Canada–United States border

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"Borders of Canada" redirects here. Canada–United States border_sentence_0

For the Canada–Denmark border, see Nares Strait. Canada–United States border_sentence_1

For the Canada–France border, see Green Island (Fortune), Newfoundland and Labrador. Canada–United States border_sentence_2

Canada–United States border_table_infobox_0

Canada–United States borderCanada–United States border_header_cell_0_0_0
CharacteristicsCanada–United States border_header_cell_0_1_0
EntitiesCanada–United States border_header_cell_0_2_0 Canada
 United StatesCanada–United States border_cell_0_2_1
LengthCanada–United States border_header_cell_0_3_0 8,891 km (5,525 mi)Canada–United States border_cell_0_3_1
HistoryCanada–United States border_header_cell_0_4_0
EstablishedCanada–United States border_header_cell_0_5_0 September 3, 1783

Signing of the Treaty of Paris at the end of the American War of IndependenceCanada–United States border_cell_0_5_1

Current shapeCanada–United States border_header_cell_0_6_0 April 11, 1908

Treaty of 1908Canada–United States border_cell_0_6_1

TreatiesCanada–United States border_header_cell_0_7_0 Canada–United States border_cell_0_7_1
NotesCanada–United States border_header_cell_0_8_0 See list of current disputesCanada–United States border_cell_0_8_1

The Canada–United States border, officially known as the International Boundary, is the longest international border in the world between two countries. Canada–United States border_sentence_3

The terrestrial boundary (including boundaries in the Great Lakes, Atlantic and Pacific coasts) is 8,891 kilometers (5,525 mi) long. Canada–United States border_sentence_4

The land border has two sections: Canada's border with the contiguous U.S. to its south, and Canada's border with the U.S. state of Alaska to its west. Canada–United States border_sentence_5

The bi-national International Boundary Commission deals with issues relating to marking and maintaining the boundary, and the International Joint Commission deals with issues concerning boundary waters. Canada–United States border_sentence_6

The agencies currently responsible for facilitating legal passage through the international boundary are the Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA) and U.S. Canada–United States border_sentence_7 Customs and Border Protection (CBP). Canada–United States border_sentence_8

History Canada–United States border_section_0

18th century Canada–United States border_section_1

The Treaty of Paris of 1783 ended the American Revolutionary War between Great Britain and the United States. Canada–United States border_sentence_9

In the second article of the Treaty, the parties agreed on all boundaries of the United States, including, but not limited to, the boundary to the north along then-British North America. Canada–United States border_sentence_10

The agreed-upon boundary included the line from the northwest angle of Nova Scotia to the northwesternmost head of Connecticut River, and proceeded down along the middle of the river to the 45th parallel of north latitude. Canada–United States border_sentence_11

The parallel had been established in the 1760s as the boundary between the provinces of Quebec and New York (including what would later become the State of Vermont). Canada–United States border_sentence_12

It was surveyed and marked by John Collins and Thomas Valentine from 1771 to 1773. Canada–United States border_sentence_13

The Saint Lawrence River and the Great Lakes became the boundary further west, between the United States and what is now Ontario. Canada–United States border_sentence_14

Northwest of Lake Superior, the boundary followed rivers to the Lake of the Woods. Canada–United States border_sentence_15

From the northwesternmost point of the Lake of the Woods, the boundary was agreed to go straight west until it met the Mississippi River. Canada–United States border_sentence_16

In fact, that line never meets the river since the river's source is further south. Canada–United States border_sentence_17

Jay Treaty (1794) Canada–United States border_section_2

The Jay Treaty of 1794 (effective 1796) created the International Boundary Commission, which was charged with surveying and mapping the boundary. Canada–United States border_sentence_18

It also provided for the removal of British military and administration from Detroit, as well as other frontier outposts on the U.S. side. Canada–United States border_sentence_19

The Jay Treaty was superseded by the Treaty of Ghent (effective 1815) concluding the War of 1812, which included pre-war boundaries. Canada–United States border_sentence_20

19th century Canada–United States border_section_3

Signed in December 1814, the Treaty of Ghent ended the War of 1812, returning the boundaries of British North America and the United States to the state they were prior to the war. Canada–United States border_sentence_21

In the following decades, the United States and the United Kingdom concluded several treaties that settled the major boundary disputes between the two, enabling the border to be demilitarized. Canada–United States border_sentence_22

The Rush–Bagot Treaty of 1817 provided a plan for demilitarizing the two combatant sides in the War of 1812 and also laid out preliminary principles for drawing a border between British North America and the United States. Canada–United States border_sentence_23

London Convention (1818) Canada–United States border_section_4

The Treaty of 1818 saw expansion of both British North America and the US, where the boundary extended westward along the 49th parallel, from the Northwest Angle at Lake of the Woods to the Rocky Mountains. Canada–United States border_sentence_24

The treaty extinguished British claims to the south of that line up to the Red River Valley, which was part of Rupert's Land. Canada–United States border_sentence_25

