This article is about the State of California.
For other uses, see California (disambiguation).
|Before statehood||Mexican Cession unorganized territory|
|Admitted to the Union||September 9, 1850 (31st)|
|Largest city||Los Angeles|
|Largest metro||Greater Los Angeles|
|Governor||Gavin Newsom (D)|
|Lieutenant Governor||Eleni Kounalakis (D)|
|Upper house||State Senate|
|Lower house||State Assembly|
|Judiciary||Supreme Court of California|
|U.S. senators||Dianne Feinstein (D)
Kamala Harris (D)
|U.S. House delegation||(list)|
|Total||163,696 sq mi (423,970 km)|
|Land||155,959 sq mi (403,932 km)|
|Water||7,737 sq mi (20,047 km) 4.7%|
|Length||770 mi (1,240 km)|
|Width||250 mi (400 km)|
|Elevation||2,900 ft (880 m)|
|Highest elevation (Mount Whitney)||14,505 ft (4,421.0 m)|
|Lowest elevation (Badwater Basin)||−279 ft (−85.0 m)|
|Density||253.6/sq mi (97.9/km)|
|Median household income||$71,228 (2,018)|
|Spoken language||Language spoken at home:|
|Time zone||UTC−08:00 (PST)|
|Summer (DST)||UTC−07:00 (PDT)|
|ISO 3166 code||US-CA|
|Traditional abbreviation||Calif., Cal.|
|Latitude||32°32′ N to 42° N|
|Longitude||114°8′ W to 124°26′ W|
With 39.5 million residents across a total area of about 163,696 square miles (423,970 km), California is the most populous U.S. state and the third-largest by area, and is also the world's thirty-fourth most populous subnational entity.
The City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs.
If it were a country, California would be the fifth-largest economy in the world, and the 37th-most populous as of 2020.
The Greater Los Angeles area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies ($1.3 trillion and $1.0 trillion respectively as of 2020), after the New York metropolitan area ($2.0 trillion).
The San Francisco Bay Area Combined Statistical Area had the nation's highest gross domestic product per capita in 2018 ($106,757) among large primary statistical areas, and is home to four of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people.
As a result of the state's diversity and migration, California integrates foods, languages, and traditions from other areas across the country and around the globe.
The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are widely seen as centers of the global technology and entertainment industries, respectively.
Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.S. state.
The state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, and from the redwood and Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast.
The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center.
Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate and monsoon seasonal weather, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains.
All these factors lead to an enormous demand for water; in total numbers, California is the largest consumer of water in North America.
Over time, drought and wildfires have become more frequent; further straining California's water security.
What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of Europeans during the 16th and 17th centuries.
The Spanish Empire then claimed and colonized it.
The western portion of Alta California was then organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850.
The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom.
The Spaniards gave the name Las Californias to the peninsula of Baja California and to Alta California, the region that became the present-day state of California.
Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts.
In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph.
It is possible the name California was meant to imply the island was a Caliphate.
Main article: History of California
Further information: History of California before 1900
Main article: Indigenous peoples of California
Settled by successive waves of arrivals during at least the last 13,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America.
Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000.
The indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct ethnic groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior.
Trade, intermarriage and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups.
Further information: The Californias § History
The first Europeans to explore the California coast were the members of a Spanish sailing expedition led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo; they entered San Diego Bay on September 28, 1542, and reached at least as far north as San Miguel Island.
Despite the on-the-ground explorations of California in the 16th century, Rodríguez's idea of California as an island persisted.
Such depictions appeared on many European maps well into the 18th century.
During the same period, Spanish military forces built several forts (presidios) and three small towns (pueblos).
Several other smaller cities and towns also sprang up surrounding the various Spanish missions and pueblos, which remain to this day.
The establishment of the Spanish systems of government and social structure, which the Spanish settlers had brought with them, also technologically and culturally overwhelmed the societies of the earlier indigenous peoples.
Russia's early 19th-century coastal settlements in California were positioned just north of the northernmost edge of the area of Spanish settlement in San Francisco Bay, and were the southernmost Russian settlements in North America.
For the next 25 years, Alta California remained as a remote, sparsely populated, northwestern administrative district of the newly independent country of Mexico.
The governor granted many square leagues of land to others with political influence.
These huge ranchos or cattle ranches emerged as the dominant institutions of Mexican California.
The ranchos developed under ownership by Californios (Hispanics native of California) who traded cowhides and tallow with Boston merchants.
Beef did not become a commodity until the 1849 California Gold Rush.
From the 1820s, trappers and settlers from the United States and the future Canada arrived in Northern California.
The early government of the newly independent Mexico was highly unstable, and in a reflection of this, from 1831 onwards, California also experienced a series of armed disputes, both internal and with the central Mexican government.
During this tumultuous political period Juan Bautista Alvarado was able to secure the governorship during 1836–1842.
The military action which first brought Alvarado to power had momentarily declared California to be an independent state, and had been aided by American and British residents of California, including Isaac Graham.
In 1840, one hundred of those residents who did not have passports were arrested, leading to the Graham Affair.
One of the largest ranchers in California was John Marsh.
After failing to obtain justice against squatters on his land from the Mexican courts, he determined that California should become part of the United States.
Marsh conducted a letter-writing campaign espousing the California climate, the soil, and other reasons to settle there, as well as the best route to follow, which became known as "Marsh's route".
His letters were read, reread, passed around, and printed in newspapers throughout the country, and started the first wagon trains rolling to California.
He invited immigrants to stay on his ranch until they could get settled, and assisted in their obtaining passports.
After ushering in the period of organized emigration to California, Marsh became involved in a military battle between the much-hated Mexican general, Manuel Micheltorena and the California governor he had replaced, Juan Bautista Alvarado.
The armies of each met at the Battle of Providencia near Los Angeles.
Marsh had been forced against his will to join Micheltorena's army.
Ignoring his superiors, during the battle, he signaled the other side for a parlay.
There were many settlers from the United States fighting on both sides.
He convinced these men that they had no reason to be fighting each other.
As a result of Marsh's actions, they abandoned the fight, Micheltorena was defeated, and California-born Pio Pico was returned to the governorship.
