COVID-19 pandemic

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COVID-19 pandemic_table_infobox_0

COVID‑19 pandemicCOVID-19 pandemic_header_cell_0_0_0
Cases per capita

Confirmed cases per 100,000 population as of 16 December 2020COVID-19 pandemic_cell_0_1_0

Cases per capitaCOVID-19 pandemic_header_cell_0_2_0
Daily new cases

Daily new cases as of 7 December 2020 (7 day rolling average)COVID-19 pandemic_cell_0_3_0

Daily new casesCOVID-19 pandemic_header_cell_0_4_0
DiseaseCOVID-19 pandemic_header_cell_0_5_0 Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‑19)COVID-19 pandemic_cell_0_5_1
Virus strainCOVID-19 pandemic_header_cell_0_6_0 Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‑CoV‑2)COVID-19 pandemic_cell_0_6_1
SourceCOVID-19 pandemic_header_cell_0_7_0 Possibly via bats, pangolins, or bothCOVID-19 pandemic_cell_0_7_1
LocationCOVID-19 pandemic_header_cell_0_8_0 WorldwideCOVID-19 pandemic_cell_0_8_1
First outbreakCOVID-19 pandemic_header_cell_0_9_0 Wuhan, ChinaCOVID-19 pandemic_cell_0_9_1
Index caseCOVID-19 pandemic_header_cell_0_10_0 Wuhan, Hubei, ChinaCOVID-19 pandemic_cell_0_10_1
DateCOVID-19 pandemic_header_cell_0_11_0 December 2019 (2019-12) – present

(1 year, 2 weeks and 2 days)COVID-19 pandemic_cell_0_11_1

Confirmed casesCOVID-19 pandemic_header_cell_0_12_0 74,248,878COVID-19 pandemic_cell_0_12_1
Suspected casesCOVID-19 pandemic_header_cell_0_13_0 Possibly 10% of global population (WHO estimate as of early October 2020)COVID-19 pandemic_cell_0_13_1
DeathsCOVID-19 pandemic_header_cell_0_14_0 1,649,480COVID-19 pandemic_cell_0_14_1
TerritoriesCOVID-19 pandemic_header_cell_0_15_0 191COVID-19 pandemic_cell_0_15_1

The COVID-19 pandemic, also known as the coronavirus pandemic, is an ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_0

It was first identified in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_1

The World Health Organization declared the outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern in January 2020 and a pandemic in March 2020. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_2

As of 17 December 2020, more than 74.2 million cases have been confirmed, with more than 1.64 million deaths attributed to COVID-19. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_3

Symptoms of COVID-19 are highly variable, ranging from none to severe illness. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_4

The virus spreads mainly through the air when people are near each other. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_5

It leaves an infected person as they breathe, cough, sneeze, or speak and enters another person via their mouth, nose, or eyes. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_6

It might also spread via contaminated surfaces. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_7

People remain infectious for up to two weeks, and can spread the virus even if they do not have symptoms. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_8

Recommended preventive measures include social distancing, wearing a face mask in public, ventilation and air-filtering, hand washing, covering one's mouth when sneezing or coughing, disinfecting surfaces, and monitoring and self-isolation for people exposed or symptomatic. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_9

There are several COVID-19 vaccines in development. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_10

Current treatments focus on addressing symptoms while work is underway to develop therapeutic drugs that inhibit the virus. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_11

Authorities worldwide have responded by implementing travel restrictions, lockdowns, workplace hazard controls, and facility closures. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_12

Many places have also worked to increase testing capacity and trace contacts of the infected. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_13

The pandemic has caused global social and economic disruption, including the largest global recession since the Great Depression. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_14

It has led to the postponement or cancellation of events, widespread supply shortages exacerbated by panic buying, agricultural disruption and food shortages, and decreased emissions of pollutants and greenhouse gases. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_15

Educational institutions have been partially or fully closed. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_16

Misinformation has circulated through social media and mass media. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_17

There have been incidents of xenophobia and discrimination against Chinese people and against those perceived as being Chinese or as being from areas with high infection rates. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_18

Epidemiology COVID-19 pandemic_section_0

COVID-19 pandemic_table_infobox_1

Background COVID-19 pandemic_section_1

Although it is still unknown exactly where the outbreak first started, several early infected people had visited Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market, located in Wuhan, Hubei, China. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_19

On 11 February 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) named the disease "COVID-19", which is short for coronavirus disease 2019. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_20

The virus that caused the outbreak is known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a newly discovered virus closely related to bat coronaviruses, pangolin coronaviruses, and SARS-CoV. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_21

The scientific consensus is that COVID-19 has a natural origin. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_22

The probable bat-to-human infection may have been among people processing bat carcasses and guano in the production of traditional Chinese medicines. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_23

The earliest known person with symptoms was later discovered to have fallen ill on 1 December 2019, and that person did not have visible connections with the later wet market cluster. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_24

Of the early cluster of cases reported that month, two-thirds were found to have a link with the market. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_25

There are several theories about when and where the very first case (the so-called patient zero) originated. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_26

It is possible that the virus first emerged in October 2019. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_27

Cases COVID-19 pandemic_section_2

Main articles: COVID-19 pandemic by country and territory and COVID-19 pandemic cases COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_28

Official case counts refer to the number of people who have been tested for COVID-19 and whose test has been confirmed positive according to official protocols. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_29

Many countries, early on, had official policies to not test those with only mild symptoms. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_30

An analysis of the early phase of the outbreak up to 23 January estimated 86 percent of COVID-19 infections had not been detected, and that these undocumented infections were the source for 79 percent of documented cases. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_31

Several other studies, using a variety of methods, have estimated that numbers of infections in many countries are likely to be considerably greater than the reported cases. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_32

On 9 April 2020, preliminary results found that 15 percent of people tested in Gangelt, the centre of a major infection cluster in Germany, tested positive for antibodies. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_33

Screening for COVID-19 in pregnant women in New York City, and blood donors in the Netherlands, has also found rates of positive antibody tests that may indicate more infections than reported. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_34

Seroprevalence based estimates are conservative as some studies shown that persons with mild symptoms do not have detectable antibodies. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_35

Some results (such as the Gangelt study) have received substantial press coverage without first passing through peer review. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_36

Analysis by age in China indicates that a relatively low proportion of cases occur in individuals under 20. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_37

It was not clear whether this was because young people were less likely to be infected, or less likely to develop serious symptoms and seek medical attention and be tested. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_38

A retrospective cohort study in China found that children and adults were just as likely to be infected. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_39

Initial estimates of the basic reproduction number (R0) for COVID-19 in January were between 1.4 and 2.5, but a subsequent analysis concluded that it may be about 5.7 (with a 95 percent confidence interval of 3.8 to 8.9). COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_40

R0 can vary across populations and is not to be confused with the effective reproduction number (commonly just called R), which takes into account effects such as social distancing and herd immunity. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_41

By mid-May 2020, the effective R was close to or below 1.0 in many countries, meaning the spread of the disease in these areas at that time was stable or decreasing. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_42

COVID-19 pandemic_unordered_list_0

  • COVID-19 pandemic_item_0_0
  • COVID-19 pandemic_item_0_1
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Deaths COVID-19 pandemic_section_3

Main articles: COVID-19 pandemic deaths and COVID-19 pandemic death rates by country COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_43

Further information: List of deaths due to COVID-19 COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_44

Official deaths from COVID-19 generally refer to people who died after testing positive according to protocols. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_45

This may ignore deaths of people who die without having been tested. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_46

Conversely, deaths of people who had underlying conditions may lead to over-counting. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_47

Comparison of statistics for deaths for all causes versus the seasonal average indicates excess mortality in many countries. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_48

This may include deaths due to strained healthcare systems and bans on elective surgery. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_49

The first confirmed death was in Wuhan on 9 January 2020. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_50

The first reported death outside of China occurred on 1 February in the Philippines, and the first reported death outside Asia was in the United States on 6 February. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_51

More than 95% of the people who contract COVID-19 recover. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_52

Otherwise, the time between symptoms onset and death usually ranges from 6 to 41 days, typically about 14 days. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_53

As of 17 December 2020, more than 1.64 million deaths had been attributed to COVID-19. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_54

