Cairo

From Wikipedia for FEVERv2
Jump to navigation Jump to search

This article is about the Egyptian capital. Cairo_sentence_0

For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). Cairo_sentence_1

Cairo_table_infobox_0

Cairo

القاهرةCairo_header_cell_0_0_0

CountryCairo_header_cell_0_1_0 EgyptCairo_cell_0_1_1
GovernorateCairo_header_cell_0_2_0 CairoCairo_cell_0_2_1
FoundedCairo_header_cell_0_3_0 969 ADCairo_cell_0_3_1
Founded byCairo_header_cell_0_4_0 Fatimid dynastyCairo_cell_0_4_1
GovernmentCairo_header_cell_0_5_0
GovernorCairo_header_cell_0_6_0 Khaled Abdel AalCairo_cell_0_6_1
AreaCairo_header_cell_0_7_0
MetroCairo_header_cell_0_8_0 3,085.12 km (1,191.17 sq mi)Cairo_cell_0_8_1
ElevationCairo_header_cell_0_9_0 23 m (75 ft)Cairo_cell_0_9_1
Population (2017-census)Cairo_header_cell_0_10_0
CityCairo_header_cell_0_11_0 9,539,673Cairo_cell_0_11_1
Estimate (01.01.2020)Cairo_header_cell_0_12_0 9,908,788Cairo_cell_0_12_1
Metro densityCairo_header_cell_0_13_0 3,212/km (8,320/sq mi)Cairo_cell_0_13_1
DemonymCairo_header_cell_0_14_0 CaireneCairo_cell_0_14_1
Time zoneCairo_header_cell_0_15_0 UTC+02:00 (EST)Cairo_cell_0_15_1
Area code(s)Cairo_header_cell_0_16_0 (+20) 2Cairo_cell_0_16_1
WebsiteCairo_header_cell_0_17_0 Cairo_cell_0_17_1
UNESCO World Heritage SiteCairo_header_cell_0_18_0
Official nameCairo_header_cell_0_19_0 Historic CairoCairo_cell_0_19_1
TypeCairo_header_cell_0_20_0 CulturalCairo_cell_0_20_1
CriteriaCairo_header_cell_0_21_0 i, iii, viCairo_cell_0_21_1
DesignatedCairo_header_cell_0_22_0 1979Cairo_cell_0_22_1
Reference no.Cairo_header_cell_0_23_0 Cairo_cell_0_23_1
State PartyCairo_header_cell_0_24_0 EgyptCairo_cell_0_24_1

Cairo (/ˈkaɪroʊ/ KY-roh; Arabic: القاهرة‎, romanized: al-Qāhirah, pronounced [ælˈqɑːhɪɾɑ (listen), Coptic: ⲕⲁϩⲓⲣⲏ) is the capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Arab world. Cairo_sentence_2

Its metropolitan area, with a population of over 20 million, is the largest in Africa, the Arab world, and the Middle East, and the 6th-largest in the world. Cairo_sentence_3

Cairo is associated with ancient Egypt, as the famous Giza pyramid complex and the ancient city of Memphis are located in its geographical area. Cairo_sentence_4

Located near the Nile Delta, Cairo was founded in 969 AD by the Fatimid dynasty, but the land composing the present-day city was the site of ancient national capitals whose remnants remain visible in parts of Old Cairo. Cairo_sentence_5

Cairo has long been a centre of the region's political and cultural life, and is titled "the city of a thousand minarets" for its preponderance of Islamic architecture. Cairo_sentence_6

Cairo is considered a World City with a "Beta +" classification according to GaWC. Cairo_sentence_7

Cairo has the oldest and largest film and music industries in the Arab world, as well as the world's second-oldest institution of higher learning, Al-Azhar University. Cairo_sentence_8

Many international media, businesses, and organizations have regional headquarters in the city; the Arab League has had its headquarters in Cairo for most of its existence. Cairo_sentence_9

With a population of over 9 million spread over 3,085 square kilometers (1,191 sq mi), Cairo is by far the largest city in Egypt. Cairo_sentence_10

An additional 9.5 million inhabitants live in close proximity to the city. Cairo_sentence_11

Cairo, like many other megacities, suffers from high levels of pollution and traffic. Cairo_sentence_12

The Cairo Metro is one of the only two metro systems in Africa (the other being in Algiers, Algeria), and ranks amongst the fifteen busiest in the world, with over 1 billion annual passenger rides. Cairo_sentence_13

The economy of Cairo was ranked first in the Middle East in 2005, and 43rd globally on Foreign Policy's 2010 Global Cities Index. Cairo_sentence_14

Etymology Cairo_section_0

Egyptians often refer to Cairo as Maṣr (IPA: [mɑsˤɾ; Egyptian Arabic: مَصر‎), the Egyptian Arabic name for Egypt itself, emphasizing the city's importance for the country. Cairo_sentence_15

Its official name al-Qāhirah  (Arabic: القاهرة‎) means "the Vanquisher" or "the Conqueror", supposedly due to the fact that the planet Mars, an-Najm al-Qāhir (Arabic: النجم القاهر‎, "the Conquering Star"), was rising at the time when the city was founded, possibly also in reference to the much awaited arrival of the Fatimid Caliph Al-Mu'izz who reached Cairo in 973 from Mahdia, the old Fatimid capital. Cairo_sentence_16

The location of the ancient city of Heliopolis is the suburb of Ain Shams (Arabic: عين شمس‎, "Eye of the Sun"). Cairo_sentence_17

There are a few Coptic names of the city. Cairo_sentence_18

(di)Kashromi (Coptic: (ϯ)ⲕⲁϣⲣⲱⲙⲓ) is attested as early as 1211 and is a calque which means "man breaker" ("ⲕⲁϣ-" – to break, "ⲣⲱⲙⲓ" – man) which is akin to Arabic al-Qāhirah . Cairo_sentence_19

Lioui (Coptic: ⲗⲓⲟⲩⲓ) or Elioui (Coptic: ⲉⲗⲓⲟⲩⲓ) is another name which is a corruption of Greek name of Heliopolis (Greek: Ήλιούπολις). Cairo_sentence_20

Some argue that Mistram (Coptic: ⲙⲓⲥⲧⲣⲁⲙ) or Nistram (Coptic: ⲛⲓⲥⲧⲣⲁⲙ) is another Coptic name for Cairo, although others think that it's rather a name of an Abbasid capital Al-Askar. Cairo_sentence_21

ⲕⲁϩⲓⲣⲏ is a popular modern rendering of an Arabic name (others being ⲭⲁⲓⲣⲟⲛ and ⲕⲁϩⲓⲣⲁ) which has a folk etymology "land of sun". Cairo_sentence_22

Some argue that it was a name of an Egyptian settlement upon which Cairo was built, but it's rather doubtful as this name is not attested in any Hieroglyphic or Demotic source, although some researchers, like Paul Casanova, view it as a legitimate theory. Cairo_sentence_23

Cairo is also referred to as ⲭⲏⲙⲓ, which means Egypt in Coptic, the same way it's referred to in Egyptian Arabic. Cairo_sentence_24