The treaty also extinguished U.S. claims to land north of that line in the watershed of the Missouri River, which was part of the Louisiana Purchase. Canada–United States border_sentence_26

This amounted to three small areas, consisting of the northern part of the drainages of the Milk River (today in southern Alberta and southwestern Saskatchewan), the Poplar River (Saskatchewan), and Big Muddy Creek (Saskatchewan). Canada–United States border_sentence_27

Along the 49th parallel, the border vista is theoretically straight, but in practice follows the 19th-century surveyed border markers and varies by several hundred feet in spots. Canada–United States border_sentence_28

Webster–Ashburton Treaty (1842) Canada–United States border_section_5

Disputes over the interpretation of the border treaties and mistakes in surveying required additional negotiations, which resulted in the Webster–Ashburton Treaty of 1842. Canada–United States border_sentence_29

The treaty resolved the Aroostook War, a dispute over the boundary between Maine, New Brunswick, and the Province of Canada. Canada–United States border_sentence_30

The treaty redefined the border between New Hampshire, Vermont, and New York on the one hand, and the Province of Canada on the other, resolving the Indian Stream dispute and the Fort Blunder dilemma at the outlet to Lake Champlain. Canada–United States border_sentence_31

The part of the 45th parallel that separates Quebec from the U.S. states of Vermont and New York had first been surveyed from 1771 to 1773 after it had been declared the boundary between New York (including what later became Vermont) and Quebec. Canada–United States border_sentence_32

It was surveyed again after the War of 1812. Canada–United States border_sentence_33

The U.S. federal government began to construct fortifications just south of the border at Rouses Point, New York, on Lake Champlain. Canada–United States border_sentence_34

After a significant portion of the construction was completed, measurements revealed that at that point, the actual 45th parallel was three-quarters of a mile (1.2 km) south of the surveyed line. Canada–United States border_sentence_35

The fort, which became known as "Fort Blunder", was in Canada, which created a dilemma for the U.S. that was not resolved until a provision of the treaty left the border on the meandering line as surveyed. Canada–United States border_sentence_36

The border along the Boundary Waters in present-day Ontario and Minnesota between Lake Superior and the Northwest Angle was also redefined. Canada–United States border_sentence_37

Oregon Treaty (1846) Canada–United States border_section_6

Main article: Oregon Treaty Canada–United States border_sentence_38

An 1844 boundary dispute during the Presidency of James K. Polk led to a call for the northern boundary of the U.S. west of the Rockies to be 54°40′N related to the southern boundary of Russia's Alaska Territory. Canada–United States border_sentence_39

However, Great Britain wanted a border that followed the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean. Canada–United States border_sentence_40

The dispute was resolved in the Oregon Treaty of 1846, which established the 49th parallel as the boundary through the Rockies. Canada–United States border_sentence_41

Boundary surveys (mid–19th century) Canada–United States border_section_7

The Northwest Boundary Survey (1857–1861) laid out the land boundary. Canada–United States border_sentence_42

However, the water boundary was not settled for some time. Canada–United States border_sentence_43

After the Pig War in 1859, arbitration in 1872 established the border between the Gulf Islands and the San Juan Islands. Canada–United States border_sentence_44

The International Boundary Survey (or, the "Northern Boundary Survey" in the US) began in 1872. Canada–United States border_sentence_45

Its mandate was to establish the border as agreed to in the Treaty of 1818. Canada–United States border_sentence_46

Archibald Campbell led the way for the United States, while Donald Cameron headed the British team. Canada–United States border_sentence_47

This survey focused on the border from the Lake of the Woods to the summit of the Rocky Mountains. Canada–United States border_sentence_48

20th century Canada–United States border_section_8

In 1903, following a dispute, a joint United Kingdom–Canada–U.S. Canada–United States border_sentence_49

tribunal established the boundary of southeast Alaska. Canada–United States border_sentence_50

On April 11, 1908, the United Kingdom and the United States agreed, under Article IV of the Treaty of 1908 "concerning the boundary between the United States and the Dominion of Canada from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean", to survey and delimit the boundary between Canada and the U.S. through the St. Canada–United States border_sentence_51 Lawrence River and Great Lakes, in accordance with modern surveying techniques, and thus accomplished several changes to the border. Canada–United States border_sentence_52

In 1925, the International Boundary Commission's temporary mission became permanent for maintaining the survey and mapping of the border; maintaining boundary monuments and buoys; and keeping the border clear of brush and vegetation for 6 meters (20 ft). Canada–United States border_sentence_53

This "border vista" extends for 3 meters (9.8 ft) on each side of the line. Canada–United States border_sentence_54

In 1909, under the Boundary Waters Treaty, the International Joint Commission was established for Canada and the U.S. to investigate and approve projects that affect the waters and waterways along the border. Canada–United States border_sentence_55

21st century Canada–United States border_section_9

As a result of the September 11, 2001 attacks, the Canada–US border was promptly shut without any warning, and no goods or people were allowed to cross. Canada–United States border_sentence_56