People at the greatest risk from COVID-19 tend to be those with underlying conditions, such as a weakened immune system, serious heart or lung problems, severe obesity, or the elderly. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_55

On 24 March 2020, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) of the United States, indicated the World Health Organization (WHO) had provided two codes for COVID-19: U07.1 when confirmed by laboratory testing and U07.2 for clinically or epidemiological diagnosis where laboratory confirmation is inconclusive or not available. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_56

The CDC noted that "Because laboratory test results are not typically reported on death certificates in the U.S., [the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS)] is not planning to implement U07.2 for mortality statistics" and that U07.1 would be used "If the death certificate reports terms such as 'probable COVID-19' or 'likely COVID-19'." COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_57

The CDC also noted "It Is not likely that NCHS will follow up on these cases" and while the "underlying cause depends upon what and where conditions are reported on the death certificate, ... the rules for coding and selection of the ... cause of death are expected to result in COVID–19 being the underlying cause more often than not." COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_58

On 16 April 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO), in its formal publication of the two codes, U07.1 and U07.2, "recognized that in many countries detail as to the laboratory confirmation... will not be reported [and] recommended, for mortality purposes only, to code COVID-19 provisionally to code U07.1 unless it is stated as 'probable' or 'suspected'." COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_59

It was also noted that the WHO "does not distinguish" between infection by SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_60

Multiple measures are used to quantify mortality. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_61

These numbers vary by region and over time, influenced by testing volume, healthcare system quality, treatment options, government response, time since the initial outbreak, and population characteristics, such as age, sex, and overall health. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_62

Countries like Belgium include deaths from suspected cases of COVID-19, regardless of whether the person was tested, resulting in higher numbers compared to countries that include only test-confirmed cases. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_63

The death-to-case ratio reflects the number of deaths attributed to COVID-19 divided by the number of diagnosed cases within a given time interval. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_64

Based on Johns Hopkins University statistics, the global death-to-case ratio is 2.2 percent (1,649,480 deaths for 74,248,878 cases) as of 17 December 2020. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_65

The number varies by region. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_66

COVID-19 pandemic_unordered_list_1

  • COVID-19 pandemic_item_1_4
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Infection fatality ratio (IFR) COVID-19 pandemic_section_4

The most important metric in assessing death rate is the infection fatality ratio (IFR), which is deaths attributed to disease divided by individuals infected (including all asymptomatic and undiagnosed) to-date. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_67

In March, a peer-reviewed analysis of pre-serology data from mainland China yielded an overall IFR of 0.66% (with age-bracketed values ranging from 0.00161% for 0–9 years to 0.595% for 50–59 years to 7.8% for > 80 years). COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_68

In April 2020, an IFR range of 0.12–1.08% was derived from non-peer-reviewed serology surveys, with the upper bound characterized as much more credible and the range indicated as from 3 to 27 times deadlier than influenza (0.04%). COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_69

In July 2020, the US CDC adopted the IFR as a "more directly measurable parameter for disease severity for COVID-19" and computed an overall 'best estimate' for planning purposes for the U.S. of 0.65%. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_70

In September, the CDC computed an age-bracketed 'best estimate' for the U.S. of 0.003% for 0–19 years; 0.02% for 20–49 years; 0.5% for 50–69 years; and 5.4% for 70+ years. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_71

In August 2020, the WHO reported serology testing for three locations in Europe (with some data through 2 June) that showed IFR overall estimates converging at approximately 0.5-1%. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_72

A systematic review article in The BMJ advised that "caution is warranted ... using serological tests for ... epidemiological surveillance" and called for higher quality studies assessing accuracy with reference to a standard of "RT-PCR performed on at least two consecutive specimens, and, when feasible, includ[ing] viral cultures." COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_73

CEBM researchers have called for in-hospital 'case definition' to record "CT lung findings and associated blood tests" and for the WHO to produce a "protocol to standardise the use and interpretation of PCR" with continuous re-calibration. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_74

In September 2020, a Bulletin of the World Health Organization article by John Ioannidis estimated global IFR inferred from seroprevalence data at 0.23% overall and 0.05% for people < 70 years, much lower than estimates made earlier in the pandemic. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_75

Ioannides criticized prior "average IFR ... irresponsibly circulated widely in media and social media" as "probably extremely flawed as they depended on erroneous modeling assumptions, and/or focused only on selecting mostly studies from countries [with a] high death burden (that indeed have higher IFRs), and/or were done by inexperienced authors who used overtly wrong meta-analysis methods in a situation where there is extreme between-study heterogeneity." COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_76

As the data for his analysis was drawn "predominantly from hard-hit epicenters", Ioannides indicates that even lower "average values of 0.15–0.25% ... and 0.03–0.04% for <70 years) as of October 2020 are plausible." COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_77

He also notes that in European countries with a large numbers of cases and deaths and in the U.S., "many, and in many cases most, deaths occurred in nursing homes". COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_78

On 6 October 2020, Dr. Mike Ryan, director of the WHO's Health Emergencies Programme announced "Our current best estimates tell us that about 10% of the global population may have been infected by this virus." COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_79

Also in October, the Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (CEBM) reported a 'presumed estimate' of global IFR at between 0.10% to 0.35%, noting that this will vary between populations due to differences in demographics. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_80

These researchers noted a decrease in IFR in England over time; and, for the UK and Italy (the two Europeans nations worst hit by COVID-19), attribute the rise in daily cases, stability in daily deaths, and shift of cases to a younger population to waning viral circulation, misapplication of testing, and misinterpretation of test results rather than to prevention, treatment, or virus mutation. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_81

Case fatality ratio (CFR) COVID-19 pandemic_section_5

Another metric in assessing death rate is the case fatality ratio (CFR), which is deaths attributed to disease divided by individuals diagnosed to-date. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_82

This metric can be misleading because of the delay between symptom onset and death and because testing focuses on individuals with symptoms (and particularly on those manifesting more severe symptoms). COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_83

On 4 August, WHO indicated "at this early stage of the pandemic, most estimates of fatality ratios have been based on cases detected through surveillance and calculated using crude methods, giving rise to widely variable estimates of CFR by country – from less than 0.1% to over 25%." COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_84

Disease COVID-19 pandemic_section_6

Main article: Coronavirus disease 2019 COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_85

Signs and symptoms COVID-19 pandemic_section_7

Main article: Symptoms of COVID-19 COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_86

Transmission COVID-19 pandemic_section_8

Main article: Transmission of COVID-19 COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_87

Cause COVID-19 pandemic_section_9

Main article: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_88

Diagnosis COVID-19 pandemic_section_10

Main article: Coronavirus disease 2019 § Diagnosis COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_89

Further information: COVID-19 testing COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_90

Prevention COVID-19 pandemic_section_11

Further information: Coronavirus disease 2019 § Prevention, Face masks during the COVID-19 pandemic, and Social distancing measures related to the COVID-19 pandemic COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_91

Vaccines COVID-19 pandemic_section_12

Main article: COVID-19 vaccine COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_92

On 4 February 2020, US Secretary of Health and Human Services Alex Azar published a notice of declaration under the Public Readiness and Emergency Preparedness Act for medical countermeasures against COVID‑19, covering "any vaccine, used to treat, diagnose, cure, prevent, or mitigate COVID‑19, or the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 or a virus mutating therefrom", and stating that the declaration precludes "liability claims alleging negligence by a manufacturer in creating a vaccine, or negligence by a health care provider in prescribing the wrong dose, absent willful misconduct". COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_93

The declaration is effective in the United States through 1 October 2024. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_94

On 8 December it was reported that the AstraZeneca vaccine is about 70% effective, according to a study. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_95

Treatment COVID-19 pandemic_section_13

Main article: Treatment and management of COVID-19 COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_96

See also: COVID-19 drug repurposing research and COVID-19 drug development COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_97

Prognosis COVID-19 pandemic_section_14

Further information: Coronavirus disease 2019 § Prognosis COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_98

Mitigation COVID-19 pandemic_section_15

Main article: Mitigation of COVID-19 COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_99