Sometimes the city is informally referred to as Kayro by people from Alexandria (IPA: [ˈkæjɾo; Egyptian Arabic: كايرو‎). Cairo_sentence_25

History Cairo_section_1

See also: Timeline of Cairo and History of Egypt Cairo_sentence_26

Initial settlements Cairo_section_2

The area around present-day Cairo, especially Memphis that was the old capital of Egypt, had long been a focal point of Ancient Egypt due to its strategic location just upstream from the Nile Delta. Cairo_sentence_27

However, the origins of the modern city are generally traced back to a series of settlements in the first millennium. Cairo_sentence_28

Around the turn of the 4th century, as Memphis was continuing to decline in importance, the Romans established a fortress town along the east bank of the Nile. Cairo_sentence_29

This fortress, known as Babylon, was the nucleus of the Roman and then the Byzantine city and is the oldest structure in the city today. Cairo_sentence_30

It is also situated at the nucleus of the Coptic Orthodox community, which separated from the Roman and Byzantine churches in the late 4th century. Cairo_sentence_31

Many of Cairo's oldest Coptic churches, including the Hanging Church, are located along the fortress walls in a section of the city known as Coptic Cairo. Cairo_sentence_32

Following the Muslim conquest in AD 640, the conqueror Amr ibn As settled to the north of the Babylon in an area that became known as al-Fustat. Cairo_sentence_33

Originally a tented camp (Fustat signifies "City of Tents") Fustat became a permanent settlement and the first capital of Islamic Egypt. Cairo_sentence_34

In 750, following the overthrow of the Umayyad caliphate by the Abbasids, the new rulers created their own settlement to the northeast of Fustat which became their capital. Cairo_sentence_35

This was known as al-Askar (the city of sections, or cantonments) as it was laid out like a military camp. Cairo_sentence_36

A rebellion in 869 by Ahmad ibn Tulun led to the abandonment of Al Askar and the building of another settlement, which became the seat of government. Cairo_sentence_37

This was al-Qatta'i ("the Quarters"), to the north of Fustat and closer to the river. Cairo_sentence_38

Al Qatta'i was centred around a palace and ceremonial mosque, now known as the Mosque of ibn Tulun. Cairo_sentence_39

In 905, the Abbasids re-asserted control of the country and their governor returned to Fustat, razing al-Qatta'i to the ground. Cairo_sentence_40

Foundation and expansion Cairo_section_3

Further information: Egypt in the Middle Ages Cairo_sentence_41

In 969, the Fatimids conquered Egypt from their base in Ifriqiya and a new fortified city northeast of Fustat was established. Cairo_sentence_42

It took four years to build the city, initially known as al-Manṣūriyyah, which was to serve as the new capital of the caliphate. Cairo_sentence_43

During that time, the construction of the al-Azhar Mosque was commissioned by order of the Caliph, which developed into the third-oldest university in the world. Cairo_sentence_44

Cairo would eventually become a centre of learning, with the library of Cairo containing hundreds of thousands of books. Cairo_sentence_45

When Caliph al-Mu'izz li Din Allah arrived from the old Fatimid capital of Mahdia in Tunisia in 973, he gave the city its present name, Qāhirat al-Mu'izz ("The Vanquisher of al-Mu'izz"). Cairo_sentence_46

For nearly 200 years after Cairo was established, the administrative centre of Egypt remained in Fustat. Cairo_sentence_47

However, in 1168 the Fatimid vizier Shawar set fire to Fustat to prevent its capture by Amalric, the Crusader king of Jerusalem. Cairo_sentence_48

Egypt's capital was permanently moved to Cairo, which was eventually expanded to include the ruins of Fustat and the previous capitals of al-Askar and al-Qatta'i. Cairo_sentence_49

As al Qahira expanded these earlier settlements were encompassed, and have since become part of the city of Cairo as it expanded and spread; they are now collectively known as "Old Cairo". Cairo_sentence_50

While the Fustat fire successfully protected the city of Cairo, a continuing power struggle between Shawar, King Amalric I of Jerusalem, and the Zengid general Shirkuh led to the downfall of the Fatimid establishment. Cairo_sentence_51

In 1169, Saladin was appointed as the new vizier of Egypt by the Fatimids and two years later he seized power from the family of the last Fatimid caliph, al-'Āḍid. Cairo_sentence_52

As the first Sultan of Egypt, Saladin established the Ayyubid dynasty, based in Cairo, and aligned Egypt with the Abbasids, who were based in Baghdad. Cairo_sentence_53

During his reign, Saladin constructed the Cairo Citadel, which served as the seat of the Egyptian government until the mid-19th century. Cairo_sentence_54

In 1250, slave soldiers, known as the Mamluks, seized control of Egypt and like many of their predecessors established Cairo as the capital of their new dynasty. Cairo_sentence_55

Continuing a practice started by the Ayyubids, much of the land occupied by former Fatimid palaces was sold and replaced by newer buildings. Cairo_sentence_56

Construction projects initiated by the Mamluks pushed the city outward while also bringing new infrastructure to the centre of the city. Cairo_sentence_57

Meanwhile, Cairo flourished as a centre of Islamic scholarship and a crossroads on the spice trade route among the civilisations in Afro-Eurasia. Cairo_sentence_58

By 1340, Cairo had a population of close to half a million, making it the largest city west of China. Cairo_sentence_59

The historic traveller Ibn Battuta travelled thousands of miles during the course of his trek. Cairo_sentence_60

One city he stopped in was Cairo, Egypt. Cairo_sentence_61

One significant note Ibn Battuta made was that Cairo was the principal district of Egypt, meaning Cairo was Egypt's most important and most influential city (Ibn Battuta, 2009). Cairo_sentence_62

Ibn Battuta also acknowledges the importance of the Nile river to all of Egypt, including Cairo, as he often travelled via boat to arrive at Cairo and to leave to continue his journey. Cairo_sentence_63

The Nile was not just a means for transportation, it was the source of a plethora of other tangibles as well. Cairo_sentence_64

The Nile's most influential attribute was its ability to sustain rich soil for agriculture. Cairo_sentence_65

Part of the Agricultural Revolution thrived in Egypt, predominantly off the back of the Nile. Cairo_sentence_66

The Nile also served as a source of food and a pathway for trade. Cairo_sentence_67

Without it, the Egypt we know today wouldn't have been the same. Cairo_sentence_68

One of Ibn Battuta's most detailed accounts in Cairo involves a plague that was devastating the city. Cairo_sentence_69

Today, this plague is known as the Bubonic Plague, or the Black Death. Cairo_sentence_70

It is believed to have arrived in Egypt in 1347, and as Ibn Battuta recalls, the Bubonic plague was responsible for the deaths of between 1 and 20,000 people a day in Cairo(Berkeley ORIAS, 2018) (Ibn Battuta, 2009). Cairo_sentence_71

The plague originated in Asia and spread via fleas on rodents, such as rats (Berkeley ORIAS, 2018). Cairo_sentence_72

The plague would end up spreading to all of Eurasia and wiped out any civilizations that were in its path. Cairo_sentence_73

It is estimated that somewhere between 75 and 200 million people total died from the plague. Cairo_sentence_74

