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This article is about the country. Cameroon_sentence_0

For other uses, see Cameroon (disambiguation). Cameroon_sentence_1


Republic of Cameroon

République du Cameroun  (French) Renndaandi Kamerun  (Fula)Cameroon_header_cell_0_0_0

CapitalCameroon_header_cell_0_1_0 YaoundéCameroon_cell_0_1_1
Largest cityCameroon_header_cell_0_2_0 Yaoundé (city proper)

Douala (metropolitan area)Cameroon_cell_0_2_1

Official languagesCameroon_header_cell_0_3_0 English FrenchCameroon_cell_0_3_1
Recognised regional languagesCameroon_header_cell_0_4_0 Cameroonian Pidgin English, Fula, Ewondo, CamfranglaisCameroon_cell_0_4_1
Ethnic groupsCameroon_header_cell_0_5_0 Cameroon_cell_0_5_1
Religion (2018)Cameroon_header_cell_0_6_0 Cameroon_cell_0_6_1
Demonym(s)Cameroon_header_cell_0_7_0 CameroonianCameroon_cell_0_7_1
GovernmentCameroon_header_cell_0_8_0 Unitary dominant-party semi-presidential constitutional republicCameroon_cell_0_8_1
PresidentCameroon_header_cell_0_9_0 Paul BiyaCameroon_cell_0_9_1
Prime MinisterCameroon_header_cell_0_10_0 Joseph NguteCameroon_cell_0_10_1
LegislatureCameroon_header_cell_0_11_0 ParliamentCameroon_cell_0_11_1
Upper houseCameroon_header_cell_0_12_0 SenateCameroon_cell_0_12_1
Lower houseCameroon_header_cell_0_13_0 National AssemblyCameroon_cell_0_13_1
Independence from FranceCameroon_header_cell_0_14_0
DeclaredCameroon_header_cell_0_15_0 1 January 1960Cameroon_cell_0_15_1
Admitted to the United NationsCameroon_header_cell_0_16_0 20 September 1960Cameroon_cell_0_16_1
Union with the former

British CameroonsCameroon_header_cell_0_17_0

1 October 1961Cameroon_cell_0_17_1
Area Cameroon_header_cell_0_18_0
TotalCameroon_header_cell_0_19_0 475,442 km (183,569 sq mi) (53rd)Cameroon_cell_0_19_1
Water (%)Cameroon_header_cell_0_20_0 0.57Cameroon_cell_0_20_1
2020 estimateCameroon_header_cell_0_22_0 26,545,864 (51st)Cameroon_cell_0_22_1
2005 censusCameroon_header_cell_0_23_0 17,463,836Cameroon_cell_0_23_1
DensityCameroon_header_cell_0_24_0 39.7/km (102.8/sq mi) (167th)Cameroon_cell_0_24_1
GDP (PPP)Cameroon_header_cell_0_25_0 2018 estimateCameroon_cell_0_25_1
TotalCameroon_header_cell_0_26_0 $95.068 billion (93rd)Cameroon_cell_0_26_1
Per capitaCameroon_header_cell_0_27_0 $3,820 (152nd)Cameroon_cell_0_27_1
GDP (nominal)Cameroon_header_cell_0_28_0 2018 estimateCameroon_cell_0_28_1
TotalCameroon_header_cell_0_29_0 $38.445 billion (98th)Cameroon_cell_0_29_1
Per capitaCameroon_header_cell_0_30_0 $1,544 (152nd)Cameroon_cell_0_30_1
Gini (2014)Cameroon_header_cell_0_31_0 46.6


HDI (2018)Cameroon_header_cell_0_32_0 0.563

medium · 150thCameroon_cell_0_32_1

CurrencyCameroon_header_cell_0_33_0 Central African CFA franc (XAF)Cameroon_cell_0_33_1
Time zoneCameroon_header_cell_0_34_0 UTC+1 (WAT)Cameroon_cell_0_34_1
Driving sideCameroon_header_cell_0_35_0 rightCameroon_cell_0_35_1
Calling codeCameroon_header_cell_0_36_0 +237Cameroon_cell_0_36_1
ISO 3166 codeCameroon_header_cell_0_37_0 CMCameroon_cell_0_37_1
Internet TLDCameroon_header_cell_0_38_0 .cmCameroon_cell_0_38_1

Cameroon (/ˌkæməˈruːn/ (listen); German: Kamerun, French: Cameroun), officially the Republic of Cameroon (French: République du Cameroun), is a country in Central Africa and West Africa. Cameroon_sentence_2

It is bordered by Nigeria to the west and north; Chad to the northeast; the Central African Republic to the east; and Equatorial Guinea, Gabon and the Republic of the Congo to the south. Cameroon_sentence_3

Cameroon's coastline lies on the Bight of Biafra, part of the Gulf of Guinea and the Atlantic Ocean. Cameroon_sentence_4

Although Cameroon is not an ECOWAS member state, it is geographically and historically in West Africa; the Southern Cameroons, which now form her Nord-Ouest and Sud-Ouest Regions, have a strong West African history in particular. Cameroon_sentence_5

However, since 2017, elements within the South West and North West regions have since declared an independent (yet internationally unrecognized) state called Ambazonia. Cameroon_sentence_6

The country is sometimes identified as West African and other times as Central African due to its strategic position at the crossroads between West and Central Africa. Cameroon_sentence_7

Cameroon is home to over 250 native languages spoken by nearly 25 million people. Cameroon_sentence_8

Early inhabitants of the territory included the Sao civilisation around Lake Chad and the Baka hunter-gatherers in the southeastern rainforest. Cameroon_sentence_9

Portuguese explorers reached the coast in the 15th century and named the area Rio dos Camarões (Shrimp River), which became Cameroon in English. Cameroon_sentence_10

Fulani soldiers founded the Adamawa Emirate in the north in the 19th century, and various ethnic groups of the west and northwest established powerful chiefdoms and fondoms. Cameroon_sentence_11

Cameroon became a German colony in 1884 known as Kamerun. Cameroon_sentence_12

After World War I, the territory was divided between France and the United Kingdom as League of Nations mandates. Cameroon_sentence_13

The Union des Populations du Cameroun (UPC) political party advocated independence, but was outlawed by France in the 1950s, leading to the Bamileke War fought between French and UPC militant forces until early 1971. Cameroon_sentence_14

In 1960, the French-administered part of Cameroon became independent as the Republic of Cameroun under President Ahmadou Ahidjo. Cameroon_sentence_15

The southern part of British Cameroons federated with it in 1961 to form the Federal Republic of Cameroon. Cameroon_sentence_16

The federation was abandoned in 1972. Cameroon_sentence_17

The country was renamed the United Republic of Cameroon in 1972 and the Republic of Cameroon in 1984. Cameroon_sentence_18

Large numbers of Cameroonians live as subsistence farmers. Cameroon_sentence_19

Paul Biya, the incumbent president, has led the country since 1982; he had previously held office as prime minister, from 1975 until his elevation to the presidency. Cameroon_sentence_20

