Cannula

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For other uses, see Cannula (disambiguation). Cannula_sentence_0

A cannula (/ˈkænjʊlə/; from Latin "little reed"; plural cannulae or cannulas) is a tube that can be inserted into the body, often for the delivery or removal of fluid or for the gathering of samples. Cannula_sentence_1

In simple terms, a cannula can surround the inner or outer surfaces of a trocar needle thus extending the effective needle length by at least half the length of the original needle. Cannula_sentence_2

It is also called an intravenous (IV) cannula. Cannula_sentence_3

Its size mainly ranges from 14 to 24 gauge. Cannula_sentence_4

Different-sized cannula have different colours as coded. Cannula_sentence_5

Decannulation is the permanent removal of a cannula (extubation), especially of a tracheostomy cannula, once a physician determines it is no longer needed for breathing. Cannula_sentence_6

Medicine Cannula_section_0

Cannulae normally come with a trocar inside. Cannula_sentence_7

The trocar is a needle, which punctures the body in order to get into the intended space. Cannula_sentence_8

Many types of cannulae exist: Cannula_sentence_9

Intravenous cannulae are the most common in hospital use. Cannula_sentence_10

A variety of cannulae are used to establish cardiopulmonary bypass in cardiac surgery. Cannula_sentence_11

A nasal cannula is a piece of plastic tubing that runs under the nose and is used to administer oxygen. Cannula_sentence_12

Intravenous (IV) cannulation Cannula_section_1

See also: Peripheral venous catheter Cannula_sentence_13

A venous cannula is inserted into a vein, primarily for the administration of intravenous fluids, for obtaining blood samples and for administering medicines. Cannula_sentence_14

An arterial cannula is inserted into an artery, commonly the radial artery, and is used during major operations and in critical care areas to measure beat-to-beat blood pressure and to draw repeated blood samples. Cannula_sentence_15

Insertion of the venous cannula is a painful procedure that can lead to anxiety and stress. Cannula_sentence_16

Use of a vapocoolant (cold spray) immediately before cannulation reduces pain during the procedure, without increasing the difficulty of cannulation. Cannula_sentence_17

Complications may arise in the vein as a result of the cannulation procedure, the four main groups of complication are: Cannula_sentence_18

Cannula_unordered_list_0

  • hematoma: a collection of blood, which can result from failure to puncture the vein when the cannula is inserted or when the cannula is removed. The selection of an appropriate vein and gently applying pressure slightly above the insertion point on removal of the cannula may prevent this.Cannula_item_0_0
  • infiltration: when infusate enters the subcutaneous tissue instead of the vein. To prevent this, a cannula with accurate trim distances may be used. It is essential to fix the cannula in place firmly.Cannula_item_0_1
  • embolism: this can be caused by air, a thrombus, or fragment of a catheter breaking off and entering the venous system. It can cause a pulmonary embolism. Air emboli can be avoided by making sure that there is no air in the system. A thromboembolism can be avoided by using a smaller cannula.Cannula_item_0_2
  • phlebitis: an inflammation of the vein resulting from mechanical or chemical irritation or from an infection. Phlebitis can be avoided by carefully choosing the site for cannulation and by checking the type of infusate used.Cannula_item_0_3

Nasal cannulation and oral-nasal cannulation Cannula_section_2

A nasal cannula or an oral–nasal cannula consists of a flexible tube, usually with multiple short, open-ended branches for comfortable insertion into the nostrils and/or mouth, and may be used for the delivery of a gas (such as pure oxygen), a gas mixture (as, for example, during anesthesia), or to measure airflow into and out of the nose and/or mouth. Cannula_sentence_19

Tracheotomy tube Cannula_section_3

The removal of a tracheotomy tube is referred to as decannulation. Cannula_sentence_20

Veterinary use Cannula_section_4

A cannula is used in an emergency procedure to relieve pressure and bloating in cattle and sheep with ruminal tympany, due most commonly to their accidentally grazing wilted legume or legume-dominant pastures, particularly alfalfa, ladino, and red and white clover. Cannula_sentence_21

Cannulas are a component used in the insertion of the Verichip. Cannula_sentence_22

Much larger cannulas are used to research about the digestive system of cows. Cannula_sentence_23