Ottoman rule Cairo_section_4

Further information: History of Ottoman Egypt Cairo_sentence_75

See also: Muhammad Ali's seizure of power Cairo_sentence_76

Although Cairo avoided Europe's stagnation during the Late Middle Ages, it could not escape the Black Death, which struck the city more than fifty times between 1348 and 1517. Cairo_sentence_77

During its initial, and most deadly waves, approximately 200,000 people were killed by the plague, and, by the 15th century, Cairo's population had been reduced to between 150,000 and 300,000. Cairo_sentence_78

The city's status was further diminished after Vasco da Gama discovered a sea route around the Cape of Good Hope between 1497 and 1499, thereby allowing spice traders to avoid Cairo. Cairo_sentence_79

Cairo's political influence diminished significantly after the Ottomans supplanted Mamluk power over Egypt in 1517. Cairo_sentence_80

Ruling from Constantinople, Sultan Selim I relegated Egypt to a province, with Cairo as its capital. Cairo_sentence_81

For this reason, the history of Cairo during Ottoman times is often described as inconsequential, especially in comparison to other time periods. Cairo_sentence_82

However, during the 16th and 17th centuries, Cairo remained an important economic and cultural centre. Cairo_sentence_83

Although no longer on the spice route, the city facilitated the transportation of Yemeni coffee and Indian textiles, primarily to Anatolia, North Africa, and the Balkans. Cairo_sentence_84

Cairene merchants were instrumental in bringing goods to the barren Hejaz, especially during the annual hajj to Mecca. Cairo_sentence_85

It was during this same period that al-Azhar University reached the predominance among Islamic schools that it continues to hold today; pilgrims on their way to hajj often attested to the superiority of the institution, which had become associated with Egypt's body of Islamic scholars. Cairo_sentence_86

By the 16th century, Cairo also had high-rise apartment buildings where the two lower floors were for commercial and storage purposes and the multiple stories above them were rented out to tenants. Cairo_sentence_87

Under the Ottomans, Cairo expanded south and west from its nucleus around the Citadel. Cairo_sentence_88

The city was the second-largest in the empire, behind Constantinople, and, although migration was not the primary source of Cairo's growth, twenty percent of its population at the end of the 18th century consisted of religious minorities and foreigners from around the Mediterranean. Cairo_sentence_89

Still, when Napoleon arrived in Cairo in 1798, the city's population was less than 300,000, forty percent lower than it was at the height of Mamluk—and Cairene—influence in the mid-14th century. Cairo_sentence_90

The French occupation was short-lived as British and Ottoman forces, including a sizeable Albanian contingent, recaptured the country in 1801. Cairo_sentence_91

Cairo itself was besieged by a British and Ottoman force culminating with the French surrender on 22 June 1801. Cairo_sentence_92

The British vacated Egypt two years later, leaving the Ottomans, the Albanians, and the long-weakened Mamluks jostling for control of the country. Cairo_sentence_93

Continued civil war allowed an Albanian named Muhammad Ali Pasha to ascend to the role of commander and eventually, with the approval of the religious establishment, viceroy of Egypt in 1805. Cairo_sentence_94

Modern era Cairo_section_5

Further information: History of Egypt under the Muhammad Ali dynasty and History of modern Egypt Cairo_sentence_95

Until his death in 1848, Muhammad Ali Pasha instituted a number of social and economic reforms that earned him the title of founder of modern Egypt. Cairo_sentence_96

However, while Muhammad Ali initiated the construction of public buildings in the city, those reforms had minimal effect on Cairo's landscape. Cairo_sentence_97

Bigger changes came to Cairo under Isma'il Pasha (r. 1863–1879), who continued the modernisation processes started by his grandfather. Cairo_sentence_98

Drawing inspiration from Paris, Isma'il envisioned a city of maidans and wide avenues; due to financial constraints, only some of them, in the area now composing Downtown Cairo, came to fruition. Cairo_sentence_99

Isma'il also sought to modernize the city, which was merging with neighbouring settlements, by establishing a public works ministry, bringing gas and lighting to the city, and opening a theatre and opera house. Cairo_sentence_100

The immense debt resulting from Isma'il's projects provided a pretext for increasing European control, which culminated with the British invasion in 1882. Cairo_sentence_101

The city's economic centre quickly moved west toward the Nile, away from the historic Islamic Cairo section and toward the contemporary, European-style areas built by Isma'il. Cairo_sentence_102

Europeans accounted for five percent of Cairo's population at the end of the 19th century, by which point they held most top governmental positions. Cairo_sentence_103

In 1905 the Heliopolis Oasis Company headed by the Belgian industrialist Édouard Empain and by Boghos Nubar, son of the Egyptian Prime Minister Nubar Pasha built a suburb called Heliopolis ten kilometers from the center of Cairo. Cairo_sentence_104

It represented the first large-scale attempt to promote its own architecture, known now as the Heliopolis style. Cairo_sentence_105

The British occupation was intended to be temporary, but it lasted well into the 20th century. Cairo_sentence_106

Nationalists staged large-scale demonstrations in Cairo in 1919, five years after Egypt had been declared a British protectorate. Cairo_sentence_107

Nevertheless, this led to Egypt's independence in 1922. Cairo_sentence_108

1924 Cairo Quran Cairo_section_6

The King Fuad I Edition of the Qur’an was first published on 10 July 1924 in Cairo under the patronage of King Fuad. Cairo_sentence_109

The goal of the government of the newly formed Kingdom of Egypt was not to delegitimize the other variant Quranic texts ("qira'at"), but to eliminate errors found in Qur’anic texts used in state schools. Cairo_sentence_110

A committee of teachers chose to preserve a single one of the canonical qira’at "readings", namely that of the "Ḥafṣ" version, an 8th-century Kufic recitation. Cairo_sentence_111

This edition has become the standard for modern printings of the Quran for much of the Islamic world. Cairo_sentence_112

The publication has been called a "terrific success", and the edition has been described as one "now widely seen as the official text of the Qur’an", so popular among both Sunni and Shi'a that the common belief among less well-informed Muslims is "that the Qur’an has a single, unambiguous reading". Cairo_sentence_113

Minor amendments were made later in 1924 and in 1936 - the "Faruq edition" in honour of then ruler, King Faruq. Cairo_sentence_114

British occupation until 1956 Cairo_section_7

British troops remained in the country until 1956. Cairo_sentence_115

During this time, urban Cairo, spurred by new bridges and transport links, continued to expand to include the upscale neighbourhoods of Garden City, Zamalek, and Heliopolis. Cairo_sentence_116

Between 1882 and 1937, the population of Cairo more than tripled—from 347,000 to 1.3 million—and its area increased from 10 to 163 square kilometres (4 to 63 sq mi). Cairo_sentence_117

The city was devastated during the 1952 riots known as the Cairo Fire or Black Saturday, which saw the destruction of nearly 700 shops, movie theatres, casinos and hotels in Downtown Cairo. Cairo_sentence_118

The British departed Cairo following the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, but the city's rapid growth showed no signs of abating. Cairo_sentence_119