The country has experienced tensions coming from the English-speaking territories. Cameroon_sentence_21

Politicians in the English-speaking regions have advocated for greater decentralisation and even complete separation or independence (as in the Southern Cameroons National Council) from Cameroon. Cameroon_sentence_22

In 2017, tensions regarding the creation of an Ambazonian state in the English-speaking territories escalated into open warfare. Cameroon_sentence_23

The official languages of Cameroon are French and English, the official languages of former colonial French Cameroons and British Cameroons respectively. Cameroon_sentence_24

Its religious population consists of 70.7% Christians and 24.4% Muslims. Cameroon_sentence_25

It is governed as a Unitary presidential republic and has good relations with the major powers of France, the United Kingdom and China. Cameroon_sentence_26

The country is often referred to as "Africa in miniature" for its geological and cultural diversity. Cameroon_sentence_27

Natural features include beaches, deserts, mountains, rainforests, and savannas. Cameroon_sentence_28

The highest point at almost 4,100 metres (13,500 ft) is Mount Cameroon in the Southwest Region of the country, and the largest cities in population-terms are Douala on the Wouri River, its economic capital and main seaport, Yaoundé, its political capital, and Garoua. Cameroon_sentence_29

The country is well known for its native styles of music, particularly Makossa and Bikutsi, and for its successful national football team. Cameroon_sentence_30

Cameroon is a member state of the African Union, the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations, Non-Aligned Movement and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. Cameroon_sentence_31

Etymology Cameroon_section_0

Originally, Cameroon was the exonym given by the Portuguese to the Wouri river. Cameroon_sentence_32

They called it Rio dos Camarões, meaning "river of shrimps" or "shrimp river", referring to the then abundant Cameroon ghost shrimp. Cameroon_sentence_33

Today the country's name in Portuguese remains "Camarões". Cameroon_sentence_34

History Cameroon_section_1

Main article: History of Cameroon Cameroon_sentence_35

The territory of present-day Cameroon was first settled during the Neolithic Era. Cameroon_sentence_36

The longest continuous inhabitants are groups such as the Baka (Pygmies). Cameroon_sentence_37

From here, Bantu migrations into eastern, southern, and central Africa are believed to have originated about 2,000 years ago. Cameroon_sentence_38

The Sao culture arose around Lake Chad, c. 500 AD, and gave way to the Kanem and its successor state, the Bornu Empire. Cameroon_sentence_39

Kingdoms, fondoms, and chiefdoms arose in the west. Cameroon_sentence_40

Portuguese sailors reached the coast in 1472. Cameroon_sentence_41

They noted an abundance of the ghost shrimp Lepidophthalmus turneranus in the Wouri River and named it Rio dos Camarões (Shrimp River), which became Cameroon in English. Cameroon_sentence_42

Over the following few centuries, European interests regularised trade with the coastal peoples, and Christian missionaries pushed inland. Cameroon_sentence_43

1800s Cameroon_section_2

Main article: German Cameroon Cameroon_sentence_44

In the early 19th century, Modibo Adama led Fulani soldiers on a jihad in the north against non-Muslim and partially Muslim peoples and established the Adamawa Emirate. Cameroon_sentence_45

Settled peoples who fled the Fulani caused a major redistribution of population. Cameroon_sentence_46

The Bamum tribe have a writing system, known as Bamum script or Shu Mom. Cameroon_sentence_47

The script was given to them by Sultan Ibrahim Njoya in 1896, and is taught in Cameroon by the Bamum Scripts and Archives Project. Cameroon_sentence_48

Germany began to establish roots in Cameroon in 1868 when the Woermann Company of Hamburg built a warehouse. Cameroon_sentence_49

It was built on the estuary of the Wouri River. Cameroon_sentence_50

Later Gustav Nachtigal made a treaty with one of the local kings to annex the region for the German emperor. Cameroon_sentence_51

The German Empire claimed the territory as the colony of Kamerun in 1884 and began a steady push inland. Cameroon_sentence_52

The Germans ran into resistance with the native people who did not want the Germans to establish themselves on this land. Cameroon_sentence_53

Under the influence of Germany, commercial companies were left to regulate local administrations. Cameroon_sentence_54

These concessions used forced labour of the Africans to make a profit. Cameroon_sentence_55

The labour was used on banana, rubber, palm oil, and cocoa plantations. Cameroon_sentence_56

They initiated projects to improve the colony's infrastructure, relying on a harsh system of forced labour, which was much criticised by the other colonial powers. Cameroon_sentence_57

1900s Cameroon_section_3

With the defeat of Germany in World War I, Kamerun became a League of Nations mandate territory and was split into French Cameroons and British Cameroons in 1919. Cameroon_sentence_58

France integrated the economy of Cameroon with that of France and improved the infrastructure with capital investments and skilled workers, modifying the colonial system of forced labour. Cameroon_sentence_59

The British administered their territory from neighbouring Nigeria. Cameroon_sentence_60

Natives complained that this made them a neglected "colony of a colony". Cameroon_sentence_61

Nigerian migrant workers flocked to Southern Cameroons, ending forced labour altogether but angering the local natives, who felt swamped. Cameroon_sentence_62

The League of Nations mandates were converted into United Nations Trusteeships in 1946, and the question of independence became a pressing issue in French Cameroun. Cameroon_sentence_63

France outlawed the pro-independence political party, the Union des Populations du Cameroun (UPC), on 13 July 1955. Cameroon_sentence_64

This prompted a long guerrilla war waged by the UPC (known also as the Bamileke War) and the assassination of several of the party's leaders, including Ruben Um Nyobè, Félix-Roland Moumié and Ernest Ouandie. Cameroon_sentence_65

In the British Cameroons, the question was whether to reunify with French Cameroun or join Nigeria; the British ruled out the option of independence. Cameroon_sentence_66

Independence (1960) Cameroon_section_4

On 1 January 1960, French Cameroun gained independence from France under President Ahmadou Ahidjo. Cameroon_sentence_67

On 1 October 1961, the formerly British Southern Cameroons gained independence by vote of the UN General Assembly and joined with French Cameroun to form the Federal Republic of Cameroon, a date which is now observed as Unification Day, a public holiday. Cameroon_sentence_68

Ahidjo used the ongoing war with the UPC to concentrate power in the presidency, continuing with this even after the suppression of the UPC in 1971. Cameroon_sentence_69

His political party, the Cameroon National Union (CNU), became the sole legal political party on 1 September 1966 and on 20 May 1972, a referendum was passed to abolish the federal system of government in favour of a United Republic of Cameroon, headed from Yaoundé. Cameroon_sentence_70

This day is now the country's National Day, a public holiday. Cameroon_sentence_71

Ahidjo pursued an economic policy of planned liberalism, prioritising cash crops and petroleum development. Cameroon_sentence_72

The government used oil money to create a national cash reserve, pay farmers, and finance major development projects; however, many initiatives failed when Ahidjo appointed unqualified allies to direct them. Cameroon_sentence_73

