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"Caliph" redirects here. Caliphate_sentence_0

For other uses, see Caliph (disambiguation) and Caliphate (disambiguation). Caliphate_sentence_1

A caliphate (Arabic: خِلَافَة‎ khilāfah) is an Islamic state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (/ˈkælɪf, ˈkeɪ-/; Arabic: خَلِيفَة‎ can also be small groups within a country. Caliphate_sentence_2

khalīfah, pronunciation (help·)), a person considered a politico-religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire Muslim world (ummah). Caliphate_sentence_3

Historically, the caliphates were polities based on Islam which developed into multi-ethnic trans-national empires. Caliphate_sentence_4

During the medieval period, three major caliphates succeeded each other: the Rashidun Caliphate (632–661), the Umayyad Caliphate (661–750), and the Abbasid Caliphate (750–1258). Caliphate_sentence_5

In the fourth major caliphate, the Ottoman Caliphate, the rulers of the Ottoman Empire claimed caliphal authority from 1517. Caliphate_sentence_6

Throughout the history of Islam, a few other Muslim states, almost all hereditary monarchies such as the Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo) and Ayyubid Caliphate, have claimed to be caliphates. Caliphate_sentence_7

Prior to the rise of Muhammad, Arab tribes followed a pre-Islamic Arab polytheism and lived as self-governing sedentary and nomadic tribal communities. Caliphate_sentence_8

Following the early Muslim conquests by Muhammad, the region became politically unified under Islam. Caliphate_sentence_9

The first caliphate, the Rāshidun Caliphate, immediately succeeded Muhammad after his death in 632. Caliphate_sentence_10

The four Rāshidun caliphs were chosen through shura, a process of community consultation that some consider to be an early form of Islamic democracy. Caliphate_sentence_11

The fourth caliph, Ali, who, unlike the prior three, was from the same clan as Muhammad (Banu Hāshim), is considered by Shia Muslims to be the first rightful caliph and Imam after Muhammad. Caliphate_sentence_12

Ali reigned during the First Fitnā (656–661), a civil war between supporters of Ali and supporters of the assassinated previous caliph, Uthman, from Banu Umayya, as well as rebels in Egypt; the war led to the establishment of the Umayyad Caliphate under Muāwiyah I in 661. Caliphate_sentence_13

The second caliphate, the Umayyad Caliphate, was ruled by Banu Umayya, a Meccan clan descended from Umayya ibn Abd Shams. Caliphate_sentence_14

The caliphate continued the Arab conquests, incorporating the Caucasus, Transoxiana, Sindh, the Maghreb and the Iberian Peninsula (Al-Andalus) into the Muslim world. Caliphate_sentence_15

The caliphate had considerable acceptance of the Christians within its territory, necessitated by their large numbers, especially in the region of Syria. Caliphate_sentence_16

Following the Abbasid Revolution from 746 to 750, which primarily arose from non-Arab Muslim disenfranchisement, the Abbāsid Caliphate was established in 750. Caliphate_sentence_17

The third caliphate, the Abbāsid Caliphate was ruled by the Abbāsids, a dynasty of Meccan origin descended from Hāshim, a great-grandfather of Muhammad, via Abbās, an uncle of Muhammad. Caliphate_sentence_18

Caliph al-Mansur founded its second capital of Baghdād in 762, which became a major scientific, cultural and art centre, as did the territory as a whole, during the period known as the Islamic Golden Age. Caliphate_sentence_19

From the 10th century, Abbasid rule became confined to an area around Baghdad and saw several occupations from foreign powers. Caliphate_sentence_20

In 1258, the Mongol Empire sacked Baghdad, ending the Abbasid Caliphate, and in 1261 the Mamluks in Egypt re-established the Abbasid Caliphate in Cairo. Caliphate_sentence_21

Though lacking in political power, the Abbasid dynasty continued to claim authority in religious matters until the Ottoman conquest of Mamluk Egypt in 1517, which saw the establishment of the Ottoman Caliphate. Caliphate_sentence_22

The conquest gave the Ottomans control over the holy cities of Mecca and Medina, previously controlled by the Mamluks. Caliphate_sentence_23

The Ottomans gradually came to be viewed as the leaders and representatives of the Muslim world and the Gunpowder empires. Caliphate_sentence_24

Following their defeat in World War I, their empire was partitioned by the United Kingdom and the French Third Republic. Caliphate_sentence_25

The Turkish Republic was proclaimed on 29 October 1923, and as part of the reforms of its first president, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the Grand National Assembly of Turkey constitutionally abolished the institution of the caliphate on 3 March 1924. Caliphate_sentence_26

A few other states that existed through history have called themselves caliphates, including the Ayyubid Caliphate during the reign of Saladin (1174-1193), Isma'ili Fatimid Caliphate in Northeast Africa (909–1171), the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in Iberia (929–1031), the Berber Almohad Caliphate in Morocco (1121–1269), the Fula Sokoto Caliphate in present-day northern Nigeria (1804–1903), and the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant in the 2010s. Caliphate_sentence_27

The Sunni branch of Islam stipulates that, as a head of state, a caliph was a selected or elected position. Caliphate_sentence_28

Followers of Shia Islam, however, believe a caliph should be an Imam chosen by God from the Ahl al-Bayt (the "Family of the House", Muhammad's direct descendants). Caliphate_sentence_29

In the early 21st century, following the failure of the Arab Spring and the military defeat of the Islamic State, there has been seen "a broad mainstream embrace of a collective Muslim identity" by young Muslims, and the appeal of a caliphate as an "idealized future Muslim state" has grown stronger. Caliphate_sentence_30

Etymology Caliphate_section_0

Before the advent of Islam, Arabian monarchs traditionally used the title malik (King, ruler), or another from the same root. Caliphate_sentence_31

The term caliph (/ˈkeɪlɪf, ˈkælɪf/), derives from the Arabic word khalīfah (خَليفة, pronunciation (help·)), which means "successor", "steward", or "deputy" and has traditionally been considered a shortening of Khalīfat Rasūl Allāh ("successor of the messenger of God"). Caliphate_sentence_32

However, studies of pre-Islamic texts suggest that the original meaning of the phrase was "successor selected by God". Caliphate_sentence_33

History Caliphate_section_1

Rāshidun Caliphate (632–661) Caliphate_section_2

Succession to Muhammad Caliphate_section_3

Main article: Saqifah Caliphate_sentence_34

See also: Succession to Muhammad Caliphate_sentence_35

In the immediate aftermath of the death of Muhammad, a gathering of the Ansar (natives of Medina) took place in the Saqifah (courtyard) of the Banu Sa'ida clan. Caliphate_sentence_36

The general belief at the time was that the purpose of the meeting was for the Ansar to decide on a new leader of the Muslim community among themselves, with the intentional exclusion of the Muhajirun (migrants from Mecca), though this has later become the subject of debate. Caliphate_sentence_37

Nevertheless, Abu Bakr and Umar, both prominent companions of Muhammad, upon learning of the meeting became concerned of a potential coup and hastened to the gathering. Caliphate_sentence_38

Upon arriving, Abu Bakr addressed the assembled men with a warning that an attempt to elect a leader outside of Muhammad's own tribe, the Quraysh, would likely result in dissension as only they can command the necessary respect among the community. Caliphate_sentence_39

He then took Umar and another companion, Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah, by the hand and offered them to the Ansar as potential choices. Caliphate_sentence_40

He was countered with the suggestion that the Quraysh and the Ansar choose a leader each from among themselves, who would then rule jointly. Caliphate_sentence_41

The group grew heated upon hearing this proposal and began to argue amongst themselves. Caliphate_sentence_42

Umar hastily took Abu Bakr's hand and swore his own allegiance to the latter, an example followed by the gathered men. Caliphate_sentence_43

Abu Bakr was near-universally accepted as head of the Muslim community (under the title of Caliph) as a result of Saqifah, though he did face contention as a result of the rushed nature of the event. Caliphate_sentence_44

Several companions, most prominent among them being Ali ibn Abi Talib, initially refused to acknowledge his authority. Caliphate_sentence_45

Ali may have been reasonably expected to assume leadership, being both cousin and son-in-law to Muhammad. Caliphate_sentence_46

The theologian Ibrahim al-Nakhai stated that Ali also had support among the Ansar for his succession, explained by the genealogical links he shared with them. Caliphate_sentence_47

Whether his candidacy for the succession was raised during Saqifah is unknown, though it is not unlikely. Caliphate_sentence_48

Abu Bakr later sent Umar to confront Ali to gain his allegiance, resulting in an altercation which may have involved violence. Caliphate_sentence_49

However, after six months the group made peace with Abu Bakr and Ali offered him his fealty. Caliphate_sentence_50

