Cape Town

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This article is about the city itself. Cape Town_sentence_0

For the municipality, see City of Cape Town. Cape Town_sentence_1

For other uses, see Cape Town (disambiguation). Cape Town_sentence_2

Cape Town_table_infobox_0

Cape Town

Kaapstad  (Afrikaans)

iKapa  (Xhosa)Cape Town_header_cell_0_0_0
CountryCape Town_header_cell_0_1_0 South AfricaCape Town_cell_0_1_1
ProvinceCape Town_header_cell_0_2_0 Western CapeCape Town_cell_0_2_1
MunicipalityCape Town_header_cell_0_3_0 City of Cape TownCape Town_cell_0_3_1
FoundedCape Town_header_cell_0_4_0 1652Cape Town_cell_0_4_1
Municipal governmentCape Town_header_cell_0_5_0 1839Cape Town_cell_0_5_1
GovernmentCape Town_header_cell_0_6_0
TypeCape Town_header_cell_0_7_0 Metropolitan municipalityCape Town_cell_0_7_1
MayorCape Town_header_cell_0_8_0 Dan Plato (DA)Cape Town_cell_0_8_1
Deputy MayorCape Town_header_cell_0_9_0 Ian Neilson (DA)Cape Town_cell_0_9_1
AreaCape Town_header_cell_0_10_0
TotalCape Town_header_cell_0_11_0 2,461 km (950 sq mi)Cape Town_cell_0_11_1
Highest elevationCape Town_header_cell_0_12_0 1,590.4 m (5,217.8 ft)Cape Town_cell_0_12_1
Lowest elevationCape Town_header_cell_0_13_0 0 m (0 ft)Cape Town_cell_0_13_1
Population (2011)Cape Town_header_cell_0_14_0
TotalCape Town_header_cell_0_15_0 3,740,026Cape Town_cell_0_15_1
Estimate (2016)Cape Town_header_cell_0_16_0 4,005,016Cape Town_cell_0_16_1
DensityCape Town_header_cell_0_17_0 1,500/km (3,900/sq mi)Cape Town_cell_0_17_1
Demonym(s)Cape Town_header_cell_0_18_0 CapetonianCape Town_cell_0_18_1
Racial makeup (2011)Cape Town_header_cell_0_19_0
BlackCape Town_header_cell_0_20_0 15.8%Cape Town_cell_0_20_1
ColouredCape Town_header_cell_0_21_0 44.6%Cape Town_cell_0_21_1
Indian/AsianCape Town_header_cell_0_22_0 1.4%Cape Town_cell_0_22_1
WhiteCape Town_header_cell_0_23_0 32.3%Cape Town_cell_0_23_1
OtherCape Town_header_cell_0_24_0 1.9%Cape Town_cell_0_24_1
First languages (2011)Cape Town_header_cell_0_25_0
AfrikaansCape Town_header_cell_0_26_0 22.7%Cape Town_cell_0_26_1
XhosaCape Town_header_cell_0_27_0 2.7%Cape Town_cell_0_27_1
EnglishCape Town_header_cell_0_28_0 67.1%Cape Town_cell_0_28_1
OtherCape Town_header_cell_0_29_0 7.1%Cape Town_cell_0_29_1
Time zoneCape Town_header_cell_0_30_0 UTC+2 (SAST)Cape Town_cell_0_30_1
Postal codes (street)Cape Town_header_cell_0_31_0 7400–8099Cape Town_cell_0_31_1
PO boxCape Town_header_cell_0_32_0 8000Cape Town_cell_0_32_1
GDPCape Town_header_cell_0_33_0 US$78.7 billionCape Town_cell_0_33_1
GDP per capitaCape Town_header_cell_0_34_0 US$19,656Cape Town_cell_0_34_1
WebsiteCape Town_header_cell_0_35_0 Cape Town_cell_0_35_1