Screening, containment and mitigation COVID-19 pandemic_section_16

Strategies in the control of an outbreak are screening, containment (or suppression), and mitigation. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_100

Screening is done with a device such as a thermometer to detect the elevated body temperature associated with fevers caused by the coronavirus. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_101

Containment is undertaken in the early stages of the outbreak and aims to trace and isolate those infected as well as introduce other measures to stop the disease from spreading. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_102

When it is no longer possible to contain the disease, efforts then move to the mitigation stage: measures are taken to slow the spread and mitigate its effects on the healthcare system and on society. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_103

A combination of both containment and mitigation measures may be undertaken at the same time. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_104

Suppression requires more extreme measures so as to reverse the pandemic by reducing the basic reproduction number to less than 1. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_105

Part of managing an infectious disease outbreak is trying to delay and decrease the epidemic peak, known as flattening the epidemic curve. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_106

This decreases the risk of health services being overwhelmed and provides more time for vaccines and treatments to be developed. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_107

Non-pharmaceutical interventions that may manage the outbreak include personal preventive measures such as hand hygiene, wearing face masks, and self-quarantine; community measures aimed at physical distancing such as closing schools and cancelling mass gathering events; community engagement to encourage acceptance and participation in such interventions; as well as environmental measures such surface cleaning. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_108

More drastic actions aimed at containing the outbreak were taken in China once the severity of the outbreak became apparent, such as quarantining entire cities and imposing strict travel bans. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_109

Other countries also adopted a variety of measures aimed at limiting the spread of the virus. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_110

South Korea introduced the mass screening and localised quarantines and issued alerts on the movements of infected individuals. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_111

Singapore provided financial support for those infected who quarantined themselves and imposed large fines for those who failed to do so. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_112

Taiwan increased face mask production and penalised the hoarding of medical supplies. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_113

Simulations for Great Britain and the United States show that mitigation (slowing but not stopping epidemic spread) and suppression (reversing epidemic growth) have major challenges. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_114

Optimal mitigation policies might reduce peak healthcare demand by two-thirds and deaths by half, but still result in hundreds of thousands of deaths and overwhelmed health systems. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_115

Suppression can be preferred but needs to be maintained for as long as the virus is circulating in the human population (or until a vaccine becomes available), as transmission otherwise quickly rebounds when measures are relaxed. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_116

Long-term intervention to suppress the pandemic has considerable social and economic costs. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_117

Contact tracing COVID-19 pandemic_section_17

See also: Management of COVID-19 § Information technology COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_118

Contact tracing is an important method for health authorities to determine the source of infection and to prevent further transmission. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_119

The use of location data from mobile phones by governments for this purpose has prompted privacy concerns, with Amnesty International and more than a hundred other organisations issuing a statement calling for limits on this kind of surveillance. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_120

Several mobile apps have been implemented or proposed for voluntary use, and as of 7 April 2020 more than a dozen expert groups were working on privacy-friendly solutions such as using Bluetooth to log a user's proximity to other cellphones. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_121

(Users are alerted if they have been near someone who subsequently tests positive.) COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_122

On 10 April 2020, Google and Apple jointly announced an initiative for privacy-preserving contact tracing based on Bluetooth technology and cryptography. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_123

The system is intended to allow governments to create official privacy-preserving coronavirus tracking apps, with the eventual goal of integration of this functionality directly into the iOS and Android mobile platforms. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_124

In Europe and in the U.S., Palantir Technologies is also providing COVID-19 tracking services. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_125

Health care COVID-19 pandemic_section_18

Further information: Flatten the curve, list of countries by hospital beds, and Shortages related to the COVID-19 pandemic COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_126

Increasing capacity and adapting healthcare for the needs of COVID-19 patients is described by the WHO as a fundamental outbreak response measure. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_127

The ECDC and the European regional office of the WHO have issued guidelines for hospitals and primary healthcare services for shifting of resources at multiple levels, including focusing laboratory services towards COVID-19 testing, cancelling elective procedures whenever possible, separating and isolating COVID-19 positive patients, and increasing intensive care capabilities by training personnel and increasing the number of available ventilators and beds. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_128

In addition, in an attempt to maintain physical distancing, and to protect both patients and clinicians, in some areas non-emergency healthcare services are being provided virtually. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_129

Due to capacity limitations in the standard supply chains, some manufacturers are 3D printing healthcare material such as nasal swabs and ventilator parts. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_130

In one example, when an Italian hospital urgently required a ventilator valve, and the supplier was unable to deliver in the timescale required, a local startup received legal threats due to alleged patent infringement after reverse-engineering and printing the required hundred valves overnight. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_131

On 23 April 2020, NASA reported building, in 37 days, a ventilator which is currently undergoing further testing. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_132

NASA is seeking fast-track approval. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_133

History COVID-19 pandemic_section_19

Main article: Timeline of the COVID-19 pandemic COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_134

Further information: Pandemic prevention and Pandemic predictions and preparations prior to the COVID-19 pandemic COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_135

2019 COVID-19 pandemic_section_20

Main article: Timeline of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2019 COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_136

Based on the retrospective analysis, starting from December 2019, the number of COVID-19 cases in Hubei gradually increased, reaching 60 by 20 December and at least 266 by 31 December. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_137

That same day, the WHO received reports of a cluster of viral pneumonia cases of an unknown cause in Wuhan, and an investigation was launched at the start of January 2020. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_138

According to official Chinese sources, these early cases were mostly linked to the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market, which also sold live animals. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_139

However, in May 2020, George Gao, the director of the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, said animal samples collected from the seafood market had tested negative for the virus, indicating the market was not the source of the initial outbreak. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_140

On 24 December 2019, Wuhan Central Hospital sent a bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) sample from an unresolved clinical case to sequencing company Vision Medicals. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_141

On 27 and 28 December, Vision Medicals informed the Wuhan Central Hospital and the Chinese CDC of the results of the test, showing a new coronavirus. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_142

A pneumonia cluster of unknown cause was observed on 26 December and treated by the doctor Zhang Jixian in Hubei Provincial Hospital, who informed the Wuhan Jianghan CDC on 27 December. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_143

On 30 December 2019, a test report addressed to Wuhan Central Hospital, from company CapitalBio Medlab, stated that there was an erroneous positive result for SARS, causing a group of doctors at Wuhan Central Hospital to alert their colleagues and relevant hospital authorities of the result. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_144

Eight of those doctors, including Li Wenliang (who was also punished on 3 January), were later admonished by the police for spreading false rumours; and another doctor, Ai Fen, was reprimanded by her superiors for raising the alarm. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_145

That evening, the Wuhan Municipal Health Commission issued a notice to various medical institutions about "the treatment of pneumonia of unknown cause". COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_146

The next day, the Wuhan Municipal Health Commission made the first public announcement of a pneumonia outbreak of unknown cause, confirming 27 cases—enough to trigger an investigation. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_147

2020 COVID-19 pandemic_section_21

During the early stages of the outbreak, the number of cases doubled approximately every seven and a half days. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_148

In early and mid-January 2020, the virus spread to other Chinese provinces, helped by the Chinese New Year migration and Wuhan being a transport hub and major rail interchange. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_149

On 20 January, China reported nearly 140 new cases in one day, including two people in Beijing and one in Shenzhen. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_150

A retrospective official study published in March found that 6,174 people had already developed symptoms by 20 January (most of them would be diagnosed later) and more may have been infected. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_151

A report in The Lancet on 24 January indicated human transmission, strongly recommended personal protective equipment for health workers, and said testing for the virus was essential due to its "pandemic potential". COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_152

On 30 January 2020, with 7,818 confirmed cases across 19 countries, the WHO declared the outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC), and then a pandemic on 11 March 2020 as Italy, Iran, South Korea, and Japan reported increasing numbers of cases. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_153

Later that month, the number of cases outside of China quickly surpassed the number of cases inside China. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_154

On 31 January 2020, Italy had its first confirmed cases, two tourists from China. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_155

As of 13 March 2020, the WHO considered Europe the active centre of the pandemic. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_156

On 19 March 2020, Italy overtook China as the country with the most reported deaths. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_157

By 26 March, the United States had overtaken China and Italy with the highest number of confirmed cases in the world. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_158