Rāshidun Caliphs Caliphate_section_4

Main articles: Rashidun and Rashidun Caliphate Caliphate_sentence_51

See also: early Muslim conquests and Succession to Muhammad Caliphate_sentence_52

Abu Bakr nominated Umar as his successor on his deathbed. Caliphate_sentence_53

Umar, the second caliph, was killed by a Persian named Piruz Nahavandi. Caliphate_sentence_54

His successor, Uthman, was elected by a council of electors (majlis). Caliphate_sentence_55

Uthman was killed by members of a disaffected group. Caliphate_sentence_56

Ali then took control but was not universally accepted as caliph by the governors of Egypt and later by some of his own guard. Caliphate_sentence_57

He faced two major rebellions and was assassinated by Abd-al-Rahman ibn Muljam, a Khawarij. Caliphate_sentence_58

Ali's tumultuous rule lasted only five years. Caliphate_sentence_59

This period is known as the Fitna, or the first Islamic civil war. Caliphate_sentence_60

The followers of Ali later became the Shi'a ("shiaat Ali", partisans of Ali.) Caliphate_sentence_61

minority sect of Islam and reject the legitimacy of the first 3 caliphs. Caliphate_sentence_62

The followers of all four Rāshidun Caliphs (Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman and Ali) became the majority Sunni sect. Caliphate_sentence_63

Under the Rāshidun each region (Sultanate, Wilayah, or Emirate) of the Caliphate had its own governor (Sultan, Wāli or Emir). Caliphate_sentence_64

Muāwiyah, a relative of Uthman and governor (Wali) of Syria, succeeded Ali as Caliph. Caliphate_sentence_65

Muāwiyah transformed the caliphate into a hereditary office, thus founding the Umayyad dynasty. Caliphate_sentence_66

In areas which were previously under Sasanian Empire or Byzantine rule, the Caliphs lowered taxes, provided greater local autonomy (to their delegated governors), greater religious freedom for Jews, and some indigenous Christians, and brought peace to peoples demoralised and disaffected by the casualties and heavy taxation that resulted from the decades of Byzantine-Persian warfare. Caliphate_sentence_67

Ali's caliphate, Hasan and the rise of the Umayyad dynasty Caliphate_section_5

Ali's reign was plagued by turmoil and internal strife. Caliphate_sentence_68

The Persians, taking advantage of this, infiltrated the two armies and attacked the other army causing chaos and internal hatred between the companions at the Battle of Siffin. Caliphate_sentence_69

The battle lasted several months, resulting in a stalemate. Caliphate_sentence_70

In order to avoid further bloodshed, Ali agreed to negotiate with Mu'awiyah. Caliphate_sentence_71

This caused a faction of approximately 4,000 people, who would come to be known as the Kharijites, to abandon the fight. Caliphate_sentence_72

After defeating the Kharijites at the Battle of Nahrawan, Ali was later assassinated by the Kharijite Ibn Muljam. Caliphate_sentence_73

Ali's son Hasan was elected as the next caliph, but abdicated in favor of Mu'awiyah a few months later to avoid any conflict within the Muslims. Caliphate_sentence_74

Mu'awiyah became the sixth caliph, establishing the Umayyad Dynasty, named after the great-grandfather of Uthman and Mu'awiyah, Umayya ibn Abd Shams. Caliphate_sentence_75

Umayyad Caliphate (661–750) Caliphate_section_6

Main article: Umayyad Caliphate Caliphate_sentence_76

Beginning with the Umayyads, the title of the caliph became hereditary. Caliphate_sentence_77

Under the Umayyads, the Caliphate grew rapidly in territory, incorporating the Caucasus, Transoxiana, Sindh, the Maghreb and most of the Iberian Peninsula (Al-Andalus) into the Muslim world. Caliphate_sentence_78

At its greatest extent, the Umayyad Caliphate covered 5.17 million square miles (13,400,000 km), making it the largest empire the world had yet seen and the sixth-largest ever to exist in history. Caliphate_sentence_79

Geographically, the empire was divided into several provinces, the borders of which changed numerous times during the Umayyad reign. Caliphate_sentence_80

Each province had a governor appointed by the caliph. Caliphate_sentence_81

However, for a variety of reasons, including that they were not elected by Shura and suggestions of impious behaviour, the Umayyad dynasty was not universally supported within the Muslim community. Caliphate_sentence_82

Some supported prominent early Muslims like Al-Zubayr; others felt that only members of Muhammad's clan, the Banu Hashim, or his own lineage, the descendants of Ali, should rule. Caliphate_sentence_83

There were numerous rebellions against the Umayyads, as well as splits within the Umayyad ranks (notably, the rivalry between Yaman and Qays). Caliphate_sentence_84

At the command of Yazid son of Muawiya, an army led by Umar ibn Saad, a commander by the name of Shimr Ibn Thil-Jawshan killed Ali's son Hussein and his family at the Battle of Karbala in 680, solidifying the Shia-Sunni split. Caliphate_sentence_85

Eventually, supporters of the Banu Hashim and the supporters of the lineage of Ali united to bring down the Umayyads in 750. Caliphate_sentence_86

However, the Shi‘at ‘Alī, "the Party of Ali", were again disappointed when the Abbasid dynasty took power, as the Abbasids were descended from Muhammad's uncle, ‘Abbas ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib and not from Ali. Caliphate_sentence_87

Abbasid Caliphate (750–1258) Caliphate_section_7

Main article: Abbasid Caliphate Caliphate_sentence_88

Abbasid Caliphs at Baghdad Caliphate_section_8

In 750, the Umayyad dynasty was overthrown by another family of Meccan origin, the Abbasids. Caliphate_sentence_89

Their time represented a scientific, cultural and religious flowering. Caliphate_sentence_90

Islamic art and music also flourished significantly during their reign. Caliphate_sentence_91

Their major city and capital Baghdad began to flourish as a center of knowledge, culture and trade. Caliphate_sentence_92

This period of cultural fruition ended in 1258 with the sack of Baghdad by the Mongols under Hulagu Khan. Caliphate_sentence_93

The Abbasid Caliphate had however lost its effective power outside Iraq already by c. 920. Caliphate_sentence_94

By 945, the loss of power became official when the Buyids conquered Baghdad and all of Iraq. Caliphate_sentence_95

The empire fell apart and its parts were ruled for the next century by local dynasties. Caliphate_sentence_96

In the 9th century, the Abbasids created an army loyal only to their caliphate, composed predominantly of Turkic Cuman, Circassian and Georgian slave origin known as Mamluks. Caliphate_sentence_97

By 1250 the Mamluks came to power in Egypt. Caliphate_sentence_98

The Mamluk army, though often viewed negatively, both helped and hurt the caliphate. Caliphate_sentence_99

Early on, it provided the government with a stable force to address domestic and foreign problems. Caliphate_sentence_100

However, creation of this foreign army and al-Mu'tasim's transfer of the capital from Baghdad to Samarra created a division between the caliphate and the peoples they claimed to rule. Caliphate_sentence_101

In addition, the power of the Mamluks steadily grew until Ar-Radi (934–41) was constrained to hand over most of the royal functions to Muhammad ibn Ra'iq. Caliphate_sentence_102

Under the Mamluk Sultanate of Cairo (1261–1517) Caliphate_section_9

Main article: Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo) Caliphate_sentence_103

In 1261, following the Mongol conquest of Baghdad, the Mamluk rulers of Egypt tried to gain legitimacy for their rule by declaring the re-establishment of the Abbasid caliphate in Cairo. Caliphate_sentence_104

The Abbasid caliphs in Egypt had little political power; they continued to maintain the symbols of authority, but their sway was confined to religious matters. Caliphate_sentence_105

The first Abbasid caliph of Cairo was Al-Mustansir (r. June–November 1261). Caliphate_sentence_106

The Abbasid caliphate of Cairo lasted until the time of Al-Mutawakkil III, who ruled as caliph from 1508 to 1516, then he was deposed briefly in 1516 by his predecessor Al-Mustamsik, but was restored again to the caliphate in 1517. Caliphate_sentence_107

The Ottoman Great Sultan Selim I defeated the Mamluk Sultanate and made Egypt part of the Ottoman Empire in 1517. Caliphate_sentence_108

Al-Mutawakkil III was captured together with his family and transported to Constantinople as a prisoner where he had a ceremonial role. Caliphate_sentence_109

He died in 1543, following his return to Cairo. Caliphate_sentence_110

Fatimid Caliphate (909–1171) Caliphate_section_10

Main article: Fatimid Caliphate Caliphate_sentence_111

The Fatimid Caliphate was an Isma'ili Shi'i caliphate, originally based in Tunisia, that extended its rule across the Mediterranean coast of Africa and ultimately made Egypt the centre of its caliphate. Caliphate_sentence_112

