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This article is about the country. Canada_sentence_0

For other uses, see Canada (disambiguation). Canada_sentence_1


CapitalCanada_header_cell_0_1_0 OttawaCanada_cell_0_1_1
Largest cityCanada_header_cell_0_2_0 TorontoCanada_cell_0_2_1
Official languagesCanada_header_cell_0_3_0 Canada_cell_0_3_1
Ethnic groups (2016)Canada_header_cell_0_4_0 List of ethnicitiesCanada_cell_0_4_1
Religion (2011)Canada_header_cell_0_5_0 List of religionsCanada_cell_0_5_1
Demonym(s)Canada_header_cell_0_6_0 CanadianCanada_cell_0_6_1
GovernmentCanada_header_cell_0_7_0 Federal parliamentary

constitutional monarchyCanada_cell_0_7_1

MonarchCanada_header_cell_0_8_0 Elizabeth IICanada_cell_0_8_1
Governor GeneralCanada_header_cell_0_9_0 Julie PayetteCanada_cell_0_9_1
Prime MinisterCanada_header_cell_0_10_0 Justin TrudeauCanada_cell_0_10_1
LegislatureCanada_header_cell_0_11_0 ParliamentCanada_cell_0_11_1
Upper houseCanada_header_cell_0_12_0 SenateCanada_cell_0_12_1
Lower houseCanada_header_cell_0_13_0 House of CommonsCanada_cell_0_13_1
Independence from the United KingdomCanada_header_cell_0_14_0
ConfederationCanada_header_cell_0_15_0 July 1, 1867Canada_cell_0_15_1
Statute of WestminsterCanada_header_cell_0_16_0 December 11, 1931Canada_cell_0_16_1
PatriationCanada_header_cell_0_17_0 April 17, 1982Canada_cell_0_17_1
Area Canada_header_cell_0_18_0
Total areaCanada_header_cell_0_19_0 9,984,670 km (3,855,100 sq mi) (2nd)Canada_cell_0_19_1
Water (%)Canada_header_cell_0_20_0 11.76 (as of 2015)Canada_cell_0_20_1
Total land areaCanada_header_cell_0_21_0 9,093,507 km (3,511,023 sq mi)Canada_cell_0_21_1
Q3 2020 estimateCanada_header_cell_0_23_0 38,005,238 (38th)Canada_cell_0_23_1
2016 censusCanada_header_cell_0_24_0 35,151,728Canada_cell_0_24_1
DensityCanada_header_cell_0_25_0 3.92/km (10.2/sq mi) (228th)Canada_cell_0_25_1
GDP (PPP)Canada_header_cell_0_26_0 2020 estimateCanada_cell_0_26_1
TotalCanada_header_cell_0_27_0 $1.971 trillion (16th)Canada_cell_0_27_1
Per capitaCanada_header_cell_0_28_0 $52,144 (21st)Canada_cell_0_28_1
GDP (nominal)Canada_header_cell_0_29_0 2020 estimateCanada_cell_0_29_1
TotalCanada_header_cell_0_30_0 $1.812 trillion (10th)Canada_cell_0_30_1
Per capitaCanada_header_cell_0_31_0 $47,931 (17th)Canada_cell_0_31_1
Gini (2017)Canada_header_cell_0_32_0 31.0


HDI (2018)Canada_header_cell_0_33_0 0.922

very high · 13thCanada_cell_0_33_1

CurrencyCanada_header_cell_0_34_0 Canadian dollar ($) (CAD)Canada_cell_0_34_1
Time zoneCanada_header_cell_0_35_0 UTC−3.5 to −8Canada_cell_0_35_1
Summer (DST)Canada_header_cell_0_36_0 UTC−2.5 to −7Canada_cell_0_36_1
Date formatCanada_header_cell_0_37_0 yyyy-mm-dd (AD)Canada_cell_0_37_1
Driving sideCanada_header_cell_0_38_0 rightCanada_cell_0_38_1
Calling codeCanada_header_cell_0_39_0 +1Canada_cell_0_39_1
Internet TLDCanada_header_cell_0_40_0 .caCanada_cell_0_40_1

Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Canada_sentence_2

Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada_sentence_3

Its southern and western border with the United States, stretching 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world's longest bi-national land border. Canada_sentence_4

Canada's capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver. Canada_sentence_5

Various Indigenous peoples inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years before European colonization. Canada_sentence_6

Beginning in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and later settled along the Atlantic coast. Canada_sentence_7

As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. Canada_sentence_8

In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. Canada_sentence_9

This began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. Canada_sentence_10

This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British Parliament. Canada_sentence_11

Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with a monarch and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the Cabinet and head of government. Canada_sentence_12

The country is a Commonwealth realm and is officially bilingual at the federal level. Canada_sentence_13

It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, and education. Canada_sentence_14

It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada_sentence_15

Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. Canada_sentence_16

As a highly developed country, Canada has the seventeenth-highest nominal per-capita income globally as well as the thirteenth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index. Canada_sentence_17

Its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada_sentence_18

Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the United States–Mexico–Canada Agreement, the Commonwealth of Nations, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. Canada_sentence_19

Etymology Canada_section_0

Main article: Name of Canada Canada_sentence_20

While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Canada_sentence_21 Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement". Canada_sentence_22

In 1535, Indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Canada_sentence_23

Cartier later used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona (the chief at Stadacona); by 1545, European books and maps had begun referring to this small region along the Saint Lawrence River as Canada. Canada_sentence_24

From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. Canada_sentence_25

In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas; until their union as the British Province of Canada in 1841. Canada_sentence_26

Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, and the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. Canada_sentence_27

By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth". Canada_sentence_28

The government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using Dominion in the statutes of Canada in 1951. Canada_sentence_29

In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada fully under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, while later that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day. Canada_sentence_30

The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Canada_sentence_31

History Canada_section_1

Main article: History of Canada Canada_sentence_32

See also: Timeline of Canadian history and List of years in Canada Canada_sentence_33

Further information: Historiography of Canada Canada_sentence_34

Indigenous peoples Canada_section_2

Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Inuit, and Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations people married European settlers and subsequently developed their own identity. Canada_sentence_35

The term Aboriginal as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act, 1982. Canada_sentence_36

The first inhabitants of North America are generally hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago. Canada_sentence_37

The Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. Canada_sentence_38

The characteristics of Indigenous societies included permanent settlements, agriculture, complex societal hierarchies, and trading networks. Canada_sentence_39

Some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations. Canada_sentence_40

The Indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000 and two million, with a figure of 500,000 accepted by Canada's Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples. Canada_sentence_41

As a consequence of European colonization, the Indigenous population declined by forty to eighty percent, and several First Nations, such as the Beothuk, disappeared. Canada_sentence_42

The decline is attributed to several causes, including the transfer of European diseases, such as influenza, measles, and smallpox to which they had no natural immunity, conflicts over the fur trade, conflicts with the colonial authorities and settlers, and the loss of Indigenous lands to settlers and the subsequent collapse of several nations' self-sufficiency. Canada_sentence_43

Although not without conflict, European Canadians' early interactions with First Nations and Inuit populations were relatively peaceful. Canada_sentence_44

First Nations and Métis peoples played a critical part in the development of European colonies in Canada, particularly for their role in assisting European coureur des bois and voyageurs in the exploration of the continent during the North American fur trade. Canada_sentence_45

The Crown and Indigenous peoples began interactions during the European colonization period, though the Inuit, in general, had more limited interaction with European settlers. Canada_sentence_46

However, from the late 18th century, European Canadians encouraged Indigenous peoples to assimilate into their own culture. Canada_sentence_47

These attempts reached a climax in the late 19th and early 20th centuries with forced integration and relocations. Canada_sentence_48

A period of redress is underway, which started with the appointment of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada by the Government of Canada in 2008. Canada_sentence_49

European colonization Canada_section_3

It is believed that the first European to explore the east coast of Canada was Norse explorer Leif Erikson. Canada_sentence_50

In approximately 1000 AD, the Norse built a small encampment that only lasted a few years at L'Anse aux Meadows on the northern tip of Newfoundland. Canada_sentence_51

No further European exploration occurred until 1497, when Italian seafarer John Cabot explored and claimed Canada's Atlantic coast in the name of King Henry VII of England. Canada_sentence_52

In 1534, French explorer Jacques Cartier explored the Gulf of Saint Lawrence where, on July 24, he planted a 10-metre (33 ft) cross bearing the words "Long Live the King of France" and took possession of the territory New France in the name of King Francis I. Canada_sentence_53

The early 16th century saw European mariners with navigational techniques pioneered by the Basque and Portuguese establish seasonal whaling and fishing outposts along the Atlantic coast. Canada_sentence_54