This paved the way to California's ultimate acquisition by the United States.
California Republic and conquest
See also: Mexican Cession
Afterwards, rebels raised the Bear Flag (featuring a bear, a star, a red stripe and the words "California Republic") at Sonoma.
The Republic's only president was William B. Ide, who played a pivotal role during the Bear Flag Revolt.
This revolt by American settlers served as a prelude to the later American military invasion of California and was closely coordinated with nearby American military commanders.
The California Republic was short lived; the same year marked the outbreak of the Mexican–American War (1846–48).
When Commodore John D. Sloat of the United States Navy sailed into Monterey Bay and began the military occupation of California by the United States, Northern California capitulated in less than a month to the United States forces.
Early American period
Following the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (February 2, 1848) that ended the war, the westernmost portion of the annexed Mexican territory of Alta California soon became the American state of California, and the remainder of the old territory was then subdivided into the new American Territories of Arizona, Nevada, Colorado and Utah.
The even more lightly populated and arid lower region of old Baja California remained as a part of Mexico.
In 1846, the total settler population of the western part of the old Alta California had been estimated to be no more than 8,000, plus about 100,000 Native Americans, down from about 300,000 before Hispanic settlement in 1769.
In 1848, only one week before the official American annexation of the area, gold was discovered in California, this being an event which was to forever alter both the state's demographics and its finances.
Soon afterward, a massive influx of immigration into the area resulted, as prospectors and miners arrived by the thousands.
The population burgeoned with United States citizens, Europeans, Chinese and other immigrants during the great California Gold Rush.
By the time of California's application for statehood in 1850, the settler population of California had multiplied to 100,000.
By 1854, more than 300,000 settlers had come.
Between 1847 and 1870, the population of San Francisco increased from 500 to 150,000.
California was suddenly no longer a sparsely populated backwater, but seemingly overnight it had grown into a major population center.
The seat of government for California under Spanish and later Mexican rule had been located in Monterey from 1777 until 1845.
Pio Pico, the last Mexican governor of Alta California, had briefly moved the capital to Los Angeles in 1845.
In 1849, a state Constitutional Convention was first held in Monterey.
Among the first tasks of the Convention was a decision on a location for the new state capital.
The first full legislative sessions were held in San Jose (1850–1851).
Once the state's Constitutional Convention had finalized its state constitution, it applied to the U.S. Congress for admission to statehood.
However, due to the existence of a large contingent of pro-South sympathizers within the state, the state was not able to muster any full military regiments to send eastwards to officially serve in the Union war effort.
Still, several smaller military units within the Union army were unofficially associated with the state of California, such as the "California 100 Company", due to a majority of their members being from California.
At the time of California's admission into the Union, travel between California and the rest of the continental United States had been a time-consuming and dangerous feat.
Nineteen years afterwards, in 1869, shortly after the conclusion of the Civil War, a more direct connection was developed with the completion of the First Transcontinental Railroad in 1869.
California was then easy to reach.
Much of the state was extremely well suited to fruit cultivation and agriculture in general.
Vast expanses of wheat, other cereal crops, vegetable crops, cotton, and nut and fruit trees were grown (including oranges in Southern California), and the foundation was laid for the state's prodigious agricultural production in the Central Valley and elsewhere.
Under earlier Spanish and Mexican rule, California's original native population had precipitously declined, above all, from Eurasian diseases to which the indigenous people of California had not yet developed a natural immunity.
Under its new American administration, California's harsh governmental policies towards its own indigenous people did not improve.
As in other American states, many of the native inhabitants were soon forcibly removed from their lands by incoming American settlers such as miners, ranchers, and farmers.
Although California had entered the American union as a free state, the "loitering or orphaned Indians" were de facto enslaved by their new Anglo-American masters under the 1853 Act for the Government and Protection of Indians.
There were also massacres in which hundreds of indigenous people were killed.
Between 1850 and 1860, the California state government paid around 1.5 million dollars (some 250,000 of which was reimbursed by the federal government) to hire militias whose purpose was to protect settlers from the indigenous populations.
In later decades, the native population was placed in reservations and rancherias, which were often small and isolated and without enough natural resources or funding from the government to sustain the populations living on them.
As a result, the rise of California was a calamity for the native inhabitants.
Main article: History of California 1900–present
In the period from 1900 to 1965, the population grew from fewer than one million to the greatest in the Union.
In 1940, the Census Bureau reported California's population as 6.0% Hispanic, 2.4% Asian, and 89.5% non-Hispanic white.
The state government also adopted the California Master Plan for Higher Education in 1960 to develop a highly efficient system of public education.
Meanwhile, attracted to the mild Mediterranean climate, cheap land, and the state's wide variety of geography, filmmakers established the studio system in Hollywood in the 1920s.
California however easily ranked first in production of military ships during the war (transport, cargo, [merchant ships] such as Liberty ships, Victory ships, and warships) at drydock facilities in San Diego, Los Angeles, and the San Francisco Bay Area.
Stanford University and its Dean of Engineering Frederick Terman began encouraging faculty and graduates to stay in California instead of leaving the state, and develop a high-tech region in the area now known as Silicon Valley.
As a result of these efforts, California is regarded as a world center of the entertainment and music industries, of technology, engineering, and the aerospace industry, and as the United States center of agricultural production.
Just before the Dot Com Bust, California had the fifth-largest economy in the world among nations.
Yet since 1991, and starting in the late 1980s in Southern California, California has seen a net loss of domestic migrants in most years.
This is often referred to by the media as the California exodus.
During the 20th century, two great disasters happened in California.
Francis Dam flood remain the deadliest in U.S history.
Although air pollution problems have been reduced, health problems associated with pollution have continued.
The brown haze known as "smog" has been substantially abated after the passage of federal and state restrictions on automobile exhaust.
An energy crisis in 2001 led to rolling blackouts, soaring power rates, and the importation of electricity from neighboring states.
Housing prices in urban areas continued to increase; a modest home which in the 1960s cost $25,000 would cost half a million dollars or more in urban areas by 2005.
More people commuted longer hours to afford a home in more rural areas while earning larger salaries in the urban areas.