At its height, in addition to Egypt, the caliphate included varying areas of the Maghreb, Sicily, the Levant and the Hejaz. Caliphate_sentence_113

The Fatimids established the Tunisian city of Mahdia and made it their capital city, before conquering Egypt and building the city of Cairo there in 969. Caliphate_sentence_114

Thereafter, Cairo became the capital of the caliphate, with Egypt becoming the political, cultural and religious centre of the state. Caliphate_sentence_115

Islam scholar Louis Massignon dubbed the 4th century AH /10th century CE as the "Ismaili century in the history of Islam". Caliphate_sentence_116

The term Fatimite is sometimes used to refer to the citizens of this caliphate. Caliphate_sentence_117

The ruling elite of the state belonged to the Ismaili branch of Shi'ism. Caliphate_sentence_118

The leaders of the dynasty were Ismaili Imams and had a religious significance to Ismaili Muslims. Caliphate_sentence_119

They are also part of the chain of holders of the office of the Caliphate, as recognised by some Muslims. Caliphate_sentence_120

Therefore, this constitutes a rare period in history in which the descendants of Ali (hence the name Fatimid, referring to Ali's wife Fatima) and the Caliphate were united to any degree, excepting the final period of the Rashidun Caliphate under Ali himself. Caliphate_sentence_121

The caliphate was reputed to exercise a degree of religious tolerance towards non-Ismaili sects of Islam as well as towards Jews, Maltese Christians and Copts. Caliphate_sentence_122

The Shiʻa Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi Billah of the Fatimid dynasty, who claimed descent from Muhammad through his daughter, claimed the title of Caliph in 909, creating a separate line of caliphs in North Africa. Caliphate_sentence_123

Initially controlling Algeria, Tunisia and Libya, the Fatimid caliphs extended their rule for the next 150 years, taking Egypt and Palestine, before the Abbasid dynasty was able to turn the tide, limiting Fatimid rule to Egypt. Caliphate_sentence_124

The Fatimid dynasty finally ended in 1171 and overtaken by Saladin of the Ayyubid dynasty. Caliphate_sentence_125

Parallel regional caliphates in the later Abbasid Era Caliphate_section_11

The Abbasid dynasty lost effective power over much of the Muslim realm by the first half of the tenth century Caliphate_sentence_126

The Umayyad dynasty, which had survived and come to rule over Al-Andalus, reclaimed the title of Caliph in 929, lasting until it was overthrown in 1031. Caliphate_sentence_127

Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba (929–1031) Caliphate_section_12

Main articles: Emirate of Córdoba, Caliphate of Córdoba, and Al-Andalus Caliphate_sentence_128

During the Umayyad dynasty, the Iberian Peninsula was an integral province of the Umayyad Caliphate ruling from Damascus. Caliphate_sentence_129

The Umayyads lost the position of Caliph in Damascus in 750, and Abd al-Rahman I became Emir of Córdoba in 756 after six years in exile. Caliphate_sentence_130

Intent on regaining power, he defeated the existing Islamic rulers of the area who defied Umayyad rule and united various local fiefdoms into an emirate. Caliphate_sentence_131

Rulers of the emirate used the title "emir" or "sultan" until the 10th century, when Abd al-Rahman III was faced with the threat of invasion by the Fatimid Caliphate. Caliphate_sentence_132

To aid his fight against the invading Fatimids, who claimed the caliphate in opposition to the generally recognised Abbasid Caliph of Baghdad, Al-Mu'tadid, Abd al-Rahman III claimed the title of caliph himself. Caliphate_sentence_133

This helped Abd al-Rahman III gain prestige with his subjects, and the title was retained after the Fatimids were repulsed. Caliphate_sentence_134

The rule of the Caliphate is considered as the heyday of Muslim presence in the Iberian peninsula, before it fragmented into various taifas in the 11th century. Caliphate_sentence_135

This period was characterised by a flourishing in technology, trade and culture; many of the buildings of al-Andalus were constructed in this period. Caliphate_sentence_136

Almohad Caliphate (1147–1269) Caliphate_section_13

Main article: Almohad Caliphate Caliphate_sentence_137

The Almohad Caliphate (Berber languages: Imweḥḥden, from Arabic الموحدون al-Muwaḥḥidun, "the Monotheists" or "the Unifiers") was a Moroccan Berber Muslim movement founded in the 12th century. Caliphate_sentence_138

The Almohad movement was started by Ibn Tumart among the Masmuda tribes of southern Morocco. Caliphate_sentence_139

The Almohads first established a Berber state in Tinmel in the Atlas Mountains in roughly 1120. Caliphate_sentence_140

The Almohads succeeded in overthrowing the Almoravid dynasty in governing Morocco by 1147, when Abd al-Mu'min (r. 1130–1163) conquered Marrakech and declared himself Caliph. Caliphate_sentence_141

They then extended their power over all of the Maghreb by 1159. Caliphate_sentence_142

Al-Andalus followed the fate of Africa and all Islamic Iberia was under Almohad rule by 1172. Caliphate_sentence_143

The Almohad dominance of Iberia continued until 1212, when Muhammad al-Nasir (1199–1214) was defeated at the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in the Sierra Morena by an alliance of the Christian princes of Castile, Aragon, Navarre and Portugal. Caliphate_sentence_144

Nearly all of the Moorish dominions in Iberia were lost soon after, with the great Moorish cities of Córdoba and Seville falling to the Christians in 1236 and 1248, respectively. Caliphate_sentence_145

The Almohads continued to rule in northern Africa until the piecemeal loss of territory through the revolt of tribes and districts enabled the rise of their most effective enemies, the Marinid dynasty, in 1215. Caliphate_sentence_146

The last representative of the line, Idris al-Wathiq, was reduced to the possession of Marrakesh, where he was murdered by a slave in 1269; the Marinids seized Marrakesh, ending the Almohad domination of the Western Maghreb. Caliphate_sentence_147

Ayyubid Caliphate (1171–1260) Caliphate_section_14

Main article: Ayyubid dynasty Caliphate_sentence_148

The Ayyubid Empire overtook the Fatimids by incorporating the empire into the Abbasid Caliphate. Caliphate_sentence_149

However, Saladin himself has been a widely celebrated Caliph in Islamic history. Caliphate_sentence_150

Indian subcontinent Caliphate_section_15

Main article: Islamic rulers in the Indian subcontinent Caliphate_sentence_151

After the Umayyad campaigns in India and the conquest on small territories of the western part of the Indian peninsula, early Indian Muslim dynasties founded by the Ghurid dynasty and the Ghaznavids, most notably the Delhi Sultanate. Caliphate_sentence_152

The Indian sultanates did not extensively strive for a caliphate since the Ottoman Empire was already observing the caliphate. Caliphate_sentence_153

Although the Mughal Empire is not recognised as a caliphate, its sixth emperor Muhammad Alamgir Aurangzeb has often been regarded as one of the few Islamic caliphs to have ruled the Indian peninsula. Caliphate_sentence_154

He received support from Ottoman Sultans such as Suleiman II and Mehmed IV. Caliphate_sentence_155

As a memorizer of Quran, Aurangzeb fully established sharia in South Asia via his Fatawa 'Alamgiri. Caliphate_sentence_156

He re-introduced jizya and banned Islamically unlawful activities. Caliphate_sentence_157

However, Aurangzeb's personal expenses were covered by his own incomes, which included the sewing of caps and trade of his written copies of the Quran. Caliphate_sentence_158

Thus he has been compared to the 2nd Caliph Umar bin Khattab and Kurdish conqueror Saladin. Caliphate_sentence_159

Other notable rulers such as Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khalji, Alauddin Khilji, Firuz Shah Tughlaq, Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah, Babur, Sher Shah Suri, Tipu Sultan, and the Nawabs of Bengal were popularly given the term Khalifa. Caliphate_sentence_160

Ottoman Caliphate (1517–1924) Caliphate_section_16

Main articles: Ottoman Empire and Ottoman Caliphate Caliphate_sentence_161

The caliphate was claimed by the sultans of the Ottoman Empire beginning with Murad I (reigned 1362 to 1389), while recognising no authority on the part of the Abbasid caliphs of the Mamluk-ruled Cairo. Caliphate_sentence_162

Hence the seat of the caliphate moved to the Ottoman capital of Edirne. Caliphate_sentence_163

In 1453, after Mehmed the Conqueror's conquest of Constantinople, the seat of the Ottomans moved to Constantinople, present-day Istanbul. Caliphate_sentence_164

In 1517, the Ottoman sultan Selim I defeated and annexed the Mamluk Sultanate of Cairo into his empire. Caliphate_sentence_165

Through conquering and unifying Muslim lands, Selim I became the defender of the Holy Cities of Mecca and Medina, which further strengthened the Ottoman claim to the caliphate in the Muslim world. Caliphate_sentence_166