In general, early settlements during the Age of Discovery appear to have been short-lived due to a combination of the harsh climate, problems with navigating trade routes and competing outputs in Scandinavia. Canada_sentence_55

In 1583, Sir Humphrey Gilbert, by the royal prerogative of Queen Elizabeth I, founded St. Canada_sentence_56 John's, Newfoundland, as the first North American English seasonal camp. Canada_sentence_57

In 1600, the French established their first seasonal trading post at Tadoussac along the Saint Lawrence. Canada_sentence_58

French explorer Samuel de Champlain arrived in 1603 and established the first permanent year-round European settlements at Port Royal (in 1605) and Quebec City (in 1608). Canada_sentence_59

Among the colonists of New France, Canadiens extensively settled the Saint Lawrence River valley and Acadians settled the present-day Maritimes, while fur traders and Catholic missionaries explored the Great Lakes, Hudson Bay, and the Mississippi watershed to Louisiana. Canada_sentence_60

The Beaver Wars broke out in the mid-17th century over control of the North American fur trade. Canada_sentence_61

The English established additional settlements in Newfoundland, beginning in 1610 and the Thirteen Colonies to the south were founded soon after. Canada_sentence_62

A series of four wars erupted in colonial North America between 1689 and 1763; the later wars of the period constituted the North American theatre of the Seven Years' War. Canada_sentence_63

Mainland Nova Scotia came under British rule with the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht, and Canada and most of New France came under British rule in 1763 after the Seven Years' War. Canada_sentence_64

British North America Canada_section_4

The Royal Proclamation of 1763 established First Nation treaty rights, created the Province of Quebec out of New France, and annexed Cape Breton Island to Nova Scotia. Canada_sentence_65

St. John's Island (now Prince Edward Island) became a separate colony in 1769. Canada_sentence_66

To avert conflict in Quebec, the British Parliament passed the Quebec Act 1774, expanding Quebec's territory to the Great Lakes and Ohio Valley. Canada_sentence_67

More importantly, the Quebec Act afforded Quebec special autonomy and rights of self-administration at a time when the Thirteen Colonies were increasingly agitating against British rule. Canada_sentence_68

It re-established the French language, Catholic faith, and French civil law there, staving off the growth of an independence movement in contrast to the Thirteen Colonies. Canada_sentence_69

The Proclamation and the Quebec Act in turn angered many residents of the Thirteen Colonies, further fuelling anti-British sentiment in the years prior to the American Revolution. Canada_sentence_70

After the successful American War of Independence, the 1783 Treaty of Paris recognized the independence of the newly formed United States and set the terms of peace, ceding British North American territories south of the Great Lakes and east of the Mississippi River to the new country. Canada_sentence_71

The American war of independence also caused a large out-migration of Loyalists, the settlers who had fought against American independence. Canada_sentence_72

Many moved to Canada, particularly Atlantic Canada, where their arrival changed the demographic distribution of the existing territories. Canada_sentence_73

New Brunswick was in turn split from Nova Scotia as part of a reorganization of Loyalist settlements in the Maritimes which led to the incorporation of Saint John, New Brunswick to become Canada's first city. Canada_sentence_74

To accommodate the influx of English-speaking Loyalists in Central Canada, the Constitutional Act of 1791 divided the province of Canada into French-speaking Lower Canada (later Quebec) and English-speaking Upper Canada (later Ontario), granting each its own elected legislative assembly. Canada_sentence_75

The Canadas were the main front in the War of 1812 between the United States and the United Kingdom. Canada_sentence_76

Peace came in 1815; no boundaries were changed. Canada_sentence_77

Immigration resumed at a higher level, with over 960,000 arrivals from Britain between 1815 and 1850. Canada_sentence_78

New arrivals included refugees escaping the Great Irish Famine as well as Gaelic-speaking Scots displaced by the Highland Clearances. Canada_sentence_79

Infectious diseases killed between 25 and 33 percent of Europeans who immigrated to Canada before 1891. Canada_sentence_80

The desire for responsible government resulted in the abortive Rebellions of 1837. Canada_sentence_81

The Durham Report subsequently recommended responsible government and the assimilation of French Canadians into English culture. Canada_sentence_82

The Act of Union 1840 merged the Canadas into a united Province of Canada and responsible government was established for all provinces of British North America by 1849. Canada_sentence_83

The signing of the Oregon Treaty by Britain and the United States in 1846 ended the Oregon boundary dispute, extending the border westward along the 49th parallel. Canada_sentence_84

This paved the way for British colonies on Vancouver Island (1849) and in British Columbia (1858). Canada_sentence_85

The Alaska Purchase of 1867 by the United States established the border along the Pacific coast, although there would continue to be some disputes about the exact demarcation of the Alaska–Yukon and Alaska–BC border for years to come. Canada_sentence_86

Confederation and expansion Canada_section_5

Following several constitutional conferences, the British North America Act 1867 officially proclaimed Canadian Confederation on July 1, 1867, initially with four provinces: Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick. Canada_sentence_87

Canada assumed control of Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory to form the Northwest Territories, where the Métis' grievances ignited the Red River Rebellion and the creation of the province of Manitoba in July 1870. Canada_sentence_88

British Columbia and Vancouver Island (which had been united in 1866) joined the confederation in 1871, while Prince Edward Island joined in 1873. Canada_sentence_89

In 1898, during the Klondike Gold Rush in the Northwest Territories, parliament created the Yukon Territory. Canada_sentence_90

Alberta and Saskatchewan became provinces in 1905. Canada_sentence_91

Between 1871 and 1896, almost one quarter of the Canadian population emigrated southwards, to the U.S. Canada_sentence_92

To open the West and encourage European immigration, Parliament approved sponsoring the construction of three transcontinental railways (including the Canadian Pacific Railway), opening the prairies to settlement with the Dominion Lands Act, and establishing the North-West Mounted Police to assert its authority over this territory. Canada_sentence_93

This period of westward expansion and nation building resulted in the displacement of many Indigenous peoples of the Canadian Prairies to "Indian reserves", clearing the way for ethnic European block settlements. Canada_sentence_94

This caused the collapse of the Plains Bison in western Canada and the introduction of European cattle farms and wheat fields dominating the land. Canada_sentence_95

The Indigenous peoples saw widespread famine and disease due to the loss of the bison and their traditional hunting lands The federal government did provide emergency relief, on condition of the Indigenous peoples moving to the reserves. Canada_sentence_96

During this time, Canada introduced the Indian Act extending its control over the First Nations to education, government and legal rights. Canada_sentence_97

Early 20th century Canada_section_6

Because Britain still maintained control of Canada's foreign affairs under the British North America Act, 1867, its declaration of war in 1914 automatically brought Canada into World War I. Canada_sentence_98

Volunteers sent to the Western Front later became part of the Canadian Corps, which played a substantial role in the Battle of Vimy Ridge and other major engagements of the war. Canada_sentence_99

Out of approximately 625,000 Canadians who served in World War I, some 60,000 were killed and another 172,000 were wounded. Canada_sentence_100

The Conscription Crisis of 1917 erupted when the Unionist Cabinet's proposal to augment the military's dwindling number of active members with conscription was met with vehement objections from French-speaking Quebecers. Canada_sentence_101

The Military Service Act brought in compulsory military service, though it, coupled with disputes over French language schools outside Quebec, deeply alienated Francophone Canadians and temporarily split the Liberal Party. Canada_sentence_102

In 1919, Canada joined the League of Nations independently of Britain, and the Statute of Westminster 1931 affirmed Canada's independence. Canada_sentence_103

The Great Depression in Canada during the early 1930s saw an economic downturn, leading to hardship across the country. Canada_sentence_104

In response to the downturn, the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) in Saskatchewan introduced many elements of a welfare state (as pioneered by Tommy Douglas) in the 1940s and 1950s. Canada_sentence_105

On the advice of Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King, war with Germany was declared effective September 10, 1939, by King George VI, seven days after the United Kingdom. Canada_sentence_106

The delay underscored Canada's independence. Canada_sentence_107

The first Canadian Army units arrived in Britain in December 1939. Canada_sentence_108

In all, over a million Canadians served in the armed forces during World War II and approximately 42,000 were killed and another 55,000 were wounded. Canada_sentence_109

Canadian troops played important roles in many key battles of the war, including the failed 1942 Dieppe Raid, the Allied invasion of Italy, the Normandy landings, the Battle of Normandy, and the Battle of the Scheldt in 1944. Canada_sentence_110

Canada provided asylum for the Dutch monarchy while that country was occupied and is credited by the Netherlands for major contributions to its liberation from Nazi Germany. Canada_sentence_111

