Cape Colony

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For the previous Dutch colony, see Dutch Cape Colony. Cape Colony_sentence_0

Cape Colony_table_infobox_0

Cape of Good Hope

Kaap de Goede Hoop (Dutch)Cape Colony_header_cell_0_0_0

StatusCape Colony_header_cell_0_1_0 British colonyCape Colony_cell_0_1_1
CapitalCape Colony_header_cell_0_2_0 Cape TownCape Colony_cell_0_2_1
Common languagesCape Colony_header_cell_0_3_0 English, Dutch (official¹)

Khoekhoe, Xhosa also spokenCape Colony_cell_0_3_1

ReligionCape Colony_header_cell_0_4_0 Dutch Reformed Church, Anglican, San religionCape Colony_cell_0_4_1
GovernmentCape Colony_header_cell_0_5_0 Constitutional monarchyCape Colony_cell_0_5_1
King/QueenCape Colony_header_cell_0_6_0 Cape Colony_cell_0_6_1
1795–1820Cape Colony_header_cell_0_7_0 George IIICape Colony_cell_0_7_1
1820–1830Cape Colony_header_cell_0_8_0 George IVCape Colony_cell_0_8_1
1830–1837Cape Colony_header_cell_0_9_0 William IVCape Colony_cell_0_9_1
1837–1901Cape Colony_header_cell_0_10_0 VictoriaCape Colony_cell_0_10_1
1901–1910Cape Colony_header_cell_0_11_0 Edward VIICape Colony_cell_0_11_1
GovernorCape Colony_header_cell_0_12_0 Cape Colony_cell_0_12_1
1797–1798Cape Colony_header_cell_0_13_0 George MacartneyCape Colony_cell_0_13_1
1901–1910Cape Colony_header_cell_0_14_0 Walter Hely-HutchinsonCape Colony_cell_0_14_1
Prime MinisterCape Colony_header_cell_0_15_0 Cape Colony_cell_0_15_1
1872–1878Cape Colony_header_cell_0_16_0 John Charles MoltenoCape Colony_cell_0_16_1
1908–1910Cape Colony_header_cell_0_17_0 John X. MerrimanCape Colony_cell_0_17_1
Historical eraCape Colony_header_cell_0_18_0 ImperialismCape Colony_cell_0_18_1
EstablishedCape Colony_header_cell_0_19_0 1806Cape Colony_cell_0_19_1
Dutch colonyCape Colony_header_cell_0_20_0 1803–1806Cape Colony_cell_0_20_1
Anglo-Dutch treatyCape Colony_header_cell_0_21_0 1814Cape Colony_cell_0_21_1
Natal incorporatedCape Colony_header_cell_0_22_0 1844Cape Colony_cell_0_22_1
DisestablishedCape Colony_header_cell_0_23_0 1910Cape Colony_cell_0_23_1
AreaCape Colony_header_cell_0_24_0
1822Cape Colony_header_cell_0_25_0 331,900 km (128,100 sq mi)Cape Colony_cell_0_25_1
1910Cape Colony_header_cell_0_26_0 569,020 km (219,700 sq mi)Cape Colony_cell_0_26_1
PopulationCape Colony_header_cell_0_27_0
1822Cape Colony_header_cell_0_28_0 110,380Cape Colony_cell_0_28_1
1865 censusCape Colony_header_cell_0_29_0 496,381Cape Colony_cell_0_29_1
1910Cape Colony_header_cell_0_30_0 2,564,965Cape Colony_cell_0_30_1
CurrencyCape Colony_header_cell_0_31_0 Pound sterlingCape Colony_cell_0_31_1
Preceded by

Succeeded by

Dutch Cape Colony

British Bechuanaland

Union of South Africa

BasutolandCape Colony_cell_0_32_0

Preceded byCape Colony_cell_0_33_0 Succeeded byCape Colony_cell_0_33_1
Dutch Cape Colony

British BechuanalandCape Colony_cell_0_34_0

Union of South Africa

BasutolandCape Colony_cell_0_34_1

Cape Colony_cell_0_35_0 Dutch Cape ColonyCape Colony_cell_0_35_1
Cape Colony_cell_0_36_0 British BechuanalandCape Colony_cell_0_36_1
Union of South AfricaCape Colony_cell_0_37_0 Cape Colony_cell_0_37_1
BasutolandCape Colony_cell_0_38_0 Cape Colony_cell_0_38_1
Today part ofCape Colony_header_cell_0_39_0 Namibia