Ottomans gradually came to be viewed as the de facto leaders and representatives of the Islamic world. Caliphate_sentence_167

However, the earlier Ottoman caliphs did not officially bear the title of caliph in their documents of state, inscriptions, or coinage. Caliphate_sentence_168

It was only in the late eighteenth century that the claim to the caliphate was discovered by the sultans to have a practical use, since it allowed them to counter Russian claims to protect Ottoman Christians with their own claim to protect Muslims under Russian rule. Caliphate_sentence_169

According to Barthold, the first time the title of "caliph" was used as a political instead of symbolic religious title by the Ottomans was the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca with the Russian Empire in 1774, when the Empire retained moral authority on territory whose sovereignty was ceded to the Russian Empire. Caliphate_sentence_170

The British supported and propagated the view that the Ottomans were Caliphs of Islam among Muslims in British India and the Ottoman Sultans helped the British by issuing pronouncements to the Muslims of India telling them to support British rule from Sultan Ali III and Sultan Abdülmecid I. Caliphate_sentence_171

The outcome of the Russo-Turkish War of 1768–74 was disastrous for the Ottomans. Caliphate_sentence_172

Large territories, including those with large Muslim populations, such as Crimea, were lost to the Russian Empire. Caliphate_sentence_173

However, the Ottomans under Abdul Hamid I claimed a diplomatic victory by being allowed to remain the religious leaders of Muslims in the now-independent Crimea as part of the peace treaty; in return Russia became the official protector of Christians in Ottoman territory. Caliphate_sentence_174

Around 1880 Sultan Abdul Hamid II reasserted the title as a way of countering Russian expansion into Muslim lands. Caliphate_sentence_175

His claim was most fervently accepted by the Muslims of British India. Caliphate_sentence_176

By the eve of World War I, the Ottoman state, despite its weakness relative to Europe, represented the largest and most powerful independent Islamic political entity. Caliphate_sentence_177

The sultan also enjoyed some authority beyond the borders of his shrinking empire as caliph of Muslims in Egypt, India and Central Asia. Caliphate_sentence_178

In 1899 John Hay, U.S. Secretary of State, asked the American ambassador to Ottoman Turkey, Oscar Straus, to approach Sultan Abdul Hamid II to use his position as caliph to order the Tausūg people of the Sultanate of Sulu in the Philippines to submit to American suzerainty and American military rule; the Sultan obliged them and wrote the letter which was sent to Sulu via Mecca. Caliphate_sentence_179

As a result, the "Sulu Mohammedans ... refused to join the insurrectionists and had placed themselves under the control of our army, thereby recognizing American sovereignty." Caliphate_sentence_180

Abolition of the Caliphate (1924) Caliphate_section_17

Main article: Abolition of the Caliphate Caliphate_sentence_181

See also: Atatürk's Reforms Caliphate_sentence_182

Bornu Caliphate (1472-1893) Caliphate_section_18

The Bornu Caliphate, which was headed by the Bornu Emperors, began in 1472. Caliphate_sentence_183

A rump state of the larger Kanem-Bornu Empire, its rulers held the title of Caliph until 1893, when it was absorbed into the British Colony of Nigeria and Northern Cameroones Protectorate. Caliphate_sentence_184

The British recognized them as the 'Sultans of Bornu,' one step down in Muslim royal titles. Caliphate_sentence_185

After Nigeria became independent, its rulers became the 'Emirs of Bornu,' another step down. Caliphate_sentence_186

Yogyakarta Caliphate (1755-2015) Caliphate_section_19

The Indonesian Sultan of Yogyakarta historically used Khalifatullah (Caliph of God) as one of his many titles. Caliphate_sentence_187

In 2015 sultan Hamengkubuwono X renounced any claim to the Caliphate in order to facilitate his daughter's inheritance of the throne, as the theological opinion of the time was that a woman may hold the secular office of sultan but not the spiritual office of caliph. Caliphate_sentence_188

Sokoto Caliphate (1804–1903) Caliphate_section_20

Main article: Sokoto Caliphate Caliphate_sentence_189

The Sokoto Caliphate was an Islamic state in what is now Nigeria led by Usman dan Fodio. Caliphate_sentence_190

Founded during the Fulani War in the early 19th century, it controlled one of the most powerful empires in sub-Saharan Africa prior to European conquest and colonisation. Caliphate_sentence_191

The caliphate remained extant through the colonial period and afterwards, though with reduced power. Caliphate_sentence_192

The current head of the Sokoto Caliphate is Sa'adu Abubakar. Caliphate_sentence_193

Toucouleur Empire (1848-1893) Caliphate_section_21

The Toucouleur Empire, also known as the Tukular Empire, was one of the Fulani jihad states in sub-saharan Africa. Caliphate_sentence_194

It was eventually pacified and annexed by the French Republic, being incorporated into French West Africa. Caliphate_sentence_195

Khilafat Movement (1919–24) Caliphate_section_22

Main article: Khilafat Movement Caliphate_sentence_196

See also: Partitioning of the Ottoman Empire Caliphate_sentence_197

The Khilafat Movement was launched by Muslims in British India in 1920 to defend the Ottoman Caliphate at the end of the First World War and it spread throughout the British colonial territories. Caliphate_sentence_198

It was strong in British India where it formed a rallying point for some Indian Muslims as one of many anti-British Indian political movements. Caliphate_sentence_199

Its leaders included Mohammad Ali Jouhar, his brother Shawkat Ali and Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, Dr. Caliphate_sentence_200 Mukhtar Ahmed Ansari, Hakim Ajmal Khan and Barrister Muhammad Jan Abbasi. Caliphate_sentence_201

For a time it was supported by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, who was a member of the Central Khilafat Committee. Caliphate_sentence_202

However, the movement lost its momentum after the abolition of the Caliphate in 1924. Caliphate_sentence_203

After further arrests and flight of its leaders, and a series of offshoots splintered off from the main organisation, the Movement eventually died down and disbanded. Caliphate_sentence_204

Sharifian Caliphate (1924–25) Caliphate_section_23

Main article: Sharifian Caliphate Caliphate_sentence_205

The Sharifian Caliphate (Arabic: خلافة شريفية‎) was an Arab caliphate proclaimed by the Sharifian rulers of Hejaz in 1924 previously known as Vilayet Hejaz, declaring independence from the Ottoman Caliphate. Caliphate_sentence_206

The idea of the Sharifian Caliphate had been floating around since at least the 15th century. Caliphate_sentence_207

Toward the end of the 19th century, it started to gain importance due to the decline of the Ottoman Empire, which was heavily defeated in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78. Caliphate_sentence_208

There is little evidence, however, that the idea of a Sharifian Caliphate ever gained wide grassroots support in the Middle East or anywhere else for that matter. Caliphate_sentence_209

Non-political caliphates Caliphate_section_24

Though non-political, some Sufi orders and the Ahmadiyya movement define themselves as caliphates. Caliphate_sentence_210

Their leaders are thus commonly referred to as khalifas (caliphs). Caliphate_sentence_211

Sufi caliphates Caliphate_section_25

In Sufism, tariqas (orders) are led by spiritual leaders (khilafah ruhaniyyah), the main khalifas, who nominate local khalifas to organize zaouias. Caliphate_sentence_212

Sufi caliphates are not necessarily hereditary. Caliphate_sentence_213

Khalifas are aimed to serve the silsilah in relation to spiritual responsibilities and to propagate the teachings of the tariqa. Caliphate_sentence_214

Ahmadiyya Caliphate (1908–present) Caliphate_section_26

Main article: Ahmadiyya Caliphate Caliphate_sentence_215

The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community is a self-proclaimed Islamic revivalist movement founded in 1889 by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian, India, who claimed to be the promised Messiah and Mahdi, awaited by Muslims. Caliphate_sentence_216

He also claimed to be a follower-prophet subordinate to Muhammad, the prophet of Islam. Caliphate_sentence_217

The group are traditionally shunned by the majority of Muslims. Caliphate_sentence_218

After Ahmad's death in 1908, his first successor, Hakeem Noor-ud-Din, became the caliph of the community and assumed the title of Khalifatul Masih (Successor or Caliph of the Messiah). Caliphate_sentence_219

After Hakeem Noor-ud-Din, the first caliph, the title of the Ahmadiyya caliph continued under Mirza Mahmud Ahmad, who led the community for over 50 years. Caliphate_sentence_220

Following him were Mirza Nasir Ahmad and then Mirza Tahir Ahmad who were the third and fourth caliphs respectively. Caliphate_sentence_221

The current caliph is Mirza Masroor Ahmad, who lives in London. Caliphate_sentence_222

