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"Canadian" redirects here. Canadians_sentence_0

For other uses, see Canadian (disambiguation). Canadians_sentence_1

For information on the population of Canada, see Demographics of Canada. Canadians_sentence_2


Total populationCanadians_header_cell_0_0_0
Regions with significant populationsCanadians_header_cell_0_1_0
United StatesCanadians_header_cell_0_2_0 1,062,640Canadians_cell_0_2_1
Hong KongCanadians_header_cell_0_3_0 300,000Canadians_cell_0_3_1
United KingdomCanadians_header_cell_0_4_0 73,000Canadians_cell_0_4_1
FranceCanadians_header_cell_0_5_0 60,000Canadians_cell_0_5_1
LebanonCanadians_header_cell_0_6_0 45,000Canadians_cell_0_6_1
United Arab EmiratesCanadians_header_cell_0_7_0 40,000Canadians_cell_0_7_1
AustraliaCanadians_header_cell_0_8_0 27,289Canadians_cell_0_8_1
ChinaCanadians_header_cell_0_9_0 19,990Canadians_cell_0_9_1
PakistanCanadians_header_cell_0_10_0 17,320Canadians_cell_0_10_1
GermanyCanadians_header_cell_0_11_0 15,750Canadians_cell_0_11_1
South KoreaCanadians_header_cell_0_12_0 14,210Canadians_cell_0_12_1
JapanCanadians_header_cell_0_13_0 11,016Canadians_cell_0_13_1
EgyptCanadians_header_cell_0_14_0 10,000Canadians_cell_0_14_1
MexicoCanadians_header_cell_0_15_0 9,816Canadians_cell_0_15_1
New ZealandCanadians_header_cell_0_16_0 7,770Canadians_cell_0_16_1
PhilippinesCanadians_header_cell_0_17_0 7,500Canadians_cell_0_17_1
HaitiCanadians_header_cell_0_18_0 6,000Canadians_cell_0_18_1
SwitzerlandCanadians_header_cell_0_19_0 5,243Canadians_cell_0_19_1
SingaporeCanadians_header_cell_0_20_0 5,140Canadians_cell_0_20_1
ThailandCanadians_header_cell_0_21_0 5,000Canadians_cell_0_21_1
Trinidad and TobagoCanadians_header_cell_0_22_0 5,000Canadians_cell_0_22_1
BelgiumCanadians_header_cell_0_23_0 4,145Canadians_cell_0_23_1
DenmarkCanadians_header_cell_0_24_0 2,559Canadians_cell_0_24_1

Canadians (French: Canadiens) are people identified with the country of Canada. Canadians_sentence_3

This connection may be residential, legal, historical or cultural. Canadians_sentence_4

For most Canadians, many (or all) of these connections exist and are collectively the source of their being Canadian. Canadians_sentence_5

Canada is a multilingual and multicultural society home to people of groups of many different ethnic, religious, and national origins, with the majority of the population made up of Old World immigrants and their descendants. Canadians_sentence_6

Following the initial period of French and then the much larger British colonization, different waves (or peaks) of immigration and settlement of non-indigenous peoples took place over the course of nearly two centuries and continue today. Canadians_sentence_7

Elements of Indigenous, French, British, and more recent immigrant customs, languages, and religions have combined to form the culture of Canada, and thus a Canadian identity. Canadians_sentence_8

Canada has also been strongly influenced by its linguistic, geographic, and economic neighbour—the United States. Canadians_sentence_9

Canadian independence from the United Kingdom grew gradually over the course of many years following the formation of the Canadian Confederation in 1867. Canadians_sentence_10

World War I and World War II in particular, gave rise to a desire among Canadians to have their country recognized as a fully-fledged sovereign state with a distinct citizenship. Canadians_sentence_11

Legislative independence was established with the passage of the Statute of Westminster 1931, the Canadian Citizenship Act of 1946 took effect on January 1, 1947, and full sovereignty was achieved with the patriation of the constitution in 1982. Canadians_sentence_12

Canada's nationality law closely mirrored that of the United Kingdom. Canadians_sentence_13