 South Africa  LesothoCape Colony_cell_0_39_1

The Cape of Good Hope, also known as the Cape Colony (Dutch: Kaapkolonie), was a British colony in present-day South Africa named after the Cape of Good Hope. Cape Colony_sentence_1

The British colony was preceded by an earlier Corporate colony that became a Dutch colony of the same name (controlled by France), the Kaap de Goede Hoop, established in 1652 by the United East India Company (VOC). Cape Colony_sentence_2

The Cape was under VOC rule from 1652 to 1795 and under rule of the Napoleonic Batavia Republic from 1803 to 1806. Cape Colony_sentence_3

The VOC lost the colony to Great Britain following the 1795 Battle of Muizenberg, but it was acceded to the Batavia Republic following the 1802 Peace of Amiens. Cape Colony_sentence_4

It was re-occupied by the UK following the Battle of Blaauwberg in 1806, and British possession affirmed with the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814. Cape Colony_sentence_5

The Cape of Good Hope then remained in the British Empire, becoming self-governing in 1872. Cape Colony_sentence_6

The colony was coextensive with the later Cape Province, stretching from the Atlantic coast inland and eastward along the southern coast, constituting about half of modern South Africa: the final eastern boundary, after several wars against the Xhosa, stood at the Fish River. Cape Colony_sentence_7

In the north, the Orange River, natively known as the ǂNūǃarib (Black River) and subsequently called the Gariep River, served as the boundary for some time, although some land between the river and the southern boundary of Botswana was later added to it. Cape Colony_sentence_8

From 1878, the colony also included the enclave of Walvis Bay and the Penguin Islands, both in what is now Namibia. Cape Colony_sentence_9

It united with three other colonies to form the Union of South Africa in 1910. Cape Colony_sentence_10

It then was renamed the Province of the Cape of Good Hope. Cape Colony_sentence_11

South Africa became a sovereign state in 1931 by the Statute of Westminster. Cape Colony_sentence_12

In 1961 it became the Republic of South Africa and obtained its own monetary unit called the Rand. Cape Colony_sentence_13

Following the 1994 creation of the present-day South African provinces, the Cape Province was partitioned into the Eastern Cape, Northern Cape, and Western Cape, with smaller parts in North West province. Cape Colony_sentence_14

History Cape Colony_section_0

VOC settlement Cape Colony_section_1

Main article: Dutch Cape Colony Cape Colony_sentence_15

An expedition of the United East India Company (VOC) led by Jan van Riebeeck established a trading post and naval victualing station at the Cape of Good Hope in 1652. Cape Colony_sentence_16

Van Riebeeck's objective was to secure a harbour of refuge for VOC ships during the long voyages between Europe and Asia. Cape Colony_sentence_17

Within about three decades, the Cape had become home to a large community of "vrijlieden", also known as "vrijburgers" (free citizens), former VOC employees who settled in the colonies overseas after completing their service contracts. Cape Colony_sentence_18

Vrijburgers were mostly married citizens who undertook to spend at least twenty years farming the land within the fledgling colony's borders; in exchange they received tax exempt status and were loaned tools and seeds. Cape Colony_sentence_19

Reflecting the multi-national nature of the early trading companies, the VOC granted vrijburger status to Dutch, Scandinavian and German employees, among others. Cape Colony_sentence_20

In 1688 they also sponsored the immigration of nearly two hundred French Huguenot refugees who had fled to the Netherlands upon the Edict of Fontainebleau. Cape Colony_sentence_21

There was a degree of cultural assimilation due to Dutch cultural hegemony, that included the almost universal adoption of the Dutch language. Cape Colony_sentence_22

Many of the colonists who settled directly on the frontier became increasingly independent and localised in their loyalties. Cape Colony_sentence_23

Known as Boers, they migrated westwards beyond the Cape Colony's initial borders and had soon penetrated almost a thousand kilometres inland. Cape Colony_sentence_24

Some Boers even adopted a nomadic lifestyle permanently and were denoted as trekboers. Cape Colony_sentence_25

The VOC colonial period was marred by a number of bitter conflicts between the colonists and the Khoe-speaking indigenes, followed by the Xhosa, both of which they perceived as unwanted competitors for prime farmland. Cape Colony_sentence_26