Seeking to accommodate the increasing population, President Gamal Abdel Nasser redeveloped Maidan Tahrir and the Nile Corniche, and improved the city's network of bridges and highways. Cairo_sentence_120

Meanwhile, additional controls of the Nile fostered development within Gezira Island and along the city's waterfront. Cairo_sentence_121

The metropolis began to encroach on the fertile Nile Delta, prompting the government to build desert satellite towns and devise incentives for city-dwellers to move to them. Cairo_sentence_122

1960s Cairo_section_8

Cairo's population has doubled since the 1960s, reaching close to seven million (with an additional ten million in its urban area). Cairo_sentence_123

Concurrently, Cairo has established itself as a political and economic hub for North Africa and the Arab world, with many multinational businesses and organisations, including the Arab League, operating out of the city. Cairo_sentence_124

In 1992, Cairo was hit by an earthquake causing 545 deaths, injuring 6,512 and leaving around 50,000 people homeless. Cairo_sentence_125

2011 Egyptian revolution Cairo_section_9

Main article: Egyptian revolution of 2011 Cairo_sentence_126

Cairo's Tahrir Square was the focal point of the 2011 Egyptian Revolution against former president Hosni Mubarak. Cairo_sentence_127

Over 2 million protesters were at Cairo's Tahrir square. Cairo_sentence_128

More than 50,000 protesters first occupied the square on 25 January, during which the area's wireless services were reported to be impaired. Cairo_sentence_129

In the following days Tahrir Square continued to be the primary destination for protests in Cairo as it took place following a popular uprising that began on Tuesday, 25 January 2011 and continued until June 2013. Cairo_sentence_130

The uprising was mainly a campaign of non-violent civil resistance, which featured a series of demonstrations, marches, acts of civil disobedience, and labour strikes. Cairo_sentence_131

Millions of protesters from a variety of socio-economic and religious backgrounds demanded the overthrow of the regime of Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak. Cairo_sentence_132

Despite being predominantly peaceful in nature, the revolution was not without violent clashes between security forces and protesters, with at least 846 people killed and 6,000 injured. Cairo_sentence_133

The uprising took place in Cairo, Alexandria, and in other cities in Egypt, following the Tunisian revolution that resulted in the overthrow of the long-time Tunisian president Zine El Abidine Ben Ali. Cairo_sentence_134

On 11 February, following weeks of determined popular protest and pressure, Hosni Mubarak resigned from office. Cairo_sentence_135

Post-revolutionary Cairo Cairo_section_10

Under the rule of President el-Sisi, in March 2015 plans were announced for another yet-unnamed planned city to be built further east of the existing satellite city of New Cairo, intended to serve as the new capital of Egypt. Cairo_sentence_136

Geography Cairo_section_11

Cairo is located in northern Egypt, known as Lower Egypt, 165 kilometres (100 mi) south of the Mediterranean Sea and 120 kilometres (75 mi) west of the Gulf of Suez and Suez Canal. Cairo_sentence_137

The city lies along the Nile River, immediately south of the point where the river leaves its desert-bound valley and branches into the low-lying Nile Delta region. Cairo_sentence_138

Although the Cairo metropolis extends away from the Nile in all directions, the city of Cairo resides only on the east bank of the river and two islands within it on a total area of 453 square kilometres (175 sq mi). Cairo_sentence_139

Geologically, Cairo lies on alluvium and sand dunes which date from the quaternary period. Cairo_sentence_140

Until the mid-19th century, when the river was tamed by dams, levees, and other controls, the Nile in the vicinity of Cairo was highly susceptible to changes in course and surface level. Cairo_sentence_141

Over the years, the Nile gradually shifted westward, providing the site between the eastern edge of the river and the Mokattam highlands on which the city now stands. Cairo_sentence_142

The land on which Cairo was established in 969 (present-day Islamic Cairo) was located underwater just over three hundred years earlier, when Fustat was first built. Cairo_sentence_143

Low periods of the Nile during the 11th century continued to add to the landscape of Cairo; a new island, known as Geziret al-Fil, first appeared in 1174, but eventually became connected to the mainland. Cairo_sentence_144

Today, the site of Geziret al-Fil is occupied by the Shubra district. Cairo_sentence_145

The low periods created another island at the turn of the 14th century that now composes Zamalek and Gezira. Cairo_sentence_146

Land reclamation efforts by the Mamluks and Ottomans further contributed to expansion on the east bank of the river. Cairo_sentence_147

Because of the Nile's movement, the newer parts of the city—Garden City, Downtown Cairo, and Zamalek—are located closest to the riverbank. Cairo_sentence_148

The areas, which are home to most of Cairo's embassies, are surrounded on the north, east, and south by the older parts of the city. Cairo_sentence_149

Old Cairo, located south of the centre, holds the remnants of Fustat and the heart of Egypt's Coptic Christian community, Coptic Cairo. Cairo_sentence_150

The Boulaq district, which lies in the northern part of the city, was born out of a major 16th-century port and is now a major industrial centre. Cairo_sentence_151

The Citadel is located east of the city centre around Islamic Cairo, which dates back to the Fatimid era and the foundation of Cairo. Cairo_sentence_152

While western Cairo is dominated by wide boulevards, open spaces, and modern architecture of European influence, the eastern half, having grown haphazardly over the centuries, is dominated by small lanes, crowded tenements, and Islamic architecture. Cairo_sentence_153

Northern and extreme eastern parts of Cairo, which include satellite towns, are among the most recent additions to the city, as they developed in the late-20th and early-21st centuries to accommodate the city's rapid growth. Cairo_sentence_154

The western bank of the Nile is commonly included within the urban area of Cairo, but it composes the city of Giza and the Giza Governorate. Cairo_sentence_155

Giza has also undergone significant expansion over recent years, and today the city, although still a suburb of Cairo, has a population of 2.7 million. Cairo_sentence_156

The Cairo Governorate was just north of the Helwan Governorate from 2008 when some Cairo's southern districts, including Maadi and New Cairo, were split off and annexed into the new governorate, to 2011 when the Helwan Governorate was reincorporated into the Cairo Governorate. Cairo_sentence_157

According to the World Health Organization, the level of air pollution in Cairo is nearly 12 times higher than the recommended safety level Cairo_sentence_158

Climate Cairo_section_12

In Cairo, and along the Nile River Valley, the climate is a hot desert climate (BWh according to the Köppen climate classification system). Cairo_sentence_159

Wind storms can be frequent, bringing Saharan dust into the city, from March to May and the air often becomes uncomfortably dry. Cairo_sentence_160

High temperatures in winter range from 14 to 22 °C (57 to 72 °F), while night-time lows drop to below 11 °C (52 °F), often to 5 °C (41 °F). Cairo_sentence_161

In summer, the highs rarely surpass 40 °C (104 °F), and lows drop to about 20 °C (68 °F). Cairo_sentence_162

Rainfall is sparse and only happens in the colder months, but sudden showers can cause severe flooding. Cairo_sentence_163

The summer months have high humidity due to its coastal location. Cairo_sentence_164