Ahidjo stepped down on 4 November 1982 and left power to his constitutional successor, Paul Biya. Cameroon_sentence_74

However, Ahidjo remained in control of the CNU and tried to run the country from behind the scenes until Biya and his allies pressured him into resigning. Cameroon_sentence_75

Biya began his administration by moving toward a more democratic government, but a failed coup d'état nudged him toward the leadership style of his predecessor. Cameroon_sentence_76

An economic crisis took effect in the mid-1980s to late 1990s as a result of international economic conditions, drought, falling petroleum prices, and years of corruption, mismanagement, and cronyism. Cameroon_sentence_77

Cameroon turned to foreign aid, cut government spending, and privatised industries. Cameroon_sentence_78

With the reintroduction of multi-party politics in December 1990, the former British Southern Cameroons pressure groups called for greater autonomy, and the Southern Cameroons National Council advocated complete secession as the Republic of Ambazonia. Cameroon_sentence_79

The 1992 Labour Code of Cameroon gives workers the freedom to belong to a trade union or not to belong to any trade union at all. Cameroon_sentence_80

It is the choice of a worker to join any trade union in his occupation since there exist more than one trade union in each occupation. Cameroon_sentence_81

21st century Cameroon_section_5

In June 2006, talks concerning a territorial dispute over the Bakassi peninsula were resolved. Cameroon_sentence_82

The talks involved President Paul Biya of Cameroon, then President Olusegun Obasanjo of Nigeria and then UN Secretary General Kofi Annan, and resulted in Cameroonian control of the oil-rich peninsula. Cameroon_sentence_83

The northern portion of the territory was formally handed over to the Cameroonian government in August 2006, and the remainder of the peninsula was left to Cameroon 2 years later, in 2008. Cameroon_sentence_84

The boundary change triggered a local separatist insurgency, as many Bakassians refused to accept Cameroonian rule. Cameroon_sentence_85

While most militants laid down their arms in November 2009, some carried on fighting for years. Cameroon_sentence_86

In February 2008, Cameroon experienced its worst violence in 15 years when a transport union strike in Douala escalated into violent protests in 31 municipal areas. Cameroon_sentence_87

In May 2014, in the wake of the Chibok schoolgirls kidnapping, presidents Paul Biya of Cameroon and Idriss Déby of Chad announced they were waging war on Boko Haram, and deployed troops to the Nigerian border. Cameroon_sentence_88

Boko Haram launched several attacks into Cameroon, killing 84 civilians in a December 2014 raid, but suffering a heavy defeat in a raid in January 2015. Cameroon_sentence_89

Cameroon declared victory over Boko Haram on Cameroonian territory in September 2018. Cameroon_sentence_90

Since November 2016, protesters from the predominantly English-speaking Northwest and Southwest regions of the country have been campaigning for continued use of the English language in schools and courts. Cameroon_sentence_91

People were killed and hundreds jailed as a result of these protests. Cameroon_sentence_92

In 2017, Biya's government blocked the regions' access to the Internet for three months. Cameroon_sentence_93

In September, separatists started a guerilla war for the independence of the Anglophone region as the Federal Republic of Ambazonia. Cameroon_sentence_94

The government responded with a military offensive, and the insurgency spread across the Northwest and Southwest regions. Cameroon_sentence_95

As of 2019, fighting between separatist guerillas and government forces continues. Cameroon_sentence_96

During 2020, numerous terrorist attacks--many of them carried out without claims of credit--and government reprisals have led to bloodshed throughout the country. Cameroon_sentence_97

Since 2016, more than 450,000 people have fled their homes. Cameroon_sentence_98

The conflict indirectly led to an upsurge in Boko Haram attacks, as the Cameroonian military largely withdrew from the north to focus on fighting the Ambazonian separatists. Cameroon_sentence_99

Politics and government Cameroon_section_6

Main article: Politics of Cameroon Cameroon_sentence_100

The President of Cameroon is elected and creates policy, administers government agencies, commands the armed forces, negotiates and ratifies treaties, and declares a state of emergency. Cameroon_sentence_101

The president appoints government officials at all levels, from the prime minister (considered the official head of government), to the provincial governors and divisional officers. Cameroon_sentence_102

The president is selected by popular vote every seven years. Cameroon_sentence_103

There have been 2 presidents since the independence of Cameroon. Cameroon_sentence_104

The National Assembly makes legislation. Cameroon_sentence_105

The body consists of 180 members who are elected for five-year terms and meet three times per year. Cameroon_sentence_106

Laws are passed on a majority vote. Cameroon_sentence_107

The 1996 constitution establishes a second house of parliament, the 100-seat Senate. Cameroon_sentence_108

The government recognises the authority of traditional chiefs, fons, and lamibe to govern at the local level and to resolve disputes as long as such rulings do not conflict with national law. Cameroon_sentence_109

Cameroon's legal system is a mixture of civil law, common law, and customary law. Cameroon_sentence_110

Although nominally independent, the judiciary falls under the authority of the executive's Ministry of Justice. Cameroon_sentence_111

The president appoints judges at all levels. Cameroon_sentence_112

The judiciary is officially divided into tribunals, the court of appeal, and the supreme court. Cameroon_sentence_113

The National Assembly elects the members of a nine-member High Court of Justice that judges high-ranking members of government in the event they are charged with high treason or harming national security. Cameroon_sentence_114

Political culture Cameroon_section_7

Cameroon is viewed as rife with corruption at all levels of government. Cameroon_sentence_115

In 1997, Cameroon established anti-corruption bureaus in 29 ministries, but only 25% became operational, and in 2012, Transparency International placed Cameroon at number 144 on a list of 176 countries ranked from least to most corrupt. Cameroon_sentence_116

On 18 January 2006, Biya initiated an anti-corruption drive under the direction of the National Anti-Corruption Observatory. Cameroon_sentence_117

There are several high corruption risk areas in Cameroon, for instance, customs, public health sector and public procurement. Cameroon_sentence_118

However, the corruption has gotten worse, regardless of the existing anti-corruption bureaus, as Transparency International ranked Cameroon 152 on a list of 180 countries in 2018. Cameroon_sentence_119

President Biya's Cameroon People's Democratic Movement (CPDM) was the only legal political party until December 1990. Cameroon_sentence_120

Numerous regional political groups have since formed. Cameroon_sentence_121

The primary opposition is the Social Democratic Front (SDF), based largely in the Anglophone region of the country and headed by John Fru Ndi. Cameroon_sentence_122

Biya and his party have maintained control of the presidency and the National Assembly in national elections, which rivals contend were unfair. Cameroon_sentence_123

Human rights organisations allege that the government suppresses the freedoms of opposition groups by preventing demonstrations, disrupting meetings, and arresting opposition leaders and journalists. Cameroon_sentence_124

In particular, English-speaking people are discriminated against; protests often escalate into violent clashes and killings. Cameroon_sentence_125