Religious basis Caliphate_section_27

Further information: Political aspects of Islam and Divisions of the world in Islam Caliphate_sentence_223

Qur'an Caliphate_section_28

The Quran uses the term khalifa twice. Caliphate_sentence_224

First, in al-Baqara, 30, it refers to God creating humanity as his khalifa on Earth. Caliphate_sentence_225

Second, in Sad, 26, it addresses King David as God's khalifa and reminds him of his obligation to rule with justice. Caliphate_sentence_226

In addition, the following excerpt from the Quran, known as the 'Istikhlaf Verse', is used by some to argue for a Quranic basis for Caliphate: Caliphate_sentence_227

In the above verse, the word Khulifa (the plural of Khalifa) has been variously translated as "successors" and "ones who accede to power". Caliphate_sentence_228

Several schools of jurisprudence and thought within Sunni Islam argue that to govern a state by Sharia is, by definition, to rule via the Caliphate and use the following verses to sustain their claim. Caliphate_sentence_229

Hadith Caliphate_section_29

The following hadith from Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal can be understood to prophesy two eras of Caliphate (both on the lines/precepts of prophethood). Caliphate_sentence_230

In the above, the first era of Caliphate is commonly accepted by Muslims to be that of the Rashidun Caliphate. Caliphate_sentence_231

Nafi'a reported saying: Caliphate_sentence_232

Hisham ibn Urwah reported on the authority of Abu Saleh on the authority of Abu Hurairah that Muhammad said: Caliphate_sentence_233

Muslim narrated on the authority of al-A'araj, on the authority of Abu Hurairah, that Muhammad said: Caliphate_sentence_234

Muslim reported on the authority of Abdel Aziz al-Muqrin, who said: Caliphate_sentence_235

Prophesied Caliphate of the Mahdi Caliphate_section_30

See also: Islamic eschatology § Major figures, Mahdi, and Second Coming § Islam Caliphate_sentence_236

Many Islamic texts, including several ahadith, state that the Mahdi will be elected caliph and rule over a caliphate. Caliphate_sentence_237

A number of Islamic figures titled themselves both "caliph" and "al-Mahdi", including the first Abbasid caliph As-Saffah. Caliphate_sentence_238

The Sahaba of Muhammad Caliphate_section_31

Al-Habbab Ibn ul-Munthir said, when the Sahaba met in the wake of the death of Muhammad, (at the thaqifa hall) of Bani Sa’ida: Caliphate_sentence_239

Upon this Abu Bakr replied: Caliphate_sentence_240

Then he got up and addressed the Muslims. Caliphate_sentence_241

It has additionally been reported that Abu Bakr went on to say on the day of Al-Saqifa: Caliphate_sentence_242

The Sahaba agreed to this and selected Abu Bakr as their first Khaleef. Caliphate_sentence_243

Habbab ibn Mundhir who suggested the idea of two Ameers corrected himself and was the first to give Abu Bakr the Bay'ah. Caliphate_sentence_244

This indicates an Ijma as-Sahaba of all of the Sahaba. Caliphate_sentence_245

Ali ibni abi Talib, who was attending the body of Muhammad at the time, also consented to this. Caliphate_sentence_246

Imam Ali whom the Shia revere said: Caliphate_sentence_247

Views of Islamic theologians Caliphate_section_32

Scholars like Al-Mawardi, Ibn Hazm, Ahmad al-Qalqashandi, and Al-Sha`rani stated that the global Muslim community can have only one leader at any given time. Caliphate_sentence_248

Al-Nawawi and Abd al-Jabbar ibn Ahmad declared it impermissible to give oaths of loyalty to more than one leader. Caliphate_sentence_249

Al-Joziri said: Caliphate_sentence_250

Shia scholars have expressed similar opinions. Caliphate_sentence_251

However, the Shia school of thought states that the leader must not be appointed by the Islamic ummah, but must be appointed by God. Caliphate_sentence_252

Al-Qurtubi said that the caliph is the "pillar upon which other pillars rest", and said of the Quranic verse, "Indeed, man is made upon this earth a Caliph": Caliphate_sentence_253

An-Nawawi said: Caliphate_sentence_254

Al-Ghazali when writing of the potential consequences of losing the Caliphate said: Caliphate_sentence_255

Ibn Taymiyyah said: Caliphate_sentence_256

Period of dormancy Caliphate_section_33

Main article: Pan-Islamism Caliphate_sentence_257

Further information: Islamism and Islamic revival Caliphate_sentence_258

Once the subject of intense conflict and rivalry amongst Muslim rulers, the caliphate lay dormant and largely unclaimed since the 1920s. Caliphate_sentence_259

For the vast majority of Muslims the caliph, as leader of the ummah, "is cherished both as memory and ideal" as a time when Muslims "enjoyed scientific and military superiority globally". Caliphate_sentence_260

The Islamic prophet Muhammad is reported to have prophesied: Caliphate_sentence_261

"Kalifatstaat": Federated Islamic State of Anatolia (1994–2001) Caliphate_section_34

The ("Caliphate State") was the name of an Islamist organization in Germany that was proclaimed at an event in Cologne in 1994 and banned in December 2001 after an amendment to the Association Act, which abolished the religious privilege. Caliphate_sentence_262

However, this caliphate was never institutionalized under international law, but only an intention for an Islamic "state within the state". Caliphate_sentence_263

The caliphate emerged in 1994 from the "Federated Islamic State of Anatolia" (Turkish: Anadolu Federe İslam Devleti, AFİD), which existed in Germany from 1992 to 1994 as the renaming of the Association of Islamic Associations and Municipalities (İCCB). Caliphate_sentence_264

In 1984 the latter split off from the Islamist organization Millî Görüş. Caliphate_sentence_265

The leader of the association proclaimed himself the caliph, the worldwide spiritual and worldly head of all Muslims. Caliphate_sentence_266

Since then, the organization has seen itself as a "Caliphate State" (Turkish: Hilafet Devleti). Caliphate_sentence_267

From an association law perspective, the old name remained. Caliphate_sentence_268

The leader was initially , who was nicknamed "Khomeini of Cologne" by the German public. Caliphate_sentence_269

In Turkish media he was referred to as the "Dark Voice" (Turkish: Kara Ses). Caliphate_sentence_270

At an event in honor of Kaplan in 1993, the German convert to Islam publicly "regretted" in front of hundreds of listeners that the Germans had not completely destroyed the Jews: "Like the Turks, we Germans have often had a good cause in history fought, although I have to admit that my grandfathers weren't thorough with our main enemy." Caliphate_sentence_271

Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (2014–present) Caliphate_section_35

Main article: Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant Caliphate_sentence_272

The group Tanzim Qaidat al-Jihad fi Bilad al-Rafidayn (Al-Qaeda in Iraq) formed as an affiliate of Al-Qaeda network of Islamist militants during the Iraq War. Caliphate_sentence_273

The group eventually expanded into Syria and rose to prominence as the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) during the Syrian Civil War. Caliphate_sentence_274

In the summer of 2014, the group launched the Northern Iraq offensive, seizing the city of Mosul. Caliphate_sentence_275

The group declared itself a caliphate under Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi on 29 June 2014 and renamed itself as the "Islamic State". Caliphate_sentence_276

ISIL's claim to be the highest authority of Muslims has been widely rejected. Caliphate_sentence_277

No prominent Muslim scholar has supported its declaration of caliphate; even Salafi-jihadist preachers accused the group of engaging in political showmanship and bringing disrepute to the notion of Islamic state. Caliphate_sentence_278

ISIL has been at war with armed forces including the Iraqi Army, the Syrian Army, the Free Syrian Army, Al-Nusra Front, Syrian Democratic Forces, and Iraqi Kurdistan's Peshmerga and People's Protection Units (YPG) along with a 60 nation coalition in its efforts to establish a de facto state on Iraqi and Syrian territory. Caliphate_sentence_279

Ahmadiyya view Caliphate_section_36

Further information: Khalifatul Masih Caliphate_sentence_280

The members of the Ahmadiyya community believe that the Ahmadiyya Caliphate (Arabic: Khilāfah) is the continuation of the Islamic caliphate, first being the Rāshidūn (rightly guided) Caliphate (of Righteous Caliphs). Caliphate_sentence_281

This is believed to have been suspended with Ali, the son-in-law of Muhammad and re-established with the appearance of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (1835–1908, the founder of the movement) whom Ahmadis identify as the Promised Messiah and Mahdi. Caliphate_sentence_282

Ahmadis maintain that in accordance with Quranic verses (such as ) and numerous ahadith on the issue, Khilāfah can only be established by God Himself and is a divine blessing given to those who believe and work righteousness and uphold the unity of God, therefore any movement to establish the Khilāfah centered on human endeavours alone is bound to fail, particularly when the condition of the people diverges from the ‘precepts of prophethood’ and they are as a result disunited, their inability to establish a Khilāfah caused fundamentally by the lack of righteousness in them. Caliphate_sentence_283