Cape Town (Afrikaans: Kaapstad [ˈkɑːpstat; Xhosa: iKapa;) is the second-most populous city in South Africa, after Johannesburg, and also the legislative capital of South Africa. Cape Town_sentence_3

Colloquially named the Mother City, it is the largest city of the Western Cape province and forms part of the City of Cape Town metropolitan municipality. Cape Town_sentence_4

The Parliament of South Africa is situated in Cape Town. Cape Town_sentence_5

The other two capitals are located in Gauteng (Pretoria the executive capital where the Presidency is based) and in the Free State (Bloemfontein the judicial capital where the Supreme Court of Appeal is located). Cape Town_sentence_6

The city is known for its harbour, for its natural setting in the Cape Floristic Region, and for landmarks such as Table Mountain and Cape Point. Cape Town_sentence_7

Cape Town is home to 64% of the Western Cape's population. Cape Town_sentence_8

The city was named the World Design Capital for 2014 by the International Council of Societies of Industrial Design. Cape Town_sentence_9

In 2014, Cape Town was named the best place in the world to visit by both The New York Times and The Daily Telegraph. Cape Town_sentence_10

Cape Town has also been a host city for both the 1995 Rugby World Cup and 2010 FIFA World Cup, annually hosts the Africa leg of the World Rugby 7s. Cape Town_sentence_11

Located on the shore of Table Bay, Cape Town, as the oldest urban area in South Africa, was developed by the Dutch East India Company (VOC) as a supply station for Dutch ships sailing to East Africa, India, and the Far East. Cape Town_sentence_12

Jan van Riebeeck's arrival on 6 April 1652 established the VOC Cape Colony, the first permanent European settlement in South Africa. Cape Town_sentence_13

Cape Town outgrew its original purpose as the first European outpost at the Castle of Good Hope, becoming the economic and cultural hub of the Cape Colony. Cape Town_sentence_14

Until the Witwatersrand Gold Rush and the development of Johannesburg, Cape Town was the largest city in South Africa. Cape Town_sentence_15

History Cape Town_section_0

Main articles: History of Cape Town and Timeline of Cape Town Cape Town_sentence_16

Early history Cape Town_section_1

The earliest known remnants in the region were found at Peers Cave in Fish Hoek and date to between 15,000 and 12,000 years ago. Cape Town_sentence_17

Little is known of the history of the region's first residents, since there is no written history from the area before it was first mentioned by Portuguese explorer Bartolomeu Dias in 1488 who was the first European to reach the area and named it "Cape of Storms" (Cabo das Tormentas). Cape Town_sentence_18

It was later renamed by John II of Portugal as "Cape of Good Hope" (Cabo da Boa Esperança) because of the great optimism engendered by the opening of a sea route to India and the East. Cape Town_sentence_19

Vasco da Gama recorded a sighting of the Cape of Good Hope in 1497. Cape Town_sentence_20

In 1510, at the Battle of Salt River, Francisco de Almeida and sixty-four of his men were killed and his party were defeated by the !Uriǁ’aekua ("Goringhaiqua" in Dutch approximate spelling) using especially trained cattle. Cape Town_sentence_21

The !Uriǁ’aekua were one of the so-called Khoekhoe clans of the area. Cape Town_sentence_22

In the late 16th century French, Danish, Dutch and English, but mainly Portuguese, ships regularly continued to stop over in Table Bay en route to the Indies. Cape Town_sentence_23

They traded tobacco, copper and iron with the Khoekhoe-speaking clans of the region, in exchange for fresh meat and other provisions. Cape Town_sentence_24

Dutch period Cape Town_section_2

In 1652, Jan van Riebeeck and other employees of the United East India Company (Dutch: Verenigde Oost-indische Compagnie, VOC) were sent to the Cape to establish a way-station for ships travelling to the Dutch East Indies, and the Fort de Goede Hoop (later replaced by the Castle of Good Hope). Cape Town_sentence_25