In 2017, President Biya shut down the Internet in the English-speaking region for 94 days, at the cost of hampering five million people, including Silicon Mountain startups. Cameroon_sentence_126

Freedom House ranks Cameroon as "not free" in terms of political rights and civil liberties. Cameroon_sentence_127

The last parliamentary elections were held on 9 February 2020. Cameroon_sentence_128

Foreign relations Cameroon_section_8

Further information: Foreign relations of Cameroon Cameroon_sentence_129

Cameroon is a member of both the Commonwealth of Nations and La Francophonie. Cameroon_sentence_130

Its foreign policy closely follows that of its main ally, France (one of its former colonial rulers). Cameroon_sentence_131

Cameroon relies heavily on France for its defence, although military spending is high in comparison to other sectors of government. Cameroon_sentence_132

President Biya has engaged in a decades-long clash with the government of Nigeria over possession of the oil-rich Bakassi peninsula. Cameroon_sentence_133

Cameroon and Nigeria share a 1,000-mile (1 600 km) border and have disputed the sovereignty of the Bakassi peninsula. Cameroon_sentence_134

In 1994 Cameroon petitioned the International Court of Justice to resolve the dispute. Cameroon_sentence_135

The two countries attempted to establish a cease-fire in 1996, however, fighting continued for years. Cameroon_sentence_136

In 2002, the ICJ ruled that the Anglo-German Agreement of 1913 gave sovereignty to Cameroon. Cameroon_sentence_137

The ruling called for a withdrawal by both countries and denied the request by Cameroon for compensation due to Nigeria's long-term occupation. Cameroon_sentence_138

By 2004, Nigeria had failed to meet the deadline to handover the peninsula. Cameroon_sentence_139

A UN-mediated summit in June 2006 facilitated an agreement for Nigeria to withdraw from the region and both leaders signed the Greentree Agreement. Cameroon_sentence_140

The withdrawal and handover of control was completed by August 2006. Cameroon_sentence_141

In July 2019, UN ambassadors of 37 countries, including Cameroon, have signed a joint letter to the UNHRC defending China's treatment of Uyghurs in the Xinjiang region. Cameroon_sentence_142

Human rights Cameroon_section_9

See also: Human rights in Cameroon Cameroon_sentence_143

Human rights organisations accuse police and military forces of mistreating and even torturing criminal suspects, ethnic minorities, homosexuals, and political activists. Cameroon_sentence_144

United Nations figures indicate that more than 21,000 people have fled to neighboring countries, while 160,000 have been internally displaced by the violence, many reportedly hiding in forests. Cameroon_sentence_145

Prisons are overcrowded with little access to adequate food and medical facilities, and prisons run by traditional rulers in the north are charged with holding political opponents at the behest of the government. Cameroon_sentence_146

However, since the first decade of the 21st century, an increasing number of police and gendarmes have been prosecuted for improper conduct. Cameroon_sentence_147

On 25 July 2018, UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Zeid Ra'ad Al Hussein expressed deep concern about reports of violations and abuses in the English-speaking Northwest and Southwest regions of Cameroon. Cameroon_sentence_148

Same-sex sexual acts are banned by section 347-1 of the penal code with a penalty of from 6 months up to 5 years' imprisonment. Cameroon_sentence_149

Administrative divisions Cameroon_section_10

Main articles: Regions of Cameroon and Departments of Cameroon Cameroon_sentence_150

The constitution divides Cameroon into 10 semi-autonomous regions, each under the administration of an elected Regional Council. Cameroon_sentence_151

Each region is headed by a presidentially appointed governor. Cameroon_sentence_152

These leaders are charged with implementing the will of the president, reporting on the general mood and conditions of the regions, administering the civil service, keeping the peace, and overseeing the heads of the smaller administrative units. Cameroon_sentence_153

Governors have broad powers: they may order propaganda in their area and call in the army, gendarmes, and police. Cameroon_sentence_154

All local government officials are employees of the central government's Ministry of Territorial Administration, from which local governments also get most of their budgets. Cameroon_sentence_155

The regions are subdivided into 58 divisions (French départements). Cameroon_sentence_156

These are headed by presidentially appointed divisional officers (préfets). Cameroon_sentence_157

The divisions are further split into sub-divisions (arrondissements), headed by assistant divisional officers (sous-prefets). Cameroon_sentence_158

The districts, administered by district heads (chefs de district), are the smallest administrative units. Cameroon_sentence_159

The three northernmost regions are the Far North (Extrême Nord), North (Nord), and Adamawa (Adamaoua). Cameroon_sentence_160

Directly south of them are the Centre (Centre) and East (Est). Cameroon_sentence_161

The South Province (Sud) lies on the Gulf of Guinea and the southern border. Cameroon_sentence_162

Cameroon's western region is split into four smaller regions: the Littoral (Littoral) and Southwest (Sud-Ouest) regions are on the coast, and the Northwest (Nord-Ouest) and West (Ouest) regions are in the western grassfields. Cameroon_sentence_163

Education and health Cameroon_section_11

Main articles: Education in Cameroon and Health in Cameroon Cameroon_sentence_164

In 2013, the total adult literacy rate of Cameroon was estimated to be 71.3%. Cameroon_sentence_165

Among youths age 15–24 the literacy rate was 85.4% for males and 76.4% for females. Cameroon_sentence_166

Most children have access to state-run schools that are cheaper than private and religious facilities. Cameroon_sentence_167

The educational system is a mixture of British and French precedents with most instruction in English or French. Cameroon_sentence_168

Cameroon has one of the highest school attendance rates in Africa. Cameroon_sentence_169

Girls attend school less regularly than boys do because of cultural attitudes, domestic duties, early marriage, pregnancy, and sexual harassment. Cameroon_sentence_170

Although attendance rates are higher in the south, a disproportionate number of teachers are stationed there, leaving northern schools chronically understaffed. Cameroon_sentence_171

In 2013, the primary school enrollment rate was 93.5%. Cameroon_sentence_172

School attendance in Cameroon is also affected by child labour. Cameroon_sentence_173

Indeed, the United States Department of Labor Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor reported that 56% of children aged 5 to 14 were working children and that almost 53% of children aged 7 to 14 combined work and school. Cameroon_sentence_174

In December 2014, a List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor issued by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs mentioned Cameroon among the countries that resorted to child labor in the production of cocoa. Cameroon_sentence_175

The quality of health care is generally low. Cameroon_sentence_176

Life expectancy at birth is estimated to be 56 years in 2012, with 48 healthy life years expected. Cameroon_sentence_177

Fertility rate remain high in Cameroon with an average of 4.8 births per woman and an average mothers' age of 19.7 years old at first birth. Cameroon_sentence_178

In Cameroon, there is only one doctor for every 5,000 people, according to the World Health Organization. Cameroon_sentence_179

In 2014, just 4.1% of total GDP expenditure was allocated to healthcare. Cameroon_sentence_180

Due to financial cuts in the health care system, there are few professionals. Cameroon_sentence_181

