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This article is about the State of California. California_sentence_0

For other uses, see California (disambiguation). California_sentence_1


CountryCalifornia_header_cell_0_1_0 United StatesCalifornia_cell_0_1_1
Before statehoodCalifornia_header_cell_0_2_0 Mexican Cession unorganized territoryCalifornia_cell_0_2_1
Admitted to the UnionCalifornia_header_cell_0_3_0 September 9, 1850 (31st)California_cell_0_3_1
CapitalCalifornia_header_cell_0_4_0 SacramentoCalifornia_cell_0_4_1
Largest cityCalifornia_header_cell_0_5_0 Los AngelesCalifornia_cell_0_5_1
Largest metroCalifornia_header_cell_0_6_0 Greater Los AngelesCalifornia_cell_0_6_1
GovernorCalifornia_header_cell_0_8_0 Gavin Newsom (D)California_cell_0_8_1
Lieutenant GovernorCalifornia_header_cell_0_9_0 Eleni Kounalakis (D)California_cell_0_9_1
LegislatureCalifornia_header_cell_0_10_0 State LegislatureCalifornia_cell_0_10_1
Upper houseCalifornia_header_cell_0_11_0 State SenateCalifornia_cell_0_11_1
Lower houseCalifornia_header_cell_0_12_0 State AssemblyCalifornia_cell_0_12_1
JudiciaryCalifornia_header_cell_0_13_0 Supreme Court of CaliforniaCalifornia_cell_0_13_1
U.S. senatorsCalifornia_header_cell_0_14_0 Dianne Feinstein (D)

Kamala Harris (D)California_cell_0_14_1

U.S. House delegationCalifornia_header_cell_0_15_0 (list)California_cell_0_15_1
TotalCalifornia_header_cell_0_17_0 163,696 sq mi (423,970 km)California_cell_0_17_1
LandCalifornia_header_cell_0_18_0 155,959 sq mi (403,932 km)California_cell_0_18_1
WaterCalifornia_header_cell_0_19_0 7,737 sq mi (20,047 km)  4.7%California_cell_0_19_1
Area rankCalifornia_header_cell_0_20_0 3rdCalifornia_cell_0_20_1
LengthCalifornia_header_cell_0_22_0 770 mi (1,240 km)California_cell_0_22_1
WidthCalifornia_header_cell_0_23_0 250 mi (400 km)California_cell_0_23_1
ElevationCalifornia_header_cell_0_24_0 2,900 ft (880 m)California_cell_0_24_1
Highest elevation (Mount Whitney)California_header_cell_0_25_0 14,505 ft (4,421.0 m)California_cell_0_25_1
Lowest elevation (Badwater Basin)California_header_cell_0_26_0 −279 ft (−85.0 m)California_cell_0_26_1
Population (2019)California_header_cell_0_27_0
TotalCalifornia_header_cell_0_28_0 39,512,223California_cell_0_28_1
RankCalifornia_header_cell_0_29_0 1stCalifornia_cell_0_29_1
DensityCalifornia_header_cell_0_30_0 253.6/sq mi (97.9/km)California_cell_0_30_1
Density rankCalifornia_header_cell_0_31_0 11thCalifornia_cell_0_31_1
Median household incomeCalifornia_header_cell_0_32_0 $71,228 (2,018)California_cell_0_32_1
Income rankCalifornia_header_cell_0_33_0 9thCalifornia_cell_0_33_1
Demonym(s)California_header_cell_0_34_0 CalifornianCalifornia_cell_0_34_1
Official languageCalifornia_header_cell_0_36_0 EnglishCalifornia_cell_0_36_1
Spoken languageCalifornia_header_cell_0_37_0 Language spoken at home:California_cell_0_37_1
Time zoneCalifornia_header_cell_0_38_0 UTC−08:00 (PST)California_cell_0_38_1
Summer (DST)California_header_cell_0_39_0 UTC−07:00 (PDT)California_cell_0_39_1
USPS abbreviationCalifornia_header_cell_0_40_0 CACalifornia_cell_0_40_1
ISO 3166 codeCalifornia_header_cell_0_41_0 US-CACalifornia_cell_0_41_1
Traditional abbreviationCalifornia_header_cell_0_42_0 Calif., Cal.California_cell_0_42_1
LatitudeCalifornia_header_cell_0_43_0 32°32′ N to 42° NCalifornia_cell_0_43_1
LongitudeCalifornia_header_cell_0_44_0 114°8′ W to 124°26′ WCalifornia_cell_0_44_1
WebsiteCalifornia_header_cell_0_45_0 California_cell_0_45_1


California state symbolsCalifornia_header_cell_1_0_0
Living insigniaCalifornia_header_cell_1_1_0
AmphibianCalifornia_header_cell_1_2_0 California red-legged frogCalifornia_cell_1_2_1
BirdCalifornia_header_cell_1_3_0 California quailCalifornia_cell_1_3_1
FishCalifornia_header_cell_1_4_0 California_cell_1_4_1
FlowerCalifornia_header_cell_1_5_0 California poppyCalifornia_cell_1_5_1
GrassCalifornia_header_cell_1_6_0 Purple needlegrassCalifornia_cell_1_6_1
InsectCalifornia_header_cell_1_7_0 California dogface butterflyCalifornia_cell_1_7_1
MammalCalifornia_header_cell_1_8_0 California_cell_1_8_1
ReptileCalifornia_header_cell_1_9_0 Desert tortoiseCalifornia_cell_1_9_1
TreeCalifornia_header_cell_1_10_0 Coast redwood & giant sequoiaCalifornia_cell_1_10_1
Inanimate insigniaCalifornia_header_cell_1_11_0
ColorsCalifornia_header_cell_1_12_0 Blue & goldCalifornia_cell_1_12_1
DanceCalifornia_header_cell_1_13_0 West Coast SwingCalifornia_cell_1_13_1
Folk danceCalifornia_header_cell_1_14_0 Square danceCalifornia_cell_1_14_1
FossilCalifornia_header_cell_1_15_0 Sabre-toothed catCalifornia_cell_1_15_1
GemstoneCalifornia_header_cell_1_16_0 BenitoiteCalifornia_cell_1_16_1
MineralCalifornia_header_cell_1_17_0 Native goldCalifornia_cell_1_17_1
RockCalifornia_header_cell_1_18_0 SerpentineCalifornia_cell_1_18_1
SoilCalifornia_header_cell_1_19_0 San JoaquinCalifornia_cell_1_19_1
SportCalifornia_header_cell_1_20_0 SurfingCalifornia_cell_1_20_1
TartanCalifornia_header_cell_1_21_0 California state tartanCalifornia_cell_1_21_1
State route markerCalifornia_header_cell_1_22_0
State quarterCalifornia_header_cell_1_23_0

California, officially the State of California, is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States of America. California_sentence_2

With 39.5 million residents across a total area of about 163,696 square miles (423,970 km), California is the most populous U.S. state and the third-largest by area, and is also the world's thirty-fourth most populous subnational entity. California_sentence_3

California is also the most populated subnational entity in North America, and has its state capital in Sacramento. California_sentence_4

The Greater Los Angeles area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. California_sentence_5

Los Angeles is California's most populous city, and the country's second-most populous, after New York City. California_sentence_6

California also has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. California_sentence_7

The City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California_sentence_8

California's economy, with a gross state product of $3.0 trillion, is the largest sub-national economy in the world. California_sentence_9

If it were a country, California would be the fifth-largest economy in the world, and the 37th-most populous as of 2020. California_sentence_10

The Greater Los Angeles area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies ($1.3 trillion and $1.0 trillion respectively as of 2020), after the New York metropolitan area ($2.0 trillion). California_sentence_11

The San Francisco Bay Area Combined Statistical Area had the nation's highest gross domestic product per capita in 2018 ($106,757) among large primary statistical areas, and is home to four of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California_sentence_12

California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, communication, information, innovation, environmentalism, economics, politics, and entertainment. California_sentence_13

As a result of the state's diversity and migration, California integrates foods, languages, and traditions from other areas across the country and around the globe. California_sentence_14

It is considered the origin of the hippie counterculture, beach and car culture, the Internet, and the personal computer, among others. California_sentence_15

The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are widely seen as centers of the global technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California_sentence_16

California's economy is very diverse: 58% of it is based on finance, government, real estate services, technology, and professional, scientific, and technical business services. California_sentence_17

Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.S. state. California_sentence_18

California shares a border with Oregon to the north, Nevada and Arizona to the east, and the Mexican state of Baja California to the south. California_sentence_19

The state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, and from the redwood and Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. California_sentence_20

The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. California_sentence_21

Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate and monsoon seasonal weather, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. California_sentence_22

All these factors lead to an enormous demand for water; in total numbers, California is the largest consumer of water in North America. California_sentence_23

Over time, drought and wildfires have become more frequent; further straining California's water security. California_sentence_24

What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of Europeans during the 16th and 17th centuries. California_sentence_25

The Spanish Empire then claimed and colonized it. California_sentence_26

In 1804 it was included in Alta California province, within the Viceroyalty of New Spain. California_sentence_27

The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War. California_sentence_28

The western portion of Alta California was then organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. California_sentence_29

The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom. California_sentence_30

Etymology California_section_0

Main articles: Etymology of California and Island of California California_sentence_31

The Spaniards gave the name Las Californias to the peninsula of Baja California and to Alta California, the region that became the present-day state of California. California_sentence_32

The name likely derived from the mythical island of California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. California_sentence_33

This work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. California_sentence_34

Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. California_sentence_35

In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. California_sentence_36

It is possible the name California was meant to imply the island was a Caliphate. California_sentence_37

Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal., Cali, Calif., and US-CA. California_sentence_38

History California_section_1

Main article: History of California California_sentence_39

Further information: History of California before 1900 California_sentence_40

First inhabitants California_section_2

Main article: Indigenous peoples of California California_sentence_41

Settled by successive waves of arrivals during at least the last 13,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. California_sentence_42

Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000. California_sentence_43

The indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct ethnic groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California_sentence_44

California groups also were diverse in their political organization with bands, tribes, villages, and on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash, Pomo and Salinan. California_sentence_45

Trade, intermarriage and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups. California_sentence_46

Spanish rule California_section_3

Further information: The Californias § History California_sentence_47

The first Europeans to explore the California coast were the members of a Spanish sailing expedition led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo; they entered San Diego Bay on September 28, 1542, and reached at least as far north as San Miguel Island. California_sentence_48

Privateer and explorer Francis Drake explored and claimed an undefined portion of the California coast in 1579, landing north of the future city of San Francisco. California_sentence_49

The first Asians to set foot on what would be the United States occurred in 1587, when Filipino sailors arrived in Spanish ships at Morro Bay. California_sentence_50

Sebastián Vizcaíno explored and mapped the coast of California in 1602 for New Spain, sailing as far north as Cape Mendocino. California_sentence_51

Despite the on-the-ground explorations of California in the 16th century, Rodríguez's idea of California as an island persisted. California_sentence_52

Such depictions appeared on many European maps well into the 18th century. California_sentence_53

After the Portolà expedition of 1769–70, Spanish missionaries led by Junipero Serra began setting up 21 California Missions on or near the coast of Alta (Upper) California, beginning in San Diego. California_sentence_54

During the same period, Spanish military forces built several forts (presidios) and three small towns (pueblos). California_sentence_55

The San Francisco Mission grew into the city of San Francisco, and two of the pueblos grew into the cities of Los Angeles and San Jose. California_sentence_56

Several other smaller cities and towns also sprang up surrounding the various Spanish missions and pueblos, which remain to this day. California_sentence_57