Snowfall is extremely rare; a small amount of graupel, widely believed to be snow, fell on Cairo's easternmost suburbs on 13 December 2013, the first time Cairo's area received this kind of precipitation in many decades. Cairo_sentence_165

Dew points in the hottest months range from 13.9 °C (57 °F) in June to 18.3 °C (65 °F) in August. Cairo_sentence_166

Metropolitan area Cairo_section_13

See also: Greater Cairo and Cairo Governorate Cairo_sentence_167

The Greater Cairo is the largest metropolitan area in Africa. Cairo_sentence_168

It consists of Cairo Governorate, parts of Giza Governorate, and parts of Qalyubia Governorate. Cairo_sentence_169

Satellite cities Cairo_section_14

See also: Greater Cairo Cairo_sentence_170

6th of October City, west of Cairo, and New Cairo, east of Cairo, are major urban developments which have been built to accommodate additional growth and development of the Cairo area. Cairo_sentence_171

New development includes several high-end residential developments. Cairo_sentence_172

Planned new capital Cairo_section_15

Main article: New Administrative Capital Cairo_sentence_173

In March 2015, plans were announced for a yet-unnamed planned city to be built east of Cairo, in an undeveloped area of the Cairo Governorate, which would serve as the administrative and financial capital of Egypt. Cairo_sentence_174

Infrastructure Cairo_section_16

Health Cairo_section_17

See also: List of hospitals in Egypt Cairo_sentence_175

Cairo, as well as neighbouring Giza, has been established as Egypt's main centre for medical treatment, and despite some exceptions, has the most advanced level of medical care in the country. Cairo_sentence_176

Cairo's hospitals include the JCI-accredited As-Salaam International Hospital—Corniche El Nile, Maadi (Egypt's largest private hospital with 350 beds), Ain Shams University Hospital, Dar Al Fouad, Nile Badrawi Hospital, 57357 Hospital, as well as Qasr El Eyni Hospital. Cairo_sentence_177

Education Cairo_section_18

Greater Cairo has long been the hub of education and educational services for Egypt and the region. Cairo_sentence_178

Today, Greater Cairo is the centre for many government offices governing the Egyptian educational system, has the largest number of educational schools, and higher education institutes among other cities and governorates of Egypt. Cairo_sentence_179

Some of the International Schools found in Cairo: Cairo_sentence_180

Further information: List of schools in Egypt Cairo_sentence_181

Universities in Greater Cairo: Cairo_sentence_182

Cairo_table_general_1

UniversityCairo_header_cell_1_0_0 Date of FoundationCairo_header_cell_1_0_1
Al Azhar UniversityCairo_cell_1_1_0 970–972Cairo_cell_1_1_1
Cairo UniversityCairo_cell_1_2_0 1908Cairo_cell_1_2_1
American University in CairoCairo_cell_1_3_0 1919Cairo_cell_1_3_1
Ain Shams UniversityCairo_cell_1_4_0 1950Cairo_cell_1_4_1
Arab Academy for Science & Technology and Maritime TransportCairo_cell_1_5_0 1972Cairo_cell_1_5_1
Helwan UniversityCairo_cell_1_6_0 1975Cairo_cell_1_6_1
Sadat Academy for Management SciencesCairo_cell_1_7_0 1981Cairo_cell_1_7_1
Higher Technological InstituteCairo_cell_1_8_0 1989Cairo_cell_1_8_1
Modern Academy In MaadiCairo_cell_1_9_0 1993Cairo_cell_1_9_1
Misr International UniversityCairo_cell_1_10_0 1996Cairo_cell_1_10_1
Misr University for Science and TechnologyCairo_cell_1_11_0 1996Cairo_cell_1_11_1
Modern Sciences and Arts UniversityCairo_cell_1_12_0 1996Cairo_cell_1_12_1
Université Française d'ÉgypteCairo_cell_1_13_0 2002Cairo_cell_1_13_1
German University in CairoCairo_cell_1_14_0 2003Cairo_cell_1_14_1
Arab Open UniversityCairo_cell_1_15_0 2003Cairo_cell_1_15_1
Canadian International CollegeCairo_cell_1_16_0 2004Cairo_cell_1_16_1
British University in EgyptCairo_cell_1_17_0 2005Cairo_cell_1_17_1
Ahram Canadian UniversityCairo_cell_1_18_0 2005Cairo_cell_1_18_1
Nile UniversityCairo_cell_1_19_0 2006Cairo_cell_1_19_1
Future University in EgyptCairo_cell_1_20_0 2006Cairo_cell_1_20_1
Egyptian Russian UniversityCairo_cell_1_21_0 2006Cairo_cell_1_21_1
Heliopolis University for Sustainable DevelopmentCairo_cell_1_22_0 2009Cairo_cell_1_22_1

Transportation Cairo_section_19

Main article: Transport in Cairo Cairo_sentence_183

Cairo has an extensive road network, rail system, subway system and maritime services. Cairo_sentence_184

Road transport is facilitated by personal vehicles, taxi cabs, privately owned public buses and Cairo microbuses. Cairo_sentence_185

Cairo, specifically Ramses Square, is the centre of almost the entire Egyptian transportation network. Cairo_sentence_186

The subway system, officially called "Metro (مترو)", is a fast and efficient way of getting around Cairo. Cairo_sentence_187

Metro network covers Helwan and other suburbs. Cairo_sentence_188

It can get very crowded during rush hour. Cairo_sentence_189

Two train cars (the fourth and fifth ones) are reserved for women only, although women may ride in any car they want. Cairo_sentence_190

Trams in Greater Cairo and Cairo trolleybus are former modes of transportation but were closed. Cairo_sentence_191

An extensive road network connects Cairo with other Egyptian cities and villages. Cairo_sentence_192

There is a new Ring Road that surrounds the outskirts of the city, with exits that reach outer Cairo districts. Cairo_sentence_193

There are flyovers and bridges, such as the Sixth of October bridge that, when the traffic is not heavy, allow fast means of transportation from one side of the city to the other. Cairo_sentence_194

Cairo traffic is known to be overwhelming and overcrowded. Cairo_sentence_195

Traffic moves at a relatively fluid pace. Cairo_sentence_196

Drivers tend to be aggressive, but are more courteous at junctions, taking turns going, with police aiding in traffic control of some congested areas. Cairo_sentence_197

In 2017 plans to construct two monorail systems were announced, one linking October City to suburban Giza, a distance of 35 km (22 mi), and the other linking Nasr City to New Cairo, a distance of 52 km (32 mi). Cairo_sentence_198

Other forms of transport Cairo_section_20

Cairo_unordered_list_0

Sports Cairo_section_21

Football is the most popular sport in Egypt, and Cairo has a number of sporting teams that compete in national and regional leagues. Cairo_sentence_199

The best known teams are Al Ahly, El Zamalek and Al-Ismaily. Cairo_sentence_200

Al Ahly and El Zamalek annual football tournament is perhaps the most watched sports event in Egypt as well as the African-Arab region. Cairo_sentence_201

Both teams are known as the "rivals" of Egyptian football, and are the first and the second champions in Africa and the Arab world. Cairo_sentence_202