The Canadian economy boomed during the war as its industries manufactured military materiel for Canada, Britain, China, and the Soviet Union. Canada_sentence_112

Despite another Conscription Crisis in Quebec in 1944, Canada finished the war with a large army and strong economy. Canada_sentence_113

Contemporary era Canada_section_7

The financial crisis of the Great Depression had led the Dominion of Newfoundland to relinquish responsible government in 1934 and become a crown colony ruled by a British governor. Canada_sentence_114

After two bitter referendums, Newfoundlanders voted to join Canada in 1949 as a province. Canada_sentence_115

Canada's post-war economic growth, combined with the policies of successive Liberal governments, led to the emergence of a new Canadian identity, marked by the adoption of the Maple Leaf Flag in 1965, the implementation of official bilingualism (English and French) in 1969, and the institution of official multiculturalism in 1971. Canada_sentence_116

Socially democratic programs were also instituted, such as Medicare, the Canada Pension Plan, and Canada Student Loans, though provincial governments, particularly Quebec and Alberta, opposed many of these as incursions into their jurisdictions. Canada_sentence_117

Finally, another series of constitutional conferences resulted in the UK's Canada Act 1982, the patriation of Canada's constitution from the United Kingdom, concurrent with the creation of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Canada_sentence_118

Canada had established complete sovereignty as an independent country, although the Queen retained her role as monarch of Canada. Canada_sentence_119

In 1999, Nunavut became Canada's third territory after a series of negotiations with the federal government. Canada_sentence_120

At the same time, Quebec underwent profound social and economic changes through the Quiet Revolution of the 1960s, giving birth to a secular nationalist movement. Canada_sentence_121

The radical Front de libération du Québec (FLQ) ignited the October Crisis with a series of bombings and kidnappings in 1970 and the sovereignist Parti Québécois was elected in 1976, organizing an unsuccessful referendum on sovereignty-association in 1980. Canada_sentence_122

Attempts to accommodate Quebec nationalism constitutionally through the Meech Lake Accord failed in 1990. Canada_sentence_123

This led to the formation of the Bloc Québécois in Quebec and the invigoration of the Reform Party of Canada in the West. Canada_sentence_124

A second referendum followed in 1995, in which sovereignty was rejected by a slimmer margin of 50.6 to 49.4 percent. Canada_sentence_125

In 1997, the Supreme Court ruled unilateral secession by a province would be unconstitutional and the Clarity Act was passed by parliament, outlining the terms of a negotiated departure from Confederation. Canada_sentence_126

In addition to the issues of Quebec sovereignty, a number of crises shook Canadian society in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Canada_sentence_127

These included the explosion of Air India Flight 182 in 1985, the largest mass murder in Canadian history; the École Polytechnique massacre in 1989, a university shooting targeting female students; and the Oka Crisis of 1990, the first of a number of violent confrontations between the government and Indigenous groups. Canada_sentence_128

Canada also joined the Gulf War in 1990 as part of a United States–led coalition force and was active in several peacekeeping missions in the 1990s, including the UNPROFOR mission in the former Yugoslavia. Canada_sentence_129

Canada sent troops to Afghanistan in 2001, but declined to join the United States–led invasion of Iraq in 2003. Canada_sentence_130

In 2011, Canadian forces participated in the NATO-led intervention into the Libyan Civil War, and also became involved in battling the Islamic State insurgency in Iraq in the mid-2010s. Canada_sentence_131

Geography, biodiversity and climate Canada_section_8

Main article: Geography of Canada Canada_sentence_132

By total area (including its waters), Canada is the second-largest country in the world, after Russia. Canada_sentence_133

By land area alone, however, Canada ranks fourth, due to having the world's largest proportion of fresh water lakes. Canada_sentence_134

Stretching from the Atlantic Ocean in the east, along the Arctic Ocean to the north, and to the Pacific Ocean in the west, the county encompasses 9,984,670 km (3,855,100 sq mi) of territory. Canada_sentence_135

Canada also has vast maritime terrain, with the world's longest coastline of 243,042 kilometres (151,019 mi). Canada_sentence_136

In addition to sharing the world's largest land border with the United States—spanning 8,891 km (5,525 mi)—Canada shares a maritime boundary with Greenland to the northeast and with the France's overseas collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon to the southeast. Canada_sentence_137

The physical geography of Canada is widely varied. Canada_sentence_138

Boreal forests prevail throughout the country, ice is prominent in northern Arctic regions and through the Rocky Mountains, and the relatively flat Canadian Prairies in the southwest facilitate productive agriculture. Canada_sentence_139

Since the end of the last glacial period, Canada has consisted of eight distinct forest regions, with 42 percent of its land area covered by forests (approximately 8 percent of the world's forested land), made up mostly of spruce, poplar, and pine. Canada_sentence_140

Canada has over 2,000,000 lakes—563 of which are greater than 100 km (39 sq mi)—containing much of the world's fresh water. Canada_sentence_141

There are also fresh-water glaciers in the Canadian Rockies, the Coast Mountains and the Arctic Cordillera. Canada_sentence_142

In the southern regions of Canada, air pollution from both Canada and the United States—caused by metal smelting, burning coal to power utilities, and vehicle emissions—has resulted in acid rain, which has severely impacted waterways, forest growth and agricultural productivity in Canada. Canada_sentence_143

Canada is divided into 15 ecozones, forming the country's first level of ecological land classification; they are further subdivided into ecoregions, ecodistricts and ecoprovinces. Canada_sentence_144

These ecozones encompass over 71,000 classified species of Canadian wildlife, with an equal number yet to be formally recognized or discovered. Canada_sentence_145

Canadian fauna and Canadian flora species are divided among five different kingdoms: protozoa (approximately 1% of recorded species); chromist (approximately 4% of recorded species); fungis (approximately 16% of recorded species); plants (approximately 11% of recorded species); and animals (approximately 68% of recorded species). Canada_sentence_146

Due to human actions and environmental issues in the country, there are currently more than 700 species at risk of being lost, including 306 classified as endangered species, 165 as threatened species, 200 as special concern, and 22 as extirpated (no longer found in the wild). Canada_sentence_147

Canada is geologically active, having many earthquakes and potentially active volcanoes, notably Mount Meager massif, Mount Garibaldi, Mount Cayley massif, and the Mount Edziza volcanic complex. Canada_sentence_148

The volcanic eruption of the Tseax Cone in 1775 was among Canada's worst natural disasters, killing an estimated 2,000 Nisga'a people and destroying their village in the Nass River valley of northern British Columbia. Canada_sentence_149

The eruption produced a 22.5-kilometre (14.0 mi) lava flow, and, according to Nisga'a legend, blocked the flow of the Nass River. Canada_sentence_150

Canada is home to the world's northernmost settlement, Canadian Forces Station Alert, on the northern tip of Ellesmere Island—latitude 82.5°N—which lies 817 kilometres (508 mi) from the North Pole. Canada_sentence_151

Much of Northern Canada is covered by ice and permafrost; however, the future of the permafrost is uncertain because the Arctic has been warming at three times the global average as a result of climate change in Canada. Canada_sentence_152

Three of Canada's arctic islands – Baffin Island, Victoria Island and Ellesmere Island – are among the ten largest in the world. Canada_sentence_153

Average winter and summer high temperatures across Canada vary from region to region. Canada_sentence_154

Winters can be harsh in many parts of the country, particularly in the interior and Prairie provinces, which experience a continental climate, where daily average temperatures are near −15 °C (5 °F), but can drop below −40 °C (−40 °F) with severe wind chills. Canada_sentence_155

In non-coastal regions, snow can cover the ground for almost six months of the year, while in parts of the north snow can persist year-round. Canada_sentence_156

Coastal British Columbia has a temperate climate, with a mild and rainy winter. Canada_sentence_157

On the east and west coasts, average high temperatures are generally in the low 20s °C (70s °F), while between the coasts, the average summer high temperature ranges from 25 to 30 °C (77 to 86 °F), with temperatures in some interior locations occasionally exceeding 40 °C (104 °F). Canada_sentence_158

Due to climate change, Canada's annual average temperature over land has warmed by 1.7 °C (3.1 °F), with changes ranging from 1.1 to 2.3 °C (2.0 to 4.1 °F) in various regions, since 1948. Canada_sentence_159

The rate of warming has been higher across the North and in the Prairies. Canada_sentence_160

Government and politics Canada_section_9

Main articles: Government of Canada and Politics of Canada Canada_sentence_161

Canada is described as a "full democracy", with a tradition of liberalism, and an egalitarian, moderate political ideology. Canada_sentence_162

An emphasis on social justice has been a distinguishing element of Canada's political culture. Canada_sentence_163

