. CBS_sentence_352

In 1950, the nightly newscast was retitled Douglas Edwards with the News, and became the first news program to be broadcast on both coasts the following year, thanks to a new coaxial cable connection. CBS_sentence_353

As such, Edwards used the greeting "Good evening everyone, coast to coast". CBS_sentence_354

The broadcast was renamed the CBS Evening News when Walter Cronkite replaced Edwards in 1962. CBS_sentence_355

Edwards remained with CBS News as anchor/reporter for various daytime television and radio news broadcasts until his retirement on April 1, 1988. CBS_sentence_356

Color technology (1953–1967) CBS_section_16

Although CBS Television was the first with a working color television system, the network lost out to RCA in 1953, in part because its color system was incompatible with existing black-and-white sets. CBS_sentence_357

Although RCA – then the parent company of NBC – made its color system available to CBS, the network was not interested in boosting RCA's profits, and televised only a few specials in color for the rest of the decade. CBS_sentence_358

The specials included the Ford Star Jubilee programs (which included the first ever telecast of The Wizard of Oz), as well as the 1957 telecast of Rodgers and Hammerstein's Cinderella, Cole Porter's musical version of Aladdin, and Playhouse 90's only color broadcast, the 1958 production of The Nutcracker. CBS_sentence_359

The Nutcracker telecast was based on the famous production staged annually since 1954 in New York, and performed by the New York City Ballet. CBS_sentence_360

CBS would later show two other versions of the ballet, a one-hour German-American version hosted by Eddie Albert, shown annually for three years beginning in 1965, and the popular Mikhail Baryshnikov production from 1977 to 1981. CBS_sentence_361

Beginning in 1959, The Wizard of Oz became an annual tradition on color television. CBS_sentence_362

It had been the success of NBC's 1955 telecast of the musical Peter Pan, which became the most watched television special of its time, that inspired CBS to telecast The Wizard of Oz, Cinderella, and Aladdin. CBS_sentence_363

From 1960 to 1965, the CBS television network limited its color broadcasts to only a few special presentations such as The Wizard of Oz, and only if the sponsor would pay for it. CBS_sentence_364

In the early 1960s, Red Skelton was the first CBS host to telecast his weekly programs in color using a converted movie studio. CBS_sentence_365

He tried unsuccessfully to persuade the network to use his facility for other programs, and was forced to sell it. CBS_sentence_366

Rival NBC was pushing for the use of color at the time. CBS_sentence_367

Even ABC had several color programs beginning in the fall of 1962, although those were limited due to financial and technical issues the network was going through. CBS_sentence_368

One particularly notable television special aired by CBS during this era was the Charles Collingwood-hosted tour of the White House with First Lady Jackie Kennedy, which was broadcast in black and white. CBS_sentence_369

Beginning in 1963, The Lucy Show began filming in color at the insistence of its star and producer Lucille Ball, who realized that color episodes would command more money when they were eventually sold into syndication. CBS_sentence_370

Even this show, however, was broadcast in black and white through the end of the 1964–65 season. CBS_sentence_371

This would all change by the mid-1960s, when market pressure forced CBS Television to begin adding color programs to its regular schedule for the 1965–66 season and complete the transition to the format during the 1966–67 season. CBS_sentence_372

By the fall of 1967, nearly all of CBS's television programs were in color, as was the case with those aired by NBC and ABC. CBS_sentence_373

A notable exception was The Twentieth Century, which consisted mostly of newsreel archival footage, but even this program used at least some color footage by the late 1960s. CBS_sentence_374

CBS, which had reluctantly purchased a handful of the early RCA color cameras from its archrival in the 1950s, began deploying the new color studio cameras from Philips by 1965, which bore the Norelco brand name at that time. CBS_sentence_375

In 1965, CBS telecast a new color version of Rodgers and Hammerstein's Cinderella. CBS_sentence_376

This version, starring Lesley Ann Warren and Stuart Damon in the roles formerly played by Julie Andrews and Jon Cypher, was shot on videotape (at its Television City complex in Los Angeles) rather than being telecast live, and would become an annual tradition on the network for the next nine years. CBS_sentence_377

In 1967, NBC outbid CBS for the rights to the annual telecast of The Wizard of Oz, and the film moved to NBC beginning the following year. CBS_sentence_378

However, in 1976, CBS reacquired the television rights to the film, with the network continuing to broadcast it through the end of 1997. CBS_sentence_379

CBS aired The Wizard of Oz twice in 1991, in March and again the night before Thanksgiving. CBS_sentence_380

Thereafter, it was broadcast the night before Thanksgiving. CBS_sentence_381

By the end of the 1960s, CBS was broadcasting virtually its entire programming lineup in color. CBS_sentence_382

Conglomerate CBS_section_17

Prior to the 1960s, CBS's acquisitions, such as American Record Corporation and Hytron, had mostly related to its broadcasting business. CBS_sentence_383

During the 1950s and early 1960s, CBS did operate a CBS-Columbia division, which manufactured phonographs, radios, and television sets; however, the company had problems with product quality, and CBS never achieved much success in that field. CBS_sentence_384

In 1955, CBS purchased animation studio Terrytoons from its founder Paul Terry, not only acquiring Terry's 25-year backlog of cartoons for the network, but continuing the studio's ongoing contract to provide theatrical cartoons for 20th Century Fox well into the 1960s. CBS_sentence_385

During the 1960s, CBS began an effort to diversify its portfolio and looked for suitable investments. CBS_sentence_386

Their acquisitions eventually led to a restructuring of the corporation into various operating groups and divisions. CBS_sentence_387

In 1965, CBS acquired electric guitar maker Fender from Leo Fender, who agreed to sell his company due to health problems. CBS_sentence_388

The purchase also included that of Rhodes electric pianos, which had already been acquired by Fender. CBS_sentence_389

The quality of the products manufactured by these acquired companies fell dramatically, resulting in the terms "pre-CBS" to refer to products of higher quality and "CBS" for mass-produced products of lower quality. CBS_sentence_390

In other diversification attempts, CBS would buy and later sell a variety of other properties. CBS_sentence_391

This included sports teams, especially the New York Yankees baseball club; book and magazine publishers, such as Fawcett Publications, which included Woman's Day, and Holt, Rinehart and Winston); map-makers and toy manufacturers like Gabriel Toys, Child Guidance, Wonder Products, Gym Dandy, and Ideal; X-Acto; and distributors of educational films and film strips, namely Bailey Films Inc. and Film Associates of California. CBS_sentence_392

CBS eventually merged the two film companies into a single company, BFA Educational Media. CBS_sentence_393

CBS also developed an early home video system called EVR (Electronic Video Recording), but was never able to launch it successfully. CBS_sentence_394

William Paley attempted to find the one person who could follow in his footsteps. CBS_sentence_395

However, numerous successors-in-waiting came and went. CBS_sentence_396

By the mid-1980s, investor Laurence Tisch had begun to acquire substantial holdings in CBS. CBS_sentence_397

Eventually, he gained Paley's confidence and, with his support, took control of CBS in 1986. CBS_sentence_398

Tisch's primary interest was turning profits. CBS_sentence_399

When CBS faltered, underperforming units were given the ax. CBS_sentence_400

Among the first properties to be jettisoned was the Columbia Records group, which had been part of the company since 1938. CBS_sentence_401

In 1986, Tisch also shut down the CBS Technology Center in Stamford, Connecticut, which had started in New York City in the 1930s as CBS Laboratories and had evolved to become the company's technology research and development unit. CBS_sentence_402

Through its CBS Productions unit, the company produced a few shows for non-CBS networks, like NBC's Caroline in the City. CBS_sentence_403