Speculators bought houses they never intended to live in, expecting to make a huge profit in a matter of months, then rolling it over by buying more properties.
Mortgage companies were compliant, as everyone assumed the prices would keep rising.
The bubble burst in 2007-8 as housing prices began to crash and the boom years ended.
Hundreds of billions in property values vanished and foreclosures soared as many financial institutions and investors were badly hurt.
Main article: Geography of California
It is bordered by Oregon to the north, Nevada to the east and northeast, Arizona to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the west and it shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California to the south (with which it makes up part of The Californias region of North America, alongside Baja California Sur).
In the middle of the state lies the California Central Valley, bounded by the Sierra Nevada in the east, the coastal mountain ranges in the west, the Cascade Range to the north and by the Tehachapi Mountains in the south.
The Central Valley is California's productive agricultural heartland.
Divided in two by the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, the northern portion, the Sacramento Valley serves as the watershed of the Sacramento River, while the southern portion, the San Joaquin Valley is the watershed for the San Joaquin River.
Both valleys derive their names from the rivers that flow through them.
With dredging, the Sacramento and the San Joaquin Rivers have remained deep enough for several inland cities to be seaports.
The Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta is a critical water supply hub for the state.
Water is diverted from the delta and through an extensive network of pumps and canals that traverse nearly the length of the state, to the Central Valley and the State Water Projects and other needs.
Water from the Delta provides drinking water for nearly 23 million people, almost two-thirds of the state's population as well as water for farmers on the west side of the San Joaquin Valley.
Suisun Bay lies at the confluence of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers.
The range embraces Yosemite Valley, famous for its glacially carved domes, and Sequoia National Park, home to the giant sequoia trees, the largest living organisms on Earth, and the deep freshwater lake, Lake Tahoe, the largest lake in the state by volume.
In the western part of the state is Clear Lake, the largest freshwater lake by area entirely in California.
Although Lake Tahoe is larger, it is divided by the California/Nevada border.
The Sierra Nevada falls to Arctic temperatures in winter and has several dozen small glaciers, including Palisade Glacier, the southernmost glacier in the United States.
The Tulare Lake was the largest freshwater lake west of the Mississippi River.
About 45 percent of the state's total surface area is covered by forests, and California's diversity of pine species is unmatched by any other state.
California contains more forestland than any other state except Alaska.
In the south is a large inland salt lake, the Salton Sea.
The horizontal distance from the bottom of Death Valley to the top of Mount Whitney is less than 90 miles (140 km).
Indeed, almost all of southeastern California is arid, hot desert, with routine extreme high temperatures during the summer.
The southeastern border of California with Arizona is entirely formed by the Colorado River, from which the southern part of the state gets about half of its water.
A majority of California's cities are located in either the San Francisco Bay Area or the Sacramento metropolitan area in Northern California; or the Los Angeles area, the Riverside-San Bernardino-Inland Empire, or the San Diego metropolitan area in Southern California.
The Los Angeles Area, the Bay Area, and the San Diego metropolitan area are among several major metropolitan areas along the California coast.
About 37,000 earthquakes are recorded each year, but most are too small to be felt.
Main article: Climate of California
Further information: Climate change in California
Main article: Ecology of California
See also: Environment of California
California is one of the richest and most diverse parts of the world, and includes some of the most endangered ecological communities.
Many other endemics originated through differentiation or adaptive radiation, whereby multiple species develop from a common ancestor to take advantage of diverse ecological conditions such as the California lilac (Ceanothus).
Flora and fauna
See also: List of California native plants
See also: List of invertebrates of California
California's native grasses are perennial plants.
After European contact, these were generally replaced by invasive species of European annual grasses; and, in modern times, California's hills turn a characteristic golden-brown in summer.
Because California has the greatest diversity of climate and terrain, the state has six life zones which are the lower Sonoran Desert; upper Sonoran (foothill regions and some coastal lands), transition (coastal areas and moist northeastern counties); and the Canadian, Hudsonian, and Arctic Zones, comprising the state's highest elevations.
Plant life in the dry climate of the lower Sonoran zone contains a diversity of native cactus, mesquite, and paloverde.
The Joshua tree is found in the Mojave Desert.
Flowering plants include the dwarf desert poppy and a variety of asters.
The upper Sonoran zone includes the chaparral belt, characterized by forests of small shrubs, stunted trees, and herbaceous plants.
Nemophila, mint, Phacelia, Viola, and the California poppy (Eschscholzia californica, the state flower) also flourish in this zone, along with the lupine, more species of which occur here than anywhere else in the world.
The transition zone includes most of California's forests with the redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) and the "big tree" or giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum), among the oldest living things on earth (some are said to have lived at least 4,000 years).
Right below the timberline, in the Hudsonian zone, the whitebark, foxtail, and silver pines grow.
At about 10,500 feet (3,200 m), begins the Arctic zone, a treeless region whose flora include a number of wildflowers, including Sierra primrose, yellow columbine, alpine buttercup, and alpine shooting star.
The species that are federally classified as endangered are the Contra Costa wallflower, Antioch Dunes evening primrose, Solano grass, San Clemente Island larkspur, salt marsh bird's beak, McDonald's rock-cress, and Santa Barbara Island liveforever.
As of December 1997, 85 plant species were listed as threatened or endangered.
Reptiles such as the garter snakes and rattlesnakes inhabit the zone.
As one ascends into the Hudsonian zone, birds become scarcer.
While the Sierra rosy finch is the only bird native to the high Arctic region, other bird species such as the hummingbird and Clark's nutcracker.
As of April 2003, the bighorn sheep was listed as endangered by the U.S.
Fish and Wildlife Service.
Aquatic life in California thrives, from the state's mountain lakes and streams to the rocky Pacific coastline.
Migratory species of salmon are common as well.
Native to the cliffs of northern California are seals, sea lions, and many types of shorebirds, including migratory species.
As of April 2003, 118 California animals were on the federal endangered list; 181 plants were listed as endangered or threatened.
Endangered animals include the San Joaquin kitfox, Point Arena mountain beaver, Pacific pocket mouse, salt marsh harvest mouse, Morro Bay kangaroo rat (and five other species of kangaroo rat), Amargosa vole, California least tern, California condor, loggerhead shrike, San Clemente sage sparrow, San Francisco garter snake, five species of salamander, three species of chub, and two species of pupfish.