Peace, order, and good government, alongside an implied bill of rights are founding principles of the Canadian government. Canada_sentence_164

At the federal level, Canada has been dominated by two relatively centrist parties practicing "brokerage politics", the centre-left leaning Liberal Party of Canada and the centre-right leaning Conservative Party of Canada (or its predecessors). Canada_sentence_165

The historically predominant Liberal Party position themselves at the centre of the Canadian political spectrum, with the Conservative Party positioned on the right and the New Democratic Party occupying the left. Canada_sentence_166

Far-right and far-left politics have never been a prominent force in Canadian society. Canada_sentence_167

Five parties had representatives elected to the federal parliament in the 2019 election—the Liberal Party, who currently form a minority government; the Conservative Party, who are the Official Opposition; the New Democratic Party; the Bloc Québécois; and the Green Party of Canada. Canada_sentence_168

Canada has a parliamentary system within the context of a constitutional monarchy—the monarchy of Canada being the foundation of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches. Canada_sentence_169

The reigning monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who is also monarch of 15 other Commonwealth countries and each of Canada's 10 provinces. Canada_sentence_170

The person who is the Canadian monarch is the same as the British monarch, although the two institutions are separate. Canada_sentence_171

The monarch appoints a representative, the governor general (at present Julie Payette), to carry out most of her federal royal duties in Canada. Canada_sentence_172

The direct participation of the monarch and the governor general in areas of governance is limited. Canada_sentence_173

In practice, their use of the executive powers is directed by the Cabinet, a committee of ministers of the Crown responsible to the elected House of Commons of Canada and chosen and headed by the prime minister (at present Justin Trudeau), the head of government. Canada_sentence_174

The governor general or monarch may, though, in certain crisis situations exercise their power without ministerial advice. Canada_sentence_175

To ensure the stability of government, the governor general will usually appoint as prime minister the individual who is the current leader of the political party that can obtain the confidence of a plurality in the House of Commons. Canada_sentence_176

The Prime Minister's Office (PMO) is thus one of the most powerful institutions in government, initiating most legislation for parliamentary approval and selecting for appointment by the Crown, besides the aforementioned, the governor general, lieutenant governors, senators, federal court judges, and heads of Crown corporations and government agencies. Canada_sentence_177

The leader of the party with the second-most seats usually becomes the leader of Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition and is part of an adversarial parliamentary system intended to keep the government in check. Canada_sentence_178

Each of the 338 members of parliament in the House of Commons is elected by simple plurality in an electoral district or riding. Canada_sentence_179

General elections must be called by the governor general, either on the advice of the prime minister or if the government loses a confidence vote in the House. Canada_sentence_180

Constitutionally, an election may be held no more than five years after the preceding election, although the Canada Elections Act limits this to four years with a fixed election date in October. Canada_sentence_181

The 105 members of the Senate, whose seats are apportioned on a regional basis, serve until age 75. Canada_sentence_182

Canada's federal structure divides government responsibilities between the federal government and the ten provinces. Canada_sentence_183

Provincial legislatures are unicameral and operate in parliamentary fashion similar to the House of Commons. Canada_sentence_184

Canada's three territories also have legislatures, but these are not sovereign and have fewer constitutional responsibilities than the provinces. Canada_sentence_185

The territorial legislatures also differ structurally from their provincial counterparts. Canada_sentence_186

The Bank of Canada is the central bank of the country. Canada_sentence_187

In addition, the minister of finance and minister of industry utilize the Statistics Canada agency for financial planning and economic policy development. Canada_sentence_188

The Bank of Canada is the sole authority authorized to issue currency in the form of Canadian bank notes. Canada_sentence_189

The bank does not issue Canadian coins; they are issued by the Royal Canadian Mint. Canada_sentence_190

Law Canada_section_10

Main article: Law of Canada Canada_sentence_191

The Constitution of Canada is the supreme law of the country, and consists of written text and unwritten conventions. Canada_sentence_192

The Constitution Act, 1867 (known as the British North America Act prior to 1982), affirmed governance based on parliamentary precedent and divided powers between the federal and provincial governments. Canada_sentence_193

The Statute of Westminster 1931 granted full autonomy and the Constitution Act, 1982, ended all legislative ties to Britain, as well as adding a constitutional amending formula and the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Canada_sentence_194

The Charter guarantees basic rights and freedoms that usually cannot be over-ridden by any government—though a notwithstanding clause allows the federal parliament and provincial legislatures to override certain sections of the Charter for a period of five years. Canada_sentence_195

Canada's judiciary plays an important role in interpreting laws and has the power to strike down Acts of Parliament that violate the constitution. Canada_sentence_196

The Supreme Court of Canada is the highest court and final arbiter and has been led since December 18, 2017 by Chief Justice Richard Wagner. Canada_sentence_197

Its nine members are appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister and minister of justice. Canada_sentence_198

All judges at the superior and appellate levels are appointed after consultation with non-governmental legal bodies. Canada_sentence_199

The federal Cabinet also appoints justices to superior courts in the provincial and territorial jurisdictions. Canada_sentence_200

Common law prevails everywhere except in Quebec, where civil law predominates. Canada_sentence_201

Criminal law is solely a federal responsibility and is uniform throughout Canada. Canada_sentence_202

Law enforcement, including criminal courts, is officially a provincial responsibility, conducted by provincial and municipal police forces. Canada_sentence_203

However, in most rural areas and some urban areas, policing responsibilities are contracted to the federal Royal Canadian Mounted Police. Canada_sentence_204

Canadian Aboriginal law provides certain constitutionally recognized rights to land and traditional practices for Indigenous groups in Canada. Canada_sentence_205

Various treaties and case laws were established to mediate relations between Europeans and many Indigenous peoples. Canada_sentence_206

Most notably, a series of eleven treaties known as the Numbered Treaties were signed between the Indigenous peoples and the reigning monarch of Canada between 1871 and 1921. Canada_sentence_207

These treaties are agreements between the Canadian Crown-in-Council with the duty to consult and accommodate. Canada_sentence_208

The role of Aboriginal law and the rights they support were reaffirmed by Section 35 of the Constitution Act, 1982. Canada_sentence_209

These rights may include provision of services, such as health care through the Indian Health Transfer Policy, and exemption from taxation. Canada_sentence_210

Foreign relations and military Canada_section_11

Main articles: Foreign relations of Canada, Canadian Armed Forces, and Military history of Canada Canada_sentence_211

Canada is recognized as a middle power for its role in international affairs with a tendency to pursue multilateral solutions. Canada_sentence_212

Canada's foreign policy based on international peacekeeping and security is carried out through coalitions and international organizations, and through the work of numerous federal institutions. Canada_sentence_213

Canada's peacekeeping role during the 20th century has played a major role in its global image. Canada_sentence_214

The strategy of the Canadian government's foreign aid policy reflects an emphasis to meet the Millennium Development Goals, while also providing assistance in response to foreign humanitarian crises. Canada_sentence_215

Canada was a founding member of the United Nations and has membership in the World Trade Organization, the G20 and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Canada_sentence_216

Canada is also a member of various other international and regional organizations and forums for economic and cultural affairs. Canada_sentence_217

Canada acceded to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights in 1976. Canada_sentence_218

Canada joined the Organization of American States (OAS) in 1990 and hosted the OAS General Assembly in 2000 and the 3rd Summit of the Americas in 2001. Canada_sentence_219

Canada seeks to expand its ties to Pacific Rim economies through membership in the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum (APEC). Canada_sentence_220

Canada and the United States share the world's longest undefended border, co-operate on military campaigns and exercises, and are each other's largest trading partner. Canada_sentence_221

Canada nevertheless has an independent foreign policy, most notably maintaining full relations with Cuba, and declining to officially participate in the 2003 invasion of Iraq. Canada_sentence_222

Canada also maintains historic ties to the United Kingdom and France and to other former British and French colonies through Canada's membership in the Commonwealth of Nations and the Francophonie. Canada_sentence_223

Canada is noted for having a positive relationship with the Netherlands, owing, in part, to its contribution to the Dutch liberation during World War II. Canada_sentence_224

Canada's strong attachment to the British Empire and Commonwealth led to major participation in British military efforts in the Second Boer War, World War I and World War II. Canada_sentence_225

Since then, Canada has been an advocate for multilateralism, making efforts to resolve global issues in collaboration with other nations. Canada_sentence_226

During the Cold War, Canada was a major contributor to UN forces in the Korean War and founded the North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) in cooperation with the United States to defend against potential aerial attacks from the Soviet Union. Canada_sentence_227

During the Suez Crisis of 1956, future Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson eased tensions by proposing the inception of the United Nations Peacekeeping Force, for which he was awarded the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize. Canada_sentence_228