Columbia Records CBS_section_18

Main article: Columbia Records CBS_sentence_404

Columbia Records was acquired by CBS in 1938. CBS_sentence_405

In 1962, CBS launched CBS Records International to market Columbia recordings outside of North America, where the Columbia name was controlled by other entities. CBS_sentence_406

In 1966, CBS Records was made a separate subsidiary of the Columbia Broadcasting System. CBS_sentence_407

CBS sold the CBS Records Group to Sony on November 17, 1987, initiating a Japanese buying spree of American companies, including MCA, Pebble Beach Co., Rockefeller Center, and even the Empire State Building, which continued into the 1990s. CBS_sentence_408

The record company was rechristened as Sony Music Entertainment in 1991, as Sony had a short-term license on the CBS name. CBS_sentence_409

Sony purchased its rights to the Columbia Records name outside the United States, Canada, Spain and Japan from EMI. CBS_sentence_410

Sony now uses Columbia Records as a label name in all countries except Japan, where Sony Records remains their flagship label. CBS_sentence_411

Sony acquired the Spanish rights when Sony Music merged with Bertelsmann subsidiary BMG in 2004 as Sony BMG; Sony bought out BMG's share in 2008. CBS_sentence_412

CBS Corporation formed a new record label named CBS Records in 2006. CBS_sentence_413

Publishing CBS_section_19

In 1967, CBS entered the publishing business by acquiring Holt, Rinehart & Winston, a publisher of trade books and textbooks, as well as the magazine Field & Stream. CBS_sentence_414

The following year, CBS acquired the medical publishing company Saunders and merged it with Holt, Rinehart & Winston. CBS_sentence_415

In 1971, CBS acquired Bond/Parkhurst, the publisher of Road & Track and Cycle World. CBS_sentence_416

CBS greatly expanded its magazine business by purchasing Fawcett Publications in 1974, bringing in such magazines as Woman's Day. CBS_sentence_417

In 1982, CBS acquired British publisher Cassell from Macmillan Inc.. CBS_sentence_418

In 1984, it acquired the majority of the publications owned by Ziff Davis. CBS_sentence_419

CBS sold its book publishing businesses in 1985. CBS_sentence_420

The educational publishing division, which retained the Holt, Rinehart & Winston name, was sold to Harcourt Brace Jovanovich; the U.S. trade book division, renamed Henry Holt and Company, was sold to the West German publisher Holtzbrinck. CBS_sentence_421

Cassell was sold in a management buyout. CBS_sentence_422

CBS exited the magazine business through the sale of the unit to its executive Peter Diamandis, who later sold the magazines to Hachette Filipacchi Médias in 1988, forming Hachette Filipacchi Media U.S. CBS_sentence_423

CBS Musical Instruments division CBS_section_20

Forming the CBS Musical Instruments division, the company also acquired Fender (1965–1983), Electro-Music Inc. (Leslie speakers) (1965–1980), Rogers Drums (1966–1983), Steinway pianos (1972–1985), Gemeinhardt flutes, Lyon & Healy harps (in the late 1970s), Rodgers (institutional) organs, and Gulbransen home organs. CBS_sentence_424

The company's last musical instrument manufacturer purchase was its 1981 acquisition of the assets of then-bankrupt ARP Instruments, a developer of electronic synthesizers. CBS_sentence_425

It is widely held that the quality of Fender guitars and amplifiers declined significantly between 1965 and 1985, outraging Fender fans. CBS_sentence_426

Because of this, CBS Musical Instruments division executives executed a leveraged buyout in 1985, and created Fender Musical Instruments Corporation. CBS_sentence_427

At the same time, CBS divested itself of Rodgers, along with Steinway and Gemeinhardt, all of which were purchased by holding company Steinway Musical Properties. CBS_sentence_428

The other musical instrument manufacturing properties were also liquidated. CBS_sentence_429

Film production CBS_section_21

Main article: CBS Films CBS_sentence_430

CBS made a brief, unsuccessful move into film production in the late 1960s, when they created Cinema Center Films. CBS_sentence_431

The studio released such films as the 1969 Steve McQueen drama The Reivers and the 1970 Albert Finney musical Scrooge. CBS_sentence_432

This profitless unit was shut down in 1972; the distribution rights to the Cinema Center library today rest with Paramount Pictures for home video (via CBS Home Entertainment) and theatrical release, and with CBS Television Distribution for television syndication; most other ancillary rights remain with CBS. CBS_sentence_433

Ten years after Cinema Center ceased operations, in 1982, CBS tried again to break into the film industry by co-founding TriStar Pictures, a joint venture with Columbia Pictures and HBO. CBS_sentence_434

Despite releasing box office successes such as The Natural, Places in the Heart, and Rambo: First Blood Part II, CBS felt the studio was not making a profit, and sold its stake in TriStar to Columbia Pictures' then-corporate parent The Coca-Cola Company in 1985. CBS_sentence_435

In 2007, CBS Corporation announced its intent to re-enter the feature film business, slowly launching CBS Films and hiring key executives in the spring of 2008 to start up the new venture. CBS_sentence_436

The CBS Films name had been used previously in 1953, when it was briefly used as CBS's distributor of off-network and first-run syndicated programming to local television stations in the United States and internationally. CBS_sentence_437

Home video CBS_section_22

CBS entered into the home video market when it partnered with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer to form MGM/CBS Home Video in 1978. CBS_sentence_438

The joint venture was dissolved in 1982, after MGM purchased United Artists. CBS_sentence_439

CBS later partnered with 20th Century Fox to form CBS/Fox Video. CBS_sentence_440

CBS's duty was to release some of the film titles released by TriStar Pictures under the CBS/Fox Video label. CBS_sentence_441

CBS Toys Division CBS_section_23

The CBS Toys Division of CBS Inc. purchased Child Guidance, Creative Playthings of Framingham, Massachusetts and Hagerstown, Maryland; Gilbert; Gym-Dandy of Bossier City, Louisiana; Hubley; Ideal; Kohner; and Wonder Products of Collierville, Tennessee. CBS_sentence_442

CBS entered the video game market briefly through its acquisition of Gabriel Toys (renamed CBS Toys). CBS_sentence_443

It published several arcade adaptations and original titles under the name CBS Electronics for the Atari 2600 and other consoles and computers; it also produced one of the first karaoke players. CBS_sentence_444

CBS Electronics also distributed all Coleco-related video game products in Canada, including the ColecoVision. CBS_sentence_445

CBS later sold Gabriel Toys to View-Master, which eventually ended up as part of Mattel. CBS_sentence_446

New owners CBS_section_24

By the early 1990s, profits had fallen as a result of competition from cable television and video rentals, as well as the high cost of programming. CBS_sentence_447

About 20 former CBS affiliates switched to the rapidly rising Fox network in the mid-1990s, the first of which were reportedly KDFX in Palm Springs, California, and KECY in Yuma, Arizona, which made the switch in August 1994. CBS_sentence_448

Many other television markets lost their CBS affiliate for a while. CBS_sentence_449

The network's ratings were acceptable, but it struggled with an image of stodginess. CBS_sentence_450

Laurence Tisch lost interest and sought a new buyer. CBS_sentence_451

Westinghouse Electric Corporation CBS_section_25

In the mid-1990s, CBS formed an affiliate relationship with the Westinghouse Electric Corporation partially in reaction to a 1994 agreement between Fox and New World Communications, which resulted in the loss of many of CBS's longtime affiliates owned by New World. CBS_sentence_452

In response, CBS began affiliating with UHF stations in Detroit and Cleveland, namely former Fox affiliate WOIO and low-rated ethnic independent WGPR-TV (now WWJ-TV), which CBS eventually purchased. CBS_sentence_453

This was, however, only after CBS failed to woo WXYZ-TV and WEWS-TV, the respective longtime ABC affiliates in those markets (the latter of which had been a CBS affiliate from 1947 to 1955), to replace departing affiliates WJBK and WJW-TV. CBS_sentence_454