Although the khalifa is elected it is believed that God himself directs the hearts of believers towards an individual. Caliphate_sentence_284

Thus the khalifa is designated neither necessarily by right (i.e. the rightful or competent one in the eyes of the people at that time) nor merely by election but primarily by God. Caliphate_sentence_285

According to Ahmadiyya thought, a khalifa need not be the head of a state; rather the Ahmadiyya community emphasises the spiritual and organisational significance of the Khilāfah. Caliphate_sentence_286

It is primarily a religious/spiritual office, with the purpose of upholding, strengthening and spreading Islam and of maintaining the high spiritual and moral standards within the global community established by Muhammad – who was not merely a political leader but primarily a religious leader. Caliphate_sentence_287

If a khalifa does happen to bear governmental authority as a head of state, it is incidental and subsidiary in relation to his overall function as khalifa which is applicable to believers transnationally and not limited to one particular state. Caliphate_sentence_288

Ahmadi Muslims believe that God has assured them that this Caliphate will endure to the end of time, depending on their righteousness and faith in God. Caliphate_sentence_289

The Khalifa provides unity, security, moral direction and progress for the community. Caliphate_sentence_290

It is required that the Khalifa carry out his duties through consultation and taking into consideration the views of the members of the Shura (consultative body). Caliphate_sentence_291

However, it is not incumbent upon him to always accept the views and recommendations of the members. Caliphate_sentence_292

The Khalifatul Masih has overall authority for all religious and organisational matters and is bound to decide and act in accordance with the Qur'an and sunnah. Caliphate_sentence_293

Islamic call Caliphate_section_37

A number of Islamist political parties and mujahideen called for the restoration of the caliphate by uniting Muslim nations, either through political action (e.g., Hizb ut-Tahrir), or through force (e.g., al-Qaeda). Caliphate_sentence_294

Various Islamist movements gained momentum in recent years with the ultimate aim of establishing a Caliphate. Caliphate_sentence_295

In 2014, ISIL/ISIS made a claim to re-establishing the Caliphate. Caliphate_sentence_296

Those advocating the re-establishment of a Caliphate differed in their methodology and approach. Caliphate_sentence_297

Some were locally oriented, mainstream political parties that had no apparent transnational objectives. Caliphate_sentence_298

Abul A'la Maududi believed the caliph was not just an individual ruler who had to be restored, but was man's representation of God's authority on Earth: Caliphate_sentence_299

The Muslim Brotherhood advocates pan-Islamic unity and the implementation of Islamic law. Caliphate_sentence_300

Founder Hassan al-Banna wrote about the restoration of the Caliphate. Caliphate_sentence_301

One transnational group whose ideology was based specifically on restoring the caliphate as a pan-Islamic state is Hizb ut-Tahrir (literally, "Party of Liberation"). Caliphate_sentence_302

It is particularly strong in Central Asia and Europe and is growing in strength in the Arab world. Caliphate_sentence_303

It is based on the claim that Muslims can prove that God exists and that the Qur'an is the word of God. Caliphate_sentence_304

Hizb ut-Tahrir's stated strategy is a non-violent political and intellectual struggle. Caliphate_sentence_305

In Southeast Asia, groups such as Jemaah Islamiyah aimed to establish a Caliphate across Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei and parts of Thailand, the Philippines and Cambodia. Caliphate_sentence_306

Al-Qaeda's Caliphate goals Caliphate_section_38

Main article: al-Qaeda Caliphate_sentence_307

Al-Qaeda has as one of its clearly stated goals the re-establishment of a caliphate. Caliphate_sentence_308

Its former leader, Osama bin Laden, called for Muslims to "establish the righteous caliphate of our umma". Caliphate_sentence_309

Al-Qaeda chiefs released a statement in 2005, under which, in what they call "phase five" there will be "an Islamic state, or caliphate". Caliphate_sentence_310

Al-Qaeda has named its Internet newscast from Iraq "The Voice of the Caliphate". Caliphate_sentence_311

According to author and Egyptian native Lawrence Wright, Ayman al-Zawahiri, bin Laden's mentor and al-Qaeda's second-in-command until 2011, once "sought to restore the caliphate... which had formally ended in 1924 following the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire but which had not exercised real power since the thirteenth century." Caliphate_sentence_312

Zawahiri believes that once the caliphate is re-established, Egypt would become a rallying point for the rest of the Islamic world, leading the jihad against the West. Caliphate_sentence_313

"Then history would make a new turn, God willing", Zawahiri later wrote, "in the opposite direction against the empire of the United States and the world's Jewish government". Caliphate_sentence_314

Opposition Caliphate_section_39

Scholar Olivier Roy writes that "early on, Islamists replace the concept of the caliphate ... with that of the emir." Caliphate_sentence_315

There were a number of reasons including "that according to the classical authors, a caliph must be a member of the tribe of the Prophet (the Quraysh) ... moreover, caliphs ruled societies that the Islamists do not consider to have been Islamic (the Ottoman Empire)." Caliphate_sentence_316

This is not the view of the majority of Islamist groups, as both the Muslim Brotherhood and Hizb ut-Tahrir view the Ottoman state as a caliphate. Caliphate_sentence_317

Government Caliphate_section_40

Electing or appointing a Caliph Caliphate_section_41

In his book The Early Islamic Conquests (1981), Fred Donner argues that the standard Arabian practice during the early Caliphates was for the prominent men of a kinship group, or tribe, to gather after a leader's death and elect a leader from amongst themselves, although there was no specified procedure for this shura, or consultative assembly. Caliphate_sentence_318

Candidates were usually from the same lineage as the deceased leader, but they were not necessarily his sons. Caliphate_sentence_319

Capable men who would lead well were preferred over an ineffectual direct heir, as there was no basis in the majority Sunni view that the head of state or governor should be chosen based on lineage alone. Caliphate_sentence_320

Since the Umayyads, all Caliphates have been dynastic. Caliphate_sentence_321

Traditionally, Sunni Muslim madhhabs all agreed that a Caliph must be a descendant of the Quraysh. Caliphate_sentence_322

Al-Baqillani has said that the leader of the Muslims simply should be from the majority. Caliphate_sentence_323

Sunni belief Caliphate_section_42

Following the death of Muhammad, a meeting took place at Saqifah. Caliphate_sentence_324

At that meeting, Abu Bakr was elected caliph by the Muslim community. Caliphate_sentence_325

Sunni Muslims developed the belief that the caliph is a temporal political ruler, appointed to rule within the bounds of Islamic law (Sharia). Caliphate_sentence_326

The job of adjudicating orthodoxy and Islamic law was left to mujtahids, legal specialists collectively called the Ulama. Caliphate_sentence_327

Many Muslims call the first four caliphs the Rashidun, meaning the Rightly-Guided, because they are believed to have followed the Qur'an and the sunnah (example) of Muhammad. Caliphate_sentence_328

Shi'a belief Caliphate_section_43

Main articles: Succession to Muhammad, Shia Islam, and Imamah (Shia doctrine) Caliphate_sentence_329

With the exception of Zaidis, Shi'ites believe in the Imamate, a principle by which rulers are Imams who are divinely chosen, infallible and sinless and must come from the Ahl al-Bayt regardless of majority opinion, shura or election. Caliphate_sentence_330

They claim that before his death, Muhammad had given many indications, in the hadith of the pond of Khumm in particular, that he considered Ali, his cousin and son-in-law, as his successor. Caliphate_sentence_331

For the Twelvers, Ali and his eleven descendants, the twelve Imams, are believed to have been considered, even before their birth, as the only valid Islamic rulers appointed and decreed by God. Caliphate_sentence_332

Shia Muslims believe that all the Muslim caliphs following Muhammad's death to be illegitimate due to their unjust rule and that Muslims have no obligation to follow them, as the only guidance that was left behind, as ordained in the hadith of the two weighty things, was the Islamic holy book, the Quran and Muhammad's family and offspring, who are believed to be infallible, therefore able to lead society and the Muslim community with complete justice and equity. Caliphate_sentence_333

The Prophet's own grandson, and third Shia Imam, Hussain ibn Ali led an uprising against injustice and the oppressive rule of the Muslim caliph at the time at the Battle of Karbala. Caliphate_sentence_334

Shia Muslims emphasise that values of social justice, and speaking out against oppression and tyranny are not merely moral values, but values essential to a persons religiosity. Caliphate_sentence_335

Main article: Islamic Government: Governance of the Jurist Caliphate_sentence_336