As this was the first UN peacekeeping mission, Pearson is often credited as the inventor of the concept. Canada_sentence_229

Canada has since served in over 50 peacekeeping missions, including every UN peacekeeping effort until 1989, and has since maintained forces in international missions in Rwanda, the former Yugoslavia, and elsewhere; Canada has sometimes faced controversy over its involvement in foreign countries, notably in the 1993 Somalia affair. Canada_sentence_230

In 2001, Canada deployed troops to Afghanistan as part of the U.S. stabilization force and the UN-authorized, NATO-led International Security Assistance Force. Canada_sentence_231

In February 2007, Canada, Italy, the United Kingdom, Norway, and Russia announced their joint commitment to a $1.5-billion project to help develop vaccines for developing nations, and called on other countries to join them. Canada_sentence_232

In August 2007, Canada's territorial claims in the Arctic were challenged after a Russian underwater expedition to the North Pole; Canada has considered that area to be sovereign territory since 1925. Canada_sentence_233

In September 2020, Canada joined the COVID-19 Vaccines Global Access (COVAX) program, which aims to ensure equal access to a potential COVID-19 vaccine for all member countries and to help lower-income countries secure doses. Canada_sentence_234

The nation employs a professional, volunteer military force of approximately 79,000 active personnel and 32,250 reserve personnel. Canada_sentence_235

The unified Canadian Forces (CF) comprise the Canadian Army, Royal Canadian Navy, and Royal Canadian Air Force. Canada_sentence_236

In 2013, Canada's military expenditure totalled approximately CA$19 billion, or around one percent of the country's GDP. Canada_sentence_237

Following the 2016 Defense Policy Review, called "Strong, Secure, Engaged", the Canadian government announced a 70 percent increase to the country's defence budget over the next decade. Canada_sentence_238

The Canadian Forces will acquire 88 fighter planes and 15 naval surface combatants based on the Type 26 frigate design, the latter as part of the National Shipbuilding Procurement Strategy. Canada_sentence_239

Canada's total military expenditure is expected to reach CA$32.7 billion by 2027. Canada_sentence_240

Canada's military currently has over 3000 personnel deployed overseas, including in Iraq, Ukraine, and the Caribbean Sea. Canada_sentence_241

Provinces and territories Canada_section_12

Main article: Provinces and territories of Canada Canada_sentence_242

See also: Canadian federalism Canada_sentence_243

Canada is a federation composed of ten provinces and three territories. Canada_sentence_244

In turn, these may be grouped into four main regions: Western Canada, Central Canada, Atlantic Canada, and Northern Canada (Eastern Canada refers to Central Canada and Atlantic Canada together). Canada_sentence_245

Provinces have more autonomy than territories, having responsibility for social programs such as health care, education, and welfare. Canada_sentence_246

Together, the provinces collect more revenue than the federal government, an almost unique structure among federations in the world. Canada_sentence_247

Using its spending powers, the federal government can initiate national policies in provincial areas, such as the Canada Health Act; the provinces can opt out of these, but rarely do so in practice. Canada_sentence_248

Equalization payments are made by the federal government to ensure reasonably uniform standards of services and taxation are kept between the richer and poorer provinces. Canada_sentence_249

The major difference between a Canadian province and a territory is that provinces receive their power and authority from the Constitution Act, 1867, whereas territorial governments have powers delegated to them by the Parliament of Canada. Canada_sentence_250

The powers flowing from the Constitution Act, 1867 are divided between the Government of Canada (the federal government) and the provincial governments to exercise exclusively. Canada_sentence_251

A change to the division of powers between the federal government and the provinces requires a constitutional amendment, whereas a similar change affecting the territories can be performed unilaterally by the Parliament of Canada or government. Canada_sentence_252

Economy Canada_section_13

Main article: Economy of Canada Canada_sentence_253

Further information: List of companies of Canada Canada_sentence_254

Canada is the world's tenth-largest economy as of 2018, with a nominal GDP of approximately US$1.73 trillion. Canada_sentence_255

It is one of the least corrupt countries in the world, and is one of the world's top ten trading nations, with a highly globalized economy. Canada_sentence_256

Canada has a mixed economy ranking above the U.S. and most western European nations on The Heritage Foundation's Index of Economic Freedom, and experiencing a relatively low level of income disparity. Canada_sentence_257

The country's average household disposable income per capita is "well above" the OECD average. Canada_sentence_258

The Toronto Stock Exchange is the ninth-largest stock exchange in the world by market capitalization, listing over 1,500 companies with a combined market capitalization of over US$2 trillion. Canada_sentence_259

In 2018, Canadian trade in goods and services reached CA$1.5 trillion. Canada_sentence_260

Canada's exports totalled over CA$585 billion, while its imported goods were worth over CA$607 billion, of which approximately CA$391 billion originated from the United States, CA$216 billion from non-U.S. sources. Canada_sentence_261

In 2018, Canada had a trade deficit in goods of CA$22 billion and a trade deficit in services of CA$25 billion. Canada_sentence_262

Since the early 20th century, the growth of Canada's manufacturing, mining, and service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy to an urbanized, industrial one. Canada_sentence_263

Like many other developed countries, the Canadian economy is dominated by the service industry, which employs about three-quarters of the country's workforce. Canada_sentence_264

However, Canada is unusual among developed countries in the importance of its primary sector, in which the forestry and petroleum industries are two of the most prominent components. Canada_sentence_265

Canada's economic integration with the United States has increased significantly since World War II. Canada_sentence_266

The Automotive Products Trade Agreement of 1965 opened Canada's borders to trade in the automobile manufacturing industry. Canada_sentence_267

In the 1970s, concerns over energy self-sufficiency and foreign ownership in the manufacturing sectors prompted Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau's Liberal government to enact the National Energy Program (NEP) and the Foreign Investment Review Agency (FIRA). Canada_sentence_268

In the 1980s, Prime Minister Brian Mulroney's Progressive Conservatives abolished the NEP and changed the name of FIRA to Investment Canada, to encourage foreign investment. Canada_sentence_269

The Canada – United States Free Trade Agreement (FTA) of 1988 eliminated tariffs between the two countries, while the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) expanded the free-trade zone to include Mexico in 1994 (later replaced by the Canada–United States–Mexico Agreement). Canada_sentence_270

Canada has a strong cooperative banking sector, with the world's highest per-capita membership in credit unions. Canada_sentence_271

Canada is one of the few developed nations that are net exporters of energy. Canada_sentence_272

Atlantic Canada possesses vast offshore deposits of natural gas, and Alberta also hosts large oil and gas resources. Canada_sentence_273

The vastness of the Athabasca oil sands and other assets results in Canada having a 13 percent share of global oil reserves, comprising the world's third-largest share after Venezuela and Saudi Arabia. Canada_sentence_274

Canada is additionally one of the world's largest suppliers of agricultural products; the Canadian Prairies are one of the most important global producers of wheat, canola, and other grains. Canada_sentence_275

The federal Department of Natural Resources provides statistics regarding its major exports; the country is a leading exporter of zinc, uranium, gold, nickel, platinoids, aluminum, steel, iron ore, coking coal, lead, copper, molybdenum, cobalt, and cadmium. Canada_sentence_276

Many towns in northern Canada, where agriculture is difficult, are sustainable because of nearby mines or sources of timber. Canada_sentence_277

Canada also has a sizeable manufacturing sector centred in southern Ontario and Quebec, with automobiles and aeronautics representing particularly important industries. Canada_sentence_278

Science and technology Canada_section_14

Main article: Science and technology in Canada Canada_sentence_279

In 2018, Canada spent approximately CA$34.5 billion on domestic research and development, of which around $7 billion was provided by the federal and provincial governments. Canada_sentence_280

As of 2018, the country has produced fourteen Nobel laureates in physics, chemistry, and medicine, and was ranked fourth worldwide for scientific research quality in a major 2012 survey of international scientists. Canada_sentence_281

It is furthermore home to the headquarters of a number of global technology firms. Canada_sentence_282

Canada has one of the highest levels of Internet access in the world, with over 33 million users, equivalent to around 94 percent of its total 2014 population. Canada_sentence_283

Some of the most notable scientific developments in Canada include the creation of the modern alkaline battery and the polio vaccine and discoveries about the interior structure of the atomic nucleus. Canada_sentence_284

Other major Canadian scientific contributions include the artificial cardiac pacemaker, mapping the visual cortex, the development of the electron microscope, plate tectonics, deep learning, multi-touch technology and the identification of the first black hole, Cygnus X-1. Canada_sentence_285

Canada has a long history of discovery in genetics, which include stem cells, site-directed mutagenesis, T-cell receptor and the identification of the genes that cause Fanconi anemia, cystic fibrosis and early-onset Alzheimer's disease, among numerous other diseases. Canada_sentence_286