Eleven butterflies are also endangered and two that are threatened are on the federal list.
California has a total of 290,821 acres (1,176.91 km) of National Wildlife Refuges.
As of September 2010, 123 California animals were listed as either endangered or threatened on the federal list.
Also, as of the same year, 178 species of California plants were listed either as endangered or threatened on this federal list.
Main article: List of rivers of California
The most prominent river system within California is formed by the Sacramento River and San Joaquin River, which are fed mostly by snowmelt from the west slope of the Sierra Nevada, and respectively drain the north and south halves of the Central Valley.
The Colorado River forms the state's southeast border with Arizona.
Most of California's major rivers are dammed as part of two massive water projects: the Central Valley Project, providing water for agriculture in the Central Valley, and the California State Water Project diverting water from northern to southern California.
The state's coasts, rivers, and other bodies of water are regulated by the California Coastal Commission.
Main article: Demographics of California
The population is projected to reach forty million by 2020 and fifty million by 2060.
Between 2000 and 2009, there was a natural increase of 3,090,016 (5,058,440 births minus 2,179,958 deaths).
During this time period, international migration produced a net increase of 1,816,633 people while domestic migration produced a net decrease of 1,509,708, resulting in a net in-migration of 306,925 people.
The state of California's own statistics show a population of 38,292,687 for January 1, 2009.
However, according to the Manhattan Institute for Policy Research, since 1990 almost 3.4 million Californians have moved to other states, with most leaving to Texas, Nevada, and Arizona.
Within the Western hemisphere California is the second most populous sub-national administrative entity (behind the state of São Paulo in Brazil) and third most populous sub-national entity of any kind outside Asia (in which wider category it also ranks behind England in the United Kingdom, which has no administrative functions).
California's population is greater than that of all but 34 countries of the world.
The Greater Los Angeles Area is the 2nd-largest metropolitan area in the United States, after the New York metropolitan area, while Los Angeles, with nearly half the population of New York City, is the second-largest city in the United States.
Conversely, San Francisco, with nearly one-quarter the population density of Manhattan, is the most densely populated city in California and one of the most densely populated cities in the United States.
Also, Los Angeles County has held the title of most populous United States county for decades, and it alone is more populous than 42 United States states.
Including Los Angeles, four of the top 15 most populous cities in the U.S. are in California: Los Angeles (2nd), San Diego (8th), San Jose (10th), and San Francisco (13th).
Cities and towns
The state has 482 incorporated cities and towns, of which 460 are cities and 22 are towns.
Under California law, the terms "city" and "town" are explicitly interchangeable; the name of an incorporated municipality in the state can either be "City of (Name)" or "Town of (Name)".
Sacramento became California's first incorporated city on February 27, 1850.
Jurupa Valley became the state's most recent and 482nd incorporated municipality on July 1, 2011.
The majority of these cities and towns are within one of five metropolitan areas: the Los Angeles Metropolitan Area, the San Francisco Bay Area, the Riverside-San Bernardino Area, the San Diego metropolitan area, or the Sacramento metropolitan area.
|CA Rank||U.S. Rank||Metropolitan statistical area||2018 Estimate||2010 Census||Change||Counties|
|1||2||Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA MSA||13,291,486||12,828,837||+3.61%||Los Angeles, Orange|
|2||12||San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward, CA MSA||4,729,484||4,335,391||+9.09%||Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, San Francisco, San Mateo|
|3||13||Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, CA MSA||4,622,361||4,224,851||+9.41%||Riverside, San Bernardino|
|4||17||San Diego-Carlsbad, CA MSA||3,343,364||3,095,313||+8.01%||San Diego|
|5||27||Sacramento–Roseville–Arden-Arcade, CA MSA||2,345,210||2,149,127||+9.12%||El Dorado, Placer, Sacramento, Yolo|
|6||35||San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, CA MSA||1,999,107||1,836,911||+8.83%||San Benito, Santa Clara|
|7||55||Fresno, CA MSA||994,400||930,450||+6.87%||Fresno|
|8||62||Bakersfield, CA MSA||896,764||839,631||+6.80%||Kern|
|9||67||Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura, CA MSA||850,967||823,318||+3.36%||Ventura|
|10||76||Stockton-Lodi, CA MSA||752,660||685,306||+9.83%||San Joaquin|
Starting in the year 2010, for the first time since the California Gold Rush, California-born residents make up the majority of the state's population.
Along with the rest of the United States, California's immigration pattern has also shifted over the course of the late 2000s to early 2010s.
In total for 2011, there were 277,304 immigrants.
Fifty-seven percent came from Asian countries versus 22% from Latin American countries.
Net immigration from Mexico, previously the most common country of origin for new immigrants, has dropped to zero / less than zero since more Mexican nationals are departing for their home country than immigrating.
As a result, it is projected that Hispanic citizens will constitute 49% of the population by 2060, instead of the previously projected 2050, due primarily to domestic births.
The state's population of undocumented immigrants has been shrinking in recent years, due to increased enforcement and decreased job opportunities for lower-skilled workers.
The number of migrants arrested attempting to cross the Mexican border in the Southwest decreased from a high of 1.1 million in 2005 to 367,000 in 2011.
In particular, illegal immigrants tended to be concentrated in Los Angeles, Monterey, San Benito, Imperial, and Napa Counties—the latter four of which have significant agricultural industries that depend on manual labor.
More than half of illegal immigrants originate from Mexico.
Race and ethnicity
According to the United States Census Bureau in 2018 the population self-identifies as (alone or in combination):
- 72.1% White (including Hispanic Whites)
- 36.8% Non-Hispanic whites
- 15.3% Asian
- 6.5% Black or African American
- 1.6% Native American and Alaska Native
- 0.5% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander
- 3.9% Two or more races
By ethnicity, in 2018 the population was 60.7% non-Hispanic (of any race) and 39.3% Hispanic or Latino (of any race).
Hispanics are the largest single ethnic group in California.
Non-Hispanic whites constituted 36.8% of the state's population.