They play their home games at Cairo International Stadium or Naser Stadium, which is Egypt's 2nd largest stadium, Cairo's largest one and one of the largest stadiums in the world. Cairo_sentence_203

The Cairo International Stadium was built in 1960 and its multi-purpose sports complex that houses the main football stadium, an indoor stadium, several satellite fields that held several regional, continental and global games, including the African Games, U17 Football World Championship and was one of the stadiums scheduled that hosted the 2006 Africa Cup of Nations which was played in January 2006. Cairo_sentence_204

Egypt later won the competition and went on to win the next edition in Ghana (2008) making the Egyptian and Ghanaian national teams the only teams to win the African Nations Cup Back to back which resulted in Egypt winning the title for a record number of six times in the history of African Continental Competition. Cairo_sentence_205

This was followed by a third consecutive win in Angola 2010, making Egypt the only country with a record 3-consecutive and 7-total Continental Football Competition winner. Cairo_sentence_206

This achievement had also placed the Egyptian football team as the #9 best team in the world's FIFA rankings. Cairo_sentence_207

Cairo failed at the applicant stage when bidding for the 2008 Summer Olympics, which was hosted in Beijing, China. Cairo_sentence_208

However, Cairo did host the 2007 Pan Arab Games. Cairo_sentence_209

There are several other sports teams in the city that participate in several sports including el Gezira Sporting Club, el Shams Club, el Seid Club, Heliopolis Club and several smaller clubs, but the biggest clubs in Egypt (not in area but in sports) are Al Ahly and Al Zamalek. Cairo_sentence_210

They have the two biggest football teams in Egypt. Cairo_sentence_211

There are new sports clubs in the area of New Cairo (one hour far from Cairo's down town), these are Al Zohour sporting club, Wadi Degla sporting club and Platinum Club. Cairo_sentence_212

Most of the sports federations of the country are also located in the city suburbs, including the Egyptian Football Association. Cairo_sentence_213

The headquarters of the Confederation of African Football (CAF) was previously located in Cairo, before relocating to its new headquarters in 6 October City, a small city away from Cairo's crowded districts. Cairo_sentence_214

In October 2008, the Egyptian Rugby Federation was officially formed and granted membership into the International Rugby Board. Cairo_sentence_215

Egypt is internationally known for the excellence of its squash players who excel in both professional and junior divisions. Cairo_sentence_216

Egypt has seven players in the top ten of the PSA men's world rankings, and three in the women's top ten. Cairo_sentence_217

Mohamed El Shorbagy held the world number one position for more than a year before being overtaken by compatriot Karim Abdel Gawad, who is number two behind Gregory Gaultier of France. Cairo_sentence_218

Ramy Ashour and Amr Shabana are regarded as two of the most talented squash players in history. Cairo_sentence_219

Shabana won the World Open title four times and Ashour twice, although his recent form has been hampered by injury. Cairo_sentence_220

Egypt's Nour El Sherbini has won the Women's World Championship twice and has been women's world number one for 16 consecutive months. Cairo_sentence_221

On 30 April 2016, she became the youngest woman to win the Women's World Championship which was held in Malaysia. Cairo_sentence_222

In April 2017 she retained her title by winning the Women's World Championship which was held in the Egyptian resort of El Gouna. Cairo_sentence_223

Culture Cairo_section_22

Cultural tourism in Egypt Cairo_section_23

Main article: Cultural tourism in Egypt Cairo_sentence_224

Cairo Opera House Cairo_section_24

Main article: Cairo Opera House Cairo_sentence_225

President Mubarak inaugurated the new Cairo Opera House of the Egyptian National Cultural Centres on 10 October 1988, 17 years after the Royal Opera House had been destroyed by fire. Cairo_sentence_226

The National Cultural Centre was built with the help of JICA, the Japan International Co-operation Agency and stands as a prominent feature for the Japanese-Egyptian co-operation and the friendship between the two nations. Cairo_sentence_227

Khedivial Opera House Cairo_section_25

Main article: Khedivial Opera House Cairo_sentence_228

The Khedivial Opera House, or Royal Opera House, was the original opera house in Cairo. Cairo_sentence_229

It was dedicated on 1 November 1869 and burned down on 28 October 1971. Cairo_sentence_230

After the original opera house was destroyed, Cairo was without an opera house for nearly two decades until the opening of the new Cairo Opera House in 1988. Cairo_sentence_231

Cairo International Film Festival Cairo_section_26

Main article: Cairo International Film Festival Cairo_sentence_232

Cairo held its first international film festival 16 August 1976, when the first Cairo International Film Festival was launched by the Egyptian Association of Film Writers and Critics, headed by Kamal El-Mallakh. Cairo_sentence_233

The Association ran the festival for seven years until 1983. Cairo_sentence_234

This achievement lead to the President of the Festival again contacting the FIAPF with the request that a competition should be included at the 1991 Festival. Cairo_sentence_235

The request was granted. Cairo_sentence_236

In 1998, the Festival took place under the presidency of one of Egypt's leading actors, Hussein Fahmy, who was appointed by the Minister of Culture, Farouk Hosni, after the death of Saad El-Din Wahba. Cairo_sentence_237

Four years later, the journalist and writer Cherif El-Shoubashy became president. Cairo_sentence_238

Cairo Geniza Cairo_section_27

Main article: Cairo Geniza Cairo_sentence_239

The Cairo Geniza is an accumulation of almost 200,000 Jewish manuscripts that were found in the genizah of the Ben Ezra synagogue (built 882) of Fustat, Egypt (now Old Cairo), the Basatin cemetery east of Old Cairo, and a number of old documents that were bought in Cairo in the later 19th century. Cairo_sentence_240

These documents were written from about 870 to 1880 AD and have been archived in various American and European libraries. Cairo_sentence_241

The Taylor-Schechter collection in the University of Cambridge runs to 140,000 manuscripts, a further 40,000 manuscripts are at the Jewish Theological Seminary of America. Cairo_sentence_242

Food Cairo_section_28

The majority of Cairenes make food for themselves and make use of local produce markets. Cairo_sentence_243

The restaurant scene includes traditional Middle Eastern cuisine as well as local staples such as kushari. Cairo_sentence_244

The city's most exclusive restaurants are typically concentrated in Zamalek and around the luxury hotels lining the shore of the Nile near the Garden City district. Cairo_sentence_245

Influence from modern western society is also evident, with American chains such as McDonald's, Arby's, Pizza Hut, Subway, and Kentucky Fried Chicken being easy to find in central areas. Cairo_sentence_246

Places of worship Cairo_section_29

See also: List of mosques in Cairo Cairo_sentence_247

Among the places of worship, they are predominantly Muslim mosques. Cairo_sentence_248

There are also Christian churches and temples: Coptic Orthodox Church, Coptic Catholic Church (Catholic Church), Evangelical Church of Egypt (Synod of the Nile) (World Communion of Reformed Churches). Cairo_sentence_249

Economy Cairo_section_30

Cityscape and landmarks Cairo_section_31

Tahrir Square Cairo_section_32

Main article: Tahrir Square Cairo_sentence_250

Tahrir Square was founded during the mid 19th century with the establishment of modern downtown Cairo. Cairo_sentence_251