Aesthetic medicine and anti-ageing Cannula_section_5

In aesthetic medicine, a blunt-tip cannula or microcannula (also called smooth tip microcannula, blunt tipped cannula, or simply microcannula) is a small tube with an edge that is not sharp and an extrusion port or pore near the tip which is designed for atraumatic subdermal injections of fluids or gels. Cannula_sentence_24

Depending on the size of the internal diameter, it can be used either for the injection of cosmetic wrinkle fillers like hyaluronic acid, collagen, poly-L-lactic acid, CaHA, etc., or for fat transfer (Liposuction). Cannula_sentence_25

The advantage of using these is that they are less painful, have less risk of bruising, have less swelling, and a better safety profile. Cannula_sentence_26

Accidental intravascular injections are more difficult with blunt-tip microcannulas, reducing the risk of skin necrosis, ulcers, and embolization to the retinal artery which can result in blindness. Cannula_sentence_27

Indeed, in May 2015, the USA issued a warning of these risks as an FDA Safety Communication on the "Unintentional Injection of Soft Tissue Filler Into Blood Vessels In the Face". Cannula_sentence_28

In January 2012, the "Dermasculpt" microcannula was approved by the FDA for use in the United States for use with soft tissue fillers followed by the "Magic Needle", "Softfil", "TSK by Air-Tite", and "Sculpt-face". Cannula_sentence_29

The primary structural differences between microcannulas is the distance of the extrusion port or pore from the tip (closer is more precise), the bluntness of the tip (tapered blunt tip is easier for entry), and the flexibility of the shaft (enough flexibility to move around sensitive structures but enough rigidity for precise placement. Cannula_sentence_30

Since microcannula tips are blunt, a Pilot or Introducer needle is required for entry through the skin and the technique is to thread the microcannula through this tiny opening. Cannula_sentence_31

Microcannula cosmetic injection techniques have been developed on how to best place cosmetic wrinkle fillers such as the Long MicroCannula Double Cross-Hatched Fan and the Wiggle Progression techniques. Cannula_sentence_32

In April 2016, the concept of the use of microcannula to inject more than cosmetic fillers was first published. Cannula_sentence_33

The technique of Microcannula Injected Local Anesthesia (MILA) was described on the use of microcannula to inject local anesthesia with less pain, bruising, and swelling. Cannula_sentence_34

Also introduced were Accelerated Healing After Platelet-Rich Plasma (AHA-PRP), Accelerated Healing After Platelet-Rich Fibrin Matrix (AHA-PRFM), and the use of microcannula to dissolve Sculptra nodules. Cannula_sentence_35

Body piercing Cannula_section_6

Cannulae are used in body piercing when using a standard IV needle (usually between 18GA and 12GA, although may be as large as 0GA, in which case the procedure is known as dermal punching and uses a biopsy punch without a cannula), and for inserting hooks for suspensions. Cannula_sentence_36

During piercing, the fistula is created by inserting the needle. Cannula_sentence_37

The needle is then removed, leaving the cannula in place, which is sometimes trimmed down. Cannula_sentence_38

The cannula is then removed and sterile jewelry is inserted into the fistula simultaneously, in order to minimise trauma to the fresh fistula caused by insertion of blunt-ended jewelry. Cannula_sentence_39

Non-medical use Cannula_section_7

In biological research, a push-pull cannula, which both withdraws and injects fluid, can be used to determine the effect of a certain chemical on a specific cell. Cannula_sentence_40

The push part of the cannula is filled with a physiological solution plus the chemical of interest and is then injected slowly into the local cellular environment of a cell. Cannula_sentence_41

The pull cannula then draws liquid from the extracellular medium, thus measuring the cellular response to the chemical of interest. Cannula_sentence_42

This technique is especially used for neuroscience. Cannula_sentence_43

In general aviation, a cannula refers to a piece of plastic tubing that runs under the nose and is used to administer oxygen in non-pressurized aircraft flying above 10,000 feet sea level. Cannula_sentence_44

In synthetic chemistry, a cannula refers to a piece of stainless steel or plastic tubing used to transfer liquids or gases from one vessel to another without exposure to air. Cannula_sentence_45

See more at Cannula transfer. Cannula_sentence_46

See also Cannula_section_8

Cannula_unordered_list_1


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cannula.