Californios are the Hispanic residents native to California, who make up the Spanish-speaking community that has existed in California since 1542, of varying Mexican American/Chicano, Criollo Spaniard, and Mestizo origin.
As of 2011, 75.1% of California's population younger than age 1 were minorities, meaning they had at least one parent who was not non-Hispanic white (white Hispanics are counted as minorities).
In terms of total numbers, California has the largest population of White Americans in the United States, an estimated 22,200,000 residents.
The state has the 5th largest population of African Americans in the United States, an estimated 2,250,000 residents.
California's Asian American population is estimated at 4.4 million, constituting a third of the nation's total.
California's Native American population of 285,000 is the most of any state.
According to estimates from 2011, California has the largest minority population in the United States by numbers, making up 60% of the state population.
Between 1970 and 2011, non-Hispanic whites declined from 80% of the state's population to 40%, while Hispanics grew from 32% in 2000 to 38% in 2011.
It is currently projected that Hispanics will rise to 49% of the population by 2060, primarily due to domestic births rather than immigration.
With the decline of immigration from Latin America, Asian Americans now constitute the fastest growing racial/ethnic group in California; this growth is primarily driven by immigration from China, India and the Philippines, respectively.
|Native Hawaiian and||–||–||0.3%||0.4%|
|Some other race||0.7%||13.2%||16.8%||17.0%|
|Two or more races||–||–||4.8%||4.9%|
(as of 2016)
According to the 2007 American Community Survey, 73% of people who speak a language other than English at home are able to speak English "well" or "very well," while 9.8% of them could not speak English at all.
Like most U.S.
Various government agencies do, and are often required to, furnish documents in the various languages needed to reach their intended audiences.
In total, 16 languages other than English were spoken as primary languages at home by more than 100,000 persons, more than any other state in the nation.
New York State, in second place, had nine languages other than English spoken by more than 100,000 persons.
The most common language spoken besides English was Spanish, spoken by 28.46% (9,696,638) of the population.
With Asia contributing most of California's new immigrants, California had the highest concentration nationwide of Vietnamese and Chinese speakers, the second highest concentration of Korean, and the third highest concentration of Tagalog speakers.
California has historically been one of the most linguistically diverse areas in the world, with more than 70 indigenous languages derived from 64 root languages in six language families.
A survey conducted between 2007 and 2009 identified 23 different indigenous languages among California farmworkers.
As a result of the state's increasing diversity and migration from other areas across the country and around the globe, linguists began noticing a noteworthy set of emerging characteristics of spoken American English in California since the late 20th century.
Main article: Culture of California
As a border and coastal state, Californian culture has been greatly influenced by several large immigrant populations, especially those from Latin America and Asia.
California has long been a subject of interest in the public mind and has often been promoted by its boosters as a kind of paradise.
In the early 20th century, fueled by the efforts of state and local boosters, many Americans saw the Golden State as an ideal resort destination, sunny and dry all year round with easy access to the ocean and mountains.
In the 1960s, popular music groups such as The Beach Boys promoted the image of Californians as laid-back, tanned beach-goers.
The California Gold Rush of the 1850s is still seen as a symbol of California's economic style, which tends to generate technology, social, entertainment, and economic fads and booms and related busts.
Mass media and entertainment
All four, plus the two major Spanish-language networks (Telemundo and Univision) each have at least two owned-and-operated TV stations in California, one in Los Angeles and one in the San Francisco Bay Area.
The San Francisco Bay Area is home to several prominent internet media and social media companies, including three of the "Big Five" technology companies (Apple, Facebook, and Google) as well as other services such as Netflix, Pandora Radio, Twitter, Yahoo!
, and YouTube.
One of the oldest radio stations in the United States still in existence, KCBS (AM) in the Bay Area, was founded in 1909.
California is also the birthplace of several international music genres, including the Bakersfield sound, Bay Area thrash metal, g-funk, nu metal, stoner rock, surf music, West Coast hip hop, and West Coast jazz.
Main article: Religion in California
The largest religious denominations by number of adherents as a percentage of California's population in 2014 were the Catholic Church with 28 percent, Evangelical Protestants with 20 percent, and Mainline Protestants with 10 percent.
Together, all kinds of Protestants accounted for 32 percent.
Those unaffiliated with any religion represented 27 percent of the population.
The breakdown of other religions is 1% Muslim, 2% Hindu and 2% Buddhist.
This is a change from 2008, when the population identified their religion with the Catholic Church with 31 percent; Evangelical Protestants with 18 percent; and Mainline Protestants with 14 percent.
In 2008, those unaffiliated with any religion represented 21 percent of the population.
The breakdown of other religions in 2008 was 0.5% Muslim, 1% Hindu and 2% Buddhist.
According to the Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA) the largest denominations by adherents in 2010 were the Roman Catholic Church with 10,233,334; The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints with 763,818; and the Southern Baptist Convention with 489,953.
The first priests to come to California were Roman Catholic missionaries from Spain.
Roman Catholics founded 21 missions along the California coast, as well as the cities of Los Angeles and San Francisco.
California continues to have a large Roman Catholic population due to the large numbers of Mexicans and Central Americans living within its borders.
A Pew Research Center survey revealed that California is somewhat less religious than the rest of the states: 62 percent of Californians say they are "absolutely certain" of their belief in God, while in the nation 71 percent say so.
The survey also revealed 48 percent of Californians say religion is "very important", compared to 56 percent nationally.
California has nineteen major professional sports league franchises, far more than any other state.
The San Francisco Bay Area has six major league teams spread in its three major cities: San Francisco, San Jose, and Oakland, while the Greater Los Angeles Area is home to ten major league franchises.
San Diego and Sacramento each have one major league team.
California has long had many respected collegiate sports programs.
California is home to the oldest college bowl game, the annual Rose Bowl, among others.