Legislation since the mid-20th century represents Canadians' commitment to multilateralism and socioeconomic development. Canadians_sentence_14

Population Canadians_section_0

See also: Population of Canada and Demographics of Canada Canadians_sentence_15

As of 2010, Canadians make up only 0.5% of the world's total population, having relied upon immigration for population growth and social development. Canadians_sentence_16

Approximately 41% of current Canadians are first- or second-generation immigrants, and 20% of Canadian residents in the 2000s were not born in the country. Canadians_sentence_17

Statistics Canada projects that, by 2031, nearly one-half of Canadians above the age of 15 will be foreign-born or have one foreign-born parent. Canadians_sentence_18

Indigenous peoples, according to the 2016 Canadian Census, numbered at 1,673,780 or 4.9% of the country's 35,151,728 population. Canadians_sentence_19

Immigration Canadians_section_1

Main article: Immigration to Canada Canadians_sentence_20

While the first contact with Europeans and indigenous peoples in Canada had occurred a century or more before, the first group of permanent settlers were the French, who founded the New France settlements, in present-day Quebec and Ontario; and Acadia, in present-day Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, during the early part of the 17th century. Canadians_sentence_21

Approximately 100 Irish-born families would settle the Saint Lawrence Valley by 1700, assimilating into the Canadien population and culture. Canadians_sentence_22

During the 18th and 19th century; immigration westward (to the area known as Rupert's Land) was carried out by "Voyageurs"; French settlers working for the North West Company; and by British settlers (English and Scottish) representing the Hudson's Bay Company, coupled with independent entrepreneurial woodsman called "Coureur des bois". Canadians_sentence_23

This arrival of newcomers led to the creation of the Métis, an ethnic group of mixed European and First Nations parentage. Canadians_sentence_24

The British conquest of New France was preceded by a small number of Germans and Swedes who settled alongside the Scottish in Port Royal, Nova Scotia, while some Irish immigrated to the Colony of Newfoundland. Canadians_sentence_25

In the wake of the British Conquest of 1760 and the Expulsion of the Acadians, many families from the British colonies in New England moved over into Nova Scotia and other colonies in Canada, where the British made farmland available to British settlers on easy terms. Canadians_sentence_26

More settlers arrived during and after the American Revolutionary War, when approximately 60,000 United Empire Loyalists fled to British North America, a large portion of whom settled in New Brunswick. Canadians_sentence_27

After the War of 1812, British (including British army regulars), Scottish, and Irish immigration was encouraged throughout Rupert's Land, Upper Canada and Lower Canada. Canadians_sentence_28

Between 1815 and 1850, some 800,000 immigrants came to the colonies of British North America, mainly from the British Isles as part of the Great Migration of Canada. Canadians_sentence_29

These new arrivals included some Gaelic-speaking Highland Scots displaced by the Highland Clearances to Nova Scotia. Canadians_sentence_30

The Great Famine of Ireland of the 1840s significantly increased the pace of Irish immigration to Prince Edward Island and the Province of Canada, with over 35,000 distressed individuals landing in Toronto in 1847 and 1848. Canadians_sentence_31

Descendants of Francophone and Anglophone northern Europeans who arrived in the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries are often referred to as Old Stock Canadians. Canadians_sentence_32

Beginning in the late 1850s, the immigration of Chinese into the Colony of Vancouver Island and Colony of British Columbia peaked with the onset of the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush. Canadians_sentence_33

The Chinese Immigration Act eventually placed a head tax on all Chinese immigrants, in hopes of discouraging Chinese immigration after completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway. Canadians_sentence_34

Additionally, growing South Asian immigration into British Columbia during the early 1900s led to the Continuous journey regulation act of 1908 which indirectly halted Indian immigration to Canada, as later evidenced by the infamous 1914 Komagata Maru incident. Canadians_sentence_35