In the wake of the impromptu border closure, procedures were jointly developed to ensure that commercial traffic could cross the border even if people were restricted from crossing. Canada–United States border_sentence_57

These procedures were later used for a border closure caused by the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. Canada–United States border_sentence_58

2020 closure Canada–United States border_section_10

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the governments of Canada and the United States agreed to close the border to "non-essential" travel on March 21, 2020, for an initial period of 30 days. Canada–United States border_sentence_59

The closure has been extended several times since March 21, and is currently slated to expire on December 21, 2020. Canada–United States border_sentence_60

The United States closed its border with Mexico contemporaneously with the Canada–US closure. Canada–United States border_sentence_61

The 2020 closure was reportedly the first blanket, long-term closure of the Canada–US border since the War of 1812. Canada–United States border_sentence_62

Essential travel, as defined by Canadian and US regulations, includes travel for employment or education purposes. Canada–United States border_sentence_63

"Non-essential" travel to Canada, includes travel "for an optional or discretionary purpose, such as tourism, recreation or entertainment." Canada–United States border_sentence_64

The U.S. Department of Homeland Security issued defined non-essential travel to include "tourism purposes (e.g., sightseeing, recreation, gambling, or attending cultural events)" and gave an extensive, non-exhaustive definition of what sorts of travel qualify as essential. Canada–United States border_sentence_65

Business advocacy groups, noting the substantial economic impact of the closure on both sides of the border, have called for more nuanced restrictions in place of the current blanket ban on non-essential travel. Canada–United States border_sentence_66

The Northern Border Caucus, a group in the US Congress composed of members from border communities, made similar suggestions to the governments of both countries. Canada–United States border_sentence_67

Beyond the closure itself, President Donald Trump had also initially suggested the idea of deploying United States military personnel near the border with Canada in connection with the pandemic. Canada–United States border_sentence_68

He later abandoned the idea following vocal opposition from Canadian officials. Canada–United States border_sentence_69

Security Canada–United States border_section_11

Law enforcement approach Canada–United States border_section_12

The International Boundary is commonly referred to as the world's "longest undefended border," though this is true only in the military sense, as civilian law enforcement is present. Canada–United States border_sentence_70

It is illegal to cross the border outside border controls, as anyone crossing the border must be checked per immigration and customs laws. Canada–United States border_sentence_71

The relatively low level of security measures stands in contrast to that of the United States – Mexico border (one-third length of Canada–U.S. Canada–United States border_sentence_72

border), which is actively patrolled by U.S. Customs and Border Protection personnel to prevent illegal migration and drug trafficking. Canada–United States border_sentence_73

Parts of the International Boundary cross through mountainous terrain or heavily forested areas, but significant portions also cross remote prairie farmland and the Great Lakes and Saint Lawrence River, in addition to the maritime components of the boundary at the Atlantic, Pacific, and Arctic oceans. Canada–United States border_sentence_74

The border also runs through the middle of the Akwesasne Nation and even divides some buildings found in communities in Vermont and Quebec. Canada–United States border_sentence_75

The U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) identifies the chief issues along the border as domestic and international terrorism; drug smuggling and smuggling of products (such as tobacco) to evade customs duties; and illegal immigration. Canada–United States border_sentence_76

A June 2019 U.S. Government Accountability Office report identified specific staffing and resource shortfalls faced by the CBP on the Northern border than adversely impact enforcement actions; the U.S. Border Patrol "identified an insufficient number of agents that limited patrol missions along the northern border" while CBP Air and Marine Operations "identified an insufficient number of agents along the northern border, which limited the number and frequency of air and maritime missions." Canada–United States border_sentence_77

There are eight U.S. Canada–United States border_sentence_78 Border Patrol sectors based on the Canada–U.S. Canada–United States border_sentence_79

border, each covering a designated "area of responsibility"; the sectors are (from west to east) based in Blaine, Washington; Spokane, Washington; Havre, Montana; Grand Forks, North Dakota; Detroit, Michigan; Buffalo, New York; Swanton, Vermont; and Houlton, Maine. Canada–United States border_sentence_80

Following the September 11 terrorist attacks in the United States, security along the border was dramatically tightened by the two countries in both populated and rural areas. Canada–United States border_sentence_81

Both nations are also actively involved in detailed and extensive tactical and strategic intelligence sharing. Canada–United States border_sentence_82

In December 2010, Canada and the United States were negotiating an agreement titled "Beyond the Border: A Shared Vision for Perimeter Security and Competitiveness" which would give the U.S. more influence over Canada's border security and immigration controls, and more information would be shared by Canada with the U.S. Canada–United States border_sentence_83

Security measures Canada–United States border_section_13

Residents of both nations who own property adjacent to the border are forbidden to build within the six-meter-wide (almost 20 feet) boundary vista without permission from the International Boundary Commission. Canada–United States border_sentence_84

They are required to report such construction to their respective governments. Canada–United States border_sentence_85

All persons crossing the border are required to report to the customs agency of the country in which they have entered. Canada–United States border_sentence_86

Where necessary, fences or vehicle blockades are used. Canada–United States border_sentence_87