Los Angeles will host the 2028 Summer Olympics, marking the fourth time that California will have hosted the Olympic Games.
|Los Angeles Rams||American football||National Football League (NFL)|
|Los Angeles Chargers||American football||National Football League|
|San Francisco 49ers||American football||National Football League|
|Los Angeles Dodgers||Baseball||Major League Baseball (MLB)|
|Los Angeles Angels||Baseball||Major League Baseball|
|Oakland Athletics||Baseball||Major League Baseball|
|San Diego Padres||Baseball||Major League Baseball|
|San Francisco Giants||Baseball||Major League Baseball|
|Golden State Warriors||Basketball||National Basketball Association (NBA)|
|Los Angeles Clippers||Basketball||National Basketball Association|
|Los Angeles Lakers||Basketball||National Basketball Association|
|Sacramento Kings||Basketball||National Basketball Association|
|Los Angeles Sparks||Basketball||Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA)|
|Anaheim Ducks||Ice hockey||National Hockey League (NHL)|
|Los Angeles Kings||Ice hockey||National Hockey League|
|San Jose Sharks||Ice hockey||National Hockey League|
|Los Angeles Galaxy||Soccer||Major League Soccer (MLS)|
|San Jose Earthquakes||Soccer||Major League Soccer|
|Los Angeles Football Club||Soccer||Major League Soccer|
Main article: Education in California
California's public educational system is supported by a unique constitutional amendment that requires a minimum annual funding level for grades K–12 and community colleges that grow with the economy and student enrollment figures.
In 2016, California's K–12 public school per-pupil spending was ranked 22nd in the nation ($11,500 per student vs. $11,800 for the U.S. average).
For 2012, California's K–12 public schools ranked 48th in the number of employees per student, at 0.102 (the U.S. average was 0.137), while paying the 7th most per employee, $49,000 (the U.S. average was $39,000).
A 2007 study concluded that California's public school system was "broken" in that it suffered from over-regulation.
California's public postsecondary education offers three separate systems:
- The research university system in the state is the University of California (UC), a public university system. As of fall 2011, the University of California had a combined student body of 234,464 students. There are ten general UC campuses, and a number of specialized campuses in the UC system, as the UC San Francisco, which is entirely dedicated to graduate education in health care, and is home to the UCSF Medical Center, the highest ranked hospital in California. The system was originally intended to accept the top one-eighth of California high school students, but several of the schools have become even more selective. The UC system was originally given exclusive authority in awarding PhDs, but this has since changed and the CSU is also able to award several Doctoral degrees.
- The California State University (CSU) system has almost 430,000 students. The CSU was originally intended to accept the top one-third of California high school students, but several of the schools have become much more selective. The CSU was originally set up to award only bachelor's and master's degrees, but has since been granted the authority to award several Doctoral degrees.
- The California Community Colleges System provides lower division coursework as well as basic skills and workforce training. It is the largest network of higher education in the U.S., composed of 112 colleges serving a student population of over 2.6 million.
California has hundreds of other private colleges and universities, including many religious and special-purpose institutions.
Main article: Economy of California
California's economy ranks among the largest in the world.
California is responsible for one seventh of the nation's gross domestic product (GDP).
In terms of Purchasing Power Parity, it is larger than all but eight countries (the United States, China, India, Japan, Germany, Russia, Brazil and Indonesia).
California's economy is larger than Africa and Australia and is almost as large as South America.
- Total Non farm Employment (2016): 14,600,349
- Total employer establishments (2016): 922,477
The five largest sectors of employment in California are trade, transportation, and utilities; government; professional and business services; education and health services; and leisure and hospitality.
In output, the five largest sectors are financial services, followed by trade, transportation, and utilities; education and health services; government; and manufacturing.
As of May 2020, California has an unemployment rate of 16.3%.
California's economy is dependent on trade and international related commerce accounts for about one-quarter of the state's economy.
In 2008, California exported $144 billion worth of goods, up from $134 billion in 2007 and $127 billion in 2006.
Computers and electronic products are California's top export, accounting for 42 percent of all the state's exports in 2008.
Agriculture is an important sector in California's economy.
Farming-related sales more than quadrupled over the past three decades, from $7.3 billion in 1974 to nearly $31 billion in 2004.
This increase has occurred despite a 15 percent decline in acreage devoted to farming during the period, and water supply suffering from chronic instability.
Factors contributing to the growth in sales-per-acre include more intensive use of active farmlands and technological improvements in crop production.
In 2008, California's 81,500 farms and ranches generated $36.2 billion products revenue.
In 2011, that number grew to $43.5 billion products revenue.
The Agriculture sector accounts for two percent of the state's GDP and employs around three percent of its total workforce.
Per capita GDP in 2007 was $38,956, ranking eleventh in the nation.
Per capita income varies widely by geographic region and profession.
According to a 2005 report by the Congressional Research Service, the San Joaquin Valley was characterized as one of the most economically depressed regions in the United States, on par with the region of Appalachia.
Using the supplemental poverty measure, California has a poverty rate of 23.5%, the highest of any state in the country.
However, using the official measure the poverty rate was only 13.3% as of 2017.
Many coastal cities include some of the wealthiest per-capita areas in the United States.
In 2019, there were 1,042,027 millionaire households in the state, more than any other state in the nation.
In 2010, California residents were ranked first among the states with the best average credit score of 754.
State spending increased from $56 billion in 1998 to $127 billion in 2011.
California, with 12% of the United States population, has one-third of the nation's welfare recipients.
California has the third highest per capita spending on welfare among the states, as well as the highest spending on welfare at $6.67 billion.
In January 2011, California's total debt was at least $265 billion.
On June 27, 2013, Governor Jerry Brown signed a balanced budget (no deficit) for the state, its first in decades; however the state's debt remains at $132 billion.
With the passage of Proposition 30 in 2012 and Proposition 55 in 2016, California now levies a 13.3% maximum marginal income tax rate with ten tax brackets, ranging from 1% at the bottom tax bracket of $0 annual individual income to 13.3% for annual individual income over $1,000,000 (though the top brackets are only temporary until Proposition 55 expires at the end of 2030).
While Proposition 30 also enacted a minimum state sales tax of 7.5%, this sales tax increase was not extended by Proposition 55 and reverted to a previous minimum state sales tax rate of 7.25% in 2017.
Local governments can and do levy additional sales taxes in addition to this minimum rate.
All real property is taxable annually; the ad valorem tax is based on the property's fair market value at the time of purchase or the value of new construction.