Research on coronavirus genomes indicates the majority of COVID-19 cases in New York came from European travellers, rather than directly from China or any other Asian country. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_159

Retesting of prior samples found a person in France who had the virus on 27 December 2019 and a person in the United States who died from the disease on 6 February 2020. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_160

On 11 June 2020, after 55 days without a locally transmitted case being officially reported, the city of Beijing reported a single COVID-19 case, followed by two more cases on 12 June. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_161

As of 15 June 2020, 79 cases were officially confirmed. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_162

Most of these patients went to Xinfadi Wholesale Market. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_163

On 29 June 2020, WHO warned that the spread of the virus is still accelerating as countries reopen their economies, although many countries have made progress in slowing down the spread. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_164

On 15 July 2020, one COVID-19 case was officially reported in Dalian in more than three months. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_165

The patient did not travel outside the city in the 14 days before developing symptoms, nor did he have contact with people from "areas of attention." COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_166

In October 2020, the WHO stated, at a special meeting of WHO leaders, that one in ten people around the world may have been infected with COVID-19. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_167

At the time, that translated to 780 million people being infected, while only 35 million infections had been confirmed. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_168

In early November 2020, Denmark reported on an outbreak of a unique mutated variant being transmitted to humans from minks in its North Jutland Region. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_169

All twelve human cases of the mutated variant were identified in September 2020. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_170

The WHO released a report saying the variant "had a combination of mutations, or changes that have not been previously observed." COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_171

In response, Prime Minister Mette Frederiksen ordered for the country – the world's largest producer of mink fur – to cull its mink population by as many as 17 million. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_172

On 9 November 2020, Pfizer released their trial results for a candidate vaccine, showing that it is 90% effective against the virus. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_173

Later that day, Novavax entered an FDA Fast Track application for their vaccine. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_174

The 9 November announcement does not mean the vaccine is about to be released. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_175

However, virologist and U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases director Anthony Fauci indicated that the Pfizer vaccine targets the spike protein used to infect cells by the virus. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_176

Some issues left to be answered are how long the vaccine offers protection, and if it offers the same level of protection to all ages. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_177

Initial doses will likely go to healthcare workers on the front lines. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_178

On 9 November 2020 the United States surpassed 10 million confirmed cases of COVID-19, making it the country with the most cases worldwide by a large margin. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_179

As of 17 December 2020, more than 74.2 million cases have been reported worldwide due to COVID-19; more than 1.64 million have died and more than 41.9 million have recovered. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_180

It was reported on 27 November, that a publication released by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention indicated that the current numbers of viral infection are via confirmed laboratory test only. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_181

However, the true number could be about eight times the reported number; the report further indicated that the true number of virus infected cases could be around 100 million in the U.S. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_182

On 14 December 2020 Public Health England reported a new variant had been discovered in the South East of England, predominantly in Kent. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_183

The variant, named ‘VUI – 202012/01’, showed changes to the spike protein which could make the virus more infectious. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_184

As of 13 December, there were 1,108 cases identified. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_185

National responses COVID-19 pandemic_section_22

Main articles: COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns, COVID-19 pandemic by country and territory, and National responses to the COVID-19 pandemic COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_186

A total of 191 countries and territories have had at least one case of COVID-19 so far. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_187

Due to the pandemic in Europe, many countries in the Schengen Area have restricted free movement and set up border controls. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_188

National reactions have included containment measures such as quarantines and curfews (known as stay-at-home orders, shelter-in-place orders, or lockdowns). COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_189

The WHO's recommendation on curfews and lockdowns is that they should be short-term measures to reorganize, regroup, rebalance resources, and protect health workers who are exhausted. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_190

To achieve a balance between restrictions and normal life, the long-term responses to the pandemic should consist of strict personal hygiene, effective contact tracing, and isolating when ill. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_191

By 26 March 2020, 1.7 billion people worldwide were under some form of lockdown, which increased to 3.9 billion people by the first week of April—more than half the world's population. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_192

By late April 2020, around 300 million people were under lockdown in nations of Europe, including but not limited to Italy, Spain, France, and the United Kingdom, while around 200 million people were under lockdown in Latin America. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_193

Nearly 300 million people, or about 90 percent of the population, were under some form of lockdown in the United States, around 100 million people in the Philippines, about 59 million people in South Africa, and 1.3 billion people have been under lockdown in India. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_194

On 21 May 2020, 100,000 new infections occurred worldwide, the most since the start of the pandemic, while overall 5 million cases were surpassed. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_195

Asia COVID-19 pandemic_section_23

Main article: COVID-19 pandemic in Asia COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_196

As of 30 April 2020, cases have been reported in all Asian countries except for Turkmenistan and North Korea, although these countries likely also have cases. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_197

Despite being the first area of the world hit by the outbreak, the early wide-scale response of some Asian states, particularly Mongolia, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Vietnam, has allowed them to fare comparatively well. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_198

As of 9 December 2020, Singapore has the lowest case fatality rate in the world, at 0.51 deaths per 100,000. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_199

The pandemic has had direct side effects, per a report on 28 November, in Japan. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_200

According to the report by the country's National Police Agency, suicides had increased to 2,153 in October. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_201

Experts also state that the pandemic has worsened mental health issues due to lockdowns and isolation from family members, among other issues. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_202

China COVID-19 pandemic_section_24

Main article: COVID-19 pandemic in mainland China COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_203

As of 14 July 2020, there are 83,545 cases confirmed in China— excluding 114 asymptomatic cases, 62 of which were imported, under medical observation; asymptomatic cases have not been reported prior to 31 March 2020—with 4,634 deaths and 78,509 recoveries, meaning there are only 402 cases. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_204

Hubei has the most cases, followed by Xinjiang. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_205

It was reported on 25 November, that some 1 million people in the country of China have been vaccinated according to China's state council; the vaccines against COVID-19 come from Sinopharm which makes two and one produced by Sinovac. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_206

India COVID-19 pandemic_section_25

Main article: COVID-19 pandemic in India COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_207

The first case of COVID-19 in India originated from China and was reported on 30 January 2020. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_208

India ordered a nationwide lockdown for the entire population starting 24 March 2020, with a phased unlock beginning 1 June 2020. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_209

Six cities account for around half of all reported cases in the country—Mumbai, Delhi, Ahmedabad, Chennai, Pune and Kolkata. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_210

As of September 2020, India had the largest number of confirmed cases in Asia; and the second-highest number of confirmed cases in the world, behind the United States, with the number of total confirmed cases breaching the 100,000 mark on 19 May 2020, 1,000,000 on 16 July 2020, and 5,000,000 confirmed cases on 16 September 2020. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_211

On 30 August 2020, India surpassed the US record for the most cases in a single day, with more than 78,000 cases, and set a new record on 16 September 2020, with almost 98,000 cases reported that day. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_212

On 10 June 2020, India's recoveries exceeded active cases for the first time. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_213

As of 30 August 2020, India's case fatality rate is relatively low at 2.3%, against the global 4.7%. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_214

Iran COVID-19 pandemic_section_26

Main article: COVID-19 pandemic in Iran COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_215

Iran reported its first confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 infections on 19 February 2020 in Qom, where, according to the Ministry of Health and Medical Education, two people had died that day. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_216

Early measures announced by the government included the cancellation of concerts and other cultural events, sporting events, Friday prayers, and closures of universities, higher education institutions, and schools. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_217

Iran allocated 5 trillion rials (equivalent to US$120,000,000) to combat the virus. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_218

President Hassan Rouhani said on 26 February 2020 there were no plans to quarantine areas affected by the outbreak, and only individuals would be quarantined. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_219

Plans to limit travel between cities were announced in March 2020, although heavy traffic between cities ahead of the Persian New Year Nowruz continued. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_220

Shia shrines in Qom remained open to pilgrims until 16 March. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_221

Iran became a centre of the spread of the virus after China during February 2020. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_222

More than ten countries had traced their cases back to Iran by 28 February, indicating the outbreak may have been more severe than the 388 cases reported by the Iranian government by that date. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_223

The Iranian Parliament was shut down, with 23 of its 290 members reported to have had tested positive for the virus on 3 March 2020. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_224