The Spanish colonization began decimating the natives through epidemics of various diseases for which the indigenous peoples had no natural immunity, such as measles and diphtheria. California_sentence_58

The establishment of the Spanish systems of government and social structure, which the Spanish settlers had brought with them, also technologically and culturally overwhelmed the societies of the earlier indigenous peoples. California_sentence_59

During this same period, Russian ships also explored along the California coast and in 1812 established a trading post at Fort Ross. California_sentence_60

Russia's early 19th-century coastal settlements in California were positioned just north of the northernmost edge of the area of Spanish settlement in San Francisco Bay, and were the southernmost Russian settlements in North America. California_sentence_61

The Russian settlements associated with Fort Ross were spread from Point Arena to Tomales Bay. California_sentence_62

Mexican rule California_section_4

In 1821, the Mexican War of Independence gave Mexico (including California) independence from Spain. California_sentence_63

For the next 25 years, Alta California remained as a remote, sparsely populated, northwestern administrative district of the newly independent country of Mexico. California_sentence_64

The missions, which controlled most of the best land in the state, were secularized by 1834 and became the property of the Mexican government. California_sentence_65

The governor granted many square leagues of land to others with political influence. California_sentence_66

These huge ranchos or cattle ranches emerged as the dominant institutions of Mexican California. California_sentence_67

The ranchos developed under ownership by Californios (Hispanics native of California) who traded cowhides and tallow with Boston merchants. California_sentence_68

Beef did not become a commodity until the 1849 California Gold Rush. California_sentence_69

From the 1820s, trappers and settlers from the United States and the future Canada arrived in Northern California. California_sentence_70

These new arrivals used the Siskiyou Trail, California Trail, Oregon Trail and Old Spanish Trail to cross the rugged mountains and harsh deserts in and surrounding California. California_sentence_71

The early government of the newly independent Mexico was highly unstable, and in a reflection of this, from 1831 onwards, California also experienced a series of armed disputes, both internal and with the central Mexican government. California_sentence_72

During this tumultuous political period Juan Bautista Alvarado was able to secure the governorship during 1836–1842. California_sentence_73

The military action which first brought Alvarado to power had momentarily declared California to be an independent state, and had been aided by American and British residents of California, including Isaac Graham. California_sentence_74

In 1840, one hundred of those residents who did not have passports were arrested, leading to the Graham Affair. California_sentence_75

One of the largest ranchers in California was John Marsh. California_sentence_76

After failing to obtain justice against squatters on his land from the Mexican courts, he determined that California should become part of the United States. California_sentence_77

Marsh conducted a letter-writing campaign espousing the California climate, the soil, and other reasons to settle there, as well as the best route to follow, which became known as "Marsh's route". California_sentence_78

His letters were read, reread, passed around, and printed in newspapers throughout the country, and started the first wagon trains rolling to California. California_sentence_79

He invited immigrants to stay on his ranch until they could get settled, and assisted in their obtaining passports. California_sentence_80

After ushering in the period of organized emigration to California, Marsh became involved in a military battle between the much-hated Mexican general, Manuel Micheltorena and the California governor he had replaced, Juan Bautista Alvarado. California_sentence_81

The armies of each met at the Battle of Providencia near Los Angeles. California_sentence_82

Marsh had been forced against his will to join Micheltorena's army. California_sentence_83

Ignoring his superiors, during the battle, he signaled the other side for a parlay. California_sentence_84

There were many settlers from the United States fighting on both sides. California_sentence_85

He convinced these men that they had no reason to be fighting each other. California_sentence_86

As a result of Marsh's actions, they abandoned the fight, Micheltorena was defeated, and California-born Pio Pico was returned to the governorship. California_sentence_87

This paved the way to California's ultimate acquisition by the United States. California_sentence_88

California Republic and conquest California_section_5

Main articles: California Republic and Conquest of California California_sentence_89

See also: Mexican Cession California_sentence_90

In 1846, a group of American settlers in and around Sonoma rebelled against Mexican rule during the Bear Flag Revolt. California_sentence_91

Afterwards, rebels raised the Bear Flag (featuring a bear, a star, a red stripe and the words "California Republic") at Sonoma. California_sentence_92

The Republic's only president was William B. Ide, who played a pivotal role during the Bear Flag Revolt. California_sentence_93

This revolt by American settlers served as a prelude to the later American military invasion of California and was closely coordinated with nearby American military commanders. California_sentence_94

The California Republic was short lived; the same year marked the outbreak of the Mexican–American War (1846–48). California_sentence_95

When Commodore John D. Sloat of the United States Navy sailed into Monterey Bay and began the military occupation of California by the United States, Northern California capitulated in less than a month to the United States forces. California_sentence_96

After a series of defensive battles in Southern California, the Treaty of Cahuenga was signed by the Californios on January 13, 1847, securing American control in California. California_sentence_97

Early American period California_section_6

Following the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (February 2, 1848) that ended the war, the westernmost portion of the annexed Mexican territory of Alta California soon became the American state of California, and the remainder of the old territory was then subdivided into the new American Territories of Arizona, Nevada, Colorado and Utah. California_sentence_98

The even more lightly populated and arid lower region of old Baja California remained as a part of Mexico. California_sentence_99

In 1846, the total settler population of the western part of the old Alta California had been estimated to be no more than 8,000, plus about 100,000 Native Americans, down from about 300,000 before Hispanic settlement in 1769. California_sentence_100

In 1848, only one week before the official American annexation of the area, gold was discovered in California, this being an event which was to forever alter both the state's demographics and its finances. California_sentence_101

Soon afterward, a massive influx of immigration into the area resulted, as prospectors and miners arrived by the thousands. California_sentence_102

The population burgeoned with United States citizens, Europeans, Chinese and other immigrants during the great California Gold Rush. California_sentence_103

By the time of California's application for statehood in 1850, the settler population of California had multiplied to 100,000. California_sentence_104

By 1854, more than 300,000 settlers had come. California_sentence_105

Between 1847 and 1870, the population of San Francisco increased from 500 to 150,000. California_sentence_106

California was suddenly no longer a sparsely populated backwater, but seemingly overnight it had grown into a major population center. California_sentence_107

The seat of government for California under Spanish and later Mexican rule had been located in Monterey from 1777 until 1845. California_sentence_108

Pio Pico, the last Mexican governor of Alta California, had briefly moved the capital to Los Angeles in 1845. California_sentence_109

The United States consulate had also been located in Monterey, under consul Thomas O. Larkin. California_sentence_110

In 1849, a state Constitutional Convention was first held in Monterey. California_sentence_111

Among the first tasks of the Convention was a decision on a location for the new state capital. California_sentence_112

The first full legislative sessions were held in San Jose (1850–1851). California_sentence_113

Subsequent locations included Vallejo (1852–1853), and nearby Benicia (1853–1854); these locations eventually proved to be inadequate as well. California_sentence_114

The capital has been located in Sacramento since 1854 with only a short break in 1862 when legislative sessions were held in San Francisco due to flooding in Sacramento. California_sentence_115

Once the state's Constitutional Convention had finalized its state constitution, it applied to the U.S. Congress for admission to statehood. California_sentence_116

On September 9, 1850, as part of the Compromise of 1850, California became a free state and September 9 a state holiday. California_sentence_117

During the American Civil War (1861–1865), California sent gold shipments eastwards to Washington in support of the Union. California_sentence_118

However, due to the existence of a large contingent of pro-South sympathizers within the state, the state was not able to muster any full military regiments to send eastwards to officially serve in the Union war effort. California_sentence_119

Still, several smaller military units within the Union army were unofficially associated with the state of California, such as the "California 100 Company", due to a majority of their members being from California. California_sentence_120

At the time of California's admission into the Union, travel between California and the rest of the continental United States had been a time-consuming and dangerous feat. California_sentence_121

Nineteen years afterwards, in 1869, shortly after the conclusion of the Civil War, a more direct connection was developed with the completion of the First Transcontinental Railroad in 1869. California_sentence_122

California was then easy to reach. California_sentence_123

Much of the state was extremely well suited to fruit cultivation and agriculture in general. California_sentence_124

Vast expanses of wheat, other cereal crops, vegetable crops, cotton, and nut and fruit trees were grown (including oranges in Southern California), and the foundation was laid for the state's prodigious agricultural production in the Central Valley and elsewhere. California_sentence_125

Indigenous peoples California_section_7

Under earlier Spanish and Mexican rule, California's original native population had precipitously declined, above all, from Eurasian diseases to which the indigenous people of California had not yet developed a natural immunity. California_sentence_126

Under its new American administration, California's harsh governmental policies towards its own indigenous people did not improve. California_sentence_127

As in other American states, many of the native inhabitants were soon forcibly removed from their lands by incoming American settlers such as miners, ranchers, and farmers. California_sentence_128

Although California had entered the American union as a free state, the "loitering or orphaned Indians" were de facto enslaved by their new Anglo-American masters under the 1853 Act for the Government and Protection of Indians. California_sentence_129

There were also massacres in which hundreds of indigenous people were killed. California_sentence_130

Between 1850 and 1860, the California state government paid around 1.5 million dollars (some 250,000 of which was reimbursed by the federal government) to hire militias whose purpose was to protect settlers from the indigenous populations. California_sentence_131

In later decades, the native population was placed in reservations and rancherias, which were often small and isolated and without enough natural resources or funding from the government to sustain the populations living on them. California_sentence_132

As a result, the rise of California was a calamity for the native inhabitants. California_sentence_133

Several scholars and Native American activists, including Benjamin Madley and Ed Castillo, have described the actions of the California government as a genocide. California_sentence_134

1900–present California_section_8

Main article: History of California 1900–present California_sentence_135

Migration to California accelerated during the early 20th century with the completion of major transcontinental highways like the Lincoln Highway and Route 66. California_sentence_136

In the period from 1900 to 1965, the population grew from fewer than one million to the greatest in the Union. California_sentence_137

In 1940, the Census Bureau reported California's population as 6.0% Hispanic, 2.4% Asian, and 89.5% non-Hispanic white. California_sentence_138

To meet the population's needs, major engineering feats like the California and Los Angeles Aqueducts; the Oroville and Shasta Dams; and the Bay and Golden Gate Bridges were built across the state. California_sentence_139

The state government also adopted the California Master Plan for Higher Education in 1960 to develop a highly efficient system of public education. California_sentence_140

Meanwhile, attracted to the mild Mediterranean climate, cheap land, and the state's wide variety of geography, filmmakers established the studio system in Hollywood in the 1920s. California_sentence_141

California manufactured 8.7 percent of total United States military armaments produced during World War II, ranking third (behind New York and Michigan) among the 48 states. California_sentence_142

California however easily ranked first in production of military ships during the war (transport, cargo, [merchant ships] such as Liberty ships, Victory ships, and warships) at drydock facilities in San Diego, Los Angeles, and the San Francisco Bay Area. California_sentence_143

After World War II, California's economy greatly expanded due to strong aerospace and defense industries, whose size decreased following the end of the Cold War. California_sentence_144

Stanford University and its Dean of Engineering Frederick Terman began encouraging faculty and graduates to stay in California instead of leaving the state, and develop a high-tech region in the area now known as Silicon Valley. California_sentence_145

As a result of these efforts, California is regarded as a world center of the entertainment and music industries, of technology, engineering, and the aerospace industry, and as the United States center of agricultural production. California_sentence_146

Just before the Dot Com Bust, California had the fifth-largest economy in the world among nations. California_sentence_147