Property tax increases are capped at 2% annually or the rate of inflation (whichever is lower), per Proposition 13.
Main article: Energy use in California
Because it is the most populous state in the United States, California is one of the country's largest users of energy.
However because of its high energy rates, conservation mandates, mild weather in the largest population centers and strong environmental movement, its per capita energy use is one of the smallest of any state in the United States.
Due to the high electricity demand, California imports more electricity than any other state, primarily hydroelectric power from states in the Pacific Northwest (via Path 15 and Path 66) and coal- and natural gas-fired production from the desert Southwest via Path 46.
As a result of the state's strong environmental movement, California has some of the most aggressive renewable energy goals in the United States, with a target for California to obtain a third of its electricity from renewables by 2020.
The Tehachapi area is also where the Tehachapi Energy Storage Project is located.
Several dams across the state provide hydro-electric power.
It would be possible to convert the total supply to 100% renewable energy, including heating, cooling and mobility, by 2050.
The state's crude oil and natural gas deposits are located in the Central Valley and along the coast, including the large Midway-Sunset Oil Field.
Natural gas-fired power plants typically account for more than one-half of state electricity generation.
Voters banned the approval of new nuclear power plants since the late 1970s because of concerns over radioactive waste disposal.
Main article: Transportation in California
Construction and maintenance of state roads and statewide transportation planning are primarily the responsibility of the California Department of Transportation, nicknamed "Caltrans".
The rapidly growing population of the state is straining all of its transportation networks, and California has some of the worst roads in the United States.
The Reason Foundation's 19th Annual Report on the Performance of State Highway Systems ranked California's highways the third-worst of any state, with Alaska second, and Rhode Island first.
The state has been a pioneer in road construction.
With its orange paint and panoramic views of the bay, this highway bridge is a popular tourist attraction and also accommodates pedestrians and bicyclists.
The San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge (often abbreviated the "Bay Bridge"), completed in 1936, transports about 280,000 vehicles per day on two-decks.
Its two sections meet at Yerba Buena Island through the world's largest diameter transportation bore tunnel, at 76 feet (23 m) wide by 58 feet (18 m) high.
Los Angeles International Airport (LAX), the 4th busiest airport in the world in 2018, and San Francisco International Airport (SFO), the 25th busiest airport in the world in 2018, are major hubs for trans-Pacific and transcontinental traffic.
California also has several important seaports.
The giant seaport complex formed by the Port of Los Angeles and the Port of Long Beach in Southern California is the largest in the country and responsible for handling about a fourth of all container cargo traffic in the United States.
The Port of Oakland, fourth largest in the nation, also handles trade entering from the Pacific Rim to the rest of the country.
The Port of Stockton is the farthest inland port on the west coast of the United States.
The California Highway Patrol is the largest statewide police agency in the United States in employment with more than 10,000 employees.
They are responsible for providing any police-sanctioned service to anyone on California's state-maintained highways and on state property.
The California Department of Motor Vehicles is by far the largest in North America.
By the end of 2009, the California DMV had 26,555,006 driver's licenses and ID cards on file.
In 2010, there were 1.17 million new vehicle registrations in force.
These services are the busiest intercity rail lines in the United States outside the Northeast Corridor and ridership is continuing to set records.
The routes are becoming increasingly popular over flying, especially on the LAX-SFO route.
The California High-Speed Rail Authority was created in 1996 by the state to implement an extensive 800-mile (1,300 km) rail system.
Construction was approved by the voters during the November 2008 general election, with the first phase of construction estimated to cost $64.2 billion.
Nearly all counties operate bus lines, and many cities operate their own city bus lines as well.
Main article: Water in California
California's interconnected water system is the world's largest, managing over 40,000,000 acre feet (49 km) of water per year, centered on six main systems of aqueducts and infrastructure projects.
Water use and conservation in California is a politically divisive issue, as the state experiences periodic droughts and has to balance the demands of its large agricultural and urban sectors, especially in the arid southern portion of the state.
The state's widespread redistribution of water also invites the frequent scorn of environmentalists.
The California Water Wars, a conflict between Los Angeles and the Owens Valley over water rights, is one of the most well-known examples of the struggle to secure adequate water supplies.
Former California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger said: "We've been in crisis for quite some time because we're now 38 million people and not anymore 18 million people like we were in the late 60s.
So it developed into a battle between environmentalists and farmers and between the south and the north and between rural and urban.
And everyone has been fighting for the last four decades about water."
Government and politics
Main article: Government of California
The capital of California is located within Sacramento.
The state is organized into three branches of government—the executive branch consisting of the governor and the other independently elected constitutional officers; the legislative branch consisting of the Assembly and Senate; and the judicial branch consisting of the Supreme Court of California and lower courts.
After June 8, 2010, when Proposition 14 was approved, excepting only the United States president and county central committee offices, all candidates in the primary elections are listed on the ballot with their preferred party affiliation, but they are not the official nominee of that party.
At the primary election, the two candidates with the top votes will advance to the general election regardless of party affiliation.
If at a special primary election, one candidate receives more than 50% of all the votes cast, they are elected to fill the vacancy and no special general election will be held.
The California executive branch consists of the governor and seven other elected constitutional officers: lieutenant governor, attorney general, secretary of state, state controller, state treasurer, insurance commissioner, and state superintendent of public instruction.
They serve four-year terms and may be re-elected only once.
The California State Legislature consists of a 40-member Senate and 80-member Assembly.
Senators serve four-year terms and Assembly members two.
Members of the Assembly are subject to term limits of three terms, and members of the Senate are subject to term limits of two terms.
California's legal system is explicitly based upon English common law (as is the case with all other states except Louisiana) but carries a few features from Spanish civil law, such as community property.
California's prison population grew from 25,000 in 1980 to over 170,000 in 2007.
California's judiciary system is the largest in the United States with a total of 1,600 judges (the federal system has only about 840).
At the apex is the seven-member Supreme Court of California, while the California Courts of Appeal serve as the primary appellate courts and the California Superior Courts serve as the primary trial courts.
Justices of the Supreme Court and Courts of Appeal are appointed by the governor, but are subject to retention by the electorate every 12 years.