It was first named Ismailia Square, after the 19th-century ruler Khedive Ismail, who commissioned the new downtown district's 'Paris on the Nile' design. Cairo_sentence_252

After the Egyptian Revolution of 1919 the square became widely known as Tahrir (Liberation) Square, though it was not officially renamed as such until after the 1952 Revolution which eliminated the monarchy. Cairo_sentence_253

Several notable buildings surround the square including, the American University in Cairo's downtown campus, the Mogamma governmental administrative Building, the headquarters of the Arab League, the Nile Ritz Carlton Hotel, and the Egyptian Museum. Cairo_sentence_254

Being at the heart of Cairo, the square witnessed several major protests over the years. Cairo_sentence_255

However, the most notable event in the square was being the focal point of the 2011 Egyptian Revolution against former president Hosni Mubarak. Cairo_sentence_256

Egyptian Museum Cairo_section_33

The Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, known commonly as the Egyptian Museum, is home to the most extensive collection of ancient Egyptian antiquities in the world. Cairo_sentence_257

It has 136,000 items on display, with many more hundreds of thousands in its basement storerooms. Cairo_sentence_258

Among its most famous collections on display are the finds from the tomb of Tutankhamun. Cairo_sentence_259

Grand Egyptian Museum Cairo_section_34

Main article: Grand Egyptian Museum Cairo_sentence_260

Much of the collection of the Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, including the Tutankhamun collection, are slated to be moved to the new Grand Egyptian Museum, under construction in Giza and due to open by the end of 2020. Cairo_sentence_261

Cairo Tower Cairo_section_35

Main article: Cairo Tower Cairo_sentence_262

The Cairo Tower is a free-standing tower with a revolving restaurant at the top. Cairo_sentence_263

It provides a bird's eye view of Cairo to the restaurant patrons. Cairo_sentence_264

It stands in the Zamalek district on Gezira Island in the Nile River, in the city centre. Cairo_sentence_265

At 187 metres (614 feet), it is 44 metres (144 feet) higher than the Great Pyramid of Giza, which stands some 15 kilometres (9 miles) to the southwest. Cairo_sentence_266

Old Cairo Cairo_section_36

Main article: Old Cairo Cairo_sentence_267

This area of Cairo is so-named as it contains the remains of the ancient Roman fortress of Babylon and also overlaps the original site of Fustat, the first Arab settlement in Egypt (7th century AD) and the predecessor of later Cairo. Cairo_sentence_268

The area includes the Coptic Cairo, which holds a high concentration of old Christian churches such as the Hanging Church, the Greek Orthodox Church of St. George, and other Christian or Coptic buildings, most of which are located over the site of the ancient Roman fortress. Cairo_sentence_269

It is also the location of the Coptic Museum, which showcases the history of Coptic art from Greco-Roman to Islamic times, and of the Ben Ezra Synagogue, the oldest and best-known synagogue in Cairo, where the important collection of Geniza documents were discovered in the 19th century. Cairo_sentence_270

To the north of this Coptic enclave is the Amr ibn al-'As Mosque, the first mosque in Egypt and the most important religious centre of what was formerly Fustat, founded in 642 AD right after the Arab conquest but rebuilt many times since. Cairo_sentence_271

Islamic Cairo Cairo_section_37

Main article: Islamic Cairo Cairo_sentence_272

Cairo holds one of the greatest concentrations of historical monuments of Islamic architecture in the world. Cairo_sentence_273

The areas around the old walled city and around the Citadel are characterized by hundreds of mosques, tombs, madrasas, mansions, caravanserais, and fortifications dating from the Islamic era and are often referred to as "Islamic Cairo", especially in English travel literature. Cairo_sentence_274

It is also the location of several important religious shrines such as the al-Hussein Mosque (whose shrine is believed to hold the head of Husayn ibn Ali), the Mausoleum of Imam al-Shafi'i (founder of the Shafi'i madhhab, one of the primary schools of thought in Sunni Islamic jurisprudence), the Tomb of Sayyida Ruqayya, the Mosque of Sayyida Nafisa, and others. Cairo_sentence_275

The first mosque in Egypt was the Mosque of Amr ibn al-As in what was formerly Fustat, the first Arab-Muslim settlement in the area. Cairo_sentence_276

However, the Mosque of Ibn Tulun is the oldest mosque that still retains its original form and is a rare example of Abbasid architecture from the classical period of Islamic civilization. Cairo_sentence_277

It was built in 876–879 AD in a style inspired by the Abbasid capital of Samarra in Iraq. Cairo_sentence_278

It is one of the largest mosques in Cairo and is often cited as one of the most beautiful. Cairo_sentence_279

Another Abbasid construction, the Nilometer on Rhoda Island, is the oldest original structure in Cairo, built in 862 AD. Cairo_sentence_280

It was designed to measure the level of the Nile, which was important for agricultural and administrative purposes. Cairo_sentence_281

The settlement that was formally named Cairo (Arabic: al-Qahira) was founded to the northeast of Fustat in 959 AD by the victorious Fatimid army. Cairo_sentence_282

The Fatimids built it as a separate palatial city which contained their palaces and institutions of government. Cairo_sentence_283

It was enclosed by a circuit of walls, which were rebuilt in stone in the late 11th century AD by the vizir Badr al-Gamali, parts of which survive today at Bab Zuwayla in the south and Bab al-Futuh and Bab al-Nasr in the north. Cairo_sentence_284

One of the most important and lasting institutions founded in the Fatimid period was the Mosque of al-Azhar, founded in 970 AD, which competes with the Qarawiyyin in Fes for the title of oldest university in the world. Cairo_sentence_285

Today, al-Azhar University is the foremost Center of Islamic learning in the world and one of Egypt's largest universities with campuses across the country. Cairo_sentence_286

The mosque itself retains significant Fatimid elements but has been added to and expanded in subsequent centuries, notably by the Mamluk sultans Qaitbay and al-Ghuri and by Abd al-Rahman Katkhuda in the 18th century. Cairo_sentence_287

Other extant monuments from the Fatimid era include the large Mosque of al-Hakim, the Aqmar Mosque, Juyushi Mosque, Lulua Mosque, and the Mosque of Al-Salih Tala'i. Cairo_sentence_288

The most prominent architectural heritage of medieval Cairo, however, dates from the Mamluk period, from 1250 to 1517 AD. Cairo_sentence_289

The Mamluk sultans and elites were eager patrons of religious and scholarly life, commonly building religious or funerary complexes whose functions could include a mosque, madrasa, khanqah (for Sufis), a sabil (water dispensary), and a mausoleum for themselves and their families. Cairo_sentence_290

Among the best-known examples of Mamluk monuments in Cairo are the huge Mosque-Madrasa of Sultan Hasan, the Mosque of Amir al-Maridani, the Mosque of Sultan al-Mu'ayyad (whose twin minarets were built above the gate of Bab Zuwayla), the Sultan Al-Ghuri complex, the funerary complex of Sultan Qaytbay in the Northern Cemetery, and the trio of monuments in the Bayn al-Qasrayn area comprising the complex of Sultan al-Mansur Qalawun, the Madrasa of al-Nasir Muhammad, and the Madrasa of Sultan Barquq. Cairo_sentence_291