The E. CBS_sentence_455 W. Scripps Company actually used this situation as leverage to sign a group-wide affiliation deal with ABC that kept the network on WXYZ and WEWS. CBS_sentence_456

Included in the Scripps deal was Baltimore NBC affiliate WMAR-TV, which had been affiliated with CBS from 1948 to 1981. CBS_sentence_457

With this agreement, WMAR-TV was able to displace longtime ABC affiliate and Westinghouse-owned WJZ-TV, which had long been the Baltimore market's dominant station, while WMAR-TV had been in a distant third and had even nearly lost its broadcast license in 1991. CBS_sentence_458

WMAR-TV's loss of popularity did not sit well with Westinghouse. CBS_sentence_459

Even before the New World deal, the company had been seeking a group-wide affiliation deal of its own, but it accelerated the process after the Scripps–ABC agreement. CBS_sentence_460

In July 1994, Westinghouse signed a long-term deal to affiliate all five of its television stations, including WJZ-TV, with CBS. CBS_sentence_461

KPIX in San Francisco and KDKA-TV in Pittsburgh were already longtime affiliates of the network, while KYW-TV in Philadelphia and WBZ-TV in Boston were longtime affiliates of NBC. CBS_sentence_462

The network decided to sell off its Philadelphia owned-and-operated station WCAU to NBC, even though it was rated much higher locally than KYW-TV at the time. CBS_sentence_463

While WJZ-TV and WBZ-TV switched to CBS in January 1995, the KYW-TV swap was delayed after CBS discovered that an outright sale of channel 10 would have resulted in massive taxes on the proceeds from the deal. CBS_sentence_464

To solve this, CBS, NBC, and Westinghouse, known also as Group W, entered into a complex ownership/affiliation deal in November 1994 (which was scheduled to take effect in the fall of 1995). CBS_sentence_465

NBC traded KCNC-TV in Denver and KUTV in Salt Lake City (which had been acquired by NBC earlier that year) to CBS in return for WCAU, which, for legal reasons, was considered an even trade. CBS_sentence_466

CBS then traded controlling interest in KCNC and KUTV to Group W in return for a minority stake in KYW-TV. CBS_sentence_467

As compensation for the loss of stations, NBC and CBS traded transmitter facilities in Miami, with the NBC-owned WTVJ moving to channel 6 and the CBS-owned WCIX moving to channel 4 as WFOR-TV. CBS_sentence_468

On August 1, 1995, Westinghouse announced it was acquiring CBS outright for $5.4 billion; the deal was completed on November 24. CBS_sentence_469

Under the name Group W, it had been one of the major broadcasting group owners of commercial radio and television stations since 1920, and was seeking to transition from a station operator to a major media company with its purchase of CBS. CBS_sentence_470

Except for KUTV, which CBS sold to Four Points Media Group in 2007 and is now owned by Sinclair Broadcast Group, all of the stations involved in the initial Westinghouse deal as well as WWJ-TV remain owned-and-operated stations of the network to this day. CBS_sentence_471

Westinghouse's acquisition of CBS turned the combined company's all-news radio stations in New York City (WCBS and WINS) and Los Angeles (KNX and KFWB) from bitter rivals to sister stations. CBS_sentence_472

While KFWB switched from all-news to news/talk in 2009, WINS and WCBS remain all-news stations. CBS_sentence_473

WINS, which had pioneered the all-news format in 1965, generally restricts its news coverage to the five core New York City boroughs, while WCBS, with its much more powerful signal, covers the surrounding tri-state metropolitan area. CBS_sentence_474

In Chicago, Westinghouse's WMAQ began to feature long-form stories and discussions about the news. CBS_sentence_475

It often focused on business news so as to differentiate itself from WBBM. CBS_sentence_476

This lasted until 2000, when an FCC ownership situation resulted in CBS Radio's decision to move its all-sports network WSCR to WMAQ's signal and to sell off the former WSCR facility. CBS_sentence_477

In 1997, Westinghouse acquired the Infinity Broadcasting Corporation, which owned more than 150 radio stations, for $4.9 billion. CBS_sentence_478

Also that year, Westinghouse created CBS Cable, a division formed upon the acquisition of the Nashville Network (now Spike) and Country Music Television from the Gaylord Entertainment Company, and the creation of CBS Eye on People, which was later sold to Discovery Communications. CBS_sentence_479

CBS also owned the Spanish-language news network CBS Telenoticias. CBS_sentence_480

Following the Infinity purchase, operation and sales responsibilities for the CBS Radio Network were handed to Infinity, which turned management over to Westwood One, a major radio program syndicator that Infinity managed. CBS_sentence_481

Westwood One had previously purchased the Mutual Broadcasting System, NBC's radio networks, and the rights to use the "NBC Radio Networks" name. CBS_sentence_482

For a time, CBS Radio, NBC Radio Networks, and CNN's radio news services were all under the Westwood One umbrella. CBS_sentence_483

As of 2008, Westwood One continues to distribute CBS radio programming, but as a self-managed company that put itself up for sale and found a buyer for a significant amount of its stock. CBS_sentence_484

The same year the company purchased Infinity, Westinghouse changed its name to CBS Corporation, and its corporate headquarters were moved from Pittsburgh to New York City. CBS_sentence_485

To underline the change in emphasis, all non-entertainment assets were put up for sale. CBS_sentence_486

Another 90 radio stations were added to Infinity's portfolio in 1998, with the acquisition of American Radio Systems Corporation for $2.6 billion. CBS_sentence_487

In 1999, CBS paid $2.5 billion to acquire King World Productions, a television syndication company whose programs included The Oprah Winfrey Show, Jeopardy! CBS_sentence_488 , and Wheel of Fortune. CBS_sentence_489

By the end of 1999, apart from the retention of rights to the name for brand licensing purposes, all pre-CBS elements of Westinghouse's industrial past were gone. CBS_sentence_490

Viacom CBS_section_26

By the 1990s, CBS had become a broadcasting giant. CBS_sentence_491

However, in 1999, entertainment conglomerate Viacom, which had been created by CBS in 1952 as CBS Films, Inc. to syndicate old CBS series and was eventually spun off under the Viacom name in 1971, announced it was taking over its former parent in a deal valued at $37 billion. CBS_sentence_492

The takeover was completed on May 4, 2000, upon which Viacom became the second largest entertainment company in the world. CBS_sentence_493

Incidentally, Viacom had purchased Paramount Pictures, which had once invested in CBS, in 1994. CBS_sentence_494

CBS Corporation, ViacomCBS, and CBS Studios CBS_section_27

Having assembled all the elements of a communications empire, Viacom found that the promised synergy was not there. CBS_sentence_495

As such, in 2005, Viacom announced it would split the company into two separately operated but commonly controlled entities, with CBS becoming the center of CBS Corporation. CBS_sentence_496

As the legal successor to the old Viacom, the company's properties included the broadcasting entities (CBS and UPN, the latter of which later merged with Time Warner-owned WB to form the CW; the Viacom Television Stations Group, which became CBS Television Stations; and CBS Radio); Paramount Television's production operations (now known as CBS Television Studios); Viacom Outdoor advertising (renamed CBS Outdoor); Showtime Networks; Simon & Schuster; and Paramount Parks, which the company sold in May 2006. CBS_sentence_497

The other company, which retained the Viacom name, kept Paramount Pictures, assorted MTV Networks, BET Networks, and Famous Music, the last of which was sold to Sony/ATV Music Publishing in May 2007. CBS_sentence_498

As a result of the Viacom/CBS corporate split and other recent acquisitions, CBS (under the moniker CBS Studios) owns a massive film and television library spanning nine decades. CBS_sentence_499