In remote areas, where staffed border crossings are not available, there are hidden sensors on roads, trails, railways, and wooded areas, which are located near crossing points. Canada–United States border_sentence_88

There is no border zone; the U.S. Customs and Border Protection routinely sets up checkpoints as far as 100 miles (160 km) into U.S. territory. Canada–United States border_sentence_89

Identification Canada–United States border_section_14

See also: American entry into Canada by land and Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative Canada–United States border_sentence_90

Prior to 2007, American and Canadian citizens were only required to produce a birth certificate, and driver's license/government-issued identification card when crossing the Canada–United States border. Canada–United States border_sentence_91

However, in late 2006, the U.S. Canada–United States border_sentence_92 Department of Homeland Security (DHS) announced the final rule of the Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative (WHTI), which pertained to new identification requirements for U.S. citizens and international travelers entering the states. Canada–United States border_sentence_93

This rule, which marked the first phase of the initiative, was implemented on January 23, 2007, specifying six forms of identification acceptable for crossing the U.S. border (depending on mode): Canada–United States border_sentence_94

The requirement of a passport, or an enhanced form of identification to enter the United States by air went into effect in January 2007; and went into effect for those entering the U.S. by land and sea in January 2008. Canada–United States border_sentence_95

Although the new requirements for land and sea entry went into legal effect in January 2008, its enforcement did not begin until June 2009. Canada–United States border_sentence_96

Since June 2009, every traveller arriving via a land or sea port-of-entry (including ferries) has been required to present one of the above forms of identification in order to enter the United States. Canada–United States border_sentence_97

Conversely in order to cross into Canada, a traveller must also carry identification, as well as a valid visa (if necessary) when crossing the border. Canada–United States border_sentence_98

Forms of identification include a valid passport, a Canadian Emergency Travel Document, an enhanced driver's license issued by a Canadian province or territory, or an enhanced identification/photo card issued by a Canadian province or territory. Canada–United States border_sentence_99

Several other documents may be used by Canadians to identify their citizenship at the border, although use of such documents requires it to be supported with additional photo identification. Canada–United States border_sentence_100

American and Canadian citizens who are members of a trusted traveller program such as FAST or NEXUS, may present their FAST or NEXUS card as an alternate form of identification when crossing the international boundary by land or sea, or when arriving by air from only Canada or the United States. Canada–United States border_sentence_101

Although permanent residents of Canada and the United States are eligible for FAST or NEXUS, they are required to travel with a passport and proof of permanent residency upon arrival at the Canadian border. Canada–United States border_sentence_102

American permanent residents who are NEXUS members also require Electronic Travel Authorization when crossing the Canadian border. Canada–United States border_sentence_103

Security issues Canada–United States border_section_15

Smuggling Canada–United States border_section_16

Smuggling of alcoholic beverages ("rum running") was widespread during the 1920s, when Prohibition was in effect nationally in the United States and parts of Canada. Canada–United States border_sentence_104

In more recent years, Canadian officials have brought attention to drug, cigarette, and firearms smuggling from the United States, while U.S. officials have made complaints of drug smuggling via Canada. Canada–United States border_sentence_105

In July 2005, law enforcement personnel arrested three men who had built a 360-foot (110 m) tunnel under the border between British Columbia and Washington, intended for the use of smuggling marijuana, the first such tunnel known on this border. Canada–United States border_sentence_106

From 2007 to 2010, 147 people were arrested on the property of a bed-and-breakfast in Blaine, Washington, but agents estimate that they caught only about 5% of smugglers. Canada–United States border_sentence_107

Because of its location, Cornwall, Ontario, experiences ongoing smuggling—mostly of tobacco and firearms from the United States. Canada–United States border_sentence_108

The neighboring Mohawk territory of Akwesasne straddles the Ontario–Quebec–New York borders, where its First Nations sovereignty prevents Ontario Provincial Police, Sûreté du Québec, Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Canada Border Services Agency, Canadian Coast Guard, United States Border Patrol, United States Coast Guard, and New York State Police from exercising jurisdiction over exchanges taking place within the territory. Canada–United States border_sentence_109

2009 border occupation Canada–United States border_section_17

In May 2009, the Mohawk people of Akwesasne occupied the area around the Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA) port of entry building to protest the Canadian government's decision to arm its border agents while operating on Mohawk territory. Canada–United States border_sentence_110

The north span of the Seaway International Bridge and the CBSA inspection facilities were closed. Canada–United States border_sentence_111

During this occupation, the Canadian flag was replaced with the flag of the Mohawk people. Canada–United States border_sentence_112

Although U.S. Customs remained opened to southbound traffic, northbound traffic was blocked on the U.S. side by both American and Canadian officials. Canada–United States border_sentence_113

The Canadian border at this crossing remained closed for six weeks. Canada–United States border_sentence_114

On July 13, 2009, the CBSA opened a temporary inspection station at the north end of the north span of the bridge in the city of Cornwall, allowing traffic to once again flow in both directions. Canada–United States border_sentence_115