Permanent Residents Admitted in 2019, by Top 10 Source CountriesCanadians_table_caption_1
RankCanadians_header_cell_1_0_0 CountryCanadians_header_cell_1_0_1 NumberCanadians_header_cell_1_0_2 PercentageCanadians_header_cell_1_0_3
1Canadians_cell_1_1_0 IndiaCanadians_cell_1_1_1 85,585Canadians_cell_1_1_2 25.1Canadians_cell_1_1_3
2Canadians_cell_1_2_0 ChinaCanadians_cell_1_2_1 30,260Canadians_cell_1_2_2 8.9Canadians_cell_1_2_3
3Canadians_cell_1_3_0 PhilippinesCanadians_cell_1_3_1 27,815Canadians_cell_1_3_2 8.2Canadians_cell_1_3_3
4Canadians_cell_1_4_0 NigeriaCanadians_cell_1_4_1 12,595Canadians_cell_1_4_2 3.7Canadians_cell_1_4_3
5Canadians_cell_1_5_0 United StatesCanadians_cell_1_5_1 10,800Canadians_cell_1_5_2 3.2Canadians_cell_1_5_3
6Canadians_cell_1_6_0 PakistanCanadians_cell_1_6_1 10,790Canadians_cell_1_6_2 3.2Canadians_cell_1_6_3
7Canadians_cell_1_7_0 SyriaCanadians_cell_1_7_1 10,120Canadians_cell_1_7_2 3.0Canadians_cell_1_7_3
8Canadians_cell_1_8_0 EritreaCanadians_cell_1_8_1 7,025Canadians_cell_1_8_2 2.1Canadians_cell_1_8_3
9Canadians_cell_1_9_0 South KoreaCanadians_cell_1_9_1 6,110Canadians_cell_1_9_2 1.8Canadians_cell_1_9_3
10Canadians_cell_1_10_0 IranCanadians_cell_1_10_1 6,055Canadians_cell_1_10_2 1.8Canadians_cell_1_10_3
Canadians_cell_1_11_0 Top 10 TotalCanadians_cell_1_11_1 207,155Canadians_cell_1_11_2 60.7Canadians_cell_1_11_3
Canadians_cell_1_12_0 OtherCanadians_cell_1_12_1 134,025Canadians_cell_1_12_2 39.3Canadians_cell_1_12_3
Canadians_cell_1_13_0 TotalCanadians_cell_1_13_1 341,180Canadians_cell_1_13_2 100Canadians_cell_1_13_3

The population of Canada has consistently risen, doubling approximately every 40 years, since the establishment of the Canadian Confederation in 1867. Canadians_sentence_36

In the mid-to-late 19th century, Canada had a policy of assisting immigrants from Europe, including an estimated 100,000 unwanted "Home Children" from Britain. Canadians_sentence_37

Block settlement communities were established throughout western Canada between the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Canadians_sentence_38

Some were planned and others were spontaneously created by the settlers themselves. Canadians_sentence_39

Canada was now receiving a large number of European immigrants, predominantly Italians, Germans, Scandinavians, Dutch, Poles, and Ukrainians. Canadians_sentence_40

Legislative restrictions on immigration (such as the Continuous journey regulation and Chinese Immigration Act) that had favoured British and other European immigrants were amended in the 1960s, opening the doors to immigrants from all parts of the world. Canadians_sentence_41

While the 1950s had still seen high levels of immigration by Europeans, by the 1970s immigrants were increasingly Chinese, Indian, Vietnamese, Jamaican, and Haitian. Canadians_sentence_42

During the late 1960s and early 1970s, Canada received many American Vietnam War draft dissenters. Canadians_sentence_43

Throughout the late 1980s and 1990s, Canada's growing Pacific trade brought with it a large influx of South Asians, who tended to settle in British Columbia. Canadians_sentence_44

Immigrants of all backgrounds tend to settle in the major urban centres. Canadians_sentence_45

The Canadian public, as well as the major political parties, are tolerant of immigrants. Canadians_sentence_46

The majority of illegal immigrants come from the southern provinces of the People's Republic of China, with Asia as a whole, Eastern Europe, Caribbean, Africa, and the Middle East. Canadians_sentence_47

Estimates of numbers of illegal immigrants range between 35,000 and 120,000. Canadians_sentence_48