The settlement grew slowly during this period, as it was hard to find adequate labour. Cape Town_sentence_26

This labour shortage prompted the authorities to import slaves from Indonesia and Madagascar. Cape Town_sentence_27

Many of these became ancestors of the first Cape Coloured communities. Cape Town_sentence_28

Under Van Riebeeck and his successors as VOC commanders and later governors at the Cape, an impressive range of useful plants were introduced to the Cape – in the process changing the natural environment forever. Cape Town_sentence_29

Some of these, including grapes, cereals, ground nuts, potatoes, apples and citrus, had an important and lasting influence on the societies and economies of the region. Cape Town_sentence_30

British period Cape Town_section_3

The Dutch Republic being transformed in Revolutionary France's vassal Batavian Republic, Great Britain moved to take control of its colonies. Cape Town_sentence_31

Britain captured Cape Town in 1795, but the Cape was returned to the Dutch by treaty in 1803. Cape Town_sentence_32

British forces occupied the Cape again in 1806 following the Battle of Blaauwberg. Cape Town_sentence_33

In the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814, Cape Town was permanently ceded to the United Kingdom. Cape Town_sentence_34

It became the capital of the newly formed Cape Colony, whose territory expanded very substantially through the 1800s. Cape Town_sentence_35

With expansion came calls for greater independence from the UK, with the Cape attaining its own parliament (1854) and a locally accountable Prime Minister (1872). Cape Town_sentence_36

Suffrage was established according to the non-racial Cape Qualified Franchise. Cape Town_sentence_37

During the 1850s and 1860s additional plant species were introduced from Australia by the British authorities. Cape Town_sentence_38

Notably rooikrans to stabilise the sand of the Cape Flats to allow for a road connecting the peninsula with the rest of the African continent and eucalyptus to drain marshes. Cape Town_sentence_39

In 1859 the first railway line was built and system of railways radically expanded in the 1870s. Cape Town_sentence_40

The discovery of diamonds in Griqualand West in 1867, and the Witwatersrand Gold Rush in 1886, prompted a flood of immigrants to South Africa. Cape Town_sentence_41

In 1895 the city's first public power station, the Graaff Electric Lighting Works, was opened. Cape Town_sentence_42

Conflicts between the Boer republics in the interior and the British colonial government resulted in the Second Boer War of 1899–1902, which Britain won. Cape Town_sentence_43

From 1891 to 1901 the city's population more than doubled from 67,000 to 171,000. Cape Town_sentence_44

South African period Cape Town_section_4

In 1910, Britain established the Union of South Africa, which unified the Cape Colony with the two defeated Boer Republics and the British colony of Natal. Cape Town_sentence_45

Cape Town became the legislative capital of the Union, and later of the Republic of South Africa. Cape Town_sentence_46

Prior to the mid-twentieth century the Cape Town was one of the most racially integrated cities in the South Africa. Cape Town_sentence_47

In the 1948 national elections, the National Party won on a platform of apartheid (racial segregation) under the slogan of "swart gevaar". Cape Town_sentence_48

This led to the erosion and eventual abolition of the Cape's multiracial franchise, as well as to the Group Areas Act, which classified all areas according to race. Cape Town_sentence_49

Formerly multi-racial suburbs of Cape Town were either purged of residents deemed unlawful by apartheid legislation or demolished. Cape Town_sentence_50

The most infamous example of this in Cape Town was District Six. Cape Town_sentence_51

After it was declared a whites-only region in 1965, all housing there was demolished and over 60,000 residents were forcibly removed. Cape Town_sentence_52

Many of these residents were relocated to the Cape Flats. Cape Town_sentence_53

Under apartheid, the Cape was considered a "Coloured labour preference area", to the exclusion of "Bantus", i.e. Africans. Cape Town_sentence_54

The implementation of this policy was widely opposed by trade unions, civil society and opposition parties. Cape Town_sentence_55