The Mohawk people of Akwesasne have staged ongoing protests at this border. Canada–United States border_sentence_116

In 2014 they objected to a process that made their crossing more tedious; believing it violated their treaty rights of free passage. Canada–United States border_sentence_117

When traveling from the U.S. to Cornwall Island, they must first cross a second bridge into Canada, for inspection at the new Canadian border station. Canada–United States border_sentence_118

Discussions between inter-governmental agencies were being pursued on the feasibility of relocating the Canadian border inspection facilities on the U.S. side of the border. Canada–United States border_sentence_119

2017 border crossing crisis Canada–United States border_section_18

In August 2017, the border between Quebec and New York saw an influx of up to 500 irregular crossings each day, by individuals seeking asylum in Canada. Canada–United States border_sentence_120

As result, Canada increased border security and immigration staffing in the area, reiterating the fact that crossing the border irregularly had no effect on one's asylum status. Canada–United States border_sentence_121

From the beginning of January 2017 up until the end of March 2018, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police has intercepted 25,645 people crossing the border into Canada from an unauthorized point of entry. Canada–United States border_sentence_122

Public Safety Canada estimates another 2,500 came across in April 2018 for a total of just over 28,000. Canada–United States border_sentence_123

Border lengths and regions Canada–United States border_section_19

The length of the terrestrial boundary is 8,891 kilometers (5,525 mi) long, including bodies of water and the border between Alaska and Canada that spans 2,475 kilometers (1,538 mi). Canada–United States border_sentence_124

Eight out of thirteen provinces and territories of Canada and thirteen out of fifty U.S. Canada–United States border_sentence_125 states are located along this international boundary. Canada–United States border_sentence_126

Except for Prince Edward Island, all Canadian provinces and territories that do not share a border with the U.S. share at least one provincial border with one that does. Canada–United States border_sentence_127

Yukon Canada–United States border_section_20

The Canadian territory of Yukon shares its entire border with the U.S. state of Alaska, beginning at the Beaufort Sea at and proceeds southwards along the 141st meridian west. Canada–United States border_sentence_128

At 60°18′N, the border proceeds away from the 141st meridian west in a southeastward direction, following the St. Canada–United States border_sentence_129 Elias Mountains. Canada–United States border_sentence_130

South of the 60th parallel north, the border continues into British Columbia. Canada–United States border_sentence_131

British Columbia Canada–United States border_section_21

British Columbia has two international borders with the United States: with the state of Alaska along BC's northwest, and with the contiguous United States along the southern edge of the province, including (west to east) Washington, Idaho, and Montana. Canada–United States border_sentence_132

BC's Alaskan border, continuing from that of Yukon's, proceeds through the St. Canada–United States border_sentence_133 Elias Mountains, followed by Mt. Canada–United States border_sentence_134 Fairweather at , where the border heads northwestward towards the Coast Mountains. Canada–United States border_sentence_135

At , the border begins a general southeastward direction along the Coast Mountains. Canada–United States border_sentence_136

The border eventually reaches the Portland Canal and follows it outward to the Dixon Entrance, which takes the border down and out into the Pacific Ocean, terminating it upon reaching international waters. Canada–United States border_sentence_137

BC's border along the contiguous U.S. begins southwest of Vancouver Island and northwest of the Olympic Peninsula, at the terminus of international waters in the Pacific Ocean. Canada–United States border_sentence_138

It follows the Strait of Juan de Fuca eastward, turning northeastward to enter Haro Strait. Canada–United States border_sentence_139

The border follows the strait in a northward direction, but turns sharply eastward through Boundary Pass, separating the Canadian Gulf Islands from the American San Juan Islands. Canada–United States border_sentence_140

Upon reaching the Strait of Georgia, the border turns due north and then towards the northwest, bisecting the strait until the 49th parallel north. Canada–United States border_sentence_141

After making a sharp turn eastbound, the border follows this parallel across the Tsawwassen Peninsula, separating Point Roberts, Washington from Delta, British Columbia, and continues into Alberta. Canada–United States border_sentence_142

Prairies Canada–United States border_section_22

The entire Canada–U.S. Canada–United States border_sentence_143

border in the provinces of both Alberta and Saskatchewan lie on the 49th parallel north. Canada–United States border_sentence_144

Both provinces share borders with the state of Montana, while, further east, Saskatchewan also shares a border with North Dakota. Canada–United States border_sentence_145

Along with the U.S. states of North Dakota and Minnesota (west to east), nearly the entire Canada–U.S. Canada–United States border_sentence_146

border in Manitoba lies on the 49th parallel north. Canada–United States border_sentence_147

At the province's eastern end, however, the border briefly enters the Lake of the Woods, turning north at where it continues into land along the western end of Minnesota's Northwest Angle, reaching Ontario at . Canada–United States border_sentence_148

Ontario Canada–United States border_section_23

The province of Ontario shares its border (west to east) with the U.S. states of Minnesota, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York. Canada–United States border_sentence_149

The largest provincial international border, most of the border is a water boundary. Canada–United States border_sentence_150