Yet since 1991, and starting in the late 1980s in Southern California, California has seen a net loss of domestic migrants in most years. California_sentence_148

This is often referred to by the media as the California exodus. California_sentence_149

During the 20th century, two great disasters happened in California. California_sentence_150

The 1906 San Francisco earthquake and 1928 St. California_sentence_151

Francis Dam flood remain the deadliest in U.S history. California_sentence_152

Although air pollution problems have been reduced, health problems associated with pollution have continued. California_sentence_153

The brown haze known as "smog" has been substantially abated after the passage of federal and state restrictions on automobile exhaust. California_sentence_154

An energy crisis in 2001 led to rolling blackouts, soaring power rates, and the importation of electricity from neighboring states. California_sentence_155

Southern California Edison and Pacific Gas and Electric Company came under heavy criticism. California_sentence_156

Housing prices in urban areas continued to increase; a modest home which in the 1960s cost $25,000 would cost half a million dollars or more in urban areas by 2005. California_sentence_157

More people commuted longer hours to afford a home in more rural areas while earning larger salaries in the urban areas. California_sentence_158

Speculators bought houses they never intended to live in, expecting to make a huge profit in a matter of months, then rolling it over by buying more properties. California_sentence_159

Mortgage companies were compliant, as everyone assumed the prices would keep rising. California_sentence_160

The bubble burst in 2007-8 as housing prices began to crash and the boom years ended. California_sentence_161

Hundreds of billions in property values vanished and foreclosures soared as many financial institutions and investors were badly hurt. California_sentence_162

Geography California_section_9

Main article: Geography of California California_sentence_163

California is the 3rd largest state in the United States in area, after Alaska and Texas. California_sentence_164

California is often geographically bisected into two regions, Southern California, comprising the 10 southernmost counties, and Northern California, comprising the 48 northernmost counties. California_sentence_165

It is bordered by Oregon to the north, Nevada to the east and northeast, Arizona to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the west and it shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California to the south (with which it makes up part of The Californias region of North America, alongside Baja California Sur). California_sentence_166

In the middle of the state lies the California Central Valley, bounded by the Sierra Nevada in the east, the coastal mountain ranges in the west, the Cascade Range to the north and by the Tehachapi Mountains in the south. California_sentence_167

The Central Valley is California's productive agricultural heartland. California_sentence_168

Divided in two by the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, the northern portion, the Sacramento Valley serves as the watershed of the Sacramento River, while the southern portion, the San Joaquin Valley is the watershed for the San Joaquin River. California_sentence_169

Both valleys derive their names from the rivers that flow through them. California_sentence_170

With dredging, the Sacramento and the San Joaquin Rivers have remained deep enough for several inland cities to be seaports. California_sentence_171

The Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta is a critical water supply hub for the state. California_sentence_172

Water is diverted from the delta and through an extensive network of pumps and canals that traverse nearly the length of the state, to the Central Valley and the State Water Projects and other needs. California_sentence_173

Water from the Delta provides drinking water for nearly 23 million people, almost two-thirds of the state's population as well as water for farmers on the west side of the San Joaquin Valley. California_sentence_174

Suisun Bay lies at the confluence of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers. California_sentence_175

The water is drained by the Carquinez Strait, which flows into San Pablo Bay, a northern extension of San Francisco Bay, which then connects to the Pacific Ocean via the Golden Gate strait. California_sentence_176

The Channel Islands are located off the Southern coast, while the Farallon Islands lie west of San Francisco. California_sentence_177

The Sierra Nevada (Spanish for "snowy range") includes the highest peak in the contiguous 48 states, Mount Whitney, at 14,505 feet (4,421 m). California_sentence_178

The range embraces Yosemite Valley, famous for its glacially carved domes, and Sequoia National Park, home to the giant sequoia trees, the largest living organisms on Earth, and the deep freshwater lake, Lake Tahoe, the largest lake in the state by volume. California_sentence_179

To the east of the Sierra Nevada are Owens Valley and Mono Lake, an essential migratory bird habitat. California_sentence_180

In the western part of the state is Clear Lake, the largest freshwater lake by area entirely in California. California_sentence_181

Although Lake Tahoe is larger, it is divided by the California/Nevada border. California_sentence_182

The Sierra Nevada falls to Arctic temperatures in winter and has several dozen small glaciers, including Palisade Glacier, the southernmost glacier in the United States. California_sentence_183

The Tulare Lake was the largest freshwater lake west of the Mississippi River. California_sentence_184

A remnant of Pleistocene-era Lake Corcoran, Tulare Lake dried up by the early 20th century after its tributary rivers were diverted for agricultural irrigation and municipal water uses. California_sentence_185

About 45 percent of the state's total surface area is covered by forests, and California's diversity of pine species is unmatched by any other state. California_sentence_186

California contains more forestland than any other state except Alaska. California_sentence_187

Many of the trees in the California White Mountains are the oldest in the world; an individual bristlecone pine is over 5,000 years old. California_sentence_188

In the south is a large inland salt lake, the Salton Sea. California_sentence_189

The south-central desert is called the Mojave; to the northeast of the Mojave lies Death Valley, which contains the lowest and hottest place in North America, the Badwater Basin at −279 feet (−85 m). California_sentence_190

The horizontal distance from the bottom of Death Valley to the top of Mount Whitney is less than 90 miles (140 km). California_sentence_191

Indeed, almost all of southeastern California is arid, hot desert, with routine extreme high temperatures during the summer. California_sentence_192

The southeastern border of California with Arizona is entirely formed by the Colorado River, from which the southern part of the state gets about half of its water. California_sentence_193

A majority of California's cities are located in either the San Francisco Bay Area or the Sacramento metropolitan area in Northern California; or the Los Angeles area, the Riverside-San Bernardino-Inland Empire, or the San Diego metropolitan area in Southern California. California_sentence_194

The Los Angeles Area, the Bay Area, and the San Diego metropolitan area are among several major metropolitan areas along the California coast. California_sentence_195

As part of the Ring of Fire, California is subject to tsunamis, floods, droughts, Santa Ana winds, wildfires, landslides on steep terrain, and has several volcanoes. California_sentence_196

It has many earthquakes due to several faults running through the state, the largest being the San Andreas Fault. California_sentence_197

About 37,000 earthquakes are recorded each year, but most are too small to be felt. California_sentence_198


  • California_item_0_0
  • California_item_0_1
  • California_item_0_2
  • California_item_0_3
  • California_item_0_4
  • California_item_0_5
  • California_item_0_6

Climate California_section_10

Main article: Climate of California California_sentence_199

Further information: Climate change in California California_sentence_200

Ecology California_section_11

Main article: Ecology of California California_sentence_201

See also: Environment of California California_sentence_202

California is one of the richest and most diverse parts of the world, and includes some of the most endangered ecological communities. California_sentence_203

California is part of the Nearctic realm and spans a number of terrestrial ecoregions. California_sentence_204

California's large number of endemic species includes relict species, which have died out elsewhere, such as the Catalina ironwood (Lyonothamnus floribundus). California_sentence_205

Many other endemics originated through differentiation or adaptive radiation, whereby multiple species develop from a common ancestor to take advantage of diverse ecological conditions such as the California lilac (Ceanothus). California_sentence_206

Many California endemics have become endangered, as urbanization, logging, overgrazing, and the introduction of exotic species have encroached on their habitat. California_sentence_207

Flora and fauna California_section_12

Main articles: Fauna of California and California Floristic Province California_sentence_208

See also: List of California native plants California_sentence_209

See also: List of invertebrates of California California_sentence_210

California boasts several superlatives in its collection of flora: the largest trees, the tallest trees, and the oldest trees. California_sentence_211

California's native grasses are perennial plants. California_sentence_212

After European contact, these were generally replaced by invasive species of European annual grasses; and, in modern times, California's hills turn a characteristic golden-brown in summer. California_sentence_213

Because California has the greatest diversity of climate and terrain, the state has six life zones which are the lower Sonoran Desert; upper Sonoran (foothill regions and some coastal lands), transition (coastal areas and moist northeastern counties); and the Canadian, Hudsonian, and Arctic Zones, comprising the state's highest elevations. California_sentence_214

Plant life in the dry climate of the lower Sonoran zone contains a diversity of native cactus, mesquite, and paloverde. California_sentence_215

The Joshua tree is found in the Mojave Desert. California_sentence_216

Flowering plants include the dwarf desert poppy and a variety of asters. California_sentence_217

Fremont cottonwood and valley oak thrive in the Central Valley. California_sentence_218

The upper Sonoran zone includes the chaparral belt, characterized by forests of small shrubs, stunted trees, and herbaceous plants. California_sentence_219

Nemophila, mint, Phacelia, Viola, and the California poppy (Eschscholzia californica, the state flower) also flourish in this zone, along with the lupine, more species of which occur here than anywhere else in the world. California_sentence_220

The transition zone includes most of California's forests with the redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) and the "big tree" or giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum), among the oldest living things on earth (some are said to have lived at least 4,000 years). California_sentence_221

Tanbark oak, California laurel, sugar pine, madrona, broad-leaved maple, and Douglas-fir also grow here. California_sentence_222

Forest floors are covered with swordfern, alumnroot, barrenwort, and trillium, and there are thickets of huckleberry, azalea, elder, and wild currant. California_sentence_223

Characteristic wild flowers include varieties of mariposa, tulip, and tiger and leopard lilies. California_sentence_224

The high elevations of the Canadian zone allow the Jeffrey pine, red fir, and lodgepole pine to thrive. California_sentence_225

Brushy areas are abundant with dwarf manzanita and ceanothus; the unique Sierra puffball is also found here. California_sentence_226

Right below the timberline, in the Hudsonian zone, the whitebark, foxtail, and silver pines grow. California_sentence_227

At about 10,500 feet (3,200 m), begins the Arctic zone, a treeless region whose flora include a number of wildflowers, including Sierra primrose, yellow columbine, alpine buttercup, and alpine shooting star. California_sentence_228

Common plants that have been introduced to the state include the eucalyptus, acacia, pepper tree, geranium, and Scotch broom. California_sentence_229

The species that are federally classified as endangered are the Contra Costa wallflower, Antioch Dunes evening primrose, Solano grass, San Clemente Island larkspur, salt marsh bird's beak, McDonald's rock-cress, and Santa Barbara Island liveforever. California_sentence_230

As of December 1997, 85 plant species were listed as threatened or endangered. California_sentence_231

In the deserts of the lower Sonoran zone, the mammals include the jackrabbit, kangaroo rat, squirrel, and opossum. California_sentence_232

Common birds include the owl, roadrunner, cactus wren, and various species of hawk. California_sentence_233

The area's reptilian life include the sidewinder viper, desert tortoise, and horned toad. California_sentence_234

The upper Sonoran zone boasts mammals such as the antelope, brown-footed woodrat, and ring-tailed cat. California_sentence_235

Birds unique to this zone are the California thrasher, bushtit, and California condor. California_sentence_236

In the transition zone, there are Colombian black-tailed deer, black bears, gray foxes, cougars, bobcats, and Roosevelt elk. California_sentence_237

Reptiles such as the garter snakes and rattlesnakes inhabit the zone. California_sentence_238

In addition, amphibians such as the water puppy and redwood salamander are common too. California_sentence_239

Birds such as the kingfisher, chickadee, towhee, and hummingbird thrive here as well. California_sentence_240

The Canadian zone mammals include the mountain weasel, snowshoe hare, and several species of chipmunks. California_sentence_241

Conspicuous birds include the blue-fronted jay, Sierra chickadee, Sierra hermit thrush, water ouzel, and Townsend's solitaire. California_sentence_242