The Canadian Space Agency operates a highly active space program, conducting deep-space, planetary, and aviation research, and developing rockets and satellites. Canada_sentence_287

Canada was the third country to design and construct a satellite after the Soviet Union and the United States, with the 1962 Alouette 1 launch. Canada_sentence_288

Canada is a participant in the International Space Station (ISS), and is a pioneer in space robotics, having constructed the Canadarm, Canadarm2 and Dextre robotic manipulators for the ISS and NASA's Space Shuttle. Canada_sentence_289

Since the 1960s, Canada's aerospace industry has designed and built numerous marques of satellite, including Radarsat-1 and 2, ISIS and MOST. Canada_sentence_290

Canada has also produced one of the world's most successful and widely used sounding rockets, the Black Brant; over 1,000 Black Brants have been launched since the rocket's introduction in 1961. Canada_sentence_291

Demographics Canada_section_15

Main articles: Demographics of Canada and List of cities in Canada Canada_sentence_292

The 2016 Canadian Census enumerated a total population of 35,151,728, an increase of around 5.0 percent over the 2011 figure. Canada_sentence_293

Between 2011 and May 2016, Canada's population grew by 1.7 million people, with immigrants accounting for two-thirds of the increase. Canada_sentence_294

Between 1990 and 2008, the population increased by 5.6 million, equivalent to 20.4 percent overall growth. Canada_sentence_295

The main drivers of population growth are immigration and, to a lesser extent, natural growth. Canada_sentence_296

Canada has one of the highest per-capita immigration rates in the world, driven mainly by economic policy and also family reunification. Canada_sentence_297

The Canadian public, as well as the major political parties, support the current level of immigration. Canada_sentence_298

In 2019, a total of 341,180 immigrants were admitted to Canada, mainly from Asia. Canada_sentence_299

India, Philippines and China are the top three countries of origin for immigrants moving to Canada. Canada_sentence_300

New immigrants settle mostly in major urban areas such as Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver. Canada_sentence_301

Canada also accepts large numbers of refugees, accounting for over 10 percent of annual global refugee resettlements. Canada_sentence_302

Canada's population density, at 3.7 inhabitants per square kilometre (9.6/sq mi), is among the lowest in the world. Canada_sentence_303

Canada spans latitudinally from the 83rd parallel north to the 41st parallel north, and approximately 95 percent of the population is found south of the 55th parallel north. Canada_sentence_304

About four-fifths of the population lives within 150 kilometres (93 mi) of the border with the contiguous United States. Canada_sentence_305

The most densely populated part of the country, accounting for nearly 50 percent, is the Quebec City–Windsor Corridor in Southern Quebec and Southern Ontario along the Great Lakes and the Saint Lawrence River. Canada_sentence_306

An additional 30 percent live along the British Columbia Lower Mainland and the Calgary–Edmonton Corridor in Alberta. Canada_sentence_307

The majority of Canadians (69.9 percent) live in family households, 26.8 percent report living alone, and those living with unrelated persons reported at 3.7 percent. Canada_sentence_308

The average size of a household in 2006 was 2.5 people. Canada_sentence_309


Largest census metropolitan areas in Canada by population (2016 census)Canada_header_cell_1_0_0
CMACanada_header_cell_1_1_0 ProvinceCanada_header_cell_1_1_1 PopulationCanada_header_cell_1_1_2 Canada_header_cell_1_1_3 CMACanada_header_cell_1_1_4 ProvinceCanada_header_cell_1_1_5 PopulationCanada_header_cell_1_1_6
TorontoCanada_cell_1_2_0 OntarioCanada_cell_1_2_1 5,928,040Canada_cell_1_2_2 Canada_cell_1_2_3 LondonCanada_cell_1_2_4 OntarioCanada_cell_1_2_5 494,069Canada_cell_1_2_6
MontrealCanada_cell_1_3_0 QuebecCanada_cell_1_3_1 4,098,927Canada_cell_1_3_2 Canada_cell_1_3_3 St. CatharinesNiagaraCanada_cell_1_3_4 OntarioCanada_cell_1_3_5 406,074Canada_cell_1_3_6
VancouverCanada_cell_1_4_0 British ColumbiaCanada_cell_1_4_1 2,463,431Canada_cell_1_4_2 Canada_cell_1_4_3 HalifaxCanada_cell_1_4_4 Nova ScotiaCanada_cell_1_4_5 403,390Canada_cell_1_4_6
CalgaryCanada_cell_1_5_0 AlbertaCanada_cell_1_5_1 1,392,609Canada_cell_1_5_2 Canada_cell_1_5_3 OshawaCanada_cell_1_5_4 OntarioCanada_cell_1_5_5 379,848Canada_cell_1_5_6
OttawaGatineauCanada_cell_1_6_0 OntarioQuebecCanada_cell_1_6_1 1,323,783Canada_cell_1_6_2 Canada_cell_1_6_3 VictoriaCanada_cell_1_6_4 British ColumbiaCanada_cell_1_6_5 367,770Canada_cell_1_6_6
EdmontonCanada_cell_1_7_0 AlbertaCanada_cell_1_7_1 1,321,426Canada_cell_1_7_2 Canada_cell_1_7_3 WindsorCanada_cell_1_7_4 OntarioCanada_cell_1_7_5 329,144Canada_cell_1_7_6
QuebecCanada_cell_1_8_0 QuebecCanada_cell_1_8_1 800,296Canada_cell_1_8_2 Canada_cell_1_8_3 SaskatoonCanada_cell_1_8_4 SaskatchewanCanada_cell_1_8_5 295,095Canada_cell_1_8_6
WinnipegCanada_cell_1_9_0 ManitobaCanada_cell_1_9_1 778,489Canada_cell_1_9_2 Canada_cell_1_9_3 ReginaCanada_cell_1_9_4 SaskatchewanCanada_cell_1_9_5 236,481Canada_cell_1_9_6
HamiltonCanada_cell_1_10_0 OntarioCanada_cell_1_10_1 747,545Canada_cell_1_10_2 Canada_cell_1_10_3 SherbrookeCanada_cell_1_10_4 QuebecCanada_cell_1_10_5 212,105Canada_cell_1_10_6


OntarioCanada_cell_1_11_1 523,894Canada_cell_1_11_2 Canada_cell_1_11_3 St. John'sCanada_cell_1_11_4 Newfoundland and LabradorCanada_cell_1_11_5 205,955Canada_cell_1_11_6

Health Canada_section_16

Main article: Healthcare in Canada Canada_sentence_310

Healthcare in Canada is delivered through the provincial and territorial systems of publicly funded health care, informally called Medicare. Canada_sentence_311

It is guided by the provisions of the Canada Health Act of 1984, and is universal. Canada_sentence_312

Universal access to publicly funded health services "is often considered by Canadians as a fundamental value that ensures national health care insurance for everyone wherever they live in the country." Canada_sentence_313

However, 30 percent of Canadians' healthcare is paid for through the private sector. Canada_sentence_314

This mostly goes towards services not covered or partially covered by Medicare, such as prescription drugs, dentistry and optometry. Canada_sentence_315

Approximately 65 to 75 percent of Canadians have some form of supplementary health insurance related to the aforementioned reasons; many receive it through their employers or utilizes secondary social service programs related to extended coverage for families receiving social assistance or vulnerable demographics, such as seniors, minors, and those with disabilities. Canada_sentence_316

In common with many other developed countries, Canada is experiencing a cost increase due to a demographic shift towards an older population, with more retirees and fewer people of working age. Canada_sentence_317

In 2006, the average age was 39.5 years; within twelve years it had risen to 42.4 years, with a life expectancy of 81.1 years. Canada_sentence_318

A 2016 report by the chief public health officer of Canada found that 88 percent of Canadians, one of the highest proportions of the population among G7 countries, indicated that they "had good or very good health". Canada_sentence_319

80 percent of Canadian adults self-report having at least one major risk factor for chronic disease: smoking, physical inactivity, unhealthy eating or excessive alcohol use. Canada_sentence_320

Canada has one of the highest rates of adult obesity among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries attributing to approximately 2.7 million cases of diabetes (types 1 and 2 combined). Canada_sentence_321

Four chronic diseases—cancer (leading cause of death), cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases and diabetes—account for 65 percent of deaths in Canada. Canada_sentence_322

In 2017, the Canadian Institute for Health Information reported that healthcare spending reached $242 billion, or 11.5 percent of Canada's gross domestic product (GDP) for that year. Canada_sentence_323

Canada's per-capita spending ranks as seventh on the list of countries by total health expenditure per capita in the OECD and above the average of 8.8 percent of GDP. Canada_sentence_324