It begins at the north-westernmost point of Minnesota's Northwest Angle (). Canada–United States border_sentence_151

From here, it proceeds eastward through the Angle Inlet into the Lake of the Woods, turning southward at where it continues into the Rainy River. Canada–United States border_sentence_152

The border follows the River to Rainy Lake, then subsequently through various smaller lakes, including Namakan Lake, Lac la Croix, and Sea Gull Lake, until it reaches the Pigeon River, which leads it out into Lake Superior. Canada–United States border_sentence_153

The border continues through Lake Superior and Whitefish Bay, into the St. Mary's River then the North Channel. Canada–United States border_sentence_154

At , the border turns southward into the False Detour Channel, from which it reaches Lake Huron. Canada–United States border_sentence_155

Through the Lake, the border heads southward until reaching the St. Canada–United States border_sentence_156 Clair River, leading it to Lake St. Clair. Canada–United States border_sentence_157

The border proceeds through Lake St. Clair, reaching the Detroit River, which leads it to Lake Erie. Canada–United States border_sentence_158

From Lake Erie the border is lead into the Niagara River, which takes it into Lake Ontario. Canada–United States border_sentence_159

From here, the boundary heads northwestward until it reaches , where it makes a sharp turn towards the northeast. Canada–United States border_sentence_160

The border then reaches the St. Lawrence River, proceeding through it until finally, at , the border splits from the River and continues into Québec. Canada–United States border_sentence_161

Quebec Canada–United States border_section_24

The province of Québec borders (west to east) the U.S. states of New York, Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine, beginning where the Ontario-New York border ends in the St. Lawrence River at the 45th parallel north. Canada–United States border_sentence_162

This border heads inland towards the east, remaining on or near the parallel. Canada–United States border_sentence_163

At , the border begins to follow various natural features of the Appalachian Mountains, continuing to do so until , where it begins to head northbound, then northeastward at . Canada–United States border_sentence_164

Finally, at , the border heads toward Beau Lake, going through it and continuing into New Brunswick. Canada–United States border_sentence_165

New Brunswick Canada–United States border_section_25

The entire border of New Brunswick is shared with U.S. state of Maine, beginning at the southern tip of Beau Lake at , subsequently proceeding to the Saint John River. Canada–United States border_sentence_166

The border moves through the River until , where it splits from the river and heads southward into the Chiputneticook Lakes at , which subsequently leads the border to the St. Croix River. Canada–United States border_sentence_167

The border proceeds through the St. Croix to Passamaquoddy Bay, which then leads it to Grand Manan Island into the middle of the Bay of Fundy. Canada–United States border_sentence_168

Here, the border turns towards the south and terminates upon reaching international waters. Canada–United States border_sentence_169

Crossings and border straddling Canada–United States border_section_26

Main article: List of Canada–United States border crossings Canada–United States border_sentence_170

Airports Canada–United States border_section_27

The U.S. maintains pre-clearance facilities (i.e. immigration offices) at eight Canadian airports with international air service to the United States: Calgary; Edmonton; Halifax Stanfield; Montreal–Trudeau; Ottawa Macdonald–Cartier; Toronto–Pearson, Vancouver; and Winnipeg James Armstrong Richardson. Canada–United States border_sentence_171

These procedures expedite travel by allowing flights originating in Canada to land at a U.S. airport without being processed as an international arrival. Canada–United States border_sentence_172

Canada does not maintain equivalent personnel at U.S. airports due to the sheer number of Canada-bound flights from U.S. departure locations, as well as because of the limited number of flights compared to that of U.S.-bound flights that depart major Canadian airports. Canada–United States border_sentence_173

Cross-border airports Canada–United States border_section_28

One curiosity on the Canada–U.S. Canada–United States border_sentence_174

border is the presence of six airports and eleven seaplane bases whose runways straddle the borderline. Canada–United States border_sentence_175

Such airports were built prior to the U.S. Canada–United States border_sentence_176 entry into World War II as a way to legally transfer U.S.-built aircraft, such as the Lockheed Hudson, to Canada under the provisions of the Lend-Lease Act. Canada–United States border_sentence_177

In the interest of maintaining neutrality, U.S. military pilots were forbidden to deliver combat aircraft to Canada. Canada–United States border_sentence_178

As result, the aircraft were flown to the border, where they landed, then were towed on their wheels over the border by tractors or horses overnight. Canada–United States border_sentence_179

The next day, the planes were crewed by RCAF pilots and flown to other locations, typically airbases in Eastern Canada and Newfoundland, from where they were flown to the United Kingdom and deployed in the Battle of Britain. Canada–United States border_sentence_180

Piney Pinecreek Border Airport is located in Piney, Manitoba and Pinecreek, Minnesota. Canada–United States border_sentence_181

The northwest–southeast-oriented runway straddles the border, and there are two ramps: one in the U.S. and one in Canada. Canada–United States border_sentence_182

The airport is owned by the Minnesota Department of Transportation. Canada–United States border_sentence_183