VOC traders imported thousands of slaves to the Cape of Good Hope from the Dutch East Indies and other parts of Africa. Cape Colony_sentence_27

By the end of the eighteenth century the Cape's population swelled to about 26,000 people of European descent and 30,000 slaves. Cape Colony_sentence_28

British conquest Cape Colony_section_2

Main article: Invasion of the Cape Colony (1795) Cape Colony_sentence_29

In 1795, France occupied the Seven Provinces of the Netherlands, the mother country of the United East India Company. Cape Colony_sentence_30

This prompted Great Britain to occupy the Cape territory in 1795 as a way to better control the seas in order to stop any potential French attempt to reach India. Cape Colony_sentence_31

The British sent a fleet of nine warships which anchored at Simon's Town and, following the defeat of the VOC militia at the Battle of Muizenberg, took control of the territory. Cape Colony_sentence_32

The United East India Company transferred its territories and claims to the Batavian Republic (the Revolutionary period Dutch state) in 1798, and went bankrupt in 1799. Cape Colony_sentence_33

Improving relations between Britain and Napoleonic France, and its vassal state the Batavian Republic, led the British to hand the Cape of Good Hope over to the Batavian Republic in 1803, under the terms of the Treaty of Amiens. Cape Colony_sentence_34

In 1806, the Cape, now nominally controlled by the Batavian Republic, was occupied again by the British after their victory in the Battle of Blaauwberg. Cape Colony_sentence_35

The temporary peace between the UK and Napoleonic France had crumbled into open hostilities, whilst Napoleon had been strengthening his influence on the Batavian Republic (which Napoleon would subsequently abolish and directly administer later the same year). Cape Colony_sentence_36

The British, who set up a colony on 8 January 1806, hoped to keep Napoleon out of the Cape, and to control the Far East trade routes. Cape Colony_sentence_37

The Cape Colony at the time of British occupation was three months’ sailing distance from London. Cape Colony_sentence_38

The white colonial population was small, no more than 25,000 in all, scattered across a territory of 100,000 square miles. Cape Colony_sentence_39

Most lived in Cape Town and the surrounding farming districts of the Boland, an area favoured with rich soils, a Mediterranean climate and reliable rainfall. Cape Colony_sentence_40

Cape Town had a population of 16,000 people. Cape Colony_sentence_41

In 1814 the Dutch government formally ceded sovereignty over the Cape to the British, under the terms of the Convention of London. Cape Colony_sentence_42

British colonisation Cape Colony_section_3

The British started to settle the eastern border of the cape colony, with the arrival in Port Elizabeth of the 1820 Settlers. Cape Colony_sentence_43

They also began to introduce the first rudimentary rights for the Cape's black African population and, in 1834, abolished slavery. Cape Colony_sentence_44

The resentment that the Dutch farmers felt against this social change, as well as the imposition of English language and culture, caused them to trek inland en masse. Cape Colony_sentence_45

This was known as the Great Trek, and the migrating Boers settled inland, eventually forming the Boer republics of Transvaal and the Orange Free State. Cape Colony_sentence_46

British immigration continued in the Cape, even as many of the Boers continued to trek inland, and the ending of the British East India Company's monopoly on trade led to economic growth. Cape Colony_sentence_47

At the same time, the long series of border wars fought against the Xhosa people of the Cape's eastern frontier finally died down when the Xhosa took part in a mass destruction of their own crops and cattle, in the belief that this would cause their spirits to appear and defeat the whites. Cape Colony_sentence_48

The resulting famine crippled Xhosa resistance and ushered in a long period of stability on the border. Cape Colony_sentence_49

Peace and prosperity led to a desire for political independence. Cape Colony_sentence_50

In 1853, the Cape Colony became a British Crown colony with representative government. Cape Colony_sentence_51

In 1854, the Cape of Good Hope elected its first parliament, on the basis of the multi-racial Cape Qualified Franchise. Cape Colony_sentence_52

Cape residents qualified as voters based on a universal minimum level of property ownership, regardless of race. Cape Colony_sentence_53

The fact that executive power remained completely in the authority of the British governor did not relieve tensions in the colony between its eastern and western sections. Cape Colony_sentence_54

Responsible government Cape Colony_section_4

In 1872, after a long political battle, the Cape of Good Hope achieved responsible government under its first Prime Minister, John Molteno. Cape Colony_sentence_55