Canada has performed close to, or above the average on the majority of OECD health indicators since the early 2000s. Canada_sentence_325

In 2017 Canada ranked above the average on OECD indicators for wait-times and access to care, with average scores for quality of care and use of resources. Canada_sentence_326

A comprehensive study from 2017 of the top 11 countries ranked Canada's health care system third-to-last. Canada_sentence_327

Identified weaknesses of Canada's system were comparatively higher infant mortality rate, the prevalence of chronic conditions, long wait times, poor availability of after-hours care, and a lack of prescription drugs and dental coverage. Canada_sentence_328

Education Canada_section_17

Main articles: Education in Canada and Higher education in Canada Canada_sentence_329

Education in Canada is for the most part provided publicly, funded and overseen by federal, provincial, and local governments. Canada_sentence_330

Education is within provincial jurisdiction and the curriculum is overseen by the province. Canada_sentence_331

Education in Canada is generally divided into primary education, followed by secondary education and post-secondary. Canada_sentence_332

Education in both English and French is available in most places across Canada. Canada_sentence_333

Canadian provinces and territories are responsible for education provision. Canada_sentence_334

Canada has a large number of Universities, almost all of which are publicly funded. Canada_sentence_335

Established in 1663, Université Laval is the oldest post-secondary institution in Canada. Canada_sentence_336

The largest University is the University of Toronto with over 85,000 students. Canada_sentence_337

Four Universities are regularly ranked among the top 100 world-wide, namely University of Toronto, University of British Columbia, McGill University and McMaster University, with a total of 18 Universities ranked in the top 500 worldwide. Canada_sentence_338

According to a 2019 report by the OECD, Canada is one of the most educated countries in the world; the country ranks first worldwide in the number of adults having tertiary education, with over 56 percent of Canadian adults having attained at least an undergraduate college or university degree. Canada_sentence_339

Canada spends about 5.3 percent of its GDP on education. Canada_sentence_340

The country invests heavily in tertiary education (more than US$20,000 per student). Canada_sentence_341

As of 2014, 89 percent of adults aged 25 to 64 have earned the equivalent of a high-school degree, compared to an OECD average of 75 percent. Canada_sentence_342

The mandatory school age ranges between 5–7 to 16–18 years, contributing to an adult literacy rate of 99 percent. Canada_sentence_343

In 2002, 43 percent of Canadians aged 25 to 64 possessed a post-secondary education; for those aged 25 to 34, the rate of post-secondary education reached 51 percent. Canada_sentence_344

The Programme for International Student Assessment indicates Canadian students perform well above the OECD average, particularly in mathematics, science, and reading, ranking the overall knowledge and skills of Canadian 15-year-olds as the sixth-best in the world. Canada_sentence_345

Canada is a well-performing OECD country in reading literacy, mathematics, and science with the average student scoring 523.7, compared with the OECD average of 493 in 2015. Canada_sentence_346

Ethnicity Canada_section_18

Main article: Canadians Canada_sentence_347

According to the 2016 Canadian Census, the country's largest self-reported ethnic origin is Canadian (accounting for 32 percent of the population), followed by English (18.3 percent), Scottish (13.9 percent), French (13.6 percent), Irish (13.4 percent), German (9.6 percent), Chinese (5.1 percent), Italian (4.6 percent), First Nations (4.4 percent), Indian (4.0 percent), and Ukrainian (3.9 percent). Canada_sentence_348

There are 600 recognized First Nations governments or bands, encompassing a total of 1,525,565 people. Canada_sentence_349

The Indigenous population in Canada is growing at almost twice the national rate, and four percent of Canada's population claimed an Indigenous identity in 2006. Canada_sentence_350

Another 22.3 percent of the population belonged to a non-Indigenous visible minority. Canada_sentence_351

In 2016, the largest visible minority groups were South Asian (5.6 percent), Chinese (5.1 percent) and Black (3.5 percent). Canada_sentence_352

Between 2011 and 2016, the visible minority population rose by 18.4 percent. Canada_sentence_353

In 1961, less than two percent of Canada's population (about 300,000 people) were members of visible minority groups. Canada_sentence_354

Indigenous peoples are not considered a visible minority under the Employment Equity Act, and this is the definition that Statistics Canada also uses. Canada_sentence_355

Languages Canada_section_19

Main article: Languages of Canada Canada_sentence_356

A multitude of languages are used by Canadians, with English and French (the official languages) being the mother tongues of approximately 56 percent and 21 percent of Canadians, respectively. Canada_sentence_357

As of the 2016 Census, just over 7.3 million Canadians listed a non-official language as their mother tongue. Canada_sentence_358

Some of the most common non-official first languages include Chinese (1,227,680 first-language speakers), Punjabi (501,680), Spanish (458,850), Tagalog (431,385), Arabic (419,895), German (384,040), and Italian (375,645). Canada_sentence_359

Canada's federal government practices official bilingualism, which is applied by the commissioner of Official Languages in consonance with Section 16 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and the federal Official Languages Act. Canada_sentence_360

English and French have equal status in federal courts, parliament, and in all federal institutions. Canada_sentence_361

Citizens have the right, where there is sufficient demand, to receive federal government services in either English or French and official-language minorities are guaranteed their own schools in all provinces and territories. Canada_sentence_362

The 1977 Charter of the French Language established French as the official language of Quebec. Canada_sentence_363

Although more than 85 percent of French-speaking Canadians live in Quebec, there are substantial Francophone populations in New Brunswick, Alberta, and Manitoba; Ontario has the largest French-speaking population outside Quebec. Canada_sentence_364

New Brunswick, the only officially bilingual province, has a French-speaking Acadian minority constituting 33 percent of the population. Canada_sentence_365

There are also clusters of Acadians in southwestern Nova Scotia, on Cape Breton Island, and through central and western Prince Edward Island. Canada_sentence_366

Other provinces have no official languages as such, but French is used as a language of instruction, in courts, and for other government services, in addition to English. Canada_sentence_367

Manitoba, Ontario, and Quebec allow for both English and French to be spoken in the provincial legislatures, and laws are enacted in both languages. Canada_sentence_368

In Ontario, French has some legal status, but is not fully co-official. Canada_sentence_369

There are 11 Indigenous language groups, composed of more than 65 distinct languages and dialects. Canada_sentence_370

Several Indigenous languages have official status in the Northwest Territories. Canada_sentence_371

Inuktitut is the majority language in Nunavut, and is one of three official languages in the territory. Canada_sentence_372

Additionally, Canada is home to many sign languages, some of which are Indigenous. Canada_sentence_373

American Sign Language (ASL) is spoken across the country due to the prevalence of ASL in primary and secondary schools. Canada_sentence_374

Due to its historical relation to the francophone culture, Quebec Sign Language (LSQ) is spoken primarily in Quebec, although there are sizeable Francophone communities in New Brunswick, Ontario and Manitoba. Canada_sentence_375

Religion Canada_section_20

Main article: Religion in Canada Canada_sentence_376

Canada is religiously diverse, encompassing a wide range of beliefs and customs. Canada_sentence_377

Canada has no official church, and the government is officially committed to religious pluralism. Canada_sentence_378

Freedom of religion in Canada is a constitutionally protected right, allowing individuals to assemble and worship without limitation or interference. Canada_sentence_379

The practice of religion is now generally considered a private matter throughout society and the state. Canada_sentence_380

With Christianity in decline after having once been central and integral to Canadian culture and daily life, Canada has become a post-Christian, secular state. Canada_sentence_381

The majority of Canadians consider religion to be unimportant in their daily lives, but still believe in God. Canada_sentence_382

According to the 2011 National Household Survey, 67.3 percent of Canadians identify as Christian; of these, Roman Catholics make up the largest group, accounting for 38.7 percent of the population. Canada_sentence_383

Much of the remainder is made up of Protestants, who accounted for approximately 27 percent in a 2011 survey. Canada_sentence_384

The largest Protestant denomination is the United Church of Canada (accounting for 6.1 percent of Canadians), followed by the Anglican Church of Canada (5.0 percent), and various Baptist sects (1.9 percent). Canada_sentence_385

Secularization has been growing since the 1960s. Canada_sentence_386

In 2011, 23.9 percent declared no religious affiliation, compared to 16.5 percent in 2001. Canada_sentence_387

Islam is the largest non-Christian religion in Canada, constituting 3.2 percent of its population. Canada_sentence_388

It is also the fastest growing religion in Canada. Canada_sentence_389

1.5 percent of the Canadian population is Hindu and 1.4 percent is Sikh. Canada_sentence_390