These include acquired material from Viacom and CBS in-house productions and network programs, as well as programs produced by Paramount and others originally aired on competing networks such as ABC and NBC. CBS_sentence_500

Series and other material in this library include I Love Lucy, The Honeymooners, The Twilight Zone, Hawaii Five-O (both the original and current remake), Gunsmoke, The Fugitive, The Love Boat, Little House on the Prairie (U.S. television rights only), Cheers, Becker, Family Ties, Happy Days and its spin-offs, The Brady Bunch, Star Trek, The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles (distribution rights on behalf of copyright holder Lucasfilm), Evening Shade, Duckman, CSI: Crime Scene Investigation and its spin-offs, the CBS theatrical library (including My Fair Lady and Scrooge), and the entire Terrytoons library from 1930 forward. CBS_sentence_501

ViacomCBS is owned by National Amusements, the Sumner Redstone-owned company that controlled the original Viacom prior to the split. CBS_sentence_502

Paramount Home Entertainment continues to handle DVD and Blu-ray distribution for the CBS library. CBS_sentence_503

In August 2019, Viacom and CBS reunited to invest in more films and television and to become a bigger player in the growing business of streaming video. CBS_sentence_504

The deal was completed on December 4, 2019. CBS_sentence_505

ViacomCBS has a combined library with over 140,000 TV episodes and 3,600 film titles, including the Star Trek and Mission: Impossible franchises. CBS_sentence_506

Programming CBS_section_28

Main articles: List of programs broadcast by CBS, CBS News, and CBS Sports CBS_sentence_507

As of 2013, CBS provides 87​⁄2 hours of regularly scheduled network programming each week. CBS_sentence_508

The network provides 22 hours of primetime programming to affiliated stations Monday through Saturday from 8:00 to 11:00 p.m. and Sunday from 7:00–11:00 p.m. Eastern and Pacific time (7:00–10:00 p.m. Monday through Saturday and 6:00–10:00 p.m. on Sunday in Central/Mountain time). CBS_sentence_509

The network also provides daytime programming from 10:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m. weekdays, including a half-hour break for local news and features the game shows The Price Is Right and Let's Make a Deal, soap operas The Young and the Restless and The Bold and the Beautiful, and talk show The Talk. CBS_sentence_510

CBS News programming includes CBS This Morning from 7:00 to 9:00 a.m. weekdays and Saturdays; nightly editions of CBS Evening News; the Sunday political talk show Face the Nation; early morning news program CBS Morning News; and the newsmagazines 60 Minutes, CBS News Sunday Morning, and 48 Hours. CBS_sentence_511

On weeknights, CBS airs the talk shows The Late Show with Stephen Colbert and The Late Late Show with James Corden. CBS_sentence_512

CBS Sports programming is also provided most weekend afternoons. CBS_sentence_513

Due to the unpredictable length of sporting events, CBS occasionally delays scheduled primetime programs to allow the programs to air in their entirety, a practice most commonly seen with Sunday Night Football. CBS_sentence_514

In addition to rights to sports events from major sports organizations such as the NFL, PGA, and NCAA, CBS broadcasts the CBS Sports Spectacular, a sports anthology series which fills certain weekend afternoon time slots prior to (or in some cases, in lieu of) a major sporting event. CBS_sentence_515

Daytime CBS_section_29

Main article: CBS Daytime CBS_sentence_516

CBS's daytime schedule is the longest among the major networks at 4​⁄2 hours. CBS_sentence_517

It is the home of the long-running game show The Price Is Right, which began production in 1972 and is the longest continuously running daytime game show on network television. CBS_sentence_518

After being hosted by Bob Barker for 35 years, the show has been hosted since 2007 by actor and comedian Drew Carey. CBS_sentence_519

The network is also home to the current incarnation of Let's Make a Deal, hosted by singer and comedian Wayne Brady. CBS_sentence_520

CBS is the only commercial broadcast network that continues to broadcast daytime game shows. CBS_sentence_521

Notable game shows that once aired as part of the network's daytime lineup include Match Game, Tattletales, The $10/25,000 Pyramid, Press Your Luck, Card Sharks, Family Feud, and Wheel of Fortune. CBS_sentence_522

Past game shows that have had both daytime and prime time runs on the network include Beat the Clock, To Tell the Truth, and Password. CBS_sentence_523

Two long-running primetime-only games were the panel shows What's My Line? CBS_sentence_524

and I've Got a Secret. CBS_sentence_525

The network is also home to The Talk, a panel talk show similar in format to ABC's The View. CBS_sentence_526

It debuted in October 2010 and is hosted by moderator Carrie Ann Inaba with Marie Osmond, Sharon Osbourne, Eve, and Sheryl Underwood). CBS_sentence_527

CBS Daytime airs two daytime soap operas each weekday: the hour-long series The Young and the Restless, which debuted in 1973, and the half-hour series The Bold and the Beautiful, which debuted in 1987. CBS_sentence_528

CBS has long aired the most soap operas out of the Big Three networks, carrying 3​⁄2 hours of soaps on its daytime lineup from 1982 to 2009, and still retains the longest daily schedule. CBS_sentence_529

Other than Guiding Light, notable daytime soap operas that once aired on CBS include As the World Turns, Love of Life, Search for Tomorrow, The Secret Storm, The Edge of Night, and Capitol. CBS_sentence_530

Children's programming CBS_section_30

Main article: Children's programming on CBS CBS_sentence_531

CBS broadcast the live-action series Captain Kangaroo on weekday mornings from 1955 to 1982, and on Saturdays until 1984. CBS_sentence_532

From 1971 to 1986, CBS News produced a series of one-minute segments titled In the News, which aired between other Saturday morning programs. CBS_sentence_533

Otherwise, CBS's children's programming has mostly focused on animated series such as reruns of Mighty Mouse, Looney Tunes, and Tom and Jerry cartoons, as well as Scooby-Doo, Fat Albert and the Cosby Kids, Jim Henson's Muppet Babies, Garfield and Friends, and Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles. CBS_sentence_534

In 1997, CBS premiered Wheel 2000, a children's version of the syndicated game show Wheel of Fortune which aired simultaneously on the Game Show Network. CBS_sentence_535

In September 1998, CBS began contracting the time period out to other companies to provide programming and material for its Saturday morning schedule. CBS_sentence_536

The first of these outsourced blocks was the CBS Kidshow, which ran until 2000 and featured programming from Canadian studio Nelvana such as Anatole, Mythic Warriors, Rescue Heroes, and Flying Rhino Junior High. CBS_sentence_537

After its agreement with Nelvana ended, the network then entered into a deal with Nickelodeon to air programming from its Nick Jr. block beginning in September 2000, under the banner Nick Jr. on CBS. CBS_sentence_538

By the time of the deal, Nickelodeon and CBS were corporate sisters through the latter's then parent company Viacom as a result of its 2000 merger with CBS Corporation. CBS_sentence_539

From 2002 to 2005, live-action and animated Nickelodeon series aimed at older children also aired as part of the block under the name Nick on CBS. CBS_sentence_540

Following the Viacom-CBS split, the network decided to discontinue the Nickelodeon content deal. CBS_sentence_541

In March 2006, CBS entered into a three-year agreement with DIC Entertainment, which was acquired later that year by the Cookie Jar Group, to program the Saturday morning time slot as part of a deal that included distribution of select tape-delayed Formula One auto races. CBS_sentence_542

The KOL Secret Slumber Party on CBS replaced Nick Jr. on CBS that September, with the inaugural lineup featuring two new first-run live-action programs, one animated series that originally aired in syndication in 2005, and three shows produced prior to 2006. CBS_sentence_543

In mid-2007, KOL, the children's service of AOL, withdrew sponsorship from CBS's Saturday morning block, which was subsequently renamed KEWLopolis. CBS_sentence_544