Henceforth, an elected Prime Minister and his cabinet had total responsibility for the affairs of the country. Cape Colony_sentence_56

A period of strong economic growth and social development ensued, and the eastern-western division was largely laid to rest. Cape Colony_sentence_57

The system of multi-racial franchise also began a slow and fragile growth in political inclusiveness, and ethnic tensions subsided. Cape Colony_sentence_58

In 1877, the state expanded by annexing Griqualand West and Griqualand East – that is, the Mount Currie district (Kokstad). Cape Colony_sentence_59

The emergence of two Boer mini-republics along the Missionary Road resulted in 1885 in the Warren Expedition, sent to annex the republics of Stellaland and Goshen. Cape Colony_sentence_60

Major-General Charles Warren annexed the land south of the (usually dry) Molopo River as the colony of British Bechuanaland and proclaimed a protectorate over the land lying to its north. Cape Colony_sentence_61

Vryburg, the capital of Stellaland, became capital of British Bechuanaland, while Mafeking (now Mahikeng), although situated south of the protectorate border, became the protectorate's administrative centre. Cape Colony_sentence_62

The border between the protectorate and the colony ran along the Molopo and Nossob rivers. Cape Colony_sentence_63

In 1895 British Bechuanaland became part of the Cape Colony. Cape Colony_sentence_64

However, the discovery of diamonds around Kimberley and gold in the Transvaal led to a return to instability, particularly because they fuelled the rise to power of the ambitious imperialist Cecil Rhodes. Cape Colony_sentence_65

On becoming the Cape's Prime Minister in 1890, he instigated a rapid expansion of British influence into the hinterland. Cape Colony_sentence_66

In particular, he sought to engineer the conquest of the Transvaal, and although his ill-fated Jameson Raid failed and brought down his government, it led to the Second Boer War and British conquest at the turn of the century. Cape Colony_sentence_67

The politics of the colony consequently came to be increasingly dominated by tensions between the British colonists and the Boers. Cape Colony_sentence_68

Rhodes also brought in the first formal restrictions on the political rights of the Cape of Good Hope's black African citizens. Cape Colony_sentence_69

The Cape of Good Hope remained nominally under British rule until the formation of the Union of South Africa in 1910, when it became the Province of the Cape of Good Hope, better known as the Cape Province. Cape Colony_sentence_70

Governors Cape Colony_section_5

Main article: List of governors of British South African colonies § Cape Colony Cape Colony_sentence_71

Districts Cape Colony_section_6

The districts of the colony in 1850 were: Cape Colony_sentence_72

Cape Colony_unordered_list_0

  • ClanwilliamCape Colony_item_0_0
  • The CapeCape Colony_item_0_1
  • StellenboschCape Colony_item_0_2
  • ZwellendamCape Colony_item_0_3
  • Tulbagh/WorcesterCape Colony_item_0_4
  • BeaufortCape Colony_item_0_5
  • GeorgeCape Colony_item_0_6
  • UitenhagueCape Colony_item_0_7
  • AlbanyCape Colony_item_0_8
  • VictoriaCape Colony_item_0_9
  • SomersetCape Colony_item_0_10
  • Graaf ReynetCape Colony_item_0_11
  • ColesbergCape Colony_item_0_12

Demographics Cape Colony_section_7

1904 Census Cape Colony_section_8

Population Figures for the 1904 Census. Cape Colony_sentence_73

Source: Cape Colony_sentence_74

Cape Colony_table_general_1

Population groupCape Colony_header_cell_1_0_0 NumberCape Colony_header_cell_1_0_1 Percent

(%)Cape Colony_header_cell_1_0_2

BlackCape Colony_cell_1_1_0 1,424,787Cape Colony_cell_1_1_1 59.12Cape Colony_cell_1_1_2
WhiteCape Colony_cell_1_2_0 579,741Cape Colony_cell_1_2_1 24.05Cape Colony_cell_1_2_2
ColouredCape Colony_cell_1_3_0 395,034Cape Colony_cell_1_3_1 16.39Cape Colony_cell_1_3_2
AsianCape Colony_cell_1_4_0 10,242Cape Colony_cell_1_4_1 0.42Cape Colony_cell_1_4_2
TotalCape Colony_cell_1_5_0 2,409,804Cape Colony_cell_1_5_1 100.00Cape Colony_cell_1_5_2

See also Cape Colony_section_9

Cape Colony_unordered_list_1

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: Colony.