Culture Canada_section_21

Main article: Culture of Canada Canada_sentence_391

Canada's culture draws influences from its broad range of constituent nationalities, and policies that promote a "just society" are constitutionally protected. Canada_sentence_392

Canada has placed emphasis on equality and inclusiveness for all its people. Canada_sentence_393

Multiculturalism is often cited as one of Canada's significant accomplishments, and a key distinguishing element of Canadian identity. Canada_sentence_394

In Quebec, cultural identity is strong, and there is a French Canadian culture that is distinct from English Canadian culture. Canada_sentence_395

However, as a whole, Canada is, in theory, a cultural mosaic—a collection of regional ethnic subcultures. Canada_sentence_396

Canada's approach to governance emphasizing multiculturalism, which is based on selective immigration, social integration, and suppression of far-right politics, has wide public support. Canada_sentence_397

Government policies such as publicly funded health care, higher taxation to redistribute wealth, the outlawing of capital punishment, strong efforts to eliminate poverty, strict gun control—alongside legislation with a social liberal attitude toward women's rights (like pregnancy termination), LGBTQ rights, assisted euthanasia and cannabis use—are indicators of Canada's political and cultural values. Canada_sentence_398

Canadians also identify with the country's foreign aid policies, peacekeeping roles, the National park system and the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Canada_sentence_399

Historically, Canada has been influenced by British, French, and Indigenous cultures and traditions. Canada_sentence_400

Through their language, art and music, Indigenous peoples continue to influence the Canadian identity. Canada_sentence_401

During the 20th century, Canadians with African, Caribbean and Asian nationalities have added to the Canadian identity and its culture. Canada_sentence_402

Canadian humour is an integral part of the Canadian identity and is reflected in its folklore, literature, music, art, and media. Canada_sentence_403

The primary characteristics of Canadian humour are irony, parody, and satire. Canada_sentence_404

Many Canadian comedians have achieved international success in the American TV and film industries and are amongst the most recognized in the world. Canada_sentence_405

Canada has a well-developed media sector, but its cultural output—particularly in English films, television shows, and magazines—is often overshadowed by imports from the United States. Canada_sentence_406

As a result, the preservation of a distinctly Canadian culture is supported by federal government programs, laws, and institutions such as the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), the National Film Board of Canada (NFB), and the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC). Canada_sentence_407

Symbols Canada_section_22

Main article: National symbols of Canada Canada_sentence_408

Canada's national symbols are influenced by natural, historical, and Indigenous sources. Canada_sentence_409

The use of the maple leaf as a Canadian symbol dates to the early 18th century. Canada_sentence_410

The maple leaf is depicted on Canada's current and previous flags, and on the Arms of Canada. Canada_sentence_411

The Arms of Canada are closely modelled after the royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom with French and distinctive Canadian elements replacing or added to those derived from the British version. Canada_sentence_412

Other prominent symbols include the national motto "A Mari Usque Ad Mare" ("From Sea to Sea"), the sports of ice hockey and lacrosse, the beaver, Canada goose, common loon, Canadian horse, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, the Canadian Rockies, and more recently the totem pole and Inuksuk. Canada_sentence_413

Material items such as Canadian beer, maple syrup, tuques, canoes, nanaimo bars, butter tarts and the Quebec dish of poutine are defined as uniquely Canadian. Canada_sentence_414

Canadian coins feature many of these symbols: the loon on the $1 coin, the Arms of Canada on the 50¢ piece, the beaver on the nickel. Canada_sentence_415

The penny, removed from circulation in 2013, featured the maple leaf. Canada_sentence_416

The Queen's image appears on $20 bank notes, and on the obverse of all current Canadian coins. Canada_sentence_417

Literature Canada_section_23

Main article: Canadian literature Canada_sentence_418

Canadian literature is often divided into French- and English-language literatures, which are rooted in the literary traditions of France and Britain, respectively. Canada_sentence_419

There are four major themes that can be found within historical Canadian literature; nature, frontier life, Canada's position within the world, all three of which tie into the garrison mentality. Canada_sentence_420

By the 1990s, Canadian literature was viewed as some of the world's best. Canada_sentence_421

Canada's ethnic and cultural diversity are reflected in its literature, with many of its most prominent modern writers focusing on ethnic life. Canada_sentence_422

Arguably, the best-known living Canadian writer internationally (especially since the deaths of Robertson Davies and Mordecai Richler) is Margaret Atwood, a prolific novelist, poet, and literary critic. Canada_sentence_423

Numerous other Canadian authors have accumulated international literary awards, including Nobel Laureate Alice Munro, who has been called the best living writer of short stories in English; and Booker Prize recipient Michael Ondaatje, who is perhaps best known for the novel The English Patient, which was adapted as a film of the same name that won the Academy Award for Best Picture. Canada_sentence_424

Visual arts Canada_section_24

Main article: Canadian art Canada_sentence_425

Canadian visual art has been dominated by figures such as Tom Thomson – the country's most famous painter – and by the Group of Seven. Canada_sentence_426

Thomson's career painting Canadian landscapes spanned a decade up to his death in 1917 at age 39. Canada_sentence_427

The Group of Seven were painters with a nationalistic and idealistic focus, who first exhibited their distinctive works in May 1920. Canada_sentence_428

Though referred to as having seven members, five artists—Lawren Harris, A. Canada_sentence_429 Y. Jackson, Arthur Lismer, J. Canada_sentence_430 E. H. MacDonald, and Frederick Varley—were responsible for articulating the Group's ideas. Canada_sentence_431

They were joined briefly by Frank Johnston, and by commercial artist Franklin Carmichael. Canada_sentence_432

A. Canada_sentence_433 J. Casson became part of the Group in 1926. Canada_sentence_434

Associated with the Group was another prominent Canadian artist, Emily Carr, known for her landscapes and portrayals of the Indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast. Canada_sentence_435

Since the 1950s, works of Inuit art have been given as gifts to foreign dignitaries by the Canadian government. Canada_sentence_436

Music Canada_section_25

Main article: Music of Canada Canada_sentence_437

The Canadian music industry is the sixth-largest in the world producing internationally renowned composers, musicians and ensembles. Canada_sentence_438

Music broadcasting in the country is regulated by the CRTC. Canada_sentence_439

The Canadian Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences presents Canada's music industry awards, the Juno Awards, which were first awarded in 1970. Canada_sentence_440

The Canadian Music Hall of Fame established in 1976 honours Canadian musicians for their lifetime achievements. Canada_sentence_441

Patriotic music in Canada dates back over 200 years as a distinct category from British patriotism, preceding the Canadian Confederation by over 50 years. Canada_sentence_442

The earliest, The Bold Canadian, was written in 1812. Canada_sentence_443

The national anthem of Canada, "O Canada", was originally commissioned by the lieutenant governor of Quebec, Théodore Robitaille, for the 1880 St. Canada_sentence_444 Jean-Baptiste Day ceremony, and was officially adopted in 1980. Canada_sentence_445

Calixa Lavallée wrote the music, which was a setting of a patriotic poem composed by the poet and judge Sir Adolphe-Basile Routhier. Canada_sentence_446

The text was originally only in French before it was adapted into English in 1906. Canada_sentence_447

Sports Canada_section_26

Main article: Sports in Canada Canada_sentence_448

The roots of organized sports in Canada date back to the 1770s, culminating in the development and popularization of the major professional games of ice hockey, lacrosse, basketball, baseball and football. Canada_sentence_449

Canada's official national sports are ice hockey and lacrosse. Canada_sentence_450

Golf, soccer, baseball, tennis, skiing, badminton, volleyball, cycling, swimming, bowling, rugby union, canoeing, equestrian, squash and the study of martial arts are widely enjoyed at the youth and amateur levels. Canada_sentence_451

Canada shares several major professional sports leagues with the United States. Canada_sentence_452

Canadian teams in these leagues include seven franchises in the National Hockey League, as well as three Major League Soccer teams and one team in each of Major League Baseball and the National Basketball Association. Canada_sentence_453

Other popular professional sports in Canada include Canadian football, which is played in the Canadian Football League, National Lacrosse League lacrosse, and curling. Canada_sentence_454

Canada has participated in almost every Olympic Games since its Olympic debut in 1900, and has hosted several high-profile international sporting events, including the 1976 Summer Olympics, the 1988 Winter Olympics, the 1994 Basketball World Championship, the 2007 FIFA U-20 World Cup, the 2010 Winter Olympics and the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup. Canada_sentence_455

Most recently, Canada staged the 2015 Pan American Games and 2015 Parapan American Games, the former being the largest sporting event hosted by the country. Canada_sentence_456

They are also going to be co-hosting the 2026 World Cup, alongside Mexico and the United States. Canada_sentence_457

See also Canada_section_27


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