Doctors and nurses who were trained in Cameroon, emigrate because in Cameroon the payment is poor while the workload is high. Cameroon_sentence_182

Nurses are unemployed even though their help is needed. Cameroon_sentence_183

Some of them help out voluntarily so they will not lose their skills. Cameroon_sentence_184

Outside the major cities, facilities are often dirty and poorly equipped. Cameroon_sentence_185

In 2012, the top three deadly diseases were HIV/AIDS, lower respiratory tract infection, and diarrheal diseases. Cameroon_sentence_186

Endemic diseases include dengue fever, filariasis, leishmaniasis, malaria, meningitis, schistosomiasis, and sleeping sickness. Cameroon_sentence_187

The HIV/AIDS prevalence rate in 2016 was estimated at 3.8% for those aged 15–49, although a strong stigma against the illness keeps the number of reported cases artificially low. Cameroon_sentence_188

46,000 children under age 14 were estimated to be living with HIV in 2016. Cameroon_sentence_189

In Cameroon, 58% of those living with HIV know their status, and just 37% receive ARV treatment. Cameroon_sentence_190

In 2016, 29,000 death due to AIDS occurred in both adults and children. Cameroon_sentence_191

Breast ironing, a traditional practice that is prevalent in Cameroon, may affect girls' health. Cameroon_sentence_192

Female genital mutilation (FGM), while not widespread, is practiced among some populations; according to a 2013 UNICEF report, 1% of women in Cameroon have undergone FGM. Cameroon_sentence_193

Also impacting women and girls' health, the contraceptive prevalence rate is estimated to be just 34.4% in 2014. Cameroon_sentence_194

Traditional healers remain a popular alternative to evidence-based medicine. Cameroon_sentence_195

Geography Cameroon_section_12

Main articles: Geography of Cameroon and Geology of Cameroon Cameroon_sentence_196

At 475,442 square kilometres (183,569 sq mi), Cameroon is the world's 53rd-largest country. Cameroon_sentence_197

It is slightly larger than the nation of Sweden and the state of California; Cameroon is comparable in size to Papua New Guinea. Cameroon_sentence_198

The country is located in Central and West Africa, known as the hinge of Africa, on the Bight of Bonny, part of the Gulf of Guinea and the Atlantic Ocean. Cameroon_sentence_199

Cameroon lies between latitudes and 13°N, and longitudes and 17°E. Cameroon_sentence_200

Cameroon controls 12 nautical miles of the Atlantic Ocean. Cameroon_sentence_201

Tourist literature describes Cameroon as "Africa in miniature" because it exhibits all major climates and vegetation of the continent: coast, desert, mountains, rainforest, and savanna. Cameroon_sentence_202

The country's neighbours are Nigeria and the Atlantic Ocean to the west; Chad to the northeast; the Central African Republic to the east; and Equatorial Guinea, Gabon and the Republic of the Congo to the south. Cameroon_sentence_203

Cameroon is divided into five major geographic zones distinguished by dominant physical, climatic, and vegetative features. Cameroon_sentence_204

The coastal plain extends 15 to 150 kilometres (9 to 93 mi) inland from the Gulf of Guinea and has an average elevation of 90 metres (295 ft). Cameroon_sentence_205

Exceedingly hot and humid with a short dry season, this belt is densely forested and includes some of the wettest places on earth, part of the Cross-Sanaga-Bioko coastal forests. Cameroon_sentence_206

The South Cameroon Plateau rises from the coastal plain to an average elevation of 650 metres (2,133 ft). Cameroon_sentence_207

Equatorial rainforest dominates this region, although its alternation between wet and dry seasons makes it is less humid than the coast. Cameroon_sentence_208

This area is part of the Atlantic Equatorial coastal forests ecoregion. Cameroon_sentence_209

An irregular chain of mountains, hills, and plateaus known as the Cameroon range extends from Mount Cameroon on the coast—Cameroon's highest point at 4,095 metres (13,435 ft)—almost to Lake Chad at Cameroon's northern border at 13°05'N. Cameroon_sentence_210

This region has a mild climate, particularly on the Western High Plateau, although rainfall is high. Cameroon_sentence_211

Its soils are among Cameroon's most fertile, especially around volcanic Mount Cameroon. Cameroon_sentence_212

Volcanism here has created crater lakes. Cameroon_sentence_213

On 21 August 1986, one of these, Lake Nyos, belched carbon dioxide and killed between 1,700 and 2,000 people. Cameroon_sentence_214

This area has been delineated by the World Wildlife Fund as the Cameroonian Highlands forests ecoregion. Cameroon_sentence_215

The southern plateau rises northward to the grassy, rugged Adamawa Plateau. Cameroon_sentence_216

This feature stretches from the western mountain area and forms a barrier between the country's north and south. Cameroon_sentence_217

Its average elevation is 1,100 metres (3,609 ft), and its average temperature ranges from 22 °C (71.6 °F) to 25 °C (77 °F) with high rainfall between April and October peaking in July and August. Cameroon_sentence_218

The northern lowland region extends from the edge of the Adamawa to Lake Chad with an average elevation of 300 to 350 metres (984 to 1,148 ft). Cameroon_sentence_219

Its characteristic vegetation is savanna scrub and grass. Cameroon_sentence_220

This is an arid region with sparse rainfall and high median temperatures. Cameroon_sentence_221

Cameroon has four patterns of drainage. Cameroon_sentence_222

In the south, the principal rivers are the Ntem, Nyong, Sanaga, and Wouri. Cameroon_sentence_223

These flow southwestward or westward directly into the Gulf of Guinea. Cameroon_sentence_224

The Dja and Kadéï drain southeastward into the Congo River. Cameroon_sentence_225

In northern Cameroon, the Bénoué River runs north and west and empties into the Niger. Cameroon_sentence_226

The Logone flows northward into Lake Chad, which Cameroon shares with three neighbouring countries. Cameroon_sentence_227

Biodiversity Cameroon_section_13

Main article: Wildlife of Cameroon Cameroon_sentence_228

The wide diversity of climates and natural regions of Cameroon, as coastline, mountains, savanna, deserts, and tropical forests, allows that the country counts with rich biodiversity. Cameroon_sentence_229

Twenty-two million hectares from the Congo Basin forest ecosystem are located in Cameroon, where 9,000 plant species, 900 bird species, and 320 mammals species live, included 156 endemic plants, eight endemic birds, and 14 endemic mammals. Cameroon_sentence_230

The border with Nigeria has one of the highest concentration of biodiversity in Africa. Cameroon_sentence_231

As part of the conservation efforts to protect threatened natural resources, Cameroon has established protected areas since 1932, included national parks, wildlife sanctuaries, faunal reserves, and one flora sanctuary. Cameroon_sentence_232

Economy and infrastructure Cameroon_section_14

Main article: Economy of Cameroon Cameroon_sentence_233

Cameroon's per capita GDP (Purchasing power parity) was estimated as US$3,700 in 2017. Cameroon_sentence_234

