Camberwell

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For other places with the same name, see Camberwell (disambiguation). Camberwell_sentence_0

Camberwell_table_infobox_0

CamberwellCamberwell_header_cell_0_0_0
OS grid referenceCamberwell_header_cell_0_1_0 Camberwell_cell_0_1_1
Charing CrossCamberwell_header_cell_0_2_0 2.7 mi (4.3 km) NWCamberwell_cell_0_2_1
London boroughCamberwell_header_cell_0_3_0 Camberwell_cell_0_3_1
Ceremonial countyCamberwell_header_cell_0_4_0 Greater LondonCamberwell_cell_0_4_1
RegionCamberwell_header_cell_0_5_0 Camberwell_cell_0_5_1
CountryCamberwell_header_cell_0_6_0 EnglandCamberwell_cell_0_6_1
Sovereign stateCamberwell_header_cell_0_7_0 United KingdomCamberwell_cell_0_7_1
Post townCamberwell_header_cell_0_8_0 LONDONCamberwell_cell_0_8_1
Postcode districtCamberwell_header_cell_0_9_0 SE5, SE15, SE21, SE22Camberwell_cell_0_9_1
Dialling codeCamberwell_header_cell_0_10_0 020Camberwell_cell_0_10_1
PoliceCamberwell_header_cell_0_11_0 MetropolitanCamberwell_cell_0_11_1
FireCamberwell_header_cell_0_12_0 LondonCamberwell_cell_0_12_1
AmbulanceCamberwell_header_cell_0_13_0 LondonCamberwell_cell_0_13_1
UK ParliamentCamberwell_header_cell_0_14_0 Camberwell_cell_0_14_1
London AssemblyCamberwell_header_cell_0_15_0 Camberwell_cell_0_15_1

Camberwell (/ˈkæmbərˌwɛl/) is a district of South London, England, within the London Borough of Southwark. Camberwell_sentence_1

It is located 2.7 miles (4.3 km) southeast of Charing Cross. Camberwell_sentence_2

Camberwell was first a village associated with the church of St Giles and a common of which Goose Green is a remnant. Camberwell_sentence_3

This early parish included the neighbouring hamlets of Peckham, Dulwich, Nunhead, and part of Herne Hill (the rest of Herne Hill was in the parish of Lambeth). Camberwell_sentence_4

Until 1889, it was part of the county of Surrey. Camberwell_sentence_5

In 1900 the original parish became the Metropolitan Borough of Camberwell. Camberwell_sentence_6

In 1965, most of the Borough of Camberwell was merged into the London Borough of Southwark. Camberwell_sentence_7

To the west, part of both West Dulwich and Herne Hill come under the London Borough of Lambeth. Camberwell_sentence_8

The place now known as Camberwell covers a much smaller area than the ancient parish, and it is bound on the north by Walworth; on the south by East Dulwich and Herne Hill; to the west by Kennington; and on the east by Peckham. Camberwell_sentence_9

History Camberwell_section_0

Camberwell appears in the Domesday Book as Cambrewelle. Camberwell_sentence_10

The name may derive from the Old English Cumberwell or Comberwell, meaning 'Well of the Britons', referring to remaining Celtic inhabitants of an area dominated by Anglo-Saxons. Camberwell_sentence_11

An alternative theory suggests the name may mean 'Cripple Well', and that the settlement developed as a hamlet where people from the City of London were expelled when they had a contagious disease like leprosy, for treatment by the church and the clean, healing waters from the wells. Camberwell_sentence_12

Springs and wells are known to have existed on the southern slope of Denmark Hill, especially around Grove Park. Camberwell_sentence_13

It was already a substantial settlement with a church when mentioned in the Domesday Book, and was the parish church for a large area including Dulwich and Peckham. Camberwell_sentence_14

It was held by Haimo the Sheriff (of Kent). Camberwell_sentence_15

Its Domesday assets were: 6 hides and 1 virgate (i.e. 750 acres (300 ha)); 1 church, 8 ploughs, 63 acres (25 ha) of meadow, woodland worth 60 hogs. Camberwell_sentence_16

It rendered £14. Camberwell_sentence_17

Up to the mid-19th century, Camberwell was visited by Londoners for its rural tranquillity and the reputed healing properties of its mineral springs. Camberwell_sentence_18