As one ascends into the Hudsonian zone, birds become scarcer. California_sentence_243

While the Sierra rosy finch is the only bird native to the high Arctic region, other bird species such as the hummingbird and Clark's nutcracker. California_sentence_244

Principal mammals found in this region include the Sierra coney, white-tailed jackrabbit, and the bighorn sheep. California_sentence_245

As of April 2003, the bighorn sheep was listed as endangered by the U.S. California_sentence_246

Fish and Wildlife Service. California_sentence_247

The fauna found throughout several zones are the mule deer, coyote, mountain lion, northern flicker, and several species of hawk and sparrow. California_sentence_248

Aquatic life in California thrives, from the state's mountain lakes and streams to the rocky Pacific coastline. California_sentence_249

Numerous trout species are found, among them rainbow, golden, and cutthroat. California_sentence_250

Migratory species of salmon are common as well. California_sentence_251

Deep-sea life forms include sea bass, yellowfin tuna, barracuda, and several types of whale. California_sentence_252

Native to the cliffs of northern California are seals, sea lions, and many types of shorebirds, including migratory species. California_sentence_253

As of April 2003, 118 California animals were on the federal endangered list; 181 plants were listed as endangered or threatened. California_sentence_254

Endangered animals include the San Joaquin kitfox, Point Arena mountain beaver, Pacific pocket mouse, salt marsh harvest mouse, Morro Bay kangaroo rat (and five other species of kangaroo rat), Amargosa vole, California least tern, California condor, loggerhead shrike, San Clemente sage sparrow, San Francisco garter snake, five species of salamander, three species of chub, and two species of pupfish. California_sentence_255

Eleven butterflies are also endangered and two that are threatened are on the federal list. California_sentence_256

Among threatened animals are the coastal California gnatcatcher, Paiute cutthroat trout, southern sea otter, and northern spotted owl. California_sentence_257

California has a total of 290,821 acres (1,176.91 km) of National Wildlife Refuges. California_sentence_258

As of September 2010, 123 California animals were listed as either endangered or threatened on the federal list. California_sentence_259

Also, as of the same year, 178 species of California plants were listed either as endangered or threatened on this federal list. California_sentence_260

Rivers California_section_13

Main article: List of rivers of California California_sentence_261

The most prominent river system within California is formed by the Sacramento River and San Joaquin River, which are fed mostly by snowmelt from the west slope of the Sierra Nevada, and respectively drain the north and south halves of the Central Valley. California_sentence_262

The two rivers join in the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta, flowing into the Pacific Ocean through San Francisco Bay. California_sentence_263

Many major tributaries feed into the Sacramento–San Joaquin system, including the Pit River, Feather River and Tuolumne River. California_sentence_264

The Klamath and Trinity Rivers drain a large area in far northwestern California. California_sentence_265

The Eel River and Salinas River each drain portions of the California coast, north and south of San Francisco Bay, respectively. California_sentence_266

The Mojave River is the primary watercourse in the Mojave Desert, and the Santa Ana River drains much of the Transverse Ranges as it bisects Southern California. California_sentence_267

The Colorado River forms the state's southeast border with Arizona. California_sentence_268

Most of California's major rivers are dammed as part of two massive water projects: the Central Valley Project, providing water for agriculture in the Central Valley, and the California State Water Project diverting water from northern to southern California. California_sentence_269

The state's coasts, rivers, and other bodies of water are regulated by the California Coastal Commission. California_sentence_270

Regions California_section_14

Further information: List of regions of California and List of places in California California_sentence_271

Demographics California_section_15

Main article: Demographics of California California_sentence_272

Population California_section_16

The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of California was 39,512,223 on July 1, 2019, a 6.06% increase since the 2010 United States Census. California_sentence_273

The population is projected to reach forty million by 2020 and fifty million by 2060. California_sentence_274

Between 2000 and 2009, there was a natural increase of 3,090,016 (5,058,440 births minus 2,179,958 deaths). California_sentence_275

During this time period, international migration produced a net increase of 1,816,633 people while domestic migration produced a net decrease of 1,509,708, resulting in a net in-migration of 306,925 people. California_sentence_276

The state of California's own statistics show a population of 38,292,687 for January 1, 2009. California_sentence_277

However, according to the Manhattan Institute for Policy Research, since 1990 almost 3.4 million Californians have moved to other states, with most leaving to Texas, Nevada, and Arizona. California_sentence_278

Within the Western hemisphere California is the second most populous sub-national administrative entity (behind the state of São Paulo in Brazil) and third most populous sub-national entity of any kind outside Asia (in which wider category it also ranks behind England in the United Kingdom, which has no administrative functions). California_sentence_279

California's population is greater than that of all but 34 countries of the world. California_sentence_280

The Greater Los Angeles Area is the 2nd-largest metropolitan area in the United States, after the New York metropolitan area, while Los Angeles, with nearly half the population of New York City, is the second-largest city in the United States. California_sentence_281

Conversely, San Francisco, with nearly one-quarter the population density of Manhattan, is the most densely populated city in California and one of the most densely populated cities in the United States. California_sentence_282

Also, Los Angeles County has held the title of most populous United States county for decades, and it alone is more populous than 42 United States states. California_sentence_283

Including Los Angeles, four of the top 15 most populous cities in the U.S. are in California: Los Angeles (2nd), San Diego (8th), San Jose (10th), and San Francisco (13th). California_sentence_284

The center of population of California is located in the town of Buttonwillow, Kern County. California_sentence_285

Cities and towns California_section_17

See also: List of cities and towns in California and List of largest California cities by population California_sentence_286

The state has 482 incorporated cities and towns, of which 460 are cities and 22 are towns. California_sentence_287

Under California law, the terms "city" and "town" are explicitly interchangeable; the name of an incorporated municipality in the state can either be "City of (Name)" or "Town of (Name)". California_sentence_288

Sacramento became California's first incorporated city on February 27, 1850. California_sentence_289

San Jose, San Diego, and Benicia tied for California's second incorporated city, each receiving incorporation on March 27, 1850. California_sentence_290

Jurupa Valley became the state's most recent and 482nd incorporated municipality on July 1, 2011. California_sentence_291

The majority of these cities and towns are within one of five metropolitan areas: the Los Angeles Metropolitan Area, the San Francisco Bay Area, the Riverside-San Bernardino Area, the San Diego metropolitan area, or the Sacramento metropolitan area. California_sentence_292


Largest metropolitan statistical areas in CaliforniaCalifornia_table_caption_2
CA RankCalifornia_cell_2_0_0 U.S. RankCalifornia_cell_2_0_1 Metropolitan statistical areaCalifornia_header_cell_2_0_2 2018 EstimateCalifornia_header_cell_2_0_3 2010 CensusCalifornia_header_cell_2_0_4 ChangeCalifornia_header_cell_2_0_5 CountiesCalifornia_header_cell_2_0_6
1California_cell_2_1_0 2California_cell_2_1_1 Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA MSACalifornia_cell_2_1_2 13,291,486California_cell_2_1_3 12,828,837California_cell_2_1_4 +3.61%California_cell_2_1_5 Los Angeles, OrangeCalifornia_cell_2_1_6
2California_cell_2_2_0 12California_cell_2_2_1 San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward, CA MSACalifornia_cell_2_2_2 4,729,484California_cell_2_2_3 4,335,391California_cell_2_2_4 +9.09%California_cell_2_2_5 Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, San Francisco, San MateoCalifornia_cell_2_2_6
3California_cell_2_3_0 13California_cell_2_3_1 Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, CA MSACalifornia_cell_2_3_2 4,622,361California_cell_2_3_3 4,224,851California_cell_2_3_4 +9.41%California_cell_2_3_5 Riverside, San BernardinoCalifornia_cell_2_3_6
4California_cell_2_4_0 17California_cell_2_4_1 San Diego-Carlsbad, CA MSACalifornia_cell_2_4_2 3,343,364California_cell_2_4_3 3,095,313California_cell_2_4_4 +8.01%California_cell_2_4_5 San DiegoCalifornia_cell_2_4_6
5California_cell_2_5_0 27California_cell_2_5_1 Sacramento–Roseville–Arden-Arcade, CA MSACalifornia_cell_2_5_2 2,345,210California_cell_2_5_3 2,149,127California_cell_2_5_4 +9.12%California_cell_2_5_5 El Dorado, Placer, Sacramento, YoloCalifornia_cell_2_5_6
6California_cell_2_6_0 35California_cell_2_6_1 San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, CA MSACalifornia_cell_2_6_2 1,999,107California_cell_2_6_3 1,836,911California_cell_2_6_4 +8.83%California_cell_2_6_5 San Benito, Santa ClaraCalifornia_cell_2_6_6
7California_cell_2_7_0 55California_cell_2_7_1 Fresno, CA MSACalifornia_cell_2_7_2 994,400California_cell_2_7_3 930,450California_cell_2_7_4 +6.87%California_cell_2_7_5 FresnoCalifornia_cell_2_7_6
8California_cell_2_8_0 62California_cell_2_8_1 Bakersfield, CA MSACalifornia_cell_2_8_2 896,764California_cell_2_8_3 839,631California_cell_2_8_4 +6.80%California_cell_2_8_5 KernCalifornia_cell_2_8_6
9California_cell_2_9_0 67California_cell_2_9_1 Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura, CA MSACalifornia_cell_2_9_2 850,967California_cell_2_9_3 823,318California_cell_2_9_4 +3.36%California_cell_2_9_5 VenturaCalifornia_cell_2_9_6
10California_cell_2_10_0 76California_cell_2_10_1 Stockton-Lodi, CA MSACalifornia_cell_2_10_2 752,660California_cell_2_10_3 685,306California_cell_2_10_4 +9.83%California_cell_2_10_5 San JoaquinCalifornia_cell_2_10_6


Largest combined statistical areas in CaliforniaCalifornia_table_caption_3
CA RankCalifornia_cell_3_0_0 U.S. RankCalifornia_cell_3_0_1 Combined statistical areaCalifornia_header_cell_3_0_2 2017 estimateCalifornia_header_cell_3_0_3 2010 CensusCalifornia_header_cell_3_0_4 ChangeCalifornia_header_cell_3_0_5 CountiesCalifornia_header_cell_3_0_6
1California_cell_3_1_0 2California_cell_3_1_1 Los Angeles-Long Beach, CA Combined Statistical AreaCalifornia_cell_3_1_2 18,788,800California_cell_3_1_3 17,877,006California_cell_3_1_4 +5.10%California_cell_3_1_5 Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, VenturaCalifornia_cell_3_1_6
2California_cell_3_2_0 5California_cell_3_2_1 San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA Combined Statistical AreaCalifornia_cell_3_2_2 8,837,789California_cell_3_2_3 8,153,696California_cell_3_2_4 +8.39%California_cell_3_2_5 Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Napa, Santa Cruz, San Benito, San Francisco, San Joaquin, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Solano, SonomaCalifornia_cell_3_2_6
3California_cell_3_3_0 22California_cell_3_3_1 Sacramento-Roseville, CA Combined Statistical AreaCalifornia_cell_3_3_2 2,598,377California_cell_3_3_3 2,414,783California_cell_3_3_4 +7.60%California_cell_3_3_5 El Dorado, Nevada, Placer, Sacramento, Sutter, Yolo, YubaCalifornia_cell_3_3_6
4California_cell_3_4_0 49California_cell_3_4_1 Fresno-Madera, CA Combined Statistical AreaCalifornia_cell_3_4_2 1,146,145California_cell_3_4_3 1,081,315California_cell_3_4_4 +6.00%California_cell_3_4_5 Fresno, MaderaCalifornia_cell_3_4_6
5California_cell_3_5_0 62California_cell_3_5_1 Modesto-Merced, CA Combined Statistical AreaCalifornia_cell_3_5_2 820,572California_cell_3_5_3 770,246California_cell_3_5_4 +6.53%California_cell_3_5_5 Merced, StanislausCalifornia_cell_3_5_6
6California_cell_3_6_0 81California_cell_3_6_1 Visalia-Porterville-Hanford, CA Combined Statistical AreaCalifornia_cell_3_6_2 614,594California_cell_3_6_3 595,161California_cell_3_6_4 +3.27%California_cell_3_6_5 Kings, TulareCalifornia_cell_3_6_6
7California_cell_3_7_0 123California_cell_3_7_1 Redding-Red Bluff, CA Combined Statistical AreaCalifornia_cell_3_7_2 243,847California_cell_3_7_3 240,686California_cell_3_7_4 +1.31%California_cell_3_7_5 Shasta, TehamaCalifornia_cell_3_7_6