Major export markets include the Netherlands, France, China, Belgium, Italy, Algeria, and Malaysia. Cameroon_sentence_235

Cameroon has had a decade of strong economic performance, with GDP growing at an average of 4% per year. Cameroon_sentence_236

During the 2004–2008 period, public debt was reduced from over 60% of GDP to 10% and official reserves quadrupled to over US$3 billion. Cameroon_sentence_237

Cameroon is part of the Bank of Central African States (of which it is the dominant economy), the Customs and Economic Union of Central Africa (UDEAC) and the Organization for the Harmonization of Business Law in Africa (OHADA). Cameroon_sentence_238

Its currency is the CFA franc. Cameroon_sentence_239

Unemployment was estimated at 3.38% in 2019, and 23.8% of the population was living below the international poverty threshold of US$1.90 a day in 2014. Cameroon_sentence_240

Since the late 1980s, Cameroon has been following programmes advocated by the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) to reduce poverty, privatise industries, and increase economic growth. Cameroon_sentence_241

The government has taken measures to encourage tourism in the country. Cameroon_sentence_242

An estimated 70% of the population farms, and agriculture comprised an estimated 16.7% of GDP in 2017. Cameroon_sentence_243

Most agriculture is done at the subsistence scale by local farmers using simple tools. Cameroon_sentence_244

They sell their surplus produce, and some maintain separate fields for commercial use. Cameroon_sentence_245

Urban centres are particularly reliant on peasant agriculture for their foodstuffs. Cameroon_sentence_246

Soils and climate on the coast encourage extensive commercial cultivation of bananas, cocoa, oil palms, rubber, and tea. Cameroon_sentence_247

Inland on the South Cameroon Plateau, cash crops include coffee, sugar, and tobacco. Cameroon_sentence_248

Coffee is a major cash crop in the western highlands, and in the north, natural conditions favour crops such as cotton, groundnuts, and rice. Cameroon_sentence_249

Livestock are raised throughout the country. Cameroon_sentence_250

Fishing employs 5,000 people and provides over 100,000 tons of seafood each year. Cameroon_sentence_251

Bushmeat, long a staple food for rural Cameroonians, is today a delicacy in the country's urban centres. Cameroon_sentence_252

The commercial bushmeat trade has now surpassed deforestation as the main threat to wildlife in Cameroon. Cameroon_sentence_253

The southern rainforest has vast timber reserves, estimated to cover 37% of Cameroon's total land area. Cameroon_sentence_254

However, large areas of the forest are difficult to reach. Cameroon_sentence_255

Logging, largely handled by foreign-owned firms, provides the government US$60 million a year in taxes (as of 1998), and laws mandate the safe and sustainable exploitation of timber. Cameroon_sentence_256

Nevertheless, in practice, the industry is one of the least regulated in Cameroon. Cameroon_sentence_257

Factory-based industry accounted for an estimated 26.5% of GDP in 2017. Cameroon_sentence_258

More than 75% of Cameroon's industrial strength is located in Douala and Bonabéri. Cameroon_sentence_259

Cameroon possesses substantial mineral resources, but these are not extensively mined (see Mining in Cameroon). Cameroon_sentence_260

Petroleum exploitation has fallen since 1986, but this is still a substantial sector such that dips in prices have a strong effect on the economy. Cameroon_sentence_261

Rapids and waterfalls obstruct the southern rivers, but these sites offer opportunities for hydroelectric development and supply most of Cameroon's energy. Cameroon_sentence_262

The Sanaga River powers the largest hydroelectric station, located at Edéa. Cameroon_sentence_263

The rest of Cameroon's energy comes from oil-powered thermal engines. Cameroon_sentence_264

Much of the country remains without reliable power supplies. Cameroon_sentence_265

Transport in Cameroon is often difficult. Cameroon_sentence_266

Only 6.6% of the roadways are tarred. Cameroon_sentence_267

Roadblocks often serve little other purpose than to allow police and gendarmes to collect bribes from travellers. Cameroon_sentence_268

Road banditry has long hampered transport along the eastern and western borders, and since 2005, the problem has intensified in the east as the Central African Republic has further destabilised. Cameroon_sentence_269

Intercity bus services run by multiple private companies connect all major cities. Cameroon_sentence_270

They are the most popular means of transportation followed by the rail service Camrail. Cameroon_sentence_271

Rail service runs from Kumba in the west to Bélabo in the east and north to Ngaoundéré. Cameroon_sentence_272

International airports are located in Douala and Yaoundé, with a third under construction in Maroua. Cameroon_sentence_273

Douala is the country's principal seaport. Cameroon_sentence_274

In the north, the Bénoué River is seasonally navigable from Garoua across into Nigeria. Cameroon_sentence_275

Although press freedoms have improved since the first decade of the 21st century, the press is corrupt and beholden to special interests and political groups. Cameroon_sentence_276

Newspapers routinely self-censor to avoid government reprisals. Cameroon_sentence_277

The major radio and television stations are state-run and other communications, such as land-based telephones and telegraphs, are largely under government control. Cameroon_sentence_278

However, cell phone networks and Internet providers have increased dramatically since the first decade of the 21st century and are largely unregulated. Cameroon_sentence_279

Military Cameroon_section_15

Main article: Cameroonian Armed Forces Cameroon_sentence_280

The Cameroon Armed Forces, (French: Forces armées camerounaises, FAC) as of 2015, consists of the country's army (French: Armée de Terre), the country's navy (French: Marine Nationale de la République (MNR), includes naval infantry), the Cameroonian Air Force (French: Armée de l'Air du Cameroun, AAC), and the Gendarmerie. Cameroon_sentence_281

Males and females that are 18 years of age up to 23 years of age and have graduated high school are eligible for military service. Cameroon_sentence_282

Those who join are obliged to complete 4 years of service. Cameroon_sentence_283

There is no conscription in Cameroon, but the government makes periodic calls for volunteers. Cameroon_sentence_284

Demographics Cameroon_section_16

Main article: Demographics of Cameroon Cameroon_sentence_285

The population of Cameroon was 25,216,267 in 2018. Cameroon_sentence_286

The life expectancy was 62.3 years (60.6 years for males and 64 years for females). Cameroon_sentence_287

Cameroon has slightly more women (50.5%) than men (49.5%). Cameroon_sentence_288

Over 60% of the population is under age 25. Cameroon_sentence_289

People over 65 years of age account for only 3.11% of the total population. Cameroon_sentence_290

Cameroon's population is almost evenly divided between urban and rural dwellers. Cameroon_sentence_291

Population density is highest in the large urban centres, the western highlands, and the northeastern plain. Cameroon_sentence_292

Douala, Yaoundé, and Garoua are the largest cities. Cameroon_sentence_293

In contrast, the Adamawa Plateau, southeastern Bénoué depression, and most of the South Cameroon Plateau are sparsely populated. Cameroon_sentence_294

According to the World Health Organization, the fertility rate was 4.8 in 2013 with a population growth rate of 2.56%. Cameroon_sentence_295