Like much of inner South London, Camberwell was transformed by the arrival of the railways in the 1860s. Camberwell_sentence_19

Camberwell Green is now a very small area of common land; it was once a traditional village green on which was held an annual fair, of ancient origin, which rivalled that of Greenwich. Camberwell_sentence_20

Local government Camberwell_section_1

The parish of Camberwell Camberwell_section_2

Camberwell St Giles is the name given to an ancient, and later civil, parish in the Brixton hundred of Surrey. Camberwell_sentence_21

The parish covered 4,570 acres (18.5 km) in 1831 and was divided into the liberty of Peckham to the east and the hamlet of Dulwich to the southwest, as well as Camberwell proper. Camberwell_sentence_22

The parish tapered in the south to form a point in what is now known as the Crystal Palace area. Camberwell_sentence_23

In 1801, the population was 7,059 and by 1851 this had risen to 54,667. Camberwell_sentence_24

In 1829, it was included in the Metropolitan Police District and in 1855 it was included in the area of responsibility of the Metropolitan Board of Works, with Camberwell Vestry nominating one member to the board. Camberwell_sentence_25

In 1889 the board was replaced by the London County Council and Camberwell was removed administratively from Surrey to form part of the County of London. Camberwell_sentence_26

The Metropolitan Borough of Camberwell Camberwell_section_3

In 1900, the area of the Camberwell parish became the Metropolitan Borough of Camberwell. Camberwell_sentence_27

In 1965, the metropolitan borough was abolished and its former area became the southern part of the London Borough of Southwark in Greater London. Camberwell_sentence_28

The western part of the area is situated in the adjacent London Borough of Lambeth. Camberwell_sentence_29

Industrial history Camberwell_section_4

The area has historically been home to many factories, including R. Camberwell_sentence_30 White's Lemonade, which originated in Camberwell, as well as Dualit toasters. Camberwell_sentence_31

Neither of these companies is now based in the area. Camberwell_sentence_32

Former schools Camberwell_section_5

Wilson's School was founded in 1615 in Camberwell by Royal Charter by Edward Wilson, vicar of the Parish of Camberwell. Camberwell_sentence_33

The charter was granted by James I. Camberwell_sentence_34

The school moved to its current site in Croydon in 1975. Camberwell_sentence_35

A school for girls, Mary Datchelor Girl's School, was established in Camberwell in 1877. Camberwell_sentence_36

It was built on two houses at 15 and 17 Grove Lane, the location of a former manor house. Camberwell_sentence_37

All except one of its 30 pupils came from the parish of St Andrew Undershaft in the City of London. Camberwell_sentence_38

The funding for the school came from a bequest from Mary Datchelor, who died childless. Camberwell_sentence_39

Proceeds of a property in Threadneedle Street used as a coffee-house were used to pay for apprenticeships for the poor boys of the parish, but as demographics in the City changed, it was decided to set up a school. Camberwell_sentence_40

By the 1970s, the school was receiving funding from the Clothworkers' Company and the Inner London Education Authority funded teaching posts. Camberwell_sentence_41

The school came under pressure from ILEA to become co-educational and comprehensive. Camberwell_sentence_42

Faced with this choice or becoming fully private, the school's governors instead decided to close in 1981. Camberwell_sentence_43

The school buildings were later used as offices for the charity Save the Children but have now been converted to flats. Camberwell_sentence_44

Camberwell Collegiate School was an independent school located on the eastern side of Camberwell Grove, directly opposite the Grove Chapel. Camberwell_sentence_45

The Collegiate College had some success for a while, and led to the closure for some decades of the Denmark Hill Grammar School. Camberwell_sentence_46

However it had difficulty competing with other nearby schools including Dulwich College, and was closed in 1867.The land was sold for building. Camberwell_sentence_47

Important buildings Camberwell_section_6

Camberwell today is a mixture of relatively well preserved Georgian and 20th-century housing, including a number of tower blocks. Camberwell_sentence_48

Camberwell Grove, Grove Lane and Addington Square have some of London's most elegant and well-preserved Georgian houses. Camberwell_sentence_49

The Salvation Army's William Booth Memorial Training College, designed by Giles Gilbert Scott, was completed in 1932: it towers over South London from Denmark Hill. Camberwell_sentence_50