Migration California_section_18

Starting in the year 2010, for the first time since the California Gold Rush, California-born residents make up the majority of the state's population. California_sentence_293

Along with the rest of the United States, California's immigration pattern has also shifted over the course of the late 2000s to early 2010s. California_sentence_294

Immigration from Latin American countries has dropped significantly with most immigrants now coming from Asia. California_sentence_295

In total for 2011, there were 277,304 immigrants. California_sentence_296

Fifty-seven percent came from Asian countries versus 22% from Latin American countries. California_sentence_297

Net immigration from Mexico, previously the most common country of origin for new immigrants, has dropped to zero / less than zero since more Mexican nationals are departing for their home country than immigrating. California_sentence_298

As a result, it is projected that Hispanic citizens will constitute 49% of the population by 2060, instead of the previously projected 2050, due primarily to domestic births. California_sentence_299

The state's population of undocumented immigrants has been shrinking in recent years, due to increased enforcement and decreased job opportunities for lower-skilled workers. California_sentence_300

The number of migrants arrested attempting to cross the Mexican border in the Southwest decreased from a high of 1.1 million in 2005 to 367,000 in 2011. California_sentence_301

Despite these recent trends, illegal aliens constituted an estimated 7.3 percent of the state's population, the third highest percentage of any state in the country, totaling nearly 2.6 million. California_sentence_302

In particular, illegal immigrants tended to be concentrated in Los Angeles, Monterey, San Benito, Imperial, and Napa Counties—the latter four of which have significant agricultural industries that depend on manual labor. California_sentence_303

More than half of illegal immigrants originate from Mexico. California_sentence_304

The state of California and some California cities, including Los Angeles, Oakland and San Francisco, have adopted sanctuary policies. California_sentence_305

Race and ethnicity California_section_19

According to the United States Census Bureau in 2018 the population self-identifies as (alone or in combination): California_sentence_306


By ethnicity, in 2018 the population was 60.7% non-Hispanic (of any race) and 39.3% Hispanic or Latino (of any race). California_sentence_307

Hispanics are the largest single ethnic group in California. California_sentence_308

Non-Hispanic whites constituted 36.8% of the state's population. California_sentence_309

Californios are the Hispanic residents native to California, who make up the Spanish-speaking community that has existed in California since 1542, of varying Mexican American/Chicano, Criollo Spaniard, and Mestizo origin. California_sentence_310

As of 2011, 75.1% of California's population younger than age 1 were minorities, meaning they had at least one parent who was not non-Hispanic white (white Hispanics are counted as minorities). California_sentence_311

In terms of total numbers, California has the largest population of White Americans in the United States, an estimated 22,200,000 residents. California_sentence_312

The state has the 5th largest population of African Americans in the United States, an estimated 2,250,000 residents. California_sentence_313

California's Asian American population is estimated at 4.4 million, constituting a third of the nation's total. California_sentence_314

California's Native American population of 285,000 is the most of any state. California_sentence_315

According to estimates from 2011, California has the largest minority population in the United States by numbers, making up 60% of the state population. California_sentence_316

Over the past 25 years, the population of non-Hispanic whites has declined, while Hispanic and Asian populations have grown. California_sentence_317

Between 1970 and 2011, non-Hispanic whites declined from 80% of the state's population to 40%, while Hispanics grew from 32% in 2000 to 38% in 2011. California_sentence_318

It is currently projected that Hispanics will rise to 49% of the population by 2060, primarily due to domestic births rather than immigration. California_sentence_319

With the decline of immigration from Latin America, Asian Americans now constitute the fastest growing racial/ethnic group in California; this growth is primarily driven by immigration from China, India and the Philippines, respectively. California_sentence_320


California Racial Breakdown of PopulationCalifornia_table_caption_4
Racial compositionCalifornia_header_cell_4_0_0 1970California_header_cell_4_0_1 1990California_header_cell_4_0_2 2000California_header_cell_4_0_3 2010California_header_cell_4_0_4
WhiteCalifornia_cell_4_1_0 89.0%California_cell_4_1_1 69.0%California_cell_4_1_2 59.5%California_cell_4_1_3 57.6%California_cell_4_1_4
AsianCalifornia_cell_4_2_0 2.8%California_cell_4_2_1 9.6%California_cell_4_2_2 10.9%California_cell_4_2_3 13.0%California_cell_4_2_4
BlackCalifornia_cell_4_3_0 7.0%California_cell_4_3_1 7.4%California_cell_4_3_2 6.7%California_cell_4_3_3 6.2%California_cell_4_3_4
NativeCalifornia_cell_4_4_0 0.5%California_cell_4_4_1 0.8%California_cell_4_4_2 1.0%California_cell_4_4_3 1.0%California_cell_4_4_4
Native Hawaiian and

other Pacific IslanderCalifornia_cell_4_5_0

California_cell_4_5_1 California_cell_4_5_2 0.3%California_cell_4_5_3 0.4%California_cell_4_5_4
Some other raceCalifornia_cell_4_6_0 0.7%California_cell_4_6_1 13.2%California_cell_4_6_2 16.8%California_cell_4_6_3 17.0%California_cell_4_6_4
Two or more racesCalifornia_cell_4_7_0 California_cell_4_7_1 California_cell_4_7_2 4.8%California_cell_4_7_3 4.9%California_cell_4_7_4

Languages California_section_20


Non-English Languages Spoken in California by more than 100,000 personsCalifornia_table_caption_5
LanguageCalifornia_header_cell_5_0_0 Population

(as of 2016)California_header_cell_5_0_1

SpanishCalifornia_cell_5_1_0 10,672,610 speakersCalifornia_cell_5_1_1
ChineseCalifornia_cell_5_2_0 1,231,425California_cell_5_2_1
TagalogCalifornia_cell_5_3_0 796,451California_cell_5_3_1
VietnameseCalifornia_cell_5_4_0 559,932California_cell_5_4_1
KoreanCalifornia_cell_5_5_0 367,523California_cell_5_5_1
PersianCalifornia_cell_5_6_0 203,770California_cell_5_6_1
ArmenianCalifornia_cell_5_7_0 192,980California_cell_5_7_1
ArabicCalifornia_cell_5_8_0 191,954California_cell_5_8_1
HindiCalifornia_cell_5_9_0 189,646California_cell_5_9_1
RussianCalifornia_cell_5_10_0 155,746California_cell_5_10_1
PunjabiCalifornia_cell_5_11_0 140,128California_cell_5_11_1
JapaneseCalifornia_cell_5_12_0 139,430California_cell_5_12_1
FrenchCalifornia_cell_5_13_0 123,956California_cell_5_13_1

English serves as California's de jure and de facto official language. California_sentence_321

In 2010, the Modern Language Association of America estimated that 57.02% (19,429,309) of California residents age 5 and older spoke only English at home, while 42.98% spoke another language at home. California_sentence_322

According to the 2007 American Community Survey, 73% of people who speak a language other than English at home are able to speak English "well" or "very well," while 9.8% of them could not speak English at all. California_sentence_323

Like most U.S. California_sentence_324

states (32 out of 50), California law enshrines English as its official language, and has done so since the passage of Proposition 63 by California voters. California_sentence_325

Various government agencies do, and are often required to, furnish documents in the various languages needed to reach their intended audiences. California_sentence_326

In total, 16 languages other than English were spoken as primary languages at home by more than 100,000 persons, more than any other state in the nation. California_sentence_327

New York State, in second place, had nine languages other than English spoken by more than 100,000 persons. California_sentence_328

The most common language spoken besides English was Spanish, spoken by 28.46% (9,696,638) of the population. California_sentence_329

With Asia contributing most of California's new immigrants, California had the highest concentration nationwide of Vietnamese and Chinese speakers, the second highest concentration of Korean, and the third highest concentration of Tagalog speakers. California_sentence_330

California has historically been one of the most linguistically diverse areas in the world, with more than 70 indigenous languages derived from 64 root languages in six language families. California_sentence_331

A survey conducted between 2007 and 2009 identified 23 different indigenous languages among California farmworkers. California_sentence_332

All of California's indigenous languages are endangered, although there are now efforts toward language revitalization. California_sentence_333

As a result of the state's increasing diversity and migration from other areas across the country and around the globe, linguists began noticing a noteworthy set of emerging characteristics of spoken American English in California since the late 20th century. California_sentence_334

This variety, known as California English, has a vowel shift and several other phonological processes that are different from varieties of American English used in other regions of the United States. California_sentence_335

Culture California_section_21

Main article: Culture of California California_sentence_336

The culture of California is a Western culture and most clearly has its modern roots in the culture of the United States, but also, historically, many Hispanic Californio and Mexican influences. California_sentence_337

As a border and coastal state, Californian culture has been greatly influenced by several large immigrant populations, especially those from Latin America and Asia. California_sentence_338

California has long been a subject of interest in the public mind and has often been promoted by its boosters as a kind of paradise. California_sentence_339

In the early 20th century, fueled by the efforts of state and local boosters, many Americans saw the Golden State as an ideal resort destination, sunny and dry all year round with easy access to the ocean and mountains. California_sentence_340

In the 1960s, popular music groups such as The Beach Boys promoted the image of Californians as laid-back, tanned beach-goers. California_sentence_341

The California Gold Rush of the 1850s is still seen as a symbol of California's economic style, which tends to generate technology, social, entertainment, and economic fads and booms and related busts. California_sentence_342

Mass media and entertainment California_section_22

See also: Media in Los Angeles, Media in the San Francisco Bay Area, and Music in California California_sentence_343

Hollywood and the rest of the Los Angeles area is a major global center for entertainment, with the U.S. California_sentence_344

film industry's "Big Five" major film studios (Columbia, Disney, Paramount, Universal, and Warner Bros.) being based in or around the area. California_sentence_345

The four major American television broadcast networks (ABC, CBS, Fox and NBC) all have production facilities and offices in the state. California_sentence_346

All four, plus the two major Spanish-language networks (Telemundo and Univision) each have at least two owned-and-operated TV stations in California, one in Los Angeles and one in the San Francisco Bay Area. California_sentence_347

The San Francisco Bay Area is home to several prominent internet media and social media companies, including three of the "Big Five" technology companies (Apple, Facebook, and Google) as well as other services such as Netflix, Pandora Radio, Twitter, Yahoo! California_sentence_348

, and YouTube. California_sentence_349

One of the oldest radio stations in the United States still in existence, KCBS (AM) in the Bay Area, was founded in 1909. California_sentence_350