The administration of the state's court system is controlled by the Judicial Council, composed of the chief justice of the California Supreme Court, 14 judicial officers, four representatives from the State Bar of California, and one member from each house of the state legislature.
Main article: Local government in California
See also: List of counties in California
California is divided into 58 counties.
Per Article 11, Section 1, of the Constitution of California, they are the legal subdivisions of the state.
The county government provides countywide services such as law enforcement, jails, elections and voter registration, vital records, property assessment and records, tax collection, public health, health care, social services, libraries, flood control, fire protection, animal control, agricultural regulations, building inspections, ambulance services, and education departments in charge of maintaining statewide standards.
In addition, the county serves as the local government for all unincorporated areas.
Each county is governed by an elected board of supervisors.
City and town governments
Incorporated cities and towns in California are either charter or general-law municipalities.
General-law municipalities owe their existence to state law and are consequently governed by it; charter municipalities are governed by their own city or town charters.
Municipalities incorporated in the 19th century tend to be charter municipalities.
All ten of the state's most populous cities are charter cities.
Most small cities have a council–manager form of government, where the elected city council appoints a city manager to supervise the operations of the city.
Some larger cities have a directly-elected mayor who oversees the city government.
In many council-manager cities, the city council selects one of its members as a mayor, sometimes rotating through the council membership—but this type of mayoral position is primarily ceremonial.
School districts and special districts
See also: List of school districts in California
California school districts may be organized as elementary districts, high school districts, unified school districts combining elementary and high school grades, or community college districts.
There are about 3,400 special districts in California.
A special district, defined by California Government Code § 16271(d) as "any agency of the state for the local performance of governmental or proprietary functions within limited boundaries", provides a limited range of services within a defined geographic area.
The geographic area of a special district can spread across multiple cities or counties, or could consist of only a portion of one.
Most of California's special districts are single-purpose districts, and provide one service.
See also: California's congressional districts
Consequently California also has the largest number of electoral votes in national presidential elections, with 55.
The current speaker of the House of Representatives is the representative of California's 12th district, Nancy Pelosi; Kevin McCarthy, representing the state's 23rd district, is the House Minority Leader.
California's U.S. are senatorsDianne Feinstein, a native and former mayor of San Francisco, and Kamala Harris, a native, former district attorney from San Francisco and former attorney general of California.
In California, as of 2009, the U.S. had a total of 117,806 Department of Defenseactive duty servicemembers of which 88,370 were Sailors or Marines, 18,339 were Airmen, and 11,097 were Soldiers, with 61,365 Department of Defense civilian employees.
Additionally, there were a total of 57,792 Reservists and Guardsman in California.
In 2010, Los Angeles County was the largest origin of military recruits in the United States by county, with 1,437 individuals enlisting in the military.
However, as of 2002, Californians were relatively under-represented in the military as a proportion to its population.
In 2000, California, had 2,569,340 veterans of United States military service: 504,010 served in World War II, 301,034 in the Korean War, 754,682 during the Vietnam War, and 278,003 during 1990–2000 (including the Persian Gulf War).
As of 2010, there were 1,942,775 veterans living in California, of which 1,457,875 served during a period of armed conflict, and just over four thousand served before World War II (the largest population of this group of any state).
Brigadier General Robert F. Travis, command pilot of the bomber, was among the dead.
|Party||Number of Voters||Percentage||Party registration by county
Democrat >=30% Democrat >=40% Democrat >=50% Republican >=30% Republican >=40%
|No Party Preference||4,734,847||25.0%|
|Peace and Freedom||75,094||0.4%|
California has an idiosyncratic political culture compared to the rest of the country, and is sometimes regarded as a trendsetter.
In socio-cultural mores and national politics, Californians are perceived as more liberal than other Americans, especially those who live in the inland states.
As of the 2016 presidential election, California was the second most Democratic state behind Hawaii.
According to the Cook Political Report, California contains five of the 15 most Democratic congressional districts in the United States.
Among the political idiosyncrasies and trendsetting, California was the second state to recall their state governor, the second state to legalize abortion, and the only state to ban marriage for gay couples twice by vote (including Proposition 8 in 2008).
From 1899 to 1939, California had Republican governors.
Since 1990, California has generally elected Democratic candidates to federal, state and local offices, including current Governor Gavin Newsom; however, the state has elected Republican Governors, though many of its Republican Governors, such as Arnold Schwarzenegger, tend to be considered moderate Republicans and more centrist than the national party.
Several political movements have advocated for Californian independence.
The Democrats also now hold a supermajority in both houses of the state legislature.
There are 60 Democrats and 20 Republicans in the Assembly; and 29 Democrats and 11 Republicans in the Senate.
The trend towards the Democratic Party is most obvious in presidential elections.
However, Democrats have won all of California's electoral votes for the last seven elections, starting in 1992.
In the United States House, the Democrats held a 34–19 edge in the CA delegation of the 110th United States Congress in 2007.
As the result of gerrymandering, the districts in California were usually dominated by one or the other party, and few districts were considered competitive.
In 2008, Californians passed Proposition 20 to empower a 14-member independent citizen commission to redraw districts for both local politicians and Congress.
After the 2012 elections, when the new system took effect, Democrats gained four seats and held a 38–15 majority in the delegation.
Following the 2018 midterm House elections, Democrats won 46 out of 53 congressional house seats in California, leaving Republicans with seven.
Republican strength is still greatest in eastern parts of the state.
Orange County had remained largely Republican until the 2016 and 2018 elections, in which a majority of the county's votes were cast for Democratic candidates.
One study ranked Berkeley, Oakland, Inglewood and San Francisco in the top 20 most liberal American cities; and Bakersfield, Orange, Escondido, Garden Grove, and Simi Valley in the top 20 most conservative cities.
In October 2012, out of the 23,802,577 people eligible to vote, 18,245,970 people were registered to vote.
Of the people registered, the three largest registered groups were Democrats (7,966,422), Republicans (5,356,608), and Decline to State (3,820,545).
Los Angeles County had the largest number of registered Democrats (2,430,612) and Republicans (1,037,031) of any county in the state.
- An Act for the Admission of the State of California
- Index of California-related articles
- Outline of California
Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/California.