After these Twelve Imams, the potential Caliphs, had passed, and in the absence of the possibility of a government headed by their Imams, some Twelvers believe it was necessary that a system of Shi'i Islamic government based on the Guardianship of the Islamic Jurist be developed, due to the need for some form of government, where an Islamic jurist or faqih rules Muslims, suffices. Caliphate_sentence_337

However this idea, developed by the marja' Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini and established in Iran, is not universally accepted among the Shia. Caliphate_sentence_338

Ismailis believe in the Imamate principle mentioned above, but they need not be secular rulers as well. Caliphate_sentence_339


  • The Nizari continue to have a living Imam; the current Imam is the Aga Khan.Caliphate_item_0_0
  • The Taiyabi Ismaili have, since the year 1130, followed the Imam's chief officer, the Dai al-Mutlaq, as they believe the Imams are in a state of hiding.Caliphate_item_0_1

Majlis al-Shura Caliphate_section_44

See also: Majlis-ash-Shura, Shura, and Majlis Caliphate_sentence_340

The Majlis al-Shura (literally "consultative assembly") was a representation of the idea of consultative governance. Caliphate_sentence_341

The importance of this is premised by the following verses of the Qur'an: Caliphate_sentence_342


  • "...those who answer the call of their Lord and establish the prayer; and who conduct their affairs by Shura [are loved by God]."Caliphate_item_1_2
  • "...consult them (the people) in their affairs. Then when you have taken a decision (from them), put your trust in Allah"Caliphate_item_1_3

The majlis is also the means to elect a new caliph. Caliphate_sentence_343

Al-Mawardi has written that members of the majlis should satisfy three conditions: they must be just, have enough knowledge to distinguish a good caliph from a bad one and have sufficient wisdom and judgement to select the best caliph. Caliphate_sentence_344

Al-Mawardi also said that in emergencies when there is no caliphate and no majlis, the people themselves should create a majlis and select a list of candidates for caliph; then the majlis should select a caliph from the list of candidates. Caliphate_sentence_345

Some Islamist interpretations of the role of the Majlis al-Shura are the following: In an analysis of the shura chapter of the Qur'an, Islamist author Sayyid Qutb argues that Islam only requires the ruler to consult with some of the representatives of the ruled and govern within the context of the Sharia. Caliphate_sentence_346

Taqiuddin al-Nabhani, the founder of a transnational political movement devoted to the revival of the Caliphate, writes that although the Shura is an important part of "the ruling structure" of the Islamic caliphate, "(it is) not one of its pillars", meaning that its neglect would not make a Caliph's rule un-Islamic such as to justify a rebellion. Caliphate_sentence_347

However, the Muslim Brotherhood, the largest Islamic movement in Egypt, has toned down these Islamist views by accepting in principle that in the modern age the Majlis al-Shura is democracy but during its governance of Egypt in 2013, the Muslim Brotherhood did not put that principle into practice. Caliphate_sentence_348

Accountability of rulers Caliphate_section_45

Al-Mawardi said that if the rulers meet their Islamic responsibilities to the public the people must obey their laws, but a Caliph or ruler who becomes either unjust or severely ineffective must be impeached via the Majlis al-Shura. Caliphate_sentence_349

Al-Juwayni argued that Islam is the goal of the ummah, so any ruler who deviates from this goal must be impeached. Caliphate_sentence_350

Al-Ghazali believed that oppression by a caliph is sufficient grounds for impeachment. Caliphate_sentence_351

Rather than just relying on impeachment, Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani stated that the people have an obligation to rebel if the caliph begins to act with no regard for Islamic law. Caliphate_sentence_352

Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani said that to ignore such a situation is haraam and those who cannot revolt from inside the caliphate should launch a struggle from outside. Caliphate_sentence_353

Al-Asqalani used two ayahs from the Qur'an to justify this: Caliphate_sentence_354

Islamic lawyers commented that when the rulers refuse to step down after being impeached through the Majlis, becoming dictators through the support of a corrupt army, if the majority is in agreement they have the option to launch a revolution. Caliphate_sentence_355

Many noted that this option is to be exercised only after factoring in the potential cost of life. Caliphate_sentence_356

Rule of law Caliphate_section_46

See also: Sharia and Islamic ethics Caliphate_sentence_357

The following hadith establishes the principle of rule of law in relation to nepotism and accountability Caliphate_sentence_358

Various Islamic lawyers, however, place multiple conditions and stipulations on the execution of such a law, making it difficult to implement. Caliphate_sentence_359

For example, the poor cannot be penalised for stealing out of poverty, and during a time of drought in the Rashidun caliphate, capital punishment was suspended until the effects of the drought passed. Caliphate_sentence_360

Islamic jurists later formulated the concept that all classes were subject to the law of the land, and no person is above the law; officials and private citizens alike have a duty to obey the same law. Caliphate_sentence_361

Furthermore, a Qadi (Islamic judge) was not allowed to discriminate on the grounds of religion, race, colour, kinship or prejudice. Caliphate_sentence_362

In a number of cases, Caliphs had to appear before judges as they prepared to render their verdict. Caliphate_sentence_363

According to Noah Feldman, a law professor at Harvard University, the system of legal scholars and jurists responsible for the rule of law was replaced by the codification of Sharia by the Ottoman Empire in the early 19th century: Caliphate_sentence_364

Economy Caliphate_section_47

Main article: Islamic economics in the world Caliphate_sentence_365

See also: Islamic capitalism and Bayt al-mal Caliphate_sentence_366

During the Muslim Agricultural Revolution, the Caliphate understood that real incentives were needed to increase productivity and wealth and thus enhance tax revenues. Caliphate_sentence_367

A social transformation took place as a result of changing land ownership giving individuals of any gender, ethnic or religious background the right to buy, sell, mortgage and inherit land for farming or any other purpose. Caliphate_sentence_368

Signatures were required on contracts for every major financial transaction concerning agriculture, industry, commerce and employment. Caliphate_sentence_369

Copies of the contract were usually kept by both parties involved. Caliphate_sentence_370

There are similarities between Islamic economics and leftist or socialist economic policies. Caliphate_sentence_371

Islamic jurists have argued that privatization of the origin of oil, gas and other fire-producing fuels, as well as lakes, waterways, and grazing land is forbidden. Caliphate_sentence_372

Some have even claimed that "Pasture" might be applied to all agricultural land, though they are in the minority. Caliphate_sentence_373

The principle of public or joint ownership has been drawn by Muslim jurists from the following hadith of Muhammad: "The Muslims are partners in three, water, pastures and fire" Islamic jurists hold that "in water, pastures and fire" includes other natural resources as well, including petroleum, and they specify that "pastures" means land that is not privately owned, where people graze their animals. Caliphate_sentence_374

It does not include privately owned farm land, orchards, groves, etc., as it is a well known fact that the Companions of Prophet Muhammad, held privately owned orchards and farm lands in the first Islamic state at Medina. Caliphate_sentence_375

They also make exceptions in the case of processing, packaging, and selling water, as long as there is no dire need for it by the people. Caliphate_sentence_376

The legal ruling by the majority of ulema is that water is public property, while it is still in the lake, river, etc., but when it is put into a container, it becomes the property of the owner of the vessel. Caliphate_sentence_377

According to Saleh Al-Fawzan, "If a person has collected water in his vessel or in his pond, then he has taken possession of it and it is permissible for him to sell it, because he has collected it and it has come into his possession, and he has expended effort to acquire it, so it has become his property." Caliphate_sentence_378

However, if the Muslim community is in dire need of water, then it must be shared, regardless of whether it came from public waterways or a private well. Caliphate_sentence_379

Aside from similarities to socialism, early forms of proto-capitalism and free markets were present in the Caliphate, since an early market economy and early form of merchant capitalism developed between the 8th and 12th centuries, which some refer to as "Islamic capitalism". Caliphate_sentence_380

A vigorous monetary economy developed based on the circulation of a stable high-value currency (the dinar) and the integration of previously independent monetary areas. Caliphate_sentence_381

Business techniques and forms of business organisation employed during this time included early contracts, bills of exchange, long-distance international trade, early forms of partnership (mufawada) such as limited partnerships (mudaraba) and early forms of credit, debt, profit, loss, capital (al-mal), capital accumulation (nama al-mal), circulating capital, capital expenditure, revenue, cheques, promissory notes, trusts (waqf), startup companies, savings accounts, transactional accounts, pawning, loaning, exchange rates, bankers, money changers, ledgers, deposits, assignments, the double-entry bookkeeping system, and lawsuits. Caliphate_sentence_382

Organisational enterprises similar to corporations independent from the state also existed in the medieval Islamic world. Caliphate_sentence_383

Many of these concepts were adopted and further advanced in medieval Europe from the 13th century onwards. Caliphate_sentence_384

Early Islamic law included collection of Zakat (charity), one of the Five Pillars of Islam, since the time of the first Islamic State, established by Allah's Messenger at Medina. Caliphate_sentence_385