Citizenship and diaspora Canadians_section_2

Main article: Canadian nationality law Canadians_sentence_49

Canadian citizenship is typically obtained by birth in Canada or by birth or adoption abroad when at least one biological parent or adoptive parent is a Canadian citizen who was born in Canada or naturalized in Canada (and did not receive citizenship by being born outside of Canada to a Canadian citizen). Canadians_sentence_50

It can also be granted to a permanent resident who lives in Canada for three out of four years and meets specific requirements. Canadians_sentence_51

Canada established its own nationality law in 1946, with the enactment of the Canadian Citizenship Act which took effect on January 1, 1947. Canadians_sentence_52

The Immigration and Refugee Protection Act was passed by the Parliament of Canada in 2001 as Bill C-11, which replaced the Immigration Act of 1976 as the primary federal legislation regulating immigration. Canadians_sentence_53

Prior to the conferring of legal status on Canadian citizenship, Canada's naturalization laws consisted of a multitude of Acts beginning with the Immigration Act of 1910. Canadians_sentence_54

According to Citizenship and Immigration Canada, there are three main classifications for immigrants: Family class (persons closely related to Canadian residents), Economic class (admitted on the basis of a point system that accounts for age, health and labour-market skills required for cost effectively inducting the immigrants into Canada's labour market) and Refugee class (those seeking protection by applying to remain in the country by way of the Canadian immigration and refugee law). Canadians_sentence_55

In 2008, there were 65,567 immigrants in the family class, 21,860 refugees, and 149,072 economic immigrants amongst the 247,243 total immigrants to the country. Canadians_sentence_56

Canada resettles over one in 10 of the world's refugees and has one of the highest per-capita immigration rates in the world. Canadians_sentence_57

As of a 2010 report by the Asia Pacific Foundation of Canada, there were 2.8 million Canadian citizens abroad. Canadians_sentence_58

This represents about 8% of the total Canadian population. Canadians_sentence_59

Of those living abroad, the United States, Hong Kong, the United Kingdom, Taiwan, China, Lebanon, United Arab Emirates, and Australia have the largest Canadian diaspora. Canadians_sentence_60

Canadians in the United States constitute the greatest single expatriate community at over 1 million in 2009, representing 35.8% of all Canadians abroad. Canadians_sentence_61

Under current Canadian law, Canada does not restrict dual citizenship, but Passport Canada encourages its citizens to travel abroad on their Canadian passport so that they can access Canadian consular services. Canadians_sentence_62

Ethnic ancestry Canadians_section_3

Main article: Ethnic origins of people in Canada Canadians_sentence_63


Counting both single and multiple responses, the most commonly identified ethnic origins were (2016)Canadians_table_caption_2
Ethnic originCanadians_header_cell_2_0_0 %Canadians_header_cell_2_0_1 PopulationCanadians_header_cell_2_0_2
CanadianCanadians_header_cell_2_1_0 32.32%Canadians_cell_2_1_1 11,135,965Canadians_cell_2_1_2
EnglishCanadians_header_cell_2_2_0 18.34%Canadians_cell_2_2_1 6,320,085Canadians_cell_2_2_2
ScottishCanadians_header_cell_2_3_0 13.93%Canadians_cell_2_3_1 4,799,010Canadians_cell_2_3_2
FrenchCanadians_header_cell_2_4_0 13.55%Canadians_cell_2_4_1 4,670,595Canadians_cell_2_4_2
IrishCanadians_header_cell_2_5_0 13.43%Canadians_cell_2_5_1 4,627,000Canadians_cell_2_5_2
GermanCanadians_header_cell_2_6_0 9.64%Canadians_cell_2_6_1 3,322,405Canadians_cell_2_6_2
ChineseCanadians_header_cell_2_7_0 5.13%Canadians_cell_2_7_1 1,769,195Canadians_cell_2_7_2
ItalianCanadians_header_cell_2_8_0 4.61%Canadians_cell_2_8_1 1,587,970Canadians_cell_2_8_2
First NationsCanadians_header_cell_2_9_0 4.43%Canadians_cell_2_9_1 1,525,565Canadians_cell_2_9_2
East IndianCanadians_header_cell_2_10_0 3.99%Canadians_cell_2_10_1 1,374,710Canadians_cell_2_10_2
UkrainianCanadians_header_cell_2_11_0 3.95%Canadians_cell_2_11_1 1,359,655Canadians_cell_2_11_2
Dutch (Netherlands)Canadians_header_cell_2_12_0 3.23%Canadians_cell_2_12_1 1,111,655Canadians_cell_2_12_2
PolishCanadians_header_cell_2_13_0 3.21%Canadians_cell_2_13_1 1,106,585Canadians_cell_2_13_2