Some mosques include spolia (often columns or capitals) from earlier buildings built by the Romans, Byzantines, or Copts. Cairo_sentence_292

The Mamluks, and the later Ottomans, also built wikalas or caravanserais to house merchants and goods due to the important role of trade and commerce in Cairo's economy. Cairo_sentence_293

The most famous example still intact today is the Wikala al-Ghuri, which nowadays also hosts regular performances by the Al-Tannoura Egyptian Heritage Dance Troupe. Cairo_sentence_294

The famous Khan al-Khalili is a commercial hub which also integrated caravanserais (also known as khans). Cairo_sentence_295

Citadel of Cairo Cairo_section_38

Main article: Cairo Citadel Cairo_sentence_296

The Citadel is a fortified enclosure begun by Salah al-Din in 1176 AD on an outcrop of the Muqattam Hills as part of a large defensive system to protect both Cairo to the north and Fustat to the southwest. Cairo_sentence_297

It was the centre of Egyptian government and residence of its rulers until 1874, when Khedive Isma'il moved to 'Abdin Palace. Cairo_sentence_298

It is still occupied by the military today, but is now open as a tourist attraction comprising, notably, the National Military Museum, the 14th century Mosque of al-Nasir Muhammad, and the 19th century Mosque of Muhammad Ali which commands a dominant position on Cairo's skyline. Cairo_sentence_299

Khan el-Khalili Cairo_section_39

Main article: Khan el-Khalili Cairo_sentence_300

Khan el-Khalili is an ancient bazaar, or marketplace adjacent to the Al-Hussein Mosque. Cairo_sentence_301

It dates back to 1385, when Amir Jarkas el-Khalili built a large caravanserai, or khan. Cairo_sentence_302

(A caravanserai is a hotel for traders, and usually the focal point for any surrounding area.) Cairo_sentence_303

This original carvanserai building was demolished by Sultan al-Ghuri, who rebuilt it as a new commercial complex in the early 16th century, forming the basis for the network of souqs existing today. Cairo_sentence_304

Many medieval elements remain today, including the ornate Mamluk-style gateways. Cairo_sentence_305

Today, the Khan el-Khalili is a major tourist attraction and popular stop for tour groups. Cairo_sentence_306

Society Cairo_section_40

Today, Cairo is heavily urbanized and most Cairenes now live in apartment buildings. Cairo_sentence_307

Because of the influx of people into the city, lone standing houses are rare to find, and apartment buildings accommodate for the limited space and abundance of people. Cairo_sentence_308

Single detached houses are symbolic of the wealthy. Cairo_sentence_309

Formal education has also become very important. Cairo_sentence_310

There are twelve years of formal education, and Cairenes also take an apprehension test similar to the SAT to help them further their education and become accepted to a higher institution. Cairo_sentence_311

However, most children do not finish school and opt to pick up a trade to enter the work force. Cairo_sentence_312

Egypt still struggles with poverty, with almost half the population living on $2 or less a day From the income the country does make, most of it does come from Cairo, as the majority of the countries manufacturing headquarters are located there. Cairo_sentence_313

Women's rights Cairo_section_41

The civil rights movement for women in Cairo and Egypt has been a long battle for years. Cairo_sentence_314

Women are reported to face constant discrimination, harassment, and abuse throughout Cairo. Cairo_sentence_315

A 2013 UN study found that over 99% of Egyptian women reported experiencing sexual harassment at some point in their lives. Cairo_sentence_316

The problem has persisted in spite of new national laws since 2014 defining and criminalizing sexual harassment. Cairo_sentence_317

The situation is so severe that in 2017 Cairo was named by one poll as the most dangerous megacity for women in the world. Cairo_sentence_318

Pollution Cairo_section_42

Cairo is an expanding city, which has led to many environmental problems. Cairo_sentence_319

The air pollution in Cairo is a matter of serious concern. Cairo_sentence_320

Greater Cairo's volatile aromatic hydrocarbon levels are higher than many other similar cities. Cairo_sentence_321

Air quality measurements in Cairo have also been recording dangerous levels of lead, carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, and suspended particulate matter concentrations due to decades of unregulated vehicle emissions, urban industrial operations, and chaff and trash burning. Cairo_sentence_322

There are over 4,500,000 cars on the streets of Cairo, 60% of which are over 10 years old, and therefore lack modern emission cutting features. Cairo_sentence_323

Cairo has a very poor dispersion factor because of its lack of rain and its layout of tall buildings and narrow streets, which create a bowl effect. Cairo_sentence_324

In recent years, a mysterious black cloud (as Egyptians refer to it) appeared over Cairo every autumn and causes serious respiratory diseases and eye irritations for the city's citizens. Cairo_sentence_325

Tourists who are not familiar with such high levels of pollution must take extra care. Cairo_sentence_326

Cairo also has many unregistered lead and copper smelters which heavily pollute the city. Cairo_sentence_327

The results of this has been a permanent haze over the city with particulate matter in the air reaching over three times normal levels. Cairo_sentence_328

It is estimated that 10,000 to 25,000 people a year in Cairo die due to air pollution-related diseases. Cairo_sentence_329

Lead has been shown to cause harm to the central nervous system and neurotoxicity particularly in children. Cairo_sentence_330

In 1995, the first environmental acts were introduced and the situation has seen some improvement with 36 air monitoring stations and emissions tests on cars. Cairo_sentence_331

Twenty thousand buses have also been commissioned to the city to improve congestion levels, which are very high. Cairo_sentence_332

The city also suffers from a high level of land pollution. Cairo_sentence_333

Cairo produces 10,000 tons of waste material each day, 4,000 tons of which is not collected or managed. Cairo_sentence_334

This once again is a huge health hazard and the Egyptian Government is looking for ways to combat this. Cairo_sentence_335

The Cairo Cleaning and Beautification Agency was founded to collect and recycle the waste; however, they also work with the Zabbaleen (or Zabaleen), a community that has been collecting and recycling Cairo's waste since the turn of the 20th century and live in an area known locally as Manshiyat naser. Cairo_sentence_336

Both are working together to pick up as much waste as possible within the city limits, though it remains a pressing problem. Cairo_sentence_337

Water pollution is also a serious problem in the city as the sewer system tends to fail and overflow. Cairo_sentence_338

On occasion, sewage has escaped onto the streets to create a health hazard. Cairo_sentence_339

This problem is hoped to be solved by a new sewer system funded by the European Union, which could cope with the demand of the city. Cairo_sentence_340

The dangerously high levels of mercury in the city's water system has global health officials concerned over related health risks. Cairo_sentence_341

International relations Cairo_section_43

The Headquarters of the Arab League is located in Tahrir Square, near the downtown business district of Cairo. Cairo_sentence_342

Twin towns – sister cities Cairo_section_44

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Egypt Cairo_sentence_343

Cairo is twinned with: Cairo_sentence_344

Notable people Cairo_section_45

Cairo_unordered_list_1

See also Cairo_section_46

Cairo_unordered_list_2


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cairo.