The taxes (including Zakat and Jizya) collected in the treasury (Bayt al-mal) of an Islamic government were used to provide income for the needy, including the poor, elderly, orphans, widows and the disabled. Caliphate_sentence_386

During the Caliphate of Abu Bakr, a number of the Arab tribes, who had accepted Islam at the hand of The Prophet Muhammad, rebelled and refused to continue to pay the Zakat, leading to the Ridda Wars. Caliphate_sentence_387

Caliph Umar added to the duties of the state an allowance, paid on behalf of every man woman and child, starting at birth, creating the world's first state run social welfare program. Caliphate_sentence_388

Maya Shatzmiller states that the demographic behavior of medieval Islamic society varied in some significant aspects from other agricultural societies. Caliphate_sentence_389

Nomadic groups within places like the deserts of Egypt and Morocco maintained high birth rates compared to rural and urban populations, though periods of extremely high nomadic birth rates seem to have occurred in occasional "surges" rather than on a continuous basis. Caliphate_sentence_390

Individuals living in large cities had much lower birth rates, possibly due to the use of birth control methods and political or economic instability. Caliphate_sentence_391

This led to population declines in some regions. Caliphate_sentence_392

While several studies have shown that Islamic scholars enjoyed a life expectancy of 59–75 years between the eleventh and thirteenth centuries, the overall life expectancy of men in the same societies was lower. Caliphate_sentence_393

Factoring in infant mortality, Lawrence Conrad estimates the average lifespan in the early Islamic caliphate to be above 35 years for the general population, compared to around 40 years for the population of Classical Greece and 31 years for the population of thirteenth century England. Caliphate_sentence_394

The early Islamic Empire also had the highest literacy rates among pre-modern societies, alongside the city of classical Athens in the 4th century BC, and later, China after the introduction of printing from the 10th century. Caliphate_sentence_395

One factor for the relatively high literacy rates in the early Islamic Empire was its parent-driven educational marketplace, as the state did not systematically subsidize educational services until the introduction of state funding under Nizam al-Mulk in the 11th century. Caliphate_sentence_396

Another factor was the diffusion of paper from China, which led to an efflorescence of books and written culture in Islamic society; thus papermaking technology transformed Islamic society (and later, the rest of Afro-Eurasia) from an oral to scribal culture, comparable to the later shifts from scribal to typographic culture, and from typographic culture to the Internet. Caliphate_sentence_397

Other factors include the widespread use of paper books in Islamic society (more so than any other previously existing society), the study and memorisation of the Qur'an, flourishing commercial activity and the emergence of the Maktab and Madrasah educational institutions. Caliphate_sentence_398

Notable caliphs Caliphate_section_48

For a more comprehensive list, see List of Caliphs. Caliphate_sentence_399


  • Rashidun ("Righteously Guided")Caliphate_item_2_4
    • Abu Bakr, first Rashidun Caliph. Subdued rebel tribes in the Ridda wars.Caliphate_item_2_5
    • Umar (Umar ibn al-Khattab), second Rashidun Caliph. During his reign, the Islamic empire expanded to include Egypt, Jerusalem and Persia.Caliphate_item_2_6
    • Uthman, (Uthman ibn Affan) third Rashidun Caliph, When Caliph Umar died in office aged 59/60 years, Uthman, aged 64/65 years, succeeded him and was the second-oldest to rule as Caliph. Under Uthman's leadership, the Islamic empire expanded into Fars (present-day Iran) in 650, and some areas of Khorasan (present-day Afghanistan) in 651. The conquest of Armenia had begun by the 640s.Caliphate_item_2_7
    • Ali (Ali ibn Abu Talib), fourth Rashidun Caliph. Considered by Shi'a Muslims however to be the first Imam. His reign was fraught with internal conflict, with Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan (Muawiyah I) and Amr ibn al-As controlling the Levant and Egypt regions independently of Ali.Caliphate_item_2_8
  • Hasan ibn Ali, fifth Caliph. Considered as "rightly guided" by several historians. He abdicated his right to the caliphate in favour of Muawiyah I in order to end the potential for ruinous civil war.Caliphate_item_2_9
  • Muawiyah I, first caliph of the Umayyad dynasty. Muawiyah instituted dynastic rule by appointing his son Yazid I as his successor, a trend that would continue through subsequent caliphates.Caliphate_item_2_10
  • Abd al-Malik was the fifth Umayyad caliph, ruling from April 685 until his death in 705. A member of the first generation of born Muslims, his early life in Medina was occupied with pious pursuits. He held administrative and military posts under Caliph Mu'awiya I (r. 661–680) and his own father, Caliph Marwan I (r. 684–685).Caliphate_item_2_11
  • Al-Walid I was the sixth Umayyad caliph, ruling from October 705 until his death. He was the eldest son of his predecessor Caliph Abd al-Malik.Caliphate_item_2_12
  • Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz (Umar II), Umayyad caliph who is considered one of the finest rulers in Muslim history. He is also considered by some (mainly Sunnis) to be among the "rightly guided" caliphs.Caliphate_item_2_13
  • Yazid II was the ninth Umayyad caliph, ruling from 9 February 720 until his death in 724.Caliphate_item_2_14
  • Hisham was the tenth Umayyad caliph who ruled from 724 until his death in 743. Hisham was a great patron of the arts, and he again encouraged arts in the empire. He also encouraged the growth of education by building more schools, and perhaps most importantly, by overseeing the translation of numerous literary and scientific masterpieces into Arabic. He returned to a stricter interpretation of the Sharia as Umar had, and enforced it, even upon his own family.Caliphate_item_2_15
  • Al-Walid II was an Umayyad Caliph who ruled from 743 until his death in the year 744.Caliphate_item_2_16
  • Yazid III was the twelfth Umayyad caliph. He reigned for six months, from April 15 to October 3 or 4, 744, and died in that office.Caliphate_item_2_17
  • Marwan II was the fourteenth and last Umayyad caliph, ruling from 744 until his death in 750.Caliphate_item_2_18
  • As-Saffah was the first caliph of the Abbasid caliphate, one of the longest and most important caliphates (Islamic dynasties) in Islamic history.Caliphate_item_2_19
  • Al-Mansur was the second Abbasid Caliph reigning from 136 AH to 158 AH (754 AD – 775 AD) and succeeding his brother al-Saffah. Al-Mansur is generally regarded as the greatest Caliph of the Abbasid dynasty. He is also known for founding the 'round city' of Madinat al-Salam which was to become the core of imperial BaghdadCaliphate_item_2_20
  • Al-Mahdi was the third Abbasid Caliph who reigned from 775 to his death in 785.Caliphate_item_2_21
  • Harun al-Rashid, Abbasid caliph during whose reign Baghdad became the world's prominent centre of trade, learning and culture. Harun is the subject of many stories in the famous One Thousand and One Nights.Caliphate_item_2_22
  • Al-Ma'mun, a great Abbasid patron of Islamic philosophy and scienceCaliphate_item_2_23
  • Al-Mu'tasim was the eighth Abbasid caliph, ruling from 833 until his death in 842. The younger son of Caliph Harun al-Rashid. He is also known for founding the city of Samarra.Caliphate_item_2_24
  • Al-Mutawakkil was the tenth Abbasid caliph who reigned from 847 until 861. He was the son of al-Mu'tasim. He is considered an influential Abbasid Caliph.Caliphate_item_2_25
  • Al-Mu'tadid was the Caliph of the Abbasid Caliphate from 892 until his death in 902.Caliphate_item_2_26
  • Ar-Radi was the twentieth Abbasid Caliph, reigning from 934 to his death. He died on 23 December 940 at the age of 31. He is considered the last Caliph of early Abbasid period.Caliphate_item_2_27
    • Al-Qadir famous Caliph of later Abbasid period from 991 – 1031.Caliphate_item_2_28
    • Al-Muqtafi famous Caliph of later Abbasid period, who reigned from 1136 - 1160.Caliphate_item_2_29
    • Al-Nasir was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 1180 until his death in 1225. According to the historian, Angelika Hartmann, Al-Nasir was the last effective later Abbasid Caliph.Caliphate_item_2_30
    • Al-Musta'sim was the 37th and last Abbasid caliph. He ruled from 1242 until his death in 1258.Caliphate_item_2_31
  • Suleiman the Magnificent, an Ottoman caliph during whose reign the Ottoman Empire reached its zenithCaliphate_item_2_32
  • Abdul Hamid II, last Ottoman caliph to rule with independent, absolute powerCaliphate_item_2_33
  • Abdulmejid II, last caliph of the Ottoman dynasty. Nominally the 37th Head of the Ottoman dynasty.Caliphate_item_2_34

See also Caliphate_section_49


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