According to the 2016 census, the country's largest self-reported ethnic origin is Canadian (accounting for 32% of the population), followed by English (18.3%), Scottish (13.9%), French (13.6%), Irish (13.4%), German (9.6%), Chinese (5.1%), Italian (4.6%), First Nations (4.4%), Indian (4.0%), and Ukrainian (3.9%). Canadians_sentence_64

There are 600 recognized First Nations governments or bands, encompassing a total of 1,525,565 people. Canadians_sentence_65

The population of Indigenous peoples in Canada is growing at almost twice the national rate, and four percent of Canada's population claimed an indigenous identity in 2006. Canadians_sentence_66

Another 22.3 percent of the population belonged to a non-indigenous visible minority. Canadians_sentence_67

In 2016, the largest visible minority groups were South Asian (5.6%), Chinese (5.1%), and Black (3.5%). Canadians_sentence_68

Between 2011 and 2016, the visible minority population rose by 18.4 percent. Canadians_sentence_69

In 1961, less than two percent of Canada's population (about 300,000 people) were members of visible minority groups. Canadians_sentence_70

Indigenous peoples are not considered a visible minority under the Employment Equity Act, and this is the definition that Statistics Canada also uses. Canadians_sentence_71

Culture Canadians_section_4

Main article: Culture of Canada Canadians_sentence_72

Canadian culture is primarily a Western culture, with influences by First Nations and other cultures. Canadians_sentence_73

It is a product of its ethnicities, languages, religions, political, and legal system(s). Canadians_sentence_74

Canada has been shaped by waves of migration that have combined to form a unique blend of art, cuisine, literature, humour, and music. Canadians_sentence_75

Today, Canada has a diverse makeup of nationalities and constitutional protection for policies that promote multiculturalism rather than cultural assimilation. Canadians_sentence_76

In Quebec, cultural identity is strong, and many French-speaking commentators speak of a Quebec culture distinct from English Canadian culture. Canadians_sentence_77

However, as a whole, Canada is a cultural mosaic: a collection of several regional, indigenous, and ethnic subcultures. Canadians_sentence_78

Canadian government policies such as official bilingualism; publicly funded health care; higher and more progressive taxation; outlawing capital punishment; strong efforts to eliminate poverty; strict gun control; the legalizing of same-sex marriage, pregnancy terminations, euthanasia and cannabis are social indicators of Canada's political and cultural values. Canadians_sentence_79

American media and entertainment are popular, if not dominant, in English Canada; conversely, many Canadian cultural products and entertainers are successful in the United States and worldwide. Canadians_sentence_80

The Government of Canada has also influenced culture with programs, laws, and institutions. Canadians_sentence_81

It has created Crown corporations to promote Canadian culture through media and has also tried to protect Canadian culture by setting legal minimums on Canadian content. Canadians_sentence_82

Canadian culture has historically been influenced by European culture and traditions, especially British and French, and by its own indigenous cultures. Canadians_sentence_83

Most of Canada's territory was inhabited and developed later than other European colonies in the Americas, with the result that themes and symbols of pioneers, trappers, and traders were important in the early development of the Canadian identity. Canadians_sentence_84

First Nations played a critical part in the development of European colonies in Canada, particularly for their role in assisting exploration of the continent during the North American fur trade. Canadians_sentence_85

The British conquest of New France in the mid-1700s brought a large Francophone population under British Imperial rule, creating a need for compromise and accommodation. Canadians_sentence_86