On 15 March 2020, the Iranian government reported a hundred deaths in a single day, the most recorded in the country since the outbreak began. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_225

At least twelve sitting or former Iranian politicians and government officials had died from the disease by 17 March 2020. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_226

By 23 March 2020, Iran was experiencing fifty new cases every hour and one new death every ten minutes due to coronavirus. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_227

According to a WHO official, there may be five times more cases in Iran than what is being reported. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_228

It is also suggested that U.S. sanctions on Iran may be affecting the country's financial ability to respond to the viral outbreak. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_229

On 20 April 2020, Iran reopened shopping malls and other shopping areas across the country. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_230

After reaching a low in new cases in early May, a new peak was reported on 4 June 2020, raising fear of a second wave. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_231

On 18 July 2020, President Rouhani estimated that 25 million Iranians had already become infected, which is considerably higher than the official count. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_232

Leaked data suggest that 42,000 people had died with COVID-19 symptoms by 20 July 2020, nearly tripling the 14,405 officially reported by that date. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_233

South Korea COVID-19 pandemic_section_27

Main article: COVID-19 pandemic in South Korea COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_234

COVID-19 was confirmed to have spread to South Korea on 20 January 2020 from China. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_235

The nation's health agency reported a significant increase in confirmed cases on 20 February, largely attributed to a gathering in Daegu of the Shincheonji Church of Jesus. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_236

Shincheonji devotees visiting Daegu from Wuhan were suspected to be the origin of the outbreak. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_237

By 22 February, among 9,336 followers of the church, 1,261 or about 13 percent reported symptoms. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_238

South Korea declared the highest level of alert on 23 February 2020. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_239

On 29 February, more than 3,150 confirmed cases were reported. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_240

All South Korean military bases were quarantined after tests showed three soldiers had the virus. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_241

Airline schedules were also changed. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_242

South Korea introduced what was considered the largest and best-organised programme in the world to screen the population for the virus, isolate any infected people, and trace and quarantine those who contacted them. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_243

Screening methods included mandatory self-reporting of symptoms by new international arrivals through mobile application, drive-through testing for the virus with the results available the next day, and increasing testing capability to allow up to 20,000 people to be tested every day. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_244

Despite some early criticisms of President Moon Jae-in's response to the crisis, South Korea's programme is considered a success in controlling the outbreak without quarantining entire cities. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_245

On 23 March, it was reported that South Korea had the lowest one-day case total in four weeks. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_246

On 29 March it was reported that beginning 1 April all new overseas arrivals will be quarantined for two weeks. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_247

Per media reports on 1 April, South Korea has received requests for virus testing assistance from 121 different countries. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_248

Persistent local groups of infections in the greater Seoul area continued to be found, which led to Korea's CDC director saying in June that the country had entered the second wave of infections, although a WHO official disagreed with that assessment. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_249

Europe COVID-19 pandemic_section_28

Main article: COVID-19 pandemic in Europe COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_250

On 21 August, it was reported the COVID-19 cases were climbing among younger individuals across Europe. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_251

On 21 November, it was reported by the Voice of America that Europe is the worst hit area by the COVID-19 virus, with numbers exceeding 15 million cases COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_252

France COVID-19 pandemic_section_29

Main article: COVID-19 pandemic in France COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_253

Although it was originally thought the pandemic reached France on 24 January 2020, when the first COVID-19 case in Europe was confirmed in Bordeaux, it was later discovered that a person near Paris had tested positive for the virus on 27 December 2019 after retesting old samples. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_254

A key event in the spread of the disease in the country was the annual assembly of the Christian Open Door Church between 17 and 24 February in Mulhouse, which was attended by about 2,500 people, at least half of whom are believed to have contracted the virus. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_255

On 13 March, Prime Minister Édouard Philippe ordered the closure of all non-essential public places, and on 16 March, French President Emmanuel Macron announced mandatory home confinement, a policy which was extended at least until 11 May. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_256

As of 14 September, France has reported more than 402,000 confirmed cases, 30,000 deaths, and 90,000 recoveries, ranking fourth in number of confirmed cases. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_257

In April, there were riots in some Paris suburbs. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_258

On 18 May, it was reported that schools in France had to close again after reopening, due to COVID-19 case flare-ups. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_259

On 12 November it was reported that France had become the worst hit country by the COVID-19 pandemic, in all of Europe, in the process surpassing Russia. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_260

The new total of confirmed cases was more than 1.8 million and counting; additionally it was indicated by the French government that the current national lockdown would remain in place. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_261

Italy COVID-19 pandemic_section_30

Main article: COVID-19 pandemic in Italy COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_262

The outbreak was confirmed to have spread to Italy on 31 January, when two Chinese tourists tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 in Rome. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_263

Cases began to rise sharply, which prompted the Italian government to suspend all flights to and from China and declare a state of emergency. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_264

An unassociated cluster of COVID-19 cases was later detected, starting with 16 confirmed cases in Lombardy on 21 February. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_265

On 22 February, the Council of Ministers announced a new decree-law to contain the outbreak, including quarantining more than 50,000 people from eleven different municipalities in northern Italy. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_266

Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte said, "In the outbreak areas, entry and exit will not be provided. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_267

Suspension of work activities and sports events has already been ordered in those areas." COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_268

On 4 March, the Italian government ordered the full closure of all schools and universities nationwide as Italy reached a hundred deaths. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_269

All major sporting events were to be held behind closed doors until April, but on 9 March all sport was suspended completely for at least one month. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_270

On 11 March, Prime Minister Conte ordered stoppage of nearly all commercial activity except supermarkets and pharmacies. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_271

On 6 March, the Italian College of Anaesthesia, Analgesia, Resuscitation and Intensive Care (SIAARTI) published medical ethics recommendations regarding triage protocols. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_272

On 19 March, Italy overtook China as the country with the most coronavirus-related deaths in the world after reporting 3,405 fatalities from the pandemic. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_273

On 22 March, it was reported that Russia had sent nine military planes with medical equipment to Italy. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_274

As of 14 September, there were 287,753 confirmed cases, 35,610 deaths, and 213,634 recoveries in Italy, with the majority of those cases occurring in the Lombardy region. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_275

A CNN report indicated that the combination of Italy's large elderly population and inability to test all who have the virus to date may be contributing to the high fatality rate. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_276

On 19 April, it was reported that the country had its lowest deaths at 433 in seven days and some businesses are asking for a loosening of restrictions after six weeks of lockdown. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_277

On 13 October 2020, the Italian government again issued restrictive rules to contain a rise in infections. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_278

On 11 November, it was reported that Silvestro Scotti, president of the Italian Federation of General Practitioners indicated that all of Italy should come under restrictions due to the coronavirus. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_279

A couple of days prior Filippo Anelli, president of the National Federation of Doctor's Guilds (FNOMCEO) asked for a complete lockdown of the peninsular nation due to the pandemic. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_280

On the 10th, a day before, Italy surpassed 1 million confirmed COVID-19 cases. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_281

On 23 November it was reported that the second wave of the virus has caused some hospitals in Italy to stop accepting patients. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_282

Spain COVID-19 pandemic_section_31

Main article: COVID-19 pandemic in Spain COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_283

Sweden COVID-19 pandemic_section_32

Main article: COVID-19 pandemic in Sweden COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_284

Sweden differed from most other European countries in that it mostly remained open. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_285

Per the Swedish Constitution, the Public Health Agency of Sweden has autonomy which prevents political interference and the agency's policy favoured forgoing a lockdown. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_286

The Swedish strategy focused on measures that could be put in place over a longer period of time, based on the assumption that the virus would start spreading again after a shorter lockdown. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_287

The New York Times said that, as of May 2020, the outbreak had been far deadlier there but the economic impact had been reduced as Swedes have continued to go to work, restaurants, and shopping. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_288

On 19 May, it was reported that the country had in the week of 12–19 May the highest per capita deaths in Europe, 6.25 deaths per million per day. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_289

In the end of June, Sweden no longer had excess mortality. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_290

United Kingdom COVID-19 pandemic_section_33

Main article: COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_291

See also: COVID-19 pandemic in England, COVID-19 pandemic in Northern Ireland, COVID-19 pandemic in Scotland, and COVID-19 pandemic in Wales COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_292