It has a similar monumental impressiveness to Gilbert Scott's other local buildings, Battersea Power Station and the Tate Modern, although its simplicity is partly the result of repeated budget cuts during its construction: much more detail, including carved Gothic stonework surrounding the windows, was originally planned. Camberwell_sentence_51

Camberwell is home to one of London's largest teaching hospitals, King's College Hospital with associated medical school the Guy's King's and St Thomas' (GKT) School of Medicine. Camberwell_sentence_52

The Maudsley Hospital, an internationally significant psychiatric hospital, is located in Camberwell along with the Institute of Psychiatry. Camberwell_sentence_53

Early music halls in Camberwell were in the back hall of public houses. Camberwell_sentence_54

One, the "Father Redcap" (1853) still stands by Camberwell Green, but internally, much altered. Camberwell_sentence_55

In 1896, the Dan Leno company opened the "Oriental Palace of Varieties", on Denmark Hill. Camberwell_sentence_56

This successful venture was soon replaced with a new theatre, designed by Ernest A.E. Woodrow and with a capacity of 1,553, in 1899, named the "Camberwell Palace". Camberwell_sentence_57

This was further expanded by architect Lewen Sharp in 1908. Camberwell_sentence_58

By 1912, the theatre was showing films as a part of the variety programme and became an ABC cinema in September 1932 – known simply as "The Palace Cinema". Camberwell_sentence_59

It reopened as a variety theatre in 1943, but closed on 28 April 1956 and was demolished. Camberwell_sentence_60

Nearby, marked by Orpheus Street, was the "Metropole Theatre and Opera House", presenting transfers of West End shows. Camberwell_sentence_61

This was demolished to build an Odeon cinema in 1939. Camberwell_sentence_62

The cinema seated 2,470, and has since been demolished. Camberwell_sentence_63

A second ABC cinema, known originally as the Regal Cinema and later as the ABC Camberwell, opened in 1940. Camberwell_sentence_64

With only one screen but 2,470 seats, the cinema was one of the largest suburban cinemas in London and continued to operate until 1973, after which it was used as a bingo hall until February 2010. Camberwell_sentence_65

The building retains its Art Deco style and is Grade II listed. Camberwell_sentence_66

The Church of the Sacred Heart, Camberwell has been listed Grade II on the National Heritage List for England since 2015. Camberwell_sentence_67

On 3 July 2009 a major fire swept through Lakanal House, a twelve-storey tower block. Camberwell_sentence_68

Six people were killed and at least 20 people were injured. Camberwell_sentence_69

Camberwell beauty Camberwell_section_7

The Camberwell beauty (also Camberwell Beauty) is a butterfly (Nymphalis antiopa) which is rarely found in the UK – it is so named because two examples were first identified on Coldharbour Lane, Camberwell in 1748. Camberwell_sentence_70

A large mosaic of the Camberwell beauty used to adorn the Samuel Jones paper factory on Southampton Way. Camberwell_sentence_71

The paper factory has since been demolished but the mosaic was removed and re-installed on the side of Lynn Boxing Club on Wells Way. Camberwell_sentence_72

Culture Camberwell_section_8

Art Camberwell_section_9

Camberwell has several art galleries including Camberwell College of Arts, the South London Gallery and numerous smaller commercial art spaces. Camberwell_sentence_73

There is an annual Camberwell Arts Festival in the summer. Camberwell_sentence_74

The Blue Elephant Theatre on Bethwin Road is the only theatre venue in Camberwell. Camberwell_sentence_75

A group now known as the YBAs (the Young British Artists) began in Camberwell – in the Millard building of Goldsmiths' College on Cormont Road. Camberwell_sentence_76

A former training college for women teachers, the Millard was the home of Goldsmiths Fine Art and Textiles department until 1988. Camberwell_sentence_77

It was converted to flats in 1996 and is now known as St Gabriel's Manor. Camberwell_sentence_78

The core of the later-to-be YBAs, graduated from the Goldsmiths BA Fine Art degree course in the classes of 1987–90. Camberwell_sentence_79

Liam Gillick, Fiona Rae, Steve Park and Sarah Lucas, were graduates in the class of 1987. Camberwell_sentence_80

Ian Davenport, Michael Landy, Gary Hume, Anya Gallaccio, Henry Bond and Angela Bulloch, were graduates in the class of 1988; Damien Hirst, Angus Fairhurst, Mat Collishaw, Simon Patterson, and Abigail Lane, were graduates from the class of 1989; whilst Gillian Wearing, and Sam Taylor-Wood, were graduates from the class of 1990. Camberwell_sentence_81