The new British rulers left alone much of the religious, political, and social culture of the French-speaking habitants, guaranteeing through the Quebec Act of 1774 the right of the Canadiens to practise the Catholic faith and to use French civil law (now Quebec law). Canadians_sentence_87

The Constitution Act, 1867 was designed to meet the growing calls of Canadians for autonomy from British rule, while avoiding the overly strong decentralization that contributed to the Civil War in the United States. Canadians_sentence_88

The compromises made by the Fathers of Confederation set Canadians on a path to bilingualism, and this in turn contributed to an acceptance of diversity. Canadians_sentence_89

The Canadian Forces and overall civilian participation in the First World War and Second World War helped to foster Canadian nationalism, however, in 1917 and 1944, conscription crisis' highlighted the considerable rift along ethnic lines between Anglophones and Francophones. Canadians_sentence_90

As a result of the First and Second World Wars, the Government of Canada became more assertive and less deferential to British authority. Canadians_sentence_91

With the gradual loosening of political ties to the United Kingdom and the modernization of Canadian immigration policies, 20th-century immigrants with African, Caribbean and Asian nationalities have added to the Canadian identity and its culture. Canadians_sentence_92

The multiple-origins immigration pattern continues today, with the arrival of large numbers of immigrants from non-British or non-French backgrounds. Canadians_sentence_93

Multiculturalism in Canada was adopted as the official policy of the government during the premiership of Pierre Trudeau in the 1970s and 1980s. Canadians_sentence_94

The Canadian government has often been described as the instigator of multicultural ideology, because of its public emphasis on the social importance of immigration. Canadians_sentence_95

Multiculturalism is administered by the Department of Citizenship and Immigration and reflected in the law through the Canadian Multiculturalism Act and section 27 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Canadians_sentence_96

Religion Canadians_section_5

Main article: Religion in Canada Canadians_sentence_97

Canada as a nation is religiously diverse, encompassing a wide range of groups, beliefs and customs. Canadians_sentence_98

The preamble to the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms references "God", and the monarch carries the title of "Defender of the Faith". Canadians_sentence_99

However, Canada has no official religion, and support for religious pluralism (Freedom of religion in Canada) is an important part of Canada's political culture. Canadians_sentence_100

With the role of Christianity in decline, it having once been central and integral to Canadian culture and daily life, commentators have suggested that Canada has come to enter a post-Christian period in a secular state, with irreligion on the rise. Canadians_sentence_101

The majority of Canadians consider religion to be unimportant in their daily lives, but still believe in God. Canadians_sentence_102

The practice of religion is now generally considered a private matter throughout society and within the state. Canadians_sentence_103

The 2011 Canadian census reported that 67.3% of Canadians identify as being Christians; of this number, Catholics make up the largest group, accounting for 38.7 percent of the population. Canadians_sentence_104

The largest Protestant denomination is the United Church of Canada (accounting for 6.1% of Canadians); followed by Anglicans (5.0%), and Baptists (1.9%). Canadians_sentence_105

About 23.9% of Canadians declare no religious affiliation, including agnostics, atheists, humanists, and other groups. Canadians_sentence_106

The remaining are affiliated with non-Christian religions, the largest of which is Islam (3.2%), followed by Hinduism (1.5%), Sikhism (1.4%), Buddhism (1.1%), and Judaism (1.0%). Canadians_sentence_107

Before the arrival of European colonists and explorers, First Nations followed a wide array of mostly animistic religions. Canadians_sentence_108

During the colonial period, the French settled along the shores of the Saint Lawrence River, specifically Latin Rite Roman Catholics, including a number of Jesuits dedicated to converting indigenous peoples; an effort that eventually proved successful. Canadians_sentence_109

The first large Protestant communities were formed in the Maritimes after the British conquest of New France, followed by American Protestant settlers displaced by the American Revolution. Canadians_sentence_110

The late nineteenth century saw the beginning of a substantive shift in Canadian immigration patterns. Canadians_sentence_111

Large numbers of Irish and southern European immigrants were creating new Roman Catholic communities in English Canada. Canadians_sentence_112