Complementing CBS's 2007 lineup were Care Bears, Strawberry Shortcake, and Sushi Pack. CBS_sentence_545

On February 24, 2009, it was announced that CBS would renew its contract with Cookie Jar for another three seasons through 2012. CBS_sentence_546

On September 19, 2009, KEWLopolis was renamed Cookie Jar TV. CBS_sentence_547

On July 24, 2013, CBS entered into an agreement with Litton Entertainment, which already programmed a syndicated Saturday morning block exclusive to ABC stations and would later produce a block for CBS sister network The CW that would debut the following year, to launch a new Saturday morning block featuring live-action reality-based lifestyle, wildlife, and sports series. CBS_sentence_548

The Litton-produced CBS Dream Team block, aimed at teenagers 13 to 16 years old, debuted on September 28, 2013, replacing Cookie Jar TV. CBS_sentence_549

Specials CBS_section_31

Animated primetime holiday specials CBS_section_32

CBS was the original broadcast network home of the animated primetime holiday specials based on the Peanuts comic strip, beginning with A Charlie Brown Christmas in 1965. CBS_sentence_550

Over 30 holiday Peanuts specials (each for a specific holiday such as Halloween) were broadcast on CBS until 2000, when the broadcast rights were acquired by ABC. CBS_sentence_551

CBS also aired several primetime animated specials based on the works of Dr. CBS_sentence_552 Seuss (Theodor Geisel), beginning with How the Grinch Stole Christmas in 1966, as well as several specials based on the Garfield comic strip during the 1980s (which led to Garfield getting his own Saturday morning cartoon on the network, Garfield and Friends, which ran from 1988 to 1995). CBS_sentence_553

Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer, produced in stop motion by Rankin/Bass, has been another annual holiday staple of CBS; however, that special first aired on NBC in 1964. CBS_sentence_554

As of 2011, Rudolph and Frosty the Snowman are the only two pre-1990 animated specials remaining on CBS; the broadcast rights to the Charlie Brown specials are now held by ABC, The Grinch rights by NBC, and the rights to the Garfield specials by Boomerang. CBS_sentence_555

All of these animated specials, from 1973 to 1990, began with a fondly remembered seven-second animated opening sequence, in which the words "A CBS Special Presentation" were displayed in colorful lettering (the ITC Avant Garde typeface, widely used in the 1970s, was used for the title logo). CBS_sentence_556

The word "SPECIAL", in all caps and repeated multiple times in multiple colors, slowly zoomed out from the frame in a spinning counterclockwise motion against a black background, and rapidly zoomed back into frame as a single word, in white, at the end; the sequence was accompanied by a jazzy though majestic up-tempo fanfare with dramatic horns and percussion (which was edited incidental music from the CBS crime drama Hawaii Five-O, titled "Call to Danger" on the Capitol Records soundtrack LP). CBS_sentence_557

This opening sequence appeared immediately before all CBS specials of the period (such as the Miss USA pageants and the annual presentation of the Kennedy Center Honors), in addition to animated specials (this opening was presumably designed by or under the supervision of longtime CBS creative director Lou Dorfsman, who oversaw print and on-air graphics for CBS for nearly 30 years, replacing William Golden, who died in 1959). CBS_sentence_558

Classical music specials CBS_section_33

CBS was also responsible for airing the series of Young People's Concerts, conducted by Leonard Bernstein. CBS_sentence_559

Telecast every few months between 1958 and 1972, first in black-and-white and then in color beginning in 1966, these programs introduced millions of children to classical music through the eloquent commentaries of Bernstein. CBS_sentence_560

The specials were nominated for several Emmy Awards, including two wins in 1961 and later in 1966, and were among the first programs ever broadcast from the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts. CBS_sentence_561

Over the years, CBS has broadcast three different productions of Tchaikovsky's ballet The Nutcracker – two live telecasts of the George Balanchine New York City Ballet production in 1957 and 1958 respectively, a little-known German-American filmed production in 1965 (which was subsequently repeated three times and starred Edward Villella, Patricia McBride and Melissa Hayden), and beginning in 1977, the Mikhail Baryshnikov staging of the ballet, starring the Russian dancer along with Gelsey Kirkland – a version that would become a television classic, and remains so today (the broadcast of this production later moved to PBS). CBS_sentence_562

In April 1986, CBS presented a slightly abbreviated version of Horowitz in Moscow, a live piano recital by pianist Vladimir Horowitz, which marked his return to Russia after over 60 years. CBS_sentence_563

The recital was televised as an episode of CBS News Sunday Morning (televised at 9:00 a.m. Eastern Time in the U.S., as the recital was performed simultaneously at 4:00 p.m. in Russia). CBS_sentence_564

It was so successful that CBS repeated it a mere two months later by popular demand, this time on videotape, rather than live. CBS_sentence_565

In later years, the program was shown as a standalone special on PBS; the current DVD of the telecast omits the commentary by Charles Kuralt, but includes additional selections not heard on the CBS telecast. CBS_sentence_566

In 1986, CBS telecast Carnegie Hall: The Grand Reopening in primetime, in what was now a rare move for a commercial broadcast network, since most primetime classical music specials were relegated to PBS and A&E by this time. CBS_sentence_567

The program was a concert commemorating the re-opening of Carnegie Hall after its complete renovation. CBS_sentence_568

It featured, along with luminaries such as Leonard Bernstein, popular music artists such as Frank Sinatra. CBS_sentence_569

Cinderella CBS_section_34

In order to compete with NBC, which produced the televised version of the Mary Martin Broadway production of Peter Pan, CBS responded with a musical production of Cinderella, with music by Richard Rodgers and lyrics by Oscar Hammerstein II. CBS_sentence_570

Based upon the classic Charles Perrault fairy tale, it is the only Rodgers and Hammerstein musical to have been written for television. CBS_sentence_571

It was originally broadcast live in color on CBS on March 31, 1957 as a vehicle for Julie Andrews, who played the title role; that broadcast was seen by over 100 million people. CBS_sentence_572

It was subsequently remade by CBS in 1965, with Lesley Ann Warren, Stuart Damon, Ginger Rogers, and Walter Pidgeon among its stars; the remake also included the new song "Loneliness of Evening", which was originally composed in 1949 for South Pacific but was not performed in that musical. CBS_sentence_573

This version was rebroadcast several times on CBS into the early 1970s, and is occasionally broadcast on various cable networks to this day; both versions are available on DVD. CBS_sentence_574

National Geographic CBS_section_35

CBS was also the original broadcast home for the primetime specials produced by the National Geographic Society. CBS_sentence_575

The Geographic series in the U.S. started on CBS in 1964, before moving to ABC in 1973 (the specials subsequently moved to PBS – under the production of Pittsburgh member station WQED – in 1975 and NBC in 1995, before returning to PBS in 2000). CBS_sentence_576

The specials have featured stories on many scientific figures such as Louis Leakey, Jacques Cousteau and Jane Goodall, that not only featured their work but helped make them internationally known and accessible to millions. CBS_sentence_577

A majority of the specials were narrated by various actors, notably Alexander Scourby during the CBS run. CBS_sentence_578

The success of the specials led in part to the creation of the National Geographic Channel, a cable channel launched in January 2001 as a joint venture between the National Geographic Society and Fox Cable Networks. CBS_sentence_579

The specials' distinctive theme music, by Elmer Bernstein, was also adopted by the National Geographic Channel. CBS_sentence_580

Other notable specials CBS_section_36

From 1949 to 2002, the Pillsbury Bake-Off, an annual national cooking contest, was broadcast on CBS as a special. CBS_sentence_581

Hosts for the broadcast included Arthur Godfrey, Art Linkletter, Bob Barker, Gary Collins, Willard Scott (although under contract with CBS's rival NBC) and Alex Trebek. CBS_sentence_582