Devolution in the United Kingdom meant that each of the four countries of the UK had its own different response to COVID-19, and the UK government, on behalf of England, moved quicker to lift restrictions. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_293

The UK government started enforcing social distancing and quarantine measures on 18 March 2020 and was criticised for a perceived lack of intensity in its response to concerns faced by the public. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_294

On 16 March, Prime Minister Boris Johnson advised against non-essential travel and social contact, suggesting people work from home and avoid venues such as pubs, restaurants, and theatres. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_295

On 20 March, the government announced that all leisure establishments to close as soon as possible, and promised to prevent unemployment. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_296

On 23 March, Johnson banned gatherings of multiple people and restricting non-essential travel and outdoor activity. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_297

Unlike previous measures, these restrictions were enforceable by police through fines and dispersal of gatherings. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_298

Most unessential businesses were ordered to close. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_299

On 24 April it was reported that a promising vaccine trial had begun in England; the government pledged more than £50 million towards research. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_300

A number of temporary critical care hospitals were built. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_301

The first operating was the 4000-bed NHS Nightingale Hospital London, constructed for over nine days. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_302

On 4 May, it was announced that it would be placed on standby and remaining patients transferred to other facilities; 51 patients had been treated in the first three weeks. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_303

On 16 April it was reported that the UK would have first access to the Oxford vaccine, due to a prior contract; should the trial be successful, some 30 million doses in the UK would be available. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_304

On 2 December the UK became the first Western country to approve the Pfizer vaccine against the COVID-19 virus; 800,000 doses will be immediately available for use It was reported on 5 December that the United Kingdom would begin vaccination against the virus on the 8th of December, less than a week after having been approved. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_305

On 9 December, MHRA stated that any individual with a significant allergic reaction to a vaccine, such as an anaphylactoid reaction, should not take the Pfizer vaccine for COVID-19 protection. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_306

North America COVID-19 pandemic_section_34

Main article: COVID-19 pandemic in North America COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_307

United States COVID-19 pandemic_section_35

Main article: COVID-19 pandemic in the United States COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_308

South America COVID-19 pandemic_section_36

Main article: COVID-19 pandemic in South America COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_309

Brazil COVID-19 pandemic_section_37

Main article: COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_310

On 20 May it was reported that Brazil had a record 1,179 deaths in a single day, for a total of almost 18,000 fatalities. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_311

With a total number of almost 272,000 cases, Brazil became the country with the third-highest number of cases, following Russia and the United States. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_312

On 25 May, Brazil exceeded the number of reported cases in Russia when they reported that 11,687 new cases had been confirmed over the previous 24 hours, bringing the total number to over 374,800, with more than 23,400 deaths. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_313

President Jair Bolsonaro has created a great deal of controversy referring to the virus as a "little flu" and frequently speaking out against preventive measures such as lockdowns and quarantines. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_314

His attitude towards the outbreak has so closely matched that of President Trump he has been called the "Trump of the Tropics". COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_315

Bolsonaro later tested positive for the virus. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_316

In June 2020, the government of Brazil attempted to conceal the actual figures of the COVID-19 active cases and deaths, as it stopped publishing the total number of infections and deaths. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_317

On 5 June, Brazil's health ministry took down the official website reflecting the total numbers of infections and deaths. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_318

The website was live on 6 June, with only the number of infections of the previous 24 hours. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_319

The last official numbers reported about 615,000 infections and over 34,000 deaths. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_320

On 15 June, it was reported that the worldwide cases had jumped from seven to eight million in one week, citing Latin America, specifically Brazil as one of the countries where cases are surging, in this case, towards 1 million cases. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_321

Brazil briefly paused Phase III trials for the CoronavacCOVID-19 vaccine on 10 November after the suicide of a volunteer before resuming on 11 November. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_322

Africa COVID-19 pandemic_section_38

Oceania COVID-19 pandemic_section_39

Main article: COVID-19 pandemic in Oceania COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_323

International responses COVID-19 pandemic_section_40

Further information: Timeline of the COVID-19 pandemic and International aid related to the COVID-19 pandemic COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_324

Travel restrictions COVID-19 pandemic_section_41

Main article: Travel restrictions related to the COVID-19 pandemic COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_325

As a result of the pandemic, many countries and regions imposed quarantines, entry bans, or other restrictions, either for citizens, recent travellers to affected areas, or for all travellers. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_326

Together with a decreased willingness to travel, this had a negative economic and social impact on the travel sector. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_327

Concerns have been raised over the effectiveness of travel restrictions to contain the spread of COVID-19. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_328

A study in Science found that travel restrictions had only modestly affected the initial spread of COVID-19, unless combined with infection prevention and control measures to considerably reduce transmissions. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_329

Researchers concluded that "travel restrictions are most useful in the early and late phase of an epidemic" and "restrictions of travel from Wuhan unfortunately came too late". COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_330

The European Union rejected the idea of suspending the Schengen free travel zone and introducing border controls with Italy, a decision which has been criticised by some European politicians. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_331

Evacuation of foreign citizens COVID-19 pandemic_section_42

Main article: Evacuations related to the COVID-19 pandemic COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_332

Owing to the effective lockdown of Wuhan and Hubei, several countries evacuated their citizens and diplomatic staff from the area, primarily through chartered flights of the home nation, with Chinese authorities providing clearance. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_333

Canada, the United States, Japan, India, Sri Lanka, Australia, France, Argentina, Germany, and Thailand were among the first to plan the evacuation of their citizens. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_334

Brazil and New Zealand also evacuated their own nationals and some other people. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_335

On 14 March, South Africa repatriated 112 South Africans who tested negative for the virus from Wuhan, while four who showed symptoms were left behind to mitigate risk. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_336

Pakistan said it would not evacuate citizens from China. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_337

On 15 February, the U.S. announced it would evacuate Americans aboard the cruise ship Diamond Princess, and on 21 February, Canada evacuated 129 Canadian passengers from the ship. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_338

In early March, the Indian government began evacuating its citizens from Iran. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_339

On 20 March, the United States began to partially withdraw its troops from Iraq due to the pandemic. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_340

United Nations response measures COVID-19 pandemic_section_43

Main article: United Nations response to the COVID-19 pandemic COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_341

The United Nations response to the pandemic has been led by its Secretary-General and can be divided into formal resolutions at the General Assembly and at the Security Council (UNSC), and operations via its specialized agencies. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_342

In June 2020, the Secretary-General launched its 'UN Comprehensive Response to COVID-19'. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_343

The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNSC) has been criticized for a slow coordinated response, especially regarding the UN's global ceasefire, which aims to open up humanitarian access to the world's most vulnerable in conflict zones. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_344

WHO response measures COVID-19 pandemic_section_44

Main article: World Health Organization's response to the COVID-19 pandemic COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_345

Protests against governmental measures COVID-19 pandemic_section_45

Main article: Protests over responses to the COVID-19 pandemic COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_346

In several countries, protests have risen against governmental restrictive responses to the COVID-19 pandemic. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_347

Impact COVID-19 pandemic_section_46

Main article: Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_348

Further information: Social impact of the COVID-19 pandemic COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_349

Economics COVID-19 pandemic_section_47

Main article: Economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_350

See also: Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on aviation, on science and technology, on financial markets, 2020 stock market crash, and Coronavirus recession COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_351

The outbreak is a major destabilising threat to the global economy. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_352

Agathe Demarais of the Economist Intelligence Unit has forecast that markets will remain volatile until a clearer image emerges on potential outcomes. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_353

One estimate from an expert at Washington University in St. Louis gave a $300+ billion impact on the world's supply chain that could last up to two years. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_354

Global stock markets fell on 24 February due to a significant rise in the number of COVID-19 cases outside China. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_355

On 27 February, due to mounting worries about the coronavirus outbreak, U.S. stock indexes posted their sharpest falls since 2008, with the Dow falling 1,191 points (the largest one-day drop since the financial crisis of 2007–08) and all three major indexes ending the week down more than 10 percent. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_356

On 28 February, Scope Ratings GmbH affirmed China's sovereign credit rating but maintained a Negative Outlook. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_357