During the years 1987–90, the teaching staff on the Goldsmiths BA Fine Art included Jon Thompson, Richard Wentworth, Michael Craig-Martin, Ian Jeffrey, Helen Chadwick, Mark Wallinger, Judith Cowan and Glen Baxter. Camberwell_sentence_82

Collishaw has a studio in a pub in Camberwell. Camberwell_sentence_83

as does the sculptor Anish Kapoor. Camberwell_sentence_84

In his memoir Lucky Kunst, artist Gregor Muir, writes: Camberwell_sentence_85

Camberwell_description_list_0

  • Camberwell_item_0_0
    • Not yet housed in the university building at New Cross to which it eventually moved in the late 1980s, Goldsmiths was a stone's throw away in Myatts Field on the other side of Camberwell Green. In contrast to Camberwell's Friday night bacchanal, Goldsmith's held its disco on a Tuesday evening with dinner ladies serving drinks, including tea, from a service hatch. This indicated to me that Goldsmiths was deeply uncool.Camberwell_item_0_1

The building was also the hospital where Vera Brittain served as a nurse and described in her memoir Testament of Youth. Camberwell_sentence_86

Literature Camberwell_section_10

Thomas Hood, humorist and author of The Song of the Shirt, lived in Camberwell from 1840 for two years; initially at 8, South Place, (now 181, Camberwell New Road). Camberwell_sentence_87

He later moved to 2, Union Row (now 266, High Street). Camberwell_sentence_88

He wrote to friends praising the clean air. Camberwell_sentence_89

In late 1841, he moved to St John's Wood. Camberwell_sentence_90

The Victorian art critic and watercolourist John Ruskin lived at 163 Denmark Hill from 1847, but moved out in 1872 as the railways spoiled his view. Camberwell_sentence_91

Ruskin designed part of a stained-glass window in St Giles' Church, Camberwell. Camberwell_sentence_92

Ruskin Park is named after him, and there is also a John Ruskin Street. Camberwell_sentence_93

Another famous writer who lived in the area was the poet Robert Browning, who was born in nearby Walworth, and lived there until he was 28. Camberwell_sentence_94

Novelist George Gissing, in the summer of 1893, took lodgings at 76 Burton Road, Brixton. Camberwell_sentence_95

From Burton Road he went for long walks through nearby Camberwell, soaking up impressions of the way of life he saw emerging there." Camberwell_sentence_96

This led him to writing In the Year of Jubilee, the story of "the romantic and sexual initiation of a suburban heroine, Nancy Lord." Camberwell_sentence_97

Gissing originally called his novel Miss Lord of Camberwell. Camberwell_sentence_98

Muriel Spark, the author of The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie and The Ballad of Peckham Rye lived, between 1955 and 1965, in a bedsit at 13 Baldwin Crescent, Camberwell. Camberwell_sentence_99

The novelist Mary Jane Staples, who grew up in Walworth, wrote a book called The King of Camberwell, the third instalment of her Adams family saga about Cockney life. Camberwell_sentence_100

Comedian Jenny Eclair is a long-term resident of Camberwell, and the area features in her 2001 novel Camberwell Beauty, named after a species of butterfly. Camberwell_sentence_101

Playwright Martin McDonagh and his brother, writer/director John Michael McDonagh, live in Camberwell. Camberwell_sentence_102

The 2014 novel The Paying Guests by Sarah Waters is set in 1920s Camberwell. Camberwell_sentence_103

Nearby Peckham Rye was an important spot in the imaginative and creative development of poet William Blake, who when he was eight, he claimed to have seen the Prophet Ezekiel there under a bush, and he was probably ten years old when he had a vision of angels in a tree. Camberwell_sentence_104

Festivals Camberwell_section_11

Camberwell has played host to many festivals over the years, with the long-running Camberwell Arts Festival celebrating 20 years in 2014, and Camberwell Fair taking place on Camberwell Green in 2015, 2017 and 2018, resurrecting an ancient Fair that took place on the same green from 1279 to 1855. Camberwell_sentence_105

{ Since 2013, there is also an annual 10 day film festival - Camberwell Free Film Festival (CFFF) which is usually held in March/April in addition to special one-off screenings at other times of the year. Camberwell_sentence_106