People from the overpopulated western highlands and the underdeveloped north are moving to the coastal plantation zone and urban centres for employment. Cameroon_sentence_296

Smaller movements are occurring as workers seek employment in lumber mills and plantations in the south and east. Cameroon_sentence_297

Although the national sex ratio is relatively even, these out-migrants are primarily males, which leads to unbalanced ratios in some regions. Cameroon_sentence_298

Both monogamous and polygamous marriage are practised, and the average Cameroonian family is large and extended. Cameroon_sentence_299

In the north, women tend to the home, and men herd cattle or work as farmers. Cameroon_sentence_300

In the south, women grow the family's food, and men provide meat and grow cash crops. Cameroon_sentence_301

Cameroonian society is male-dominated, and violence and discrimination against women is common. Cameroon_sentence_302

The number of distinct ethnic and linguistic groups in Cameroon is estimated to be between 230 and 282. Cameroon_sentence_303

The Adamawa Plateau broadly bisects these into northern and southern divisions. Cameroon_sentence_304

The northern peoples are Sudanese groups, who live in the central highlands and the northern lowlands, and the Fulani, who are spread throughout northern Cameroon. Cameroon_sentence_305

A small number of Shuwa Arabs live near Lake Chad. Cameroon_sentence_306

Southern Cameroon is inhabited by speakers of Bantu and Semi-Bantu languages. Cameroon_sentence_307

Bantu-speaking groups inhabit the coastal and equatorial zones, while speakers of Semi-Bantu languages live in the Western grassfields. Cameroon_sentence_308

Some 5,000 Gyele and Baka Pygmy peoples roam the southeastern and coastal rainforests or live in small, roadside settlements. Cameroon_sentence_309

Nigerians make up the largest group of foreign nationals. Cameroon_sentence_310

Refugees Cameroon_section_17

Main article: Refugees in Cameroon Cameroon_sentence_311

In 2007, Cameroon hosted approximately 97,400 refugees and asylum seekers. Cameroon_sentence_312

Of these, 49,300 were from the Central African Republic (many driven west by war), 41,600 from Chad, and 2,900 from Nigeria. Cameroon_sentence_313

Kidnappings of Cameroonian citizens by Central African bandits have increased since 2005. Cameroon_sentence_314

In the first months of 2014, thousands of refugees fleeing the violence in the Central African Republic arrived in Cameroon. Cameroon_sentence_315

On 4 June 2014, AlertNet reported: Cameroon_sentence_316

Languages Cameroon_section_18

Further information: Languages of Cameroon Cameroon_sentence_317

Both English and French are official languages, although French is by far the most understood language (more than 80%). Cameroon_sentence_318

German, the language of the original colonisers, has long since been displaced by French and English. Cameroon_sentence_319

Cameroonian Pidgin English is the lingua franca in the formerly British-administered territories. Cameroon_sentence_320

A mixture of English, French, and Pidgin called Camfranglais has been gaining popularity in urban centres since the mid-1970s. Cameroon_sentence_321

The government encourages bilingualism in English and French, and as such, official government documents, new legislation, ballots, among others, are written and provided in both languages. Cameroon_sentence_322

As part of the initiative to encourage bilingualism in Cameroon, six of the eight universities in the country are entirely bilingual. Cameroon_sentence_323

In addition to the colonial languages, there are approximately 250 other languages spoken by nearly 20 million Cameroonians. Cameroon_sentence_324

It is because of this that Cameroon is considered one of the most linguistically diverse countries in the world. Cameroon_sentence_325

In 2017 there were language protests by the anglophone population against perceived oppression by the francophone. Cameroon_sentence_326

The military was deployed against the protesters and people had been killed, hundreds imprisoned and thousands fled the country. Cameroon_sentence_327

This culminated in the declaration of an independent Republic of Ambazonia, which has since evolved into the Anglophone Crisis. Cameroon_sentence_328

Religion Cameroon_section_19

Main article: Religion in Cameroon Cameroon_sentence_329

Cameroon has a high level of religious freedom and diversity. Cameroon_sentence_330

Christianity, Islam and Traditional faiths are the three main religious practices in Cameroon. Cameroon_sentence_331

Muslims are most concentrated in the north, while Christians are concentrated primarily in the southern and western regions, but practitioners of both faiths can be found throughout the country. Cameroon_sentence_332

Large cities have significant populations of both groups. Cameroon_sentence_333

Muslims in Cameroon are divided into Sufis, Salafis, Shias, and non-denominational Muslims. Cameroon_sentence_334

People from the North-West and South-West provinces, which used to be a part of British Cameroons, have the highest proportion of Protestants. Cameroon_sentence_335

The French-speaking regions of the southern and western regions are largely Catholic. Cameroon_sentence_336

Southern ethnic groups predominantly follow Christian or traditional African animist beliefs, or a syncretic combination of the two. Cameroon_sentence_337

People widely believe in witchcraft, and the government outlaws such practices. Cameroon_sentence_338

Suspected witches are often subject to mob violence. Cameroon_sentence_339

The Islamist jihadist group Ansar al-Islam has been reported as operating in North Cameroon. Cameroon_sentence_340

The Fulani (Peuhl) ethnic group is mostly Muslim and lives primarily in the northern Francophone regions; the Bamoun ethnic group is also predominantly Muslim and lives in the West Region. Cameroon_sentence_341

Many Muslims, Christians, and members of other faiths also adhere to some aspects of animist beliefs. Cameroon_sentence_342

The Bamum ethnic group of the West Region is largely Muslim. Cameroon_sentence_343

Native traditional religions are practised in rural areas throughout the country but rarely are practised publicly in cities, in part because many indigenous religious groups are intrinsically local in character. Cameroon_sentence_344

Culture Cameroon_section_20

Main article: Culture of Cameroon Cameroon_sentence_345

Music and dance Cameroon_section_21

Further information: Public holidays in Cameroon Cameroon_sentence_346

Music and dance are an integral part of Cameroonian ceremonies, festivals, social gatherings, and storytelling. Cameroon_sentence_347

Traditional dances are highly choreographed and separate men and women or forbid participation by one sex altogether. Cameroon_sentence_348

The goals of dances range from pure entertainment to religious devotion. Cameroon_sentence_349

Traditionally, music is transmitted orally. Cameroon_sentence_350

In a typical performance, a chorus of singers echoes a soloist. Cameroon_sentence_351

Musical accompaniment may be as simple as clapping hands and stomping feet, but traditional instruments include bells worn by dancers, clappers, drums and talking drums, flutes, horns, rattles, scrapers, stringed instruments, whistles, and xylophones; the exact combination varies with ethnic group and region. Cameroon_sentence_352

Some performers sing complete songs by themselves, accompanied by a harplike instrument. Cameroon_sentence_353

Popular music styles include ambasse bey of the coast, assiko of the Bassa, mangambeu of the Bangangte, and tsamassi of the Bamileke. Cameroon_sentence_354