The settlement of the west brought significant Eastern Orthodox immigrants from Eastern Europe and Mormon and Pentecostal immigrants from the United States. Canadians_sentence_113

The earliest documentation of Jewish presence in Canada occurs in the 1754 British Army records from the French and Indian War. Canadians_sentence_114

In 1760, General Jeffrey Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst attacked and won Montreal for the British. Canadians_sentence_115

In his regiment there were several Jews, including four among his officer corps, most notably Lieutenant Aaron Hart who is considered the father of Canadian Jewry. Canadians_sentence_116

The Islamic, Jains, Sikh, Hindu, and Buddhist communities—although small—are as old as the nation itself. Canadians_sentence_117

The 1871 Canadian Census (first "Canadian" national census) indicated thirteen Muslims among the populace, with approximately 5000 Sikh by 1908. Canadians_sentence_118

The first Canadian mosque was constructed in Edmonton, in 1938, when there were approximately 700 Muslims in Canada. Canadians_sentence_119

Buddhism first arrived in Canada when Japanese immigrated during the late 19th century. Canadians_sentence_120

The first Japanese Buddhist temple in Canada was built in Vancouver in 1905. Canadians_sentence_121

The influx of immigrants in the late 20th century, with Sri Lankan, Japanese, Indian and Southeast Asian customs, has contributed to the recent expansion of the Jain, Sikh, Hindu, and Buddhist communities. Canadians_sentence_122

Languages Canadians_section_6

Main article: Languages of Canada Canadians_sentence_123

A multitude of languages are used by Canadians, with English and French (the official languages) being the mother tongues of approximately 56% and 21% of Canadians, respectively. Canadians_sentence_124

As of the 2016 Census, just over 7.3 million Canadians listed a non-official language as their mother tongue. Canadians_sentence_125

Some of the most common non-official first languages include Chinese (1,227,680 first-language speakers), Punjabi (501,680), Spanish (458,850), Tagalog (431,385), Arabic (419,895), German (384,040), and Italian (375,645). Canadians_sentence_126

Less than one percent of Canadians (just over 250,000 individuals) can speak an indigenous language. Canadians_sentence_127

About half this number (129,865) reported using an indigenous language on a daily basis. Canadians_sentence_128

Additionally, Canadians speak several sign languages; the number of speakers is unknown of the most spoken ones, American Sign Language (ASL) and Quebec Sign Language (LSQ), as it is of Maritime Sign Language and Plains Sign Talk. Canadians_sentence_129

There are only 47 speakers of the Inuit sign language Inuktitut. Canadians_sentence_130

English and French are recognized by the Constitution of Canada as official languages. Canadians_sentence_131

All federal government laws are thus enacted in both English and French, with government services available in both languages. Canadians_sentence_132

Two of Canada's territories give official status to indigenous languages. Canadians_sentence_133

In Nunavut, Inuktitut and Inuinnaqtun are official languages, alongside the national languages of English and French, and Inuktitut is a common vehicular language in territorial government. Canadians_sentence_134

In the Northwest Territories, the Official Languages Act declares that there are eleven different languages: Chipewyan, Cree, English, French, Gwich'in, Inuinnaqtun, Inuktitut, Inuvialuktun, North Slavey, South Slavey, and Tłįchǫ. Canadians_sentence_135

Multicultural media are widely accessible across the country and offer specialty television channels, newspapers, and other publications in many minority languages. Canadians_sentence_136

In Canada, as elsewhere in the world of European colonies, the frontier of European exploration and settlement tended to be a linguistically diverse and fluid place, as cultures using different languages met and interacted. Canadians_sentence_137

The need for a common means of communication between the indigenous inhabitants and new arrivals for the purposes of trade, and (in some cases) intermarriage, led to the development of Mixed languages. Canadians_sentence_138

Languages like Michif, Chinook Jargon, and Bungi creole tended to be highly localized and were often spoken by only a small number of individuals who were frequently capable of speaking another language. Canadians_sentence_139

Plains Sign Talk—which functioned originally as a trade language used to communicate internationally and across linguistic borders—reached across Canada, the United States, and into Mexico. Canadians_sentence_140

See also Canadians_section_7


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