Stocks plunged again due to coronavirus fears, the largest fall being on 16 March. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_358

Lloyd's of London has estimated that the global insurance industry will absorb losses of US$204 billion, exceeding the losses from the 2017 Atlantic Hurricane season and 11 September attacks, suggesting the COVID-19 pandemic will likely go down in history as the costliest disaster ever in human history. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_359

Tourism is one of the worst affected sectors due to travel bans, closing of public places including travel attractions, and advice of governments against travel. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_360

Numerous airlines have cancelled flights due to lower demand, and British regional airline Flybe collapsed. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_361

The cruise line industry was hard hit, and several train stations and ferry ports have also been closed. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_362

International mail between some countries stopped or was delayed due to reduced transportation between them or suspension of domestic service. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_363

The retail sector has been impacted globally, with reductions in store hours or temporary closures. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_364

Visits to retailers in Europe and Latin America declined by 40 percent. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_365

North America and Middle East retailers saw a 50–60 percent drop. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_366

This also resulted in a 33–43 percent drop in foot traffic to shopping centres in March compared to February. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_367

Shopping mall operators around the world imposed additional measures, such as increased sanitation, installation of thermal scanners to check the temperature of shoppers, and cancellation of events. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_368

Hundreds of millions of jobs could be lost globally. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_369

More than 40 million Americans lost their jobs and filed unemployment insurance claims. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_370

The economic impact and mass unemployment caused by the pandemic has raised fears of a mass eviction crisis, with an analysis by the Aspen Institute indicating between 30 and 40 million Americans are at risk for eviction by the end of 2020. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_371

According to a report by the Yelp, about 60% of U.S. businesses that have closed since the start of the pandemic will stay shut permanently. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_372

According to a United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America estimate, the pandemic-induced recession could leave 14–22 million more people in extreme poverty in Latin America than would have been in that situation without the pandemic. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_373

According to the World Bank, up to 100 million more people globally could fall into extreme poverty due to the shutdowns. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_374

The International Labour Organization (ILO) informed that the income generated in first nine months of 2020 from work across the world dropped by 10.7 per cent, or $3.5 trillion, amidst the coronavirus outbreak. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_375

Supply shortages COVID-19 pandemic_section_48

Main article: Shortages related to the COVID-19 pandemic COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_376

The outbreak has been blamed for several instances of supply shortages, stemming from globally increased usage of equipment to fight outbreaks, panic buying (which in several places led to shelves being cleared of grocery essentials such as food, toilet paper, and bottled water), and disruption to the factory and logistic operations. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_377

The spread of panic buying has been found to stem from perceived threat, perceived scarcity, fear of the unknown, coping behaviour and social psychological factors (e.g. social influence and trust). COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_378

The technology industry, in particular, has warned of delays to shipments of electronic goods. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_379

According to the WHO director-general Tedros Adhanom, demand for personal protection equipment has risen a hundredfold, leading to prices up to twenty times the normal price and also delays in the supply of medical items of four to six months. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_380

It has also caused a shortage of personal protective equipment worldwide, with the WHO warning that this will endanger health workers. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_381

The impact of the coronavirus outbreak was worldwide. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_382

The virus created a shortage of precursors (raw material) used in the manufacturing of fentanyl and methamphetamine. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_383

The Yuancheng Group, headquartered in Wuhan, is one of the leading suppliers. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_384

Price increases and shortages in these illegal drugs have been noticed on the street of the UK. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_385

U.S. law enforcement also told the New York Post Mexican drug cartels were having difficulty in obtaining precursors. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_386

The pandemic has disrupted global food supplies and threatens to trigger a new food crisis. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_387

David Beasley, head of the World Food Programme (WFP), said "we could be facing multiple famines of biblical proportions within a short few months." COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_388

Senior officials at the United Nations estimated in April 2020 that an additional 130 million people could starve, for a total of 265 million by the end of 2020. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_389

Oil and other energy markets COVID-19 pandemic_section_49

In early February 2020, Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) "scrambled" after a steep decline in oil prices due to lower demand from China. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_390

On Monday, 20 April, the price of West Texas Intermediate (WTI) went negative and fell to a record low (minus $37.63 a barrel) due to traders' offloading holdings so as not to take delivery and incur storage costs. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_391

June prices were down but in the positive range, with a barrel of West Texas trading above $20. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_392

Culture COVID-19 pandemic_section_50

Main article: List of events affected by the COVID-19 pandemic COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_393

The performing arts and cultural heritage sectors have been profoundly affected by the pandemic, impacting organisations' operations as well as individuals—both employed and independent—globally. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_394

Arts and culture sector organisations attempted to uphold their (often publicly funded) mission to provide access to cultural heritage to the community, maintain the safety of their employees and the public, and support artists where possible. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_395

By March 2020, across the world and to varying degrees, museums, libraries, performance venues, and other cultural institutions had been indefinitely closed with their exhibitions, events and performances cancelled or postponed. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_396

In response there were intensive efforts to provide alternative services through digital platforms. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_397

Holy Week observances in Rome, which occur during the last week of the Christian penitential season of Lent, were cancelled. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_398

Many dioceses have recommended older Christians stay home rather than attend Mass on Sundays; services have been made available via radio, online live streaming and television, though some congregations have made provisions for drive-in worship. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_399

With the Roman Catholic Diocese of Rome closing its churches and chapels and St. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_400 Peter's Square emptied of Christian pilgrims, other religious bodies also cancelled in-person services and limited public gatherings in churches, mosques, synagogues, temples and gurdwaras. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_401

Iran's Health Ministry announced the cancellation of Friday prayers in areas affected by the outbreak and shrines were later closed, while Saudi Arabia banned the entry of foreign pilgrims as well as its residents to holy sites in Mecca and Medina. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_402

The 2020 Hajj was limited to around 1,000 selected pilgrims, in contrast to the usual number of over 2 million. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_403

The pandemic has caused the most significant disruption to the worldwide sporting calendar since the Second World War. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_404

Most major sporting events have been cancelled or postponed, including the 2019–20 UEFA Champions League, 2019–20 Premier League, UEFA Euro 2020, 2019–20 NBA season, and 2019–20 NHL season. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_405

The outbreak disrupted plans for the 2020 Summer Olympics in Tokyo, Japan, which were originally scheduled to start at 24 July 2020, and were postponed by the International Olympic Committee to 23 July 2021. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_406

The entertainment industry has also been affected, with many music groups suspending or cancelling concert tours. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_407

The Eurovision Song Contest, which was due to be held in Rotterdam, the Netherlands in May, was cancelled; however, the Netherlands was retained as host for 2021. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_408

Many large theatres such as those on Broadway also suspended all performances. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_409

Some artists have explored ways to continue to produce and share work over the internet as an alternative to traditional live performance, such as live streaming concerts or creating web-based "festivals" for artists to perform, distribute, and publicise their work. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_410

Online, numerous COVID-19-themed Internet memes have spread as many turn to humour and distraction amid the uncertainty. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_411

Politics COVID-19 pandemic_section_51

Main article: Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on politics COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_412

See also: Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on international relations COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_413

The pandemic has affected the political systems of multiple countries, causing suspensions of legislative activities, isolations or deaths of multiple politicians, and rescheduling of elections due to fears of spreading the virus. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_414

Starting in late May, large-scale protests against police brutality in at least 200 U.S. cities and later worldwide in response to the killing of George Floyd raised concerns of a resurgence of the virus. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_415

Although they have broad support among epidemiologists, social distancing measures have been politically controversial in many countries. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_416

Intellectual opposition to social distancing has come primarily from writers of other fields, although there are a few heterodox epidemiologists. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_417

On 23 March 2020, United Nations Secretary-General António Manuel de Oliveira Guterres issued an appeal for a global ceasefire in response to the pandemic; 172 UN Member States and Observers signed a non-binding statement in support of the appeal in June, and the UN Security Council passed a resolution supporting it in July. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_418

China COVID-19 pandemic_section_52

Further information: China–United States relations § COVID-19 COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_419

The Chinese government has been criticised by the United States government, UK Minister for the Cabinet Office Michael Gove, and others for its handling of the pandemic. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_420