Nigerian music has influenced Anglophone Cameroonian performers, and Prince Nico Mbarga's highlife hit "Sweet Mother" is the top-selling African record in history. Cameroon_sentence_355

The two most popular styles of music are makossa and bikutsi. Cameroon_sentence_356

Makossa developed in Douala and mixes folk music, highlife, soul, and Congo music. Cameroon_sentence_357

Performers such as Manu Dibango, Francis Bebey, Moni Bilé, and Petit-Pays popularised the style worldwide in the 1970s and 1980s. Cameroon_sentence_358

Bikutsi originated as war music among the Ewondo. Cameroon_sentence_359

Artists such as Anne-Marie Nzié developed it into a popular dance music beginning in the 1940s, and performers such as Mama Ohandja and Les Têtes Brulées popularised it internationally during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. Cameroon_sentence_360

Holidays Cameroon_section_22

Further information: Public holidays in Cameroon Cameroon_sentence_361

The most notable holiday associated with patriotism in Cameroon is National Day, also called Unity Day. Cameroon_sentence_362

Among the most notable religious holidays are Assumption Day and Ascension Day which typically occurs 39 days after Easter. Cameroon_sentence_363

In the North West and South West provinces, collectively called Ambazonia, the 1st of October is considered to be a national holiday by Ambazonians, a date which Ambazonians regard as the declaration of independence of Ambazonia from Cameroon. Cameroon_sentence_364

Cuisine Cameroon_section_23

Further information: Cameroonian cuisine Cameroon_sentence_365

Cuisine varies by region, but a large, one-course, evening meal is common throughout the country. Cameroon_sentence_366

A typical dish is based on cocoyams, maize, cassava (manioc), millet, plantains, potatoes, rice, or yams, often pounded into dough-like fufu. Cameroon_sentence_367

This is served with a sauce, soup, or stew made from greens, groundnuts, palm oil, or other ingredients. Cameroon_sentence_368

Meat and fish are popular but expensive additions, with chicken often reserved for special occasions. Cameroon_sentence_369

Dishes are often quite hot, spiced with salt, red pepper sauce, and Maggi. Cameroon_sentence_370

Cutlery is common, but food is traditionally manipulated with the right hand. Cameroon_sentence_371

Breakfast consists of leftovers of bread and fruit with coffee or tea. Cameroon_sentence_372

Generally breakfast is made from wheat flour in various different foods such as puff-puff (doughnuts), accra banana made from bananas and flour, bean cakes and many more. Cameroon_sentence_373

Snacks are popular, especially in larger towns where they may be bought from street vendors. Cameroon_sentence_374

Water, palm wine, and millet beer are the traditional mealtime drinks, although beer, soda, and wine have gained popularity. Cameroon_sentence_375

33 Export beer is the official drink of the national soccer team and one of the most popular brands, joining Castel, Amstel Brewery, and Guinness. Cameroon_sentence_376

Fashion Cameroon_section_24

Cameroon's relatively large and diverse population is also diverse with respect to its contemporary fashion. Cameroon_sentence_377

Climate, religious, ethnic and cultural belief systems as well as influences from colonialism, imperialism and globalization are all reflected in the clothes worn by modern Cameroonians. Cameroon_sentence_378

Notable Cameroonian articles of clothing include: Pagnes, a sarongs worn by Cameroon women; Chechia, a traditional hat; kwa, a male handbag; and Gandura, male custom attire. Cameroon_sentence_379

Wrappers and loincloths are used extensively by both women and men but their use varies by region with influences from Fulani styles more present in the north and Igbo and Yoruba styles found more often in the south and west. Cameroon_sentence_380

Imane Ayissi is one of Cameroon's top fashion designers and has received international recognition. Cameroon_sentence_381

Local arts and crafts Cameroon_section_25

Traditional arts and crafts are practiced throughout the country for commercial, decorative, and religious purposes. Cameroon_sentence_382

Woodcarvings and sculptures are especially common. Cameroon_sentence_383

The high-quality clay of the western highlands is suitable for pottery and ceramics. Cameroon_sentence_384

Other crafts include basket weaving, beadworking, brass and bronze working, calabash carving and painting, embroidery, and leather working. Cameroon_sentence_385

Traditional housing styles make use of locally available materials and vary from temporary wood-and-leaf shelters of nomadic Mbororo to the rectangular mud-and-thatch homes of southern peoples. Cameroon_sentence_386

Dwellings made from materials such as cement and tin are increasingly common. Cameroon_sentence_387

Contemporary art is mainly promoted by independent cultural organizations (Doual'art, Africréa) and artist-run initiatives (Art Wash, Atelier Viking, ArtBakery). Cameroon_sentence_388

Literature Cameroon_section_26

Main article: Literature of Cameroon Cameroon_sentence_389

Cameroonian literature has concentrated on both European and African themes. Cameroon_sentence_390

Colonial-era writers such as Louis-Marie Pouka and Sankie Maimo were educated by European missionary societies and advocated assimilation into European culture as the means to bring Cameroon into the modern world. Cameroon_sentence_391

After World War II, writers such as Mongo Beti and Ferdinand Oyono analysed and criticised colonialism and rejected assimilation. Cameroon_sentence_392

Films and literature Cameroon_section_27

Further information: Cinema of Cameroon Cameroon_sentence_393

Shortly after independence, filmmakers such as Jean-Paul Ngassa and Thérèse Sita-Bella explored similar themes. Cameroon_sentence_394

In the 1960s, Mongo Beti, Ferdinand Léopold Oyono and other writers explored post-colonialism, problems of African development, and the recovery of African identity. Cameroon_sentence_395

Meanwhile, in the mid-1970s, filmmakers such as Jean-Pierre Dikongué Pipa and Daniel Kamwa dealt with the conflicts between traditional and post-colonial society. Cameroon_sentence_396

Literature and films during the next two decades concentrated more on wholly Cameroonian themes. Cameroon_sentence_397

Sports Cameroon_section_28

Main article: Sport in Cameroon Cameroon_sentence_398

National policy strongly advocates sport in all forms. Cameroon_sentence_399

Traditional sports include canoe racing and wrestling, and several hundred runners participate in the 40 km (25 mi) Mount Cameroon Race of Hope each year. Cameroon_sentence_400

Cameroon is one of the few tropical countries to have competed in the Winter Olympics. Cameroon_sentence_401

Sport in Cameroon is dominated by football. Cameroon_sentence_402

Amateur football clubs abound, organised along ethnic lines or under corporate sponsors. Cameroon_sentence_403

The national team has been one of the most successful in Africa since its strong showing in the 1982 and 1990 FIFA World Cups. Cameroon_sentence_404

Cameroon has won five African Cup of Nations titles and the gold medal at the 2000 Olympics. Cameroon_sentence_405

Cameroon was the host country of the Women Africa Cup of Nations in November–December 2016. Cameroon_sentence_406

The women's football team is known as the "Indomitable Lionesses." Cameroon_sentence_407

See also Cameroon_section_29


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