The Miss USA beauty pageant aired on CBS from 1963 to 2002; during a large portion of that period, the telecast was often emceed by the host of one of the network's game shows. CBS_sentence_583

John Charles Daly hosted the show from 1963 to 1966, succeeded by Bob Barker from 1967 to 1987 (at which point Barker, an animal rights activist who eventually convinced producers of The Price Is Right to cease offering fur coats as prizes on the program, quit in a dispute over their use), Alan Thicke in 1988, Dick Clark from 1989 to 1993, and Bob Goen from 1994 to 1996. CBS_sentence_584

The pageant's highest viewership was recorded in the early 1980s, when it regularly topped the Nielsen ratings on the week of its broadcast. CBS_sentence_585

Viewership dropped sharply throughout the 1990s and 2000s, from an estimated viewership of 20 million to an average of 7 million from 2000 to 2001. CBS_sentence_586

In 2002, Donald Trump (owner of the Miss USA pageant's governing body, the Miss Universe Organization) brokered a new deal with NBC, giving it half-ownership of the Miss USA, Miss Universe and Miss Teen USA pageants and moving them to that network as part of an initial five-year contract, which began in 2003 and ended in 2015 after 12 years amid Trump's controversial remarks about Mexican immigrants during the launch of his 2016 campaign for the Republican presidential nomination. CBS_sentence_587

On June 1, 1977, it was announced that Elvis Presley had signed a deal with CBS to appear in a new television special. CBS_sentence_588

Under the agreement, CBS would videotape Presley's concerts during the summer of 1977; the special was filmed during Presley's final tour at stops in Omaha, Nebraska (on June 19) and Rapid City, South Dakota (on June 21 of that year). CBS_sentence_589

CBS aired the special, Elvis in Concert, on October 3, 1977, nearly two months after Presley's death in his Graceland mansion on August 16. CBS_sentence_590

Stations CBS_section_37

Main articles: List of CBS television affiliates (table), List of CBS television affiliates (by U.S. state), and CBS Television Stations CBS_sentence_591

CBS has 15 owned-and-operated stations, and current and pending affiliation agreements with 228 additional television stations encompassing 51 states, the District of Columbia, two U.S. possessions, Bermuda and St. CBS_sentence_592 Vincent and the Grenadines. CBS_sentence_593

The network has a national reach of 95.96% of all households in the United States (or 299,861,665 Americans with at least one television set). CBS_sentence_594

Currently, New Jersey, New Hampshire and Delaware are the only U.S. states where CBS does not have a locally licensed affiliate (New Jersey is served by New York City O&O WCBS-TV and Philadelphia O&O KYW-TV; Delaware is served by KYW and Salisbury, Maryland affiliate WBOC-TV; and New Hampshire is served by Boston O&O WBZ-TV and Burlington, Vermont affiliate WCAX-TV). CBS_sentence_595

CBS maintains affiliations with low-power stations (broadcasting either in analog or digital) in a few markets, such as Harrisonburg, Virginia (WSVF-CD), Palm Springs, California (KPSP-CD) and Parkersburg, West Virginia (WIYE-LD). CBS_sentence_596

In some markets, including both of those mentioned, these stations also maintain digital simulcasts on a subchannel of a co-owned/co-managed full-power television station. CBS_sentence_597

CBS also maintains a sizeable number of subchannel-only affiliations, the majority of which are with stations in cities located outside of the 50 largest Nielsen-designated markets; the largest CBS subchannel affiliate by market size is KOGG in Wailuku, Hawaii, which serves as a repeater of Honolulu affiliate KGMB (the sister station of KOGG parent KHNL). CBS_sentence_598

Nexstar Media Group is the largest operator of CBS stations by numerical total, owning 49 CBS affiliates (counting satellites); Tegna Media is the largest operator of CBS stations in terms of overall market reach, owning 15 CBS-affiliated stations (including affiliates in the larger markets in Houston, Tampa and Washington, D.C.) that reach 8.9% of the country. CBS_sentence_599

Related services CBS_section_38

Video-on-demand services CBS_section_39

CBS provides video on demand access for delayed viewing of the network's programming through various means, including via its website at CBS.com; the network's apps for iOS, Android and newer version Windows devices; a traditional VOD service called CBS on Demand available on most traditional cable and IPTV providers; and through content deals with Amazon Video (which holds exclusive streaming rights to the CBS drama series Extant and Under the Dome) and Netflix. CBS_sentence_600

Notably, however, CBS is the only major broadcast network that does not provide recent episodes of its programming on Hulu (sister network The CW does offer its programming on the streaming service, albeit on a one-week delay after becoming available on the network's website on Hulu's free service, with users of its subscription service being granted access to newer episodes of CW series eight hours after their initial broadcast), due to concerns over cannibalizing viewership of some of the network's most prominent programs; however, episode back catalogs of certain past and present CBS series are available on the service through an agreement with CBS Television Distribution. CBS_sentence_601

Upon the release of the app in March 2013, CBS restricted streaming of the most recent episode of any of the network's program on its streaming app for Apple iOS devices until eight days after their initial broadcast in order to encourage live or same-week (via both DVR and cable on demand) viewing; programming selections on the app were limited until the release of its Google Play and Windows 8 apps in October 2013, expanded the selections to include full episodes of all CBS series to which the network does not license the streaming rights to other services. CBS_sentence_602

CBS All Access CBS_section_40

Main article: CBS All Access CBS_sentence_603

On October 28, 2014, CBS launched CBS All Access, an over-the-top subscription streaming service – priced at $5.99 per month ($9.99 with the no commercials option) – which allows users to view past and present episodes of CBS shows. CBS_sentence_604

Announced on October 16, 2014 (one day after HBO announced the launch of its over-the-top service HBO Now) as the first OTT offering by a USA broadcast television network, the service initially encompassed the network's existing streaming portal at CBS.com and its mobile app for smartphones and tablet computers; CBS All Access became available on Roku on April 7, 2015, and on Chromecast on May 14, 2015. CBS_sentence_605

In addition to providing full-length episodes of CBS programs, the service allows live programming streams of local CBS affiliates in 124 markets reaching 75% of the United States. CBS_sentence_606

CBS All Access offers the most recent episodes of the network's shows the day after their original broadcast, as well as complete back catalogs of most of its current series and a wide selection of episodes of classic series from the CBS Television Distribution and ViacomCBS Domestic Media Networks program library, to subscribers of the service. CBS_sentence_607

CBS All Access also carries behind-the-scenes features from CBS programs and special events. CBS_sentence_608

Original programs expected to air on CBS All Access include a new Star Trek series, a spin-off of The Good Wife, and an online version of Big Brother. CBS_sentence_609

In December 2018, the service was launched in Australia under the name 10 All Access, due to its affiliation with ViacomCBS-owned free to air broadcaster Network 10. CBS_sentence_610

Due to local programming rights, not all content is shared with its US counterpart, whilst the Australian version also features numerous full seasons of local Network 10 shows, all commercial-free. CBS_sentence_611

It was announced in September 2020 that the service will be rebranded as Paramount+ in early 2021, and will feature content from the wider ViacomCBS library following the re-merger between CBS and Viacom. CBS_sentence_612

The name will also be extended to international markets and services such as 10 All Access. CBS_sentence_613

CBSHD CBS_section_41

CBS's master feed is transmitted in 1080i high definition, the native resolution format for CBS Corporation's television properties. CBS_sentence_614

However, seven of its affiliates transmit the network's programming in 720p HD, while seven others carry the network feed in 480i standard definition either due to technical considerations for affiliates of other major networks that carry CBS programming on a digital subchannel or because a primary feed CBS affiliate has not yet upgraded their transmission equipment to allow content to be presented in HD. CBS_sentence_615