Universal Music Group, one of the "Big Four" record labels, is based in Santa Monica. California_sentence_351

California is also the birthplace of several international music genres, including the Bakersfield sound, Bay Area thrash metal, g-funk, nu metal, stoner rock, surf music, West Coast hip hop, and West Coast jazz. California_sentence_352

Religion California_section_23

Main article: Religion in California California_sentence_353

The largest religious denominations by number of adherents as a percentage of California's population in 2014 were the Catholic Church with 28 percent, Evangelical Protestants with 20 percent, and Mainline Protestants with 10 percent. California_sentence_354

Together, all kinds of Protestants accounted for 32 percent. California_sentence_355

Those unaffiliated with any religion represented 27 percent of the population. California_sentence_356

The breakdown of other religions is 1% Muslim, 2% Hindu and 2% Buddhist. California_sentence_357

This is a change from 2008, when the population identified their religion with the Catholic Church with 31 percent; Evangelical Protestants with 18 percent; and Mainline Protestants with 14 percent. California_sentence_358

In 2008, those unaffiliated with any religion represented 21 percent of the population. California_sentence_359

The breakdown of other religions in 2008 was 0.5% Muslim, 1% Hindu and 2% Buddhist. California_sentence_360

The American Jewish Year Book placed the total Jewish population of California at about 1,194,190 in 2006. California_sentence_361

According to the Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA) the largest denominations by adherents in 2010 were the Roman Catholic Church with 10,233,334; The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints with 763,818; and the Southern Baptist Convention with 489,953. California_sentence_362

The first priests to come to California were Roman Catholic missionaries from Spain. California_sentence_363

Roman Catholics founded 21 missions along the California coast, as well as the cities of Los Angeles and San Francisco. California_sentence_364

California continues to have a large Roman Catholic population due to the large numbers of Mexicans and Central Americans living within its borders. California_sentence_365

California has twelve dioceses and two archdioceses, the Archdiocese of Los Angeles and the Archdiocese of San Francisco, the former being the largest archdiocese in the United States. California_sentence_366

A Pew Research Center survey revealed that California is somewhat less religious than the rest of the states: 62 percent of Californians say they are "absolutely certain" of their belief in God, while in the nation 71 percent say so. California_sentence_367

The survey also revealed 48 percent of Californians say religion is "very important", compared to 56 percent nationally. California_sentence_368

Sports California_section_24

Main articles: Sports in California and List of professional sports teams in California California_sentence_369

California has nineteen major professional sports league franchises, far more than any other state. California_sentence_370

The San Francisco Bay Area has six major league teams spread in its three major cities: San Francisco, San Jose, and Oakland, while the Greater Los Angeles Area is home to ten major league franchises. California_sentence_371

San Diego and Sacramento each have one major league team. California_sentence_372

The NFL Super Bowl has been hosted in California 11 times at four different stadiums: Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, the Rose Bowl, Stanford Stadium, and San Diego's Qualcomm Stadium. California_sentence_373

A twelfth, Super Bowl 50, was held at Levi's Stadium in Santa Clara on February 7, 2016. California_sentence_374

California has long had many respected collegiate sports programs. California_sentence_375

California is home to the oldest college bowl game, the annual Rose Bowl, among others. California_sentence_376

California is the only U.S. state to have hosted both the Summer and Winter Olympics. California_sentence_377

The 1932 and 1984 summer games were held in Los Angeles. California_sentence_378

Squaw Valley Ski Resort in the Lake Tahoe region hosted the 1960 Winter Olympics. California_sentence_379

Los Angeles will host the 2028 Summer Olympics, marking the fourth time that California will have hosted the Olympic Games. California_sentence_380

Multiple games during the 1994 FIFA World Cup took place in California, with the Rose Bowl hosting eight matches (including the final), while Stanford Stadium hosted six matches. California_sentence_381


TeamCalifornia_header_cell_6_0_0 SportCalifornia_header_cell_6_0_1 LeagueCalifornia_header_cell_6_0_2
Los Angeles RamsCalifornia_cell_6_1_0 American footballCalifornia_cell_6_1_1 National Football League (NFL)California_cell_6_1_2
Los Angeles ChargersCalifornia_cell_6_2_0 American footballCalifornia_cell_6_2_1 National Football LeagueCalifornia_cell_6_2_2
San Francisco 49ersCalifornia_cell_6_3_0 American footballCalifornia_cell_6_3_1 National Football LeagueCalifornia_cell_6_3_2
Los Angeles DodgersCalifornia_cell_6_4_0 BaseballCalifornia_cell_6_4_1 Major League Baseball (MLB)California_cell_6_4_2
Los Angeles AngelsCalifornia_cell_6_5_0 BaseballCalifornia_cell_6_5_1 Major League BaseballCalifornia_cell_6_5_2
Oakland AthleticsCalifornia_cell_6_6_0 BaseballCalifornia_cell_6_6_1 Major League BaseballCalifornia_cell_6_6_2
San Diego PadresCalifornia_cell_6_7_0 BaseballCalifornia_cell_6_7_1 Major League BaseballCalifornia_cell_6_7_2
San Francisco GiantsCalifornia_cell_6_8_0 BaseballCalifornia_cell_6_8_1 Major League BaseballCalifornia_cell_6_8_2
Golden State WarriorsCalifornia_cell_6_9_0 BasketballCalifornia_cell_6_9_1 National Basketball Association (NBA)California_cell_6_9_2
Los Angeles ClippersCalifornia_cell_6_10_0 BasketballCalifornia_cell_6_10_1 National Basketball AssociationCalifornia_cell_6_10_2
Los Angeles LakersCalifornia_cell_6_11_0 BasketballCalifornia_cell_6_11_1 National Basketball AssociationCalifornia_cell_6_11_2
Sacramento KingsCalifornia_cell_6_12_0 BasketballCalifornia_cell_6_12_1 National Basketball AssociationCalifornia_cell_6_12_2
Los Angeles SparksCalifornia_cell_6_13_0 BasketballCalifornia_cell_6_13_1 Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA)California_cell_6_13_2
Anaheim DucksCalifornia_cell_6_14_0 Ice hockeyCalifornia_cell_6_14_1 National Hockey League (NHL)California_cell_6_14_2
Los Angeles KingsCalifornia_cell_6_15_0 Ice hockeyCalifornia_cell_6_15_1 National Hockey LeagueCalifornia_cell_6_15_2
San Jose SharksCalifornia_cell_6_16_0 Ice hockeyCalifornia_cell_6_16_1 National Hockey LeagueCalifornia_cell_6_16_2
Los Angeles GalaxyCalifornia_cell_6_17_0 SoccerCalifornia_cell_6_17_1 Major League Soccer (MLS)California_cell_6_17_2
San Jose EarthquakesCalifornia_cell_6_18_0 SoccerCalifornia_cell_6_18_1 Major League SoccerCalifornia_cell_6_18_2
Los Angeles Football ClubCalifornia_cell_6_19_0 SoccerCalifornia_cell_6_19_1 Major League SoccerCalifornia_cell_6_19_2

Education California_section_25

Main article: Education in California California_sentence_382

See also: List of colleges and universities in California California_sentence_383

Public secondary education consists of high schools that teach elective courses in trades, languages, and liberal arts with tracks for gifted, college-bound and industrial arts students. California_sentence_384

California's public educational system is supported by a unique constitutional amendment that requires a minimum annual funding level for grades K–12 and community colleges that grow with the economy and student enrollment figures. California_sentence_385

In 2016, California's K–12 public school per-pupil spending was ranked 22nd in the nation ($11,500 per student vs. $11,800 for the U.S. average). California_sentence_386

For 2012, California's K–12 public schools ranked 48th in the number of employees per student, at 0.102 (the U.S. average was 0.137), while paying the 7th most per employee, $49,000 (the U.S. average was $39,000). California_sentence_387

A 2007 study concluded that California's public school system was "broken" in that it suffered from over-regulation. California_sentence_388

California's public postsecondary education offers three separate systems: California_sentence_389


  • The research university system in the state is the University of California (UC), a public university system. As of fall 2011, the University of California had a combined student body of 234,464 students. There are ten general UC campuses, and a number of specialized campuses in the UC system, as the UC San Francisco, which is entirely dedicated to graduate education in health care, and is home to the UCSF Medical Center, the highest ranked hospital in California. The system was originally intended to accept the top one-eighth of California high school students, but several of the schools have become even more selective. The UC system was originally given exclusive authority in awarding PhDs, but this has since changed and the CSU is also able to award several Doctoral degrees.California_item_2_14
  • The California State University (CSU) system has almost 430,000 students. The CSU was originally intended to accept the top one-third of California high school students, but several of the schools have become much more selective. The CSU was originally set up to award only bachelor's and master's degrees, but has since been granted the authority to award several Doctoral degrees.California_item_2_15
  • The California Community Colleges System provides lower division coursework as well as basic skills and workforce training. It is the largest network of higher education in the U.S., composed of 112 colleges serving a student population of over 2.6 million.California_item_2_16

California is also home to such notable private universities as Stanford University, the University of Southern California, the California Institute of Technology, and the Claremont Colleges. California_sentence_390

California has hundreds of other private colleges and universities, including many religious and special-purpose institutions. California_sentence_391

Twinned regions California_section_26

California has twinning arrangements with the region of Catalonia in Spain and with the Province of Alberta in Canada. California_sentence_392

Economy California_section_27

Main article: Economy of California California_sentence_393

See also: California locations by per capita income California_sentence_394

California's economy ranks among the largest in the world. California_sentence_395

As of 2019, the gross state product (GSP) was $3.2 trillion ($80,600 per capita), the largest in the United States. California_sentence_396

California is responsible for one seventh of the nation's gross domestic product (GDP). California_sentence_397

As of 2018, California's nominal GDP is larger than all but four countries (the United States, China, Japan, and Germany). California_sentence_398

In terms of Purchasing Power Parity, it is larger than all but eight countries (the United States, China, India, Japan, Germany, Russia, Brazil and Indonesia). California_sentence_399

California's economy is larger than Africa and Australia and is almost as large as South America. California_sentence_400


  • Total Non farm Employment (2016): 14,600,349California_item_3_17
  • Total employer establishments (2016): 922,477California_item_3_18

The five largest sectors of employment in California are trade, transportation, and utilities; government; professional and business services; education and health services; and leisure and hospitality. California_sentence_401

In output, the five largest sectors are financial services, followed by trade, transportation, and utilities; education and health services; government; and manufacturing. California_sentence_402

As of May 2020, California has an unemployment rate of 16.3%. California_sentence_403

California's economy is dependent on trade and international related commerce accounts for about one-quarter of the state's economy. California_sentence_404

In 2008, California exported $144 billion worth of goods, up from $134 billion in 2007 and $127 billion in 2006. California_sentence_405

Computers and electronic products are California's top export, accounting for 42 percent of all the state's exports in 2008. California_sentence_406

Agriculture is an important sector in California's economy. California_sentence_407

Farming-related sales more than quadrupled over the past three decades, from $7.3 billion in 1974 to nearly $31 billion in 2004. California_sentence_408

This increase has occurred despite a 15 percent decline in acreage devoted to farming during the period, and water supply suffering from chronic instability. California_sentence_409

Factors contributing to the growth in sales-per-acre include more intensive use of active farmlands and technological improvements in crop production. California_sentence_410

In 2008, California's 81,500 farms and ranches generated $36.2 billion products revenue. California_sentence_411

In 2011, that number grew to $43.5 billion products revenue. California_sentence_412

The Agriculture sector accounts for two percent of the state's GDP and employs around three percent of its total workforce. California_sentence_413