Transport Camberwell_section_12

History Camberwell_section_13

Until the First World War, Camberwell was served by three railway stations - Denmark Hill, Camberwell Gate (near Walworth), and Camberwell New Road in the west. Camberwell_sentence_107

Camberwell Gate and Camberwell New Road were closed in 1916 'temporarily' because of war shortages, but were never reopened. Camberwell_sentence_108

London Underground has planned a Bakerloo line extension to Camberwell on at least three occasions since the 1930s. Camberwell_sentence_109

Rail Camberwell_section_14

Denmark Hill and Loughborough Junction railway stations serve Camberwell, whilst Peckham Rye and East Dulwich are both approximately one mile from Camberwell Green. Camberwell_sentence_110

These stations are all in London fare zone 2. Camberwell_sentence_111

London Overground, Southeastern, and Thameslink trains serve Denmark Hill. Camberwell_sentence_112

There are regular rail services to various destinations across Central London. Camberwell_sentence_113

There are also direct rail links to destinations elsewhere in London and the South East from Denmark Hill. Camberwell_sentence_114

London Overground connects the area directly to Clapham and Battersea in the west, and Canada Water and Dalston east London. Camberwell_sentence_115

Thameslink trains carry passengers to Kentish Town in the north, whilst some peak-time services continue to destinations in Hertfordshire and Bedfordshire, such as Luton Airport. Camberwell_sentence_116

Eastbound Thameslink services travel towards Orpington or Sevenoaks, via Peckham, Catford, and Bromley, amongst other destinations. Camberwell_sentence_117

Southeastern trains eastbound serve destinations in South East London and Kent, including Peckham, Lewisham, Gravesend, and Dover. Camberwell_sentence_118

Loughborough Junction is on the Thameslink route between St Albans City and Sutton. Camberwell_sentence_119

This provides Camberwell with a direct link southbound to Herne Hill, Streatham, Tooting, Wimbledon, Mitcham, and Sutton, amongst other destinations in South London. Camberwell_sentence_120

Northbound services run through the City of London and St Pancras. Camberwell_sentence_121

Destinations north of St Pancras include Kentish Town and West Hampstead. Camberwell_sentence_122

A limited Southeastern service between Blackfriars and Kent runs through Loughborough Junction. Camberwell_sentence_123

Bus Camberwell_section_15

Camberwell is served by numerous London Bus routes. Camberwell_sentence_124

Other notable residents Camberwell_section_16

Residents of the area have included children's author Enid Mary Blyton, who was born at 354 Lordship Lane, East Dulwich, on 11 August 1897 (though shortly afterwards the family moved to Beckenham), and the former leader of the TGWU, Jack Jones, who lived on the Ruskin House Park estate. Camberwell_sentence_125

Karl Marx initially settled with his family in Camberwell when they moved to London in 1849. Camberwell_sentence_126

Others include the former editor of The Guardian Peter Preston. Camberwell_sentence_127

The Guardian columnist Zoe Williams is another resident, whilst Florence Welch of the rock band Florence + the Machine also lives in the area, as do actresses Lorraine Chase and Jenny Agutter. Camberwell_sentence_128

Syd Barrett, one of the founders of Pink Floyd, studied at Camberwell College of Arts from 1964. Camberwell_sentence_129

Clifford Harper, illustrator and anarchist, has lived in Camberwell since 1974. Camberwell_sentence_130

The avant-garde band Camberwell Now named themselves after the area. Camberwell_sentence_131

Basement Jaxx recorded three songs about Camberwell: "Camberwell Skies", "Camberskank" and "I live in Camberwell" which are on The Singles: Special Edition album (2005). Camberwell_sentence_132

Camberwell is referred to in the film Withnail and I – "Camberwell carrot" is the name of the enormous spliff rolled using 12 rolling papers, by Danny the dealer. Camberwell_sentence_133

His explanation for the name is, "I invented it in Camberwell and it looks like a carrot". Camberwell_sentence_134

Elizabeth Patterson Bonaparte gave birth to her son, Jérôme Napoléon Bonaparte, the nephew of the Emperor Napoleon I, in Camberwell in 1805. Camberwell_sentence_135

Camberwell_unordered_list_1

See also Camberwell_section_17

Camberwell_unordered_list_2


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Camberwell.