CBS began its conversion to high definition with the launch of its simulcast feed CBS HD in September 1998, at the start of the 1998–99 season. CBS_sentence_616

That year, the network aired the first NFL game broadcast in high-definition, with the telecast of the New York JetsBuffalo Bills game on November 8. CBS_sentence_617

The network gradually converted much of its existing programming from standard definition to high definition beginning with the 2000–01 season, with select shows among that season's slate of freshmen scripted series being broadcast in HD starting with their debuts. CBS_sentence_618

The Young and the Restless became the first daytime soap opera to broadcast in HD on June 27, 2001. CBS_sentence_619

CBS's 14-year conversion to an entirely high definition schedule ended in 2014, with Big Brother and Let's Make a Deal becoming the final two series to convert from 4:3 standard definition to HD (in contrast, NBC, Fox and The CW were already airing their entire programming schedules – outside of Saturday mornings – in high definition by the 2010–11 season, while ABC was broadcasting its entire schedule in HD by the 2011–12 midseason). CBS_sentence_620

All of the network's programming has been presented in full HD since then (with the exception of certain holiday specials produced prior to 2005 – such as the Rankin-Bass specials – which continue to be presented in 4:3 SD, although some have been remastered for HD broadcast). CBS_sentence_621

On September 1, 2016, when ABC converted to a 16:9 widescreen presentation, CBS and The CW were the only remaining networks that framed their promotions and on-screen graphical elements for a 4:3 presentation, though with CBS Sports' de facto 16:9 conversion with Super Bowl 50 and their new graphical presentation designed for 16:9 framing, in practice, most CBS affiliates ask pay-TV providers to pass down a 16:9 widescreen presentation by default over their standard definition channels. CBS_sentence_622

This continued for CBS until September 24, 2018, when the network converted its on-screen graphical elements to a 16:9 widescreen presentation for all non-news and sports programs. CBS_sentence_623

Litton Entertainment continues to frame the graphical elements in their programs for Dream Team within a 4:3 frame due to them being positioned for future syndicated sales, though all of its programming has been in high definition. CBS_sentence_624

Brand identity CBS_section_42

Logos CBS_section_43

The CBS television network's initial logo, used from the 1940s to 1951, consisted of an oval spotlight which shone on the block letters "CBS". CBS_sentence_625

The present-day Eye device was conceived by William Golden, based on a Pennsylvania Dutch hex sign and a Shaker drawing; while commonly attributed to Golden, there is speculation that at least some design work on the symbol may have been done by CBS staff designer Georg Olden, one of the first African-Americans to attract some attention in the postwar graphic design field. CBS_sentence_626

The Eye device made its broadcast debut on October 20, 1951. CBS_sentence_627

The following season, as Golden prepared a new "ident", CBS President Frank Stanton insisted on keeping the Eye device and using it as much as possible (Golden died unexpectedly in 1959, and was replaced by Lou Dorfsman, one of his top assistants, who would go on to oversee all print and on-air graphics for CBS for the next 30 years). CBS_sentence_628

The CBS eye has since become an American icon. CBS_sentence_629

While the symbol's settings have changed, the Eye device itself has not been redesigned in its entire history. CBS_sentence_630

As part of a new graphical identity created by Trollbäck + Company that was introduced by the network in 2006, the eye was placed in a "trademark" position on show titles, days of the week and descriptive words, an approach highly respecting the value of the design. CBS_sentence_631

The logo is alternately known as the "Eyemark", which was also the name of CBS's domestic and international syndication divisions in the mid-to-late 1990s before the King World acquisition and Viacom merger. CBS_sentence_632

The eye logo has served as inspiration for the logos of Associated Television (ATV) in the United Kingdom, Canal 4 in El Salvador, Televisa in Mexico, France 3, Frecuencia Latina in Peru, Fuji Television in Japan, Rede Bandeirantes and Rede Globo in Brazil, and Canal 10 in Uruguay. CBS_sentence_633

In October 2011, the network celebrated the 60th anniversary of the introduction of the Eye logo, featuring special IDs of logo versions from previous CBS image campaigns being shown during the network's primetime lineup. CBS_sentence_634

The standard corporate typeface used by CBS since the 1950s until 2020 is Didot, a close relative to Bodoni. CBS_sentence_635

Didot was phased out in October 2020 as part of a major revamp and consolidation of its brand identity. CBS_sentence_636

As a result, TT Norms became the new corporate typeface of CBS with the network and the CBS News division adopting the new font this year, while CBS Sports is to adopt the new branding in 2021 during the 55th Super Bowl. CBS_sentence_637

Several of the typefaces used by CBS over the years were designed by Herb Lubalin of International Typeface Corporation, an associate of CBS art director Lou Dorfsman. CBS_sentence_638

These typefaces include Avant Garde, Lubalin Graph, and Serif Gothic. CBS_sentence_639

Image campaigns CBS_section_44

1980s CBS_section_45

CBS has developed several notable image campaigns, and several of the network's most well-known slogans were introduced in the 1980s. CBS_sentence_640

The "Reach for the Stars" campaign used during the 1981–82 season features a space theme to capitalize on both CBS's stellar improvement in the ratings and the historic launch of the space shuttle Columbia. CBS_sentence_641

1982's "Great Moments" juxtaposed scenes from classic CBS programs such as I Love Lucy with scenes from the network's then-current classics such as Dallas and M*A*S*H. From 1983 to 1986, CBS (by now firmly atop the ratings) featured a campaign based on the slogan "We've Got the Touch". CBS_sentence_642

Vocals for the campaign's jingle were contributed by Richie Havens (1983–84; one occasion in 1984–85) and Kenny Rogers (1985–86). CBS_sentence_643

The 1986–87 season ushered in the "Share the Spirit of CBS" campaign, the network's first to completely use computer graphics and digital video effects. CBS_sentence_644

Unlike most network campaign promos, the full-length version of "Share the Spirit" not only showed a brief clip preview of each new fall series, but also utilized CGI effects to map out the entire fall schedule by night. CBS_sentence_645

The success of that campaign led to the 1987–88 "CBS Spirit" (or "CBSPIRIT") campaign. CBS_sentence_646

Like its predecessor, most "CBSpirit" promos utilized a procession of clips from the network's programs. CBS_sentence_647

However, the new graphic motif was a swirling (or "swishing") blue line that was used to represent "the spirit". CBS_sentence_648

The full-length promo, like the previous year, had a special portion that identified new fall shows, but the mapped-out fall schedule shot was abandoned. CBS_sentence_649

For the 1988–89 season, CBS unveiled a new image campaign officially known as "Television You Can Feel", but more commonly identified as "You Can Feel It On CBS". CBS_sentence_650

The goal was to convey a more sensual, new-age image through distinguished, advanced-looking computer graphics and soothing music, backgrounding images and clips of emotionally powerful scenes and characters. CBS_sentence_651

However, it was this season in which CBS saw its ratings freefall, the deepest in the network's history. CBS_sentence_652

CBS ended the decade with "Get Ready for CBS", introduced with the 1989–90 season. CBS_sentence_653

The initial version was an ambitious campaign that attempted to elevate CBS out of last place (among the major networks); the motif centered around network stars interacting with each other in a remote studio set, getting ready for photo and television shoots, as well as for the new season on CBS. CBS_sentence_654

The high-energy promo song and the campaign's practices saw many customized variations by all of CBS's owned-and-operated stations and affiliates, which participated in the campaign per a network mandate. CBS_sentence_655

In addition, for the first time in history, CBS became the first broadcast network to partner with a national retailer (in this case, Kmart) to encourage viewership, with the "CBS/Kmart Get Ready Giveaway". CBS_sentence_656

1990s CBS_section_46

For the 1990–91 season, the campaign featured a new jingle performed by the Temptations, which featured an altered version of their hit "Get Ready". CBS_sentence_657