According to the USDA in 2011, the three largest California agricultural products by value were milk and cream, shelled almonds, and grapes. California_sentence_414

Per capita GDP in 2007 was $38,956, ranking eleventh in the nation. California_sentence_415

Per capita income varies widely by geographic region and profession. California_sentence_416

The Central Valley is the most impoverished, with migrant farm workers making less than minimum wage. California_sentence_417

According to a 2005 report by the Congressional Research Service, the San Joaquin Valley was characterized as one of the most economically depressed regions in the United States, on par with the region of Appalachia. California_sentence_418

Using the supplemental poverty measure, California has a poverty rate of 23.5%, the highest of any state in the country. California_sentence_419

However, using the official measure the poverty rate was only 13.3% as of 2017. California_sentence_420

Many coastal cities include some of the wealthiest per-capita areas in the United States. California_sentence_421

The high-technology sectors in Northern California, specifically Silicon Valley, in Santa Clara and San Mateo counties, have emerged from the economic downturn caused by the dot-com bust. California_sentence_422

In 2019, there were 1,042,027 millionaire households in the state, more than any other state in the nation. California_sentence_423

In 2010, California residents were ranked first among the states with the best average credit score of 754. California_sentence_424


  • California_item_4_19
  • California_item_4_20

State finances California_section_28

Main articles: California state finances and 2008–12 California budget crisis California_sentence_425

State spending increased from $56 billion in 1998 to $127 billion in 2011. California_sentence_426

California, with 12% of the United States population, has one-third of the nation's welfare recipients. California_sentence_427

California has the third highest per capita spending on welfare among the states, as well as the highest spending on welfare at $6.67 billion. California_sentence_428

In January 2011, California's total debt was at least $265 billion. California_sentence_429

On June 27, 2013, Governor Jerry Brown signed a balanced budget (no deficit) for the state, its first in decades; however the state's debt remains at $132 billion. California_sentence_430

With the passage of Proposition 30 in 2012 and Proposition 55 in 2016, California now levies a 13.3% maximum marginal income tax rate with ten tax brackets, ranging from 1% at the bottom tax bracket of $0 annual individual income to 13.3% for annual individual income over $1,000,000 (though the top brackets are only temporary until Proposition 55 expires at the end of 2030). California_sentence_431

While Proposition 30 also enacted a minimum state sales tax of 7.5%, this sales tax increase was not extended by Proposition 55 and reverted to a previous minimum state sales tax rate of 7.25% in 2017. California_sentence_432

Local governments can and do levy additional sales taxes in addition to this minimum rate. California_sentence_433

All real property is taxable annually; the ad valorem tax is based on the property's fair market value at the time of purchase or the value of new construction. California_sentence_434

Property tax increases are capped at 2% annually or the rate of inflation (whichever is lower), per Proposition 13. California_sentence_435

Infrastructure California_section_29

Energy California_section_30

Main article: Energy use in California California_sentence_436

Because it is the most populous state in the United States, California is one of the country's largest users of energy. California_sentence_437

However because of its high energy rates, conservation mandates, mild weather in the largest population centers and strong environmental movement, its per capita energy use is one of the smallest of any state in the United States. California_sentence_438

Due to the high electricity demand, California imports more electricity than any other state, primarily hydroelectric power from states in the Pacific Northwest (via Path 15 and Path 66) and coal- and natural gas-fired production from the desert Southwest via Path 46. California_sentence_439

As a result of the state's strong environmental movement, California has some of the most aggressive renewable energy goals in the United States, with a target for California to obtain a third of its electricity from renewables by 2020. California_sentence_440

Currently, several solar power plants such as the Solar Energy Generating Systems facility are located in the Mojave Desert. California_sentence_441

California's wind farms include Altamont Pass, San Gorgonio Pass, and Tehachapi Pass. California_sentence_442

The Tehachapi area is also where the Tehachapi Energy Storage Project is located. California_sentence_443

Several dams across the state provide hydro-electric power. California_sentence_444

It would be possible to convert the total supply to 100% renewable energy, including heating, cooling and mobility, by 2050. California_sentence_445

The state's crude oil and natural gas deposits are located in the Central Valley and along the coast, including the large Midway-Sunset Oil Field. California_sentence_446

Natural gas-fired power plants typically account for more than one-half of state electricity generation. California_sentence_447

California is also home to two major nuclear power plants: Diablo Canyon and San Onofre, the latter having been shut down in 2013. California_sentence_448

More than 1,700 tons of radioactive waste are stored at San Onofre, which sits in an area where there is a record of past tsunamis. California_sentence_449

Voters banned the approval of new nuclear power plants since the late 1970s because of concerns over radioactive waste disposal. California_sentence_450

In addition, several cities such as Oakland, Berkeley and Davis have declared themselves as nuclear-free zones. California_sentence_451

Transportation California_section_31

Main article: Transportation in California California_sentence_452

California's vast terrain is connected by an extensive system of controlled-access highways ('freeways'), limited-access roads ('expressways'), and highways. California_sentence_453

California is known for its car culture, giving California's cities a reputation for severe traffic congestion. California_sentence_454

Construction and maintenance of state roads and statewide transportation planning are primarily the responsibility of the California Department of Transportation, nicknamed "Caltrans". California_sentence_455

The rapidly growing population of the state is straining all of its transportation networks, and California has some of the worst roads in the United States. California_sentence_456

The Reason Foundation's 19th Annual Report on the Performance of State Highway Systems ranked California's highways the third-worst of any state, with Alaska second, and Rhode Island first. California_sentence_457

The state has been a pioneer in road construction. California_sentence_458

One of the state's more visible landmarks, the Golden Gate Bridge, was the longest suspension bridge main span in the world at 4,200 feet (1,300 m) between 1937 (when it opened) and 1964. California_sentence_459

With its orange paint and panoramic views of the bay, this highway bridge is a popular tourist attraction and also accommodates pedestrians and bicyclists. California_sentence_460

The San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge (often abbreviated the "Bay Bridge"), completed in 1936, transports about 280,000 vehicles per day on two-decks. California_sentence_461

Its two sections meet at Yerba Buena Island through the world's largest diameter transportation bore tunnel, at 76 feet (23 m) wide by 58 feet (18 m) high. California_sentence_462

The Arroyo Seco Parkway, connecting Los Angeles and Pasadena, opened in 1940 as the first freeway in the Western United States. California_sentence_463

It was later extended south to the Four Level Interchange in downtown Los Angeles, regarded as the first stack interchange ever built. California_sentence_464

Los Angeles International Airport (LAX), the 4th busiest airport in the world in 2018, and San Francisco International Airport (SFO), the 25th busiest airport in the world in 2018, are major hubs for trans-Pacific and transcontinental traffic. California_sentence_465

There are about a dozen important commercial airports and many more general aviation airports throughout the state. California_sentence_466

California also has several important seaports. California_sentence_467

The giant seaport complex formed by the Port of Los Angeles and the Port of Long Beach in Southern California is the largest in the country and responsible for handling about a fourth of all container cargo traffic in the United States. California_sentence_468

The Port of Oakland, fourth largest in the nation, also handles trade entering from the Pacific Rim to the rest of the country. California_sentence_469

The Port of Stockton is the farthest inland port on the west coast of the United States. California_sentence_470

The California Highway Patrol is the largest statewide police agency in the United States in employment with more than 10,000 employees. California_sentence_471

They are responsible for providing any police-sanctioned service to anyone on California's state-maintained highways and on state property. California_sentence_472

The California Department of Motor Vehicles is by far the largest in North America. California_sentence_473

By the end of 2009, the California DMV had 26,555,006 driver's licenses and ID cards on file. California_sentence_474

In 2010, there were 1.17 million new vehicle registrations in force. California_sentence_475

Inter-city rail travel is provided by Amtrak California; the three routes, the Capitol Corridor, Pacific Surfliner, and San Joaquin, are funded by Caltrans. California_sentence_476

These services are the busiest intercity rail lines in the United States outside the Northeast Corridor and ridership is continuing to set records. California_sentence_477

The routes are becoming increasingly popular over flying, especially on the LAX-SFO route. California_sentence_478

Integrated subway and light rail networks are found in Los Angeles (Metro Rail) and San Francisco (MUNI Metro). California_sentence_479

Light rail systems are also found in San Jose (VTA), San Diego (San Diego Trolley), Sacramento (RT Light Rail), and Northern San Diego County (Sprinter). California_sentence_480

Furthermore, commuter rail networks serve the San Francisco Bay Area (ACE, BART, Caltrain, SMART), Greater Los Angeles (Metrolink), and San Diego County (Coaster). California_sentence_481

The California High-Speed Rail Authority was created in 1996 by the state to implement an extensive 800-mile (1,300 km) rail system. California_sentence_482

Construction was approved by the voters during the November 2008 general election, with the first phase of construction estimated to cost $64.2 billion. California_sentence_483

Nearly all counties operate bus lines, and many cities operate their own city bus lines as well. California_sentence_484

Intercity bus travel is provided by Greyhound, Megabus, and Amtrak Thruway Motorcoach. California_sentence_485

Water California_section_32

Main article: Water in California California_sentence_486

California's interconnected water system is the world's largest, managing over 40,000,000 acre feet (49 km) of water per year, centered on six main systems of aqueducts and infrastructure projects. California_sentence_487

Water use and conservation in California is a politically divisive issue, as the state experiences periodic droughts and has to balance the demands of its large agricultural and urban sectors, especially in the arid southern portion of the state. California_sentence_488

The state's widespread redistribution of water also invites the frequent scorn of environmentalists. California_sentence_489

The California Water Wars, a conflict between Los Angeles and the Owens Valley over water rights, is one of the most well-known examples of the struggle to secure adequate water supplies. California_sentence_490

Former California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger said: "We've been in crisis for quite some time because we're now 38 million people and not anymore 18 million people like we were in the late 60s. California_sentence_491

So it developed into a battle between environmentalists and farmers and between the south and the north and between rural and urban. California_sentence_492

And everyone has been fighting for the last four decades about water." California_sentence_493

Government and politics California_section_33

State government California_section_34

Main article: Government of California California_sentence_494

The capital of California is located within Sacramento. California_sentence_495

The state is organized into three branches of government—the executive branch consisting of the governor and the other independently elected constitutional officers; the legislative branch consisting of the Assembly and Senate; and the judicial branch consisting of the Supreme Court of California and lower courts. California_sentence_496

The state also allows ballot propositions: direct participation of the electorate by initiative, referendum, recall, and ratification. California_sentence_497

Before the passage of California Proposition 14 (2010), California allowed each political party to choose whether to have a closed primary or a primary where only party members and independents vote. California_sentence_498

After June 8, 2010, when Proposition 14 was approved, excepting only the United States president and county central committee offices, all candidates in the primary elections are listed on the ballot with their preferred party affiliation, but they are not the official nominee of that party. California_sentence_499

At the primary election, the two candidates with the top votes will advance to the general election regardless of party affiliation. California_sentence_500

If at a special primary election, one candidate receives more than 50% of all the votes cast, they are elected to fill the vacancy and no special general election will be held. California_sentence_501

Executive branch California_section_35

The California executive branch consists of the governor and seven other elected constitutional officers: lieutenant governor, attorney general, secretary of state, state controller, state treasurer, insurance commissioner, and state superintendent of public instruction. California_sentence_502

They serve four-year terms and may be re-elected only once. California_sentence_503

Legislative branch California_section_36

The California State Legislature consists of a 40-member Senate and 80-member Assembly. California_sentence_504