A number of provincial-level administrators of the Communist Party of China were dismissed over their handling of the quarantine measures in China, a sign of discontent with their response to the outbreak. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_421

Some commentators believed this move was intended to protect Chinese Communist Party general secretary Xi Jinping from the controversy. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_422

The U.S. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_423 intelligence community says China intentionally under-reported its number of coronavirus cases. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_424

The Chinese government maintains it has acted swiftly and transparently. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_425

Italy COVID-19 pandemic_section_53

In early March, the Italian government criticised the European Union's lack of solidarity with coronavirus-affected Italy—Maurizio Massari, Italy's ambassador to the EU, said "only China responded bilaterally", not the EU. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_426

On 22 March, after a phone call with Italian Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte, Russian president Vladimir Putin had the Russian army send military medics, disinfection vehicles, and other medical equipment to Italy. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_427

President of Lombardy Attilio Fontana and Italian Foreign Minister Luigi Di Maio expressed their gratitude for the aid. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_428

Russia also sent a cargo plane with medical aid to the United States. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_429

Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov said "when offering assistance to U.S. colleagues, [Putin] assumes that when U.S. manufacturers of medical equipment and materials gain momentum, they will also be able to reciprocate if necessary." COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_430

In early April, Norway and EU states like Romania and Austria started to offer help by sending medical personnel and disinfectant, and Ursula von der Leyen offered an official apology to the country. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_431

United States COVID-19 pandemic_section_54

The outbreak prompted calls for the United States to adopt social policies common in other wealthy countries, including universal health care, universal child care, paid sick leave, and higher levels of funding for public health. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_432

Political analysts believe it may have contributed to Donald Trump's loss in the 2020 presidential election. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_433

Beginning in mid-April 2020, there were protests in several U.S. states against government-imposed business closures and restricted personal movement and association. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_434

Simultaneously, protests ensued by essential workers in the form of a general strike. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_435

In early October 2020, Donald Trump and many other government officials were diagnosed with COVID-19, further disrupting the country's politics. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_436

Other countries COVID-19 pandemic_section_55

The planned NATO "Defender 2020" military exercise in Germany, Poland, and the Baltic states, the largest NATO war exercise since the end of the Cold War, will be held on a reduced scale. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_437

The Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament's general secretary Kate Hudson criticised the exercise, saying "it jeopardises the lives not only of the troops from the U.S. and the many European countries participating but the inhabitants of the countries in which they are operating." COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_438

The Iranian government has been heavily affected by the virus, with about two dozen parliament members and fifteen current or former political figures infected. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_439

Iran's President Hassan Rouhani wrote a public letter to world leaders asking for help on 14 March 2020, saying they were struggling to fight the outbreak due to a lack of access to international markets from the United States sanctions against Iran. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_440

Saudi Arabia, which launched a military intervention in Yemen in March 2015, declared a ceasefire. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_441

Diplomatic relations between Japan and South Korea worsened due to the pandemic. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_442

South Korea criticised Japan's "ambiguous and passive quarantine efforts" after Japan announced anyone coming from South Korea would be placed in quarantine for two weeks at government-designated sites. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_443

South Korean society was initially polarised on President Moon Jae-in's response to the crisis; many Koreans signed petitions either calling for Moon's impeachment or praising his response. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_444

Some countries have passed emergency legislation in response to the pandemic. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_445

Some commentators have expressed concern that it could allow governments to strengthen their grip on power. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_446

In the Philippines, lawmakers granted president Rodrigo Duterte temporary emergency powers during the pandemic. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_447

In Hungary, the parliament voted to allow the prime minister, Viktor Orbán, to rule by decree indefinitely, suspend parliament as well as elections, and punish those deemed to have spread false information about the virus and the government's handling of the crisis. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_448

In some countries, including Egypt, Turkey, and Thailand, opposition activists and government critics have been arrested for allegedly spreading fake news about the COVID-19 pandemic. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_449

Agriculture and food systems COVID-19 pandemic_section_56

Further information: COVID-19 pandemic-related famines COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_450

The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted agricultural and food systems worldwide. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_451

COVID-19 hit at a time when hunger or undernourishment was once again on the rise in the world, with an estimated 690 million people already going hungry in 2019. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_452

Based on the latest UN estimates, the economic recession triggered by the pandemic may lead to another 83 million people, and possibly as many as 132 million, going hungry in 2020. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_453

This is mainly due to a lack of access to food – linked to falling incomes, lost remittances and, in some cases, a rise in food prices. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_454

In countries that already suffer from high levels of acute food insecurity, it is no longer an issue of access to food alone, but increasingly also one of food production. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_455

The pandemic, alongside lockdowns and travel restrictions, has prevented movement of aid and greatly impacted food production. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_456

As a result, several famines are forecast, which the United Nations called a crisis "of biblical proportions," or "hunger pandemic." COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_457

It is estimated that without intervention 30 million people may die of hunger, with Oxfam reporting that "12,000 people per day could die from COVID-19 linked hunger" by the end of 2020. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_458

This pandemic, in conjunction with the 2019–20 locust infestations and several ongoing armed conflicts, is predicted to form the worst series of famines since the Great Chinese Famine, affecting between 10 and 20 percent of the global population in some way. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_459

55 countries are reported to be at risk, with three dozen succumbing to crisis-level famines or above in the worst-case scenario. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_460

265 million people are forecast to be in famine conditions, an increase of 125 million due to the coronavirus pandemic. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_461

Education COVID-19 pandemic_section_57

Main article: Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on education COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_462

Other health issues COVID-19 pandemic_section_58

Main article: Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on other health issues COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_463

Environment and climate COVID-19 pandemic_section_59

Main article: Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the environment COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_464

Xenophobia and racism COVID-19 pandemic_section_60

Main article: List of incidents of xenophobia and racism related to the COVID-19 pandemic COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_465

Since the start of the outbreak, heightened prejudice, xenophobia, and racism have been documented around the world toward people of Chinese and East Asian descent. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_466

Reports from February (when most cases were confined to China) documented racist sentiments expressed in groups worldwide about Chinese people 'deserving' the virus. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_467

Chinese people and other Asian in the United Kingdom and United States have reported increasing levels of racist abuse and assaults. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_468

U.S. President Donald Trump has been criticised for referring to the coronavirus as the "Chinese Virus" and "Kung Flu", which has been widely condemned as racist and xenophobic. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_469

On 14 March, an Asian family, including a two-year-old girl, was attacked at knifepoint in Texas in what the FBI has called a COVID-19 related hate crime. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_470

Following the progression of the outbreak to new hotspot countries, people from Italy (the first country in Europe to experience a serious outbreak of COVID-19) were also subjected to suspicion and xenophobia, as were people from hotspots in other countries. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_471

Discrimination against Muslims in India escalated after public health authorities identified an Islamic missionary (Tablighi Jamaat) group's gathering in New Delhi in early March 2020 as a source of spread. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_472

Paris has seen riots break out over police treatment of ethnic minorities during the coronavirus lockdown. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_473

Racism and xenophobia towards southern and south east Asians increased in the Arab states of the Persian Gulf. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_474

South Korea's LGBTQ community was blamed by some for the spread of COVID-19 in Seoul. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_475

In China, some people of African descent were evicted from their homes and told to leave China within 24 hours, due to disinformation that they and other foreigners were spreading the virus. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_476

This racism and xenophobia was criticised by foreign governments and diplomatic corps and the Chinese ambassador to Zimbabwe. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_477

Information dissemination COVID-19 pandemic_section_61

Further information: Media coverage of the COVID-19 pandemic, Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on social media, and Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on journalism COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_478

Ongoing COVID-19 research is indexed and searchable in the NIH COVID-19 Portfolio. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_479

Some newspaper agencies removed their online paywalls for some or all of their coronavirus-related articles and posts, while scientific publishers made scientific papers related to the outbreak available with open access. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_480

Some scientists chose to share their results quickly on preprint servers such as bioRxiv. COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_481

Misinformation COVID-19 pandemic_section_62

Main article: Misinformation related to the COVID-19 pandemic COVID-19 pandemic_sentence_482

See also COVID-19 pandemic_section_63

COVID-19 pandemic_unordered_list_2

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: pandemic.