The early 1990s featured less-than-memorable campaigns, with simplified taglines such as "This is CBS" (1992) and "You're on CBS" (1995). CBS_sentence_658

Eventually, the promotions department gained momentum again late in the decade with "Welcome Home to a CBS Night" (1996–1997), simplified to Welcome Home (1997–1999) and succeeded by the spin-off campaign "The Address is CBS" (1999–2000), whose history can be traced back to a CBS slogan from the radio era of the 1940s, "The Stars' Address is CBS". CBS_sentence_659

During the 1992 season for the end-of-show network identification sequence, a three-note sound mark was introduced, which was eventually adapted into the network's IDs and production company vanity cards following the closing credits of most of its programs during the "Welcome Home" era. CBS_sentence_660

2000s CBS_section_47

Throughout the 2000s, CBS's ratings resurgence was backed by the network's "It's All Here" campaign (which introduced updated versions of the 1992 sound mark used during certain promotions and production company vanity cards during the closing credits of programs); in 2005 campaign introduced the slogan "This is CBS" Everybody's Watching", the network's strategy led to the proclamation that it was "America's Most Watched Network". CBS_sentence_661

The network's 2006 campaign introduced the slogan "We Are CBS", with Don LaFontaine providing the voiceover for the IDs (as well as certain network promos) during this period. CBS_sentence_662

In 2009, the network introduced a campaign entitled "Only CBS", in which network promotions proclaim several unique qualities it has (the slogan was also used in program promotions following the announcement of the timeslot of a particular program). CBS_sentence_663

The "America's Most Watched Network" was re-introduced by CBS in 2011, used alongside the "Only CBS" slogan. CBS_sentence_664

2020s CBS_section_48

In October 2020, CBS announced that it will begin to employ a more unified branding between the network and its divisions to strengthen brand awareness across platforms. CBS_sentence_665

This includes a new frontcap (featuring an animation of the eyemark as shapes) and five-note sonic branding that will be aired before all CBS-produced programming and event telecasts (with CBS entertainment programming using a dark blue version, CBS News using black and white, and CBS Sports using colors relating to the event), as well as CBS Television Studios being renamed to CBS Studios. CBS_sentence_666

The animation will also be used as an ID, reinstating the historic "This is CBS" tagline. CBS_sentence_667

The network also plans to discontinue its use of proclamations regarding its stature in promos, with chief marketing officer Michael Benson explaining that they aimed to "be something where people feel like they are part of the family. CBS_sentence_668

It's tough to unify if you’re bragging about yourself." CBS_sentence_669

These new elements are being rolled out in stages, with CBS News beginning to use them ahead of the 2020 presidential election, and CBS Sports planning to launch the elements for Super Bowl LV. CBS_sentence_670

International broadcasts CBS_section_49

Controversies CBS_section_50

Brown & Williamson interview CBS_section_51

In 1995, CBS refused to air a 60 Minutes segment that featured an interview with a former president of research and development for Brown & Williamson, the U.S.'s third largest tobacco company. CBS_sentence_671

The controversy raised questions about the legal roles in decision-making and whether journalistic standards should be compromised despite legal pressures and threats. CBS_sentence_672

The decision nevertheless sent shockwaves throughout the television industry, the journalism community, and the country. CBS_sentence_673

This incident was the basis for the 1999 Michael Mann-directed drama film, The Insider. CBS_sentence_674

Super Bowl XXXVIII halftime show incident CBS_section_52

Main article: Super Bowl XXXVIII halftime show controversy CBS_sentence_675

In 2004, the Federal Communications Commission imposed a record $550,000 fine, the largest fine ever for a violation of federal decency laws, against CBS for an incident during its broadcast of Super Bowl XXXVIII in which singer Janet Jackson's right breast (which was partially covered by a piece of nipple jewelry) was briefly and accidentally exposed by guest performer Justin Timberlake at the end of a duet performance of Timberlake's 2003 single "Rock Your Body" during the halftime show (produced by then sister cable network MTV). CBS_sentence_676

Following the incident, CBS apologized to its viewers and denied foreknowledge of the incident, which was televised live. CBS_sentence_677

The incident resulted in a period of increased regulation of broadcast television and radio outlets (including self-imposed content regulation by networks and syndicators), which raised concerns surrounding censorship and freedom of speech, and resulted in the FCC voting to increase its maximum fine for indecency violations from US$27,500 to US$325,000. CBS_sentence_678

In 2008, a Philadelphia federal court annulled the fine imposed on CBS, labelling it "arbitrary and capricious". CBS_sentence_679

Killian documents controversy CBS_section_53

Main article: Killian documents controversy CBS_sentence_680

On September 8, 2004, less than two months before the Presidential election in which he defeated Democratic candidate John Kerry, CBS aired a controversial episode of 60 Minutes Wednesday, which questioned then-President George W. Bush's service in the Air National Guard in 1972 and 1973. CBS_sentence_681

Following allegations of forgery, CBS News admitted that four of the documents used in the story had not been properly authenticated and admitted that their source, Bill Burkett, had admitted to having "deliberately misled" a CBS News producer who worked on the report, about the documents' origins out of a confidentiality promise to the actual source. CBS_sentence_682

The following January, CBS fired four people connected to the preparation of the segment. CBS_sentence_683

Former CBS news anchor Dan Rather filed a $70 million lawsuit against CBS and former corporate parent Viacom in September 2007, contending the story, and his termination (he resigned as CBS News chief anchor in 2005), were mishandled. CBS_sentence_684

Parts of the suit were dismissed in 2008; subsequently in 2010, the entire suit was dismissed and Rather's motion to appeal was denied. CBS_sentence_685

Hopper controversy CBS_section_54

See also: CNET § Hopper controversy CBS_sentence_686

In January 2013, CNET named Dish Network's "Hopper with Sling" digital video recorder as a nominee for the CES "Best in Show" award (which is decided by CNET on behalf of its organizers, the Consumer Electronics Association), and named it the winner in a vote by the site's staff. CBS_sentence_687

However, CBS division CBS Interactive disqualified the Hopper, and vetoed the results as CBS was in active litigation with Dish Network over its AutoHop technology (which allows users to skip commercial advertisements during recorded programs). CBS_sentence_688

CNET announced that it would no longer review any product or service provided by companies that CBS Corporation was in litigation with. CBS_sentence_689

The "Best in Show" award was instead given to the Razer Edge tablet. CBS_sentence_690

On January 14, 2013, CNET editor-in-chief Lindsey Turrentine said in a statement that its staff was in an "impossible" situation due to the conflict of interest posed by the lawsuit, and promised to prevent a similar incident from occurring again. CBS_sentence_691

The conflict also prompted the resignation of CNET senior writer Greg Sandoval. CBS_sentence_692

As a result of the controversy, the CEA announced on January 31, 2013 that CNET will no longer decide the CES Best in Show award winner due to the interference of CBS (with the position being offered to other technology publications), and the "Best in Show" award was jointly awarded to both the Hopper with Sling and Razer Edge. CBS_sentence_693

Harassment allegations CBS_section_55

In July 2018, an article by Ronan Farrow in The New Yorker claimed that thirty "current and former CBS employees described harassment, gender discrimination, or retaliation" at CBS and six women accused Les Moonves of harassment and intimidation. CBS_sentence_694

Following these allegations, it was reported on September 6, 2018 that CBS board members were negotiating Les Moonves's departure from the company. CBS_sentence_695

On September 9, 2018, The New Yorker reported that six additional women (in addition to the six original women reported in July) had raised accusations against Moonves, going back to the 1980s. CBS_sentence_696

Following this, Moonves resigned the same day as chief executive of CBS. CBS_sentence_697

Presidents of CBS Entertainment CBS_section_56

See also CBS_section_57

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CBS.