International Peace Garden Airport is located in Boissevain, Manitoba and Dunseith, North Dakota adjacent to the International Peace Garden. Canada–United States border_sentence_184

The runway is entirely within North Dakota, but a ramp extends across the border to allow aircraft to access Canadian customs. Canada–United States border_sentence_185

While not jointly owned, it is operated as an international facility for customs clearance as part of the Peace Garden. Canada–United States border_sentence_186

Coronach/Scobey Border Station Airport (or East Poplar Airport) is located in Coronach, Saskatchewan and Scobey, Montana. Canada–United States border_sentence_187

The airport is jointly owned by the Canadian and U.S. government, with its east–west runway sited exactly on the borderline. Canada–United States border_sentence_188

Coutts/Ross International Airport is located in Alberta and Montana. Canada–United States border_sentence_189

Like Coronach/Scobey, the east–west runway is sited exactly on the border. Canada–United States border_sentence_190

The airport is owned entirely by the Montana Department of Transportation (DOT) Aeronautics Division. Canada–United States border_sentence_191

Del Bonita/Whetstone International Airport, located in Del Bonita, Alberta and Del Bonita, Montana, has an east–west runway sited exactly on the border, similar to Coutts/Ross. Canada–United States border_sentence_192

The airport is officially owned by the state of Montana and run by the state's DOT Aeronautics Division, thus it's been assigned a U.S. identifier only. Canada–United States border_sentence_193

The facility is set up for both the general public (15 passengers max. Canada–United States border_sentence_194

per plane) as well as the American military. Canada–United States border_sentence_195

Avey Field State Airport is located in Washington and British Columbia. Canada–United States border_sentence_196

The privately owned airfield is mostly in the U.S., but several hundred feet of the north–south runway extend into Canada. Canada–United States border_sentence_197

As such, both Canadian and U.S. customs are available. Canada–United States border_sentence_198

It is assigned a U.S. identifier, but does not have a Canadian one. Canada–United States border_sentence_199

Several seaplane bases have water runways that cross the border, though the extent to which they do may be difficult to ascertain. Canada–United States border_sentence_200

The land-based facilities for the bases are all contained within one country or the other, however, leading to multiple situations where twin seaplane bases may share the same body of water. Canada–United States border_sentence_201

The following seaplane facilities exist on the border: Canada–United States border_sentence_202

Canada–United States border_unordered_list_0

Land border crossings Canada–United States border_section_29

Currently there are 119 legal land border crossings between the United States and Canada, 26 of which take place at a bridge or tunnel. Canada–United States border_sentence_203

Only 2 of the 119 crossings are one-way, the Churubusco–Franklin Centre Border Crossing, where travellers may enter only the United States; and the Four Falls Border Crossing, where travellers may enter only Canada. Canada–United States border_sentence_204

There are six roads that have unstaffed road crossings, and do not have border inspection services in one or both directions, where travellers are legally allowed to cross the border. Canada–United States border_sentence_205

Those that cross are required to report to customs, which are stationed further inland. Canada–United States border_sentence_206

Rail crossings Canada–United States border_section_30

There are 39 railroads that cross the U.S.–Canada border, nine of which are no longer in use. Canada–United States border_sentence_207

Eleven of these railroads cross the border at a bridge or tunnel. Canada–United States border_sentence_208

Only four international rail lines currently carry passengers between the U.S. and Canada. Canada–United States border_sentence_209

At Vancouver's Pacific Central Station, passengers are required to pass through U.S. pre-clearance facilities and pass their baggage through an X-ray machine before being allowed to board the Seattle-bound Amtrak Cascades train, which makes no further stops before crossing the border. Canada–United States border_sentence_210

Pre-clearance facilities are not available for the popular Adirondack (New York City to Montreal) or Maple Leaf (New York City to Toronto) trains, since these lines have stops between Montreal or Toronto and the border. Canada–United States border_sentence_211

Instead, passengers must clear customs at a stop located at the actual border. Canada–United States border_sentence_212

Seaports Canada–United States border_section_31

There are 13 international ferry crossings operating between the U.S. and Canada. Canada–United States border_sentence_213

Two of them carry passengers only and one carries only rail cars. Canada–United States border_sentence_214

Four of the ferries operate only on a seasonal basis. Canada–United States border_sentence_215

Similar to that of the pre-clearance facilities at Canadian airports, arrangements exist at major Canadian seaports that handle sealed direct import shipments into the U.S. Canada–United States border_sentence_216

Along the East coast, ferry services operate between the province of New Brunswick and the state of Maine, while on the West coast, they operate between British Columbia and the states of Washington and Alaska. Canada–United States border_sentence_217

There are also several ferry services in the Great Lakes operating between the province of Ontario and the states of Michigan, New York, and Ohio. Canada–United States border_sentence_218

The ferry between Maine and Nova Scotia ended its operations in 2009, resuming again in 2014. Canada–United States border_sentence_219

On Heart Island in the St. Lawrence River, the Boldt Castle has a border control point with no specific location on the Canadian side. Canada–United States border_sentence_220