Senators serve four-year terms and Assembly members two. California_sentence_505

Members of the Assembly are subject to term limits of three terms, and members of the Senate are subject to term limits of two terms. California_sentence_506

Judicial branch California_section_37

California's legal system is explicitly based upon English common law (as is the case with all other states except Louisiana) but carries a few features from Spanish civil law, such as community property. California_sentence_507

California's prison population grew from 25,000 in 1980 to over 170,000 in 2007. California_sentence_508

Capital punishment is a legal form of punishment and the state has the largest "Death Row" population in the country (though Oklahoma and Texas are far more active in carrying out executions). California_sentence_509

California's judiciary system is the largest in the United States with a total of 1,600 judges (the federal system has only about 840). California_sentence_510

At the apex is the seven-member Supreme Court of California, while the California Courts of Appeal serve as the primary appellate courts and the California Superior Courts serve as the primary trial courts. California_sentence_511

Justices of the Supreme Court and Courts of Appeal are appointed by the governor, but are subject to retention by the electorate every 12 years. California_sentence_512

The administration of the state's court system is controlled by the Judicial Council, composed of the chief justice of the California Supreme Court, 14 judicial officers, four representatives from the State Bar of California, and one member from each house of the state legislature. California_sentence_513

Local government California_section_38

Main article: Local government in California California_sentence_514

Counties California_section_39

See also: List of counties in California California_sentence_515

California is divided into 58 counties. California_sentence_516

Per Article 11, Section 1, of the Constitution of California, they are the legal subdivisions of the state. California_sentence_517

The county government provides countywide services such as law enforcement, jails, elections and voter registration, vital records, property assessment and records, tax collection, public health, health care, social services, libraries, flood control, fire protection, animal control, agricultural regulations, building inspections, ambulance services, and education departments in charge of maintaining statewide standards. California_sentence_518

In addition, the county serves as the local government for all unincorporated areas. California_sentence_519

Each county is governed by an elected board of supervisors. California_sentence_520

City and town governments California_section_40

Incorporated cities and towns in California are either charter or general-law municipalities. California_sentence_521

General-law municipalities owe their existence to state law and are consequently governed by it; charter municipalities are governed by their own city or town charters. California_sentence_522

Municipalities incorporated in the 19th century tend to be charter municipalities. California_sentence_523

All ten of the state's most populous cities are charter cities. California_sentence_524

Most small cities have a council–manager form of government, where the elected city council appoints a city manager to supervise the operations of the city. California_sentence_525

Some larger cities have a directly-elected mayor who oversees the city government. California_sentence_526

In many council-manager cities, the city council selects one of its members as a mayor, sometimes rotating through the council membership—but this type of mayoral position is primarily ceremonial. California_sentence_527

The Government of San Francisco is the only consolidated city-county in California, where both the city and county governments have been merged into one unified jurisdiction. California_sentence_528

School districts and special districts California_section_41

See also: List of school districts in California California_sentence_529

About 1,102 school districts, independent of cities and counties, handle California's public education. California_sentence_530

California school districts may be organized as elementary districts, high school districts, unified school districts combining elementary and high school grades, or community college districts. California_sentence_531

There are about 3,400 special districts in California. California_sentence_532

A special district, defined by California Government Code § 16271(d) as "any agency of the state for the local performance of governmental or proprietary functions within limited boundaries", provides a limited range of services within a defined geographic area. California_sentence_533

The geographic area of a special district can spread across multiple cities or counties, or could consist of only a portion of one. California_sentence_534

Most of California's special districts are single-purpose districts, and provide one service. California_sentence_535

Federal representation California_section_42

See also: California's congressional districts California_sentence_536

The state of California sends 53 members to the House of Representatives, the nation's largest congressional state delegation. California_sentence_537

Consequently California also has the largest number of electoral votes in national presidential elections, with 55. California_sentence_538

The current speaker of the House of Representatives is the representative of California's 12th district, Nancy Pelosi; Kevin McCarthy, representing the state's 23rd district, is the House Minority Leader. California_sentence_539

California's U.S. California_sentence_540 senators are Dianne Feinstein, a native and former mayor of San Francisco, and Kamala Harris, a native, former district attorney from San Francisco and former attorney general of California. California_sentence_541

In the 1992 U.S. Senate election, California became the first state to elect a Senate delegation entirely composed of women, due to the victories of Feinstein and Barbara Boxer. California_sentence_542

Armed forces California_section_43

In California, as of 2009, the U.S. California_sentence_543 Department of Defense had a total of 117,806 active duty servicemembers of which 88,370 were Sailors or Marines, 18,339 were Airmen, and 11,097 were Soldiers, with 61,365 Department of Defense civilian employees. California_sentence_544

Additionally, there were a total of 57,792 Reservists and Guardsman in California. California_sentence_545

In 2010, Los Angeles County was the largest origin of military recruits in the United States by county, with 1,437 individuals enlisting in the military. California_sentence_546

However, as of 2002, Californians were relatively under-represented in the military as a proportion to its population. California_sentence_547

In 2000, California, had 2,569,340 veterans of United States military service: 504,010 served in World War II, 301,034 in the Korean War, 754,682 during the Vietnam War, and 278,003 during 1990–2000 (including the Persian Gulf War). California_sentence_548

As of 2010, there were 1,942,775 veterans living in California, of which 1,457,875 served during a period of armed conflict, and just over four thousand served before World War II (the largest population of this group of any state). California_sentence_549

California's military forces consist of the Army and Air National Guard, the naval and state military reserve (militia), and the California Cadet Corps. California_sentence_550

On August 5, 1950, a nuclear-capable United States Air Force Boeing B-29 Superfortress bomber carrying a nuclear bomb crashed shortly after takeoff from Fairfield-Suisun Air Force Base. California_sentence_551

Brigadier General Robert F. Travis, command pilot of the bomber, was among the dead. California_sentence_552

Ideology California_section_44

Main articles: Politics of California and Elections in California California_sentence_553


California registered voters as of January 2, 2018California_table_caption_7
PartyCalifornia_header_cell_7_0_0 Number of VotersCalifornia_header_cell_7_0_2 PercentageCalifornia_header_cell_7_0_3 Party registration by county

(October 2018):

  Democrat >=30%   Democrat >=40%   Democrat >=50%   Republican >=30%   Republican >=40%California_cell_7_0_4

California_cell_7_1_0 DemocraticCalifornia_cell_7_1_1 8,471,371California_cell_7_1_2 44.6%California_cell_7_1_3
California_cell_7_2_0 RepublicanCalifornia_cell_7_2_1 4,827,973California_cell_7_2_2 25.4%California_cell_7_2_3
California_cell_7_3_0 No Party PreferenceCalifornia_cell_7_3_1 4,734,847California_cell_7_3_2 25.0%California_cell_7_3_3
California_cell_7_4_0 American IndependentCalifornia_cell_7_4_1 503,955California_cell_7_4_2 2.7%California_cell_7_4_3
California_cell_7_5_0 LibertarianCalifornia_cell_7_5_1 140,001California_cell_7_5_2 0.7%California_cell_7_5_3
California_cell_7_6_0 GreenCalifornia_cell_7_6_1 91,631California_cell_7_6_2 0.5%California_cell_7_6_3
California_cell_7_7_0 Peace and FreedomCalifornia_cell_7_7_1 75,094California_cell_7_7_2 0.4%California_cell_7_7_3
OtherCalifornia_cell_7_8_0 115,205California_cell_7_8_2 0.6%California_cell_7_8_3
TotalCalifornia_header_cell_7_9_0 25,076,348California_header_cell_7_9_2 100%California_header_cell_7_9_3

California has an idiosyncratic political culture compared to the rest of the country, and is sometimes regarded as a trendsetter. California_sentence_554

In socio-cultural mores and national politics, Californians are perceived as more liberal than other Americans, especially those who live in the inland states. California_sentence_555

As of the 2016 presidential election, California was the second most Democratic state behind Hawaii. California_sentence_556

According to the Cook Political Report, California contains five of the 15 most Democratic congressional districts in the United States. California_sentence_557

Among the political idiosyncrasies and trendsetting, California was the second state to recall their state governor, the second state to legalize abortion, and the only state to ban marriage for gay couples twice by vote (including Proposition 8 in 2008). California_sentence_558

Voters also passed Proposition 71 in 2004 to fund stem cell research, and Proposition 14 in 2010 to completely change the state's primary election process. California_sentence_559

California has also experienced disputes over water rights; and a tax revolt, culminating with the passage of Proposition 13 in 1978, limiting state property taxes. California_sentence_560

The state's trend towards the Democratic Party and away from the Republican Party can be seen in state elections. California_sentence_561

From 1899 to 1939, California had Republican governors. California_sentence_562

Since 1990, California has generally elected Democratic candidates to federal, state and local offices, including current Governor Gavin Newsom; however, the state has elected Republican Governors, though many of its Republican Governors, such as Arnold Schwarzenegger, tend to be considered moderate Republicans and more centrist than the national party. California_sentence_563

Several political movements have advocated for Californian independence. California_sentence_564

The California National Party and the California Freedom Coalition both advocate for Californian independence along the lines of progressivism and civic nationalism. California_sentence_565

The Yes California movement attempted to organize an independence referendum via ballot initiative for 2019, which was then postponed. California_sentence_566

The Democrats also now hold a supermajority in both houses of the state legislature. California_sentence_567

There are 60 Democrats and 20 Republicans in the Assembly; and 29 Democrats and 11 Republicans in the Senate. California_sentence_568

The trend towards the Democratic Party is most obvious in presidential elections. California_sentence_569

From 1952 through 1988, California was a Republican leaning state, with the party carrying the state's electoral votes in nine of ten elections, with 1964 as the exception. California_sentence_570

Southern California Republicans Richard Nixon and Ronald Reagan were both elected twice as the 37th and 40th U.S. Presidents, respectively. California_sentence_571

However, Democrats have won all of California's electoral votes for the last seven elections, starting in 1992. California_sentence_572

In the United States House, the Democrats held a 34–19 edge in the CA delegation of the 110th United States Congress in 2007. California_sentence_573

As the result of gerrymandering, the districts in California were usually dominated by one or the other party, and few districts were considered competitive. California_sentence_574

In 2008, Californians passed Proposition 20 to empower a 14-member independent citizen commission to redraw districts for both local politicians and Congress. California_sentence_575

After the 2012 elections, when the new system took effect, Democrats gained four seats and held a 38–15 majority in the delegation. California_sentence_576

Following the 2018 midterm House elections, Democrats won 46 out of 53 congressional house seats in California, leaving Republicans with seven. California_sentence_577

In general, Democratic strength is centered in the populous coastal regions of the Los Angeles metropolitan area and the San Francisco Bay Area. California_sentence_578

Republican strength is still greatest in eastern parts of the state. California_sentence_579

Orange County had remained largely Republican until the 2016 and 2018 elections, in which a majority of the county's votes were cast for Democratic candidates. California_sentence_580

One study ranked Berkeley, Oakland, Inglewood and San Francisco in the top 20 most liberal American cities; and Bakersfield, Orange, Escondido, Garden Grove, and Simi Valley in the top 20 most conservative cities. California_sentence_581

In October 2012, out of the 23,802,577 people eligible to vote, 18,245,970 people were registered to vote. California_sentence_582

Of the people registered, the three largest registered groups were Democrats (7,966,422), Republicans (5,356,608), and Decline to State (3,820,545). California_sentence_583

Los Angeles County had the largest number of registered Democrats (2,430,612) and Republicans (1,037,031) of any county in the state. California_sentence_584

See also California_section_45


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