As such, Canadians must present identification to land on the island. Canada–United States border_sentence_221

Cross-border buildings Canada–United States border_section_32

A line house is a building located so that an international boundary passes through it. Canada–United States border_sentence_222

There are several such buildings that exist along the U.S.–Canada border: Canada–United States border_sentence_223

Canada–United States border_unordered_list_1

The Maine–New Brunswick border divides the Aroostook Valley Country Club. Canada–United States border_sentence_224

Boundary divisions Canada–United States border_section_33

Practical exclaves Canada–United States border_section_34

To be a true international exclave, all potential paths of travel from the exclave to the home country must cross over only the territory of a different country or countries. Canada–United States border_sentence_225

Like exclaves, practical exclaves are not contiguous with the land of the home country and have land access only through another country or countries. Canada–United States border_sentence_226

Unlike exclaves, they are not entirely surrounded by foreign territory. Canada–United States border_sentence_227

Hence, they are exclaves for practical purposes, without meeting the strict definition. Canada–United States border_sentence_228

The term pene-exclave, also known as a "functional" or "practical" exclave, was defined by G. W. S. Robinson (1959) as "parts of the territory of one country that can be approached conveniently — in particular by wheeled traffic — only through the territory of another country." Canada–United States border_sentence_229

Thus, a pene-exclave has land borders with other territory but is not completely surrounded by the other's land or territorial waters. Canada–United States border_sentence_230

Catudal (1974) and Vinokurov (2007) provide examples to further elaborate, including Point Roberts, Washington: "Although physical connections by water with Point Roberts are entirely within the sovereignty of the United States, land access is only possible through Canada." Canada–United States border_sentence_231

Practical exclaves can exhibit continuity of state territory across territorial waters but, nevertheless, a discontinuity on land, such as in the case of Point Roberts. Canada–United States border_sentence_232

Practical exclaves of Canada Canada–United States border_section_35

Akwesasne: The Quebec western portion of the Akwesasne reserve is a practical exclave of Canada because of the St. Lawrence River to the north, the St. Canada–United States border_sentence_233 Regis River to the east, New York State, U.S. to the south. Canada–United States border_sentence_234

To travel by land to elsewhere in Canada, one must drive through New York State. Canada–United States border_sentence_235

Campobello Island: Located at the entrance to Passamaquoddy Bay, adjacent to the entrance to Cobscook Bay, and within the Bay of Fundy. Canada–United States border_sentence_236

The island is part of Charlotte County, New Brunswick, but is actually physically connected by the Franklin Delano Roosevelt Bridge with Lubec, Maine, the easternmost tip of the continental United States. Canada–United States border_sentence_237

Practical exclaves of the United States Canada–United States border_section_36

Alaska is a non-contiguous U.S. state bounded by the Bering Sea; the Arctic and Pacific oceans; and Canada's British Columbia and Yukon Territory. Canada–United States border_sentence_238

Additionally, because of the terrain, several municipalities in southeast Alaska (the "Panhandle") are inaccessible by road, except via Canada. Canada–United States border_sentence_239

Specifically, the town of Hyder, Alaska is accessible only through Stewart, British Columbia, or by floatplane. Canada–United States border_sentence_240

Moreover, Haines and Skagway are accessible by road only through Canada, although there are car ferries which connect them to other Alaskan places. Canada–United States border_sentence_241

In Minnesota, Elm Point, two small pieces of land to its west (Buffalo Bay Point), and the Northwest Angle are bounded by the province of Manitoba and Lake of the Woods. Canada–United States border_sentence_242

In Vermont, the Alburgh Tongue, as well as Province Point, which is the small end of a peninsula east of Alburgh, are bounded by Quebec and Lake Champlain. Canada–United States border_sentence_243

Point Roberts, Washington is bounded by British Columbia, the Strait of Georgia, and Boundary Bay. Canada–United States border_sentence_244

Split features Canada–United States border_section_37

Between Quebec and Vermont, Province Island is a piece of land that primarily lies in Canada, though a small portion of the island is situated in the U.S. state, lying south of the 45th parallel with a border vista marking the international boundary. Canada–United States border_sentence_245

Canusa Street is the only portion of the Canada–United States border split down the middle of a street. Canada–United States border_sentence_246

Between North Dakota and Manitoba, the international border splits a peninsula within a lake on the border of Rolette County, ND, and the Wakopa Wildlife Management Area, MB. Canada–United States border_sentence_247

Likewise, Lake Metigoshe, lying in the Township of Roland, ND, borders the municipality of Winchester, MB. Canada–United States border_sentence_248

The border splits a shoreline, putting Canadian cabins on one side and the beach and boat docks for those cabins on the U.S. side, while land access is only through Canada. Canada–United States border_sentence_249

Remaining boundary disputes Canada–United States border_section_38

Main article: List of areas disputed by Canada and the United States Canada–United States border_sentence_250

Canada–United States border_unordered_list_2

See also Canada–United States border_section_39

Canada–United States border_unordered_list_3


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canada–United States border.