It is notable that this policy was not advocated for by any coloured political group, and its implementation was a unilateral decision by the apartheid government. Cape Town_sentence_56

School students from Langa, Gugulethu and Nyanga in Cape Town reacted to the news of protests against Bantu Education in Soweto in June 1976 and organised gatherings and marches, which were met with resistance from the police. Cape Town_sentence_57

A number of school buildings were burnt down. Cape Town_sentence_58

Cape Town was home to many leaders of the anti-apartheid movement. Cape Town_sentence_59

On Robben Island, a former penitentiary island 10 kilometres (6 miles) from the city, many famous political prisoners were held for years. Cape Town_sentence_60

In one of the most famous moments marking the end of apartheid, Nelson Mandela made his first public speech since his imprisonment, from the balcony of Cape Town City Hall hours after being released on 11 February 1990. Cape Town_sentence_61

His speech heralded the beginning of a new era for the country, and the first democratic election, was held four years later, on 27 April 1994. Cape Town_sentence_62

Nobel Square in the Victoria & Alfred Waterfront features statues of South Africa's four Nobel Peace Prize winners: Albert Luthuli, Desmond Tutu, F. Cape Town_sentence_63 W. de Klerk and Nelson Mandela. Cape Town_sentence_64

Geography Cape Town_section_5

Cape Town is located at latitude 33.55° S (approx. Cape Town_sentence_65

the same as Sydney and Buenos Aires and equivalent to Casablanca and Los Angeles in the northern hemisphere) and longitude 18.25° E. Table Mountain, with its near vertical cliffs and flat-topped summit over 1,000 m (3,300 ft) high, and with Devil's Peak and Lion's Head on either side, together form a dramatic mountainous backdrop enclosing the central area of Cape Town, the so-called City Bowl. Cape Town_sentence_66

A thin strip of cloud, known colloquially as the "tablecloth", sometimes forms on top of the mountain. Cape Town_sentence_67

To the immediate south, the Cape Peninsula is a scenic mountainous spine jutting 40 kilometres (25 mi) southwards into the Atlantic Ocean and terminating at Cape Point. Cape Town_sentence_68

There are over 70 peaks above 300 m (980 ft) within Cape Town's official city limits. Cape Town_sentence_69

Many of the city's suburbs lie on the large plain called the Cape Flats, which extends over 50 kilometres (30 mi) to the east and joins the peninsula to the mainland. Cape Town_sentence_70

The Cape Town region is characterised by an extensive coastline, rugged mountain ranges, coastal plains, inland valleys and semi-desert fringes. Cape Town_sentence_71

Robben Island Cape Town_section_6

UNESCO declared Robben Island in the Western Cape a World Heritage Site in 1999. Cape Town_sentence_72

Robben Island is located in Table Bay, some 6 km (3.7 mi) west of Bloubergstrand in Cape Town, and stands some 30m above sea level. Cape Town_sentence_73

Robben Island has been used as a prison where people were isolated, banished and exiled to for nearly 400 years. Cape Town_sentence_74

It was also used as a leper colony, a post office, a grazing ground, a mental hospital, and an outpost. Cape Town_sentence_75

Visitors can only access the island via the Robben Island Museum boat service, which runs three times daily until the beginning of the peak season (1 September). Cape Town_sentence_76

The ferries depart from the Nelson Mandela Gateway at the V&A Waterfront. Cape Town_sentence_77

Climate Cape Town_section_7

Cape Town has a warm Mediterranean climate (Köppen "Csb"), with mild, moderately wet winters and dry, warm summers. Cape Town_sentence_78

Winter, which lasts from the beginning of June to the end of August, may see large cold fronts entering for limited periods from the Atlantic Ocean with significant precipitation and strong north-westerly winds. Cape Town_sentence_79

Winter months in the city average a maximum of 18 °C (64 °F) and minimum of 8.5 °C (47 °F) Total annual rainfall in the city averages 515 millimetres (20.3 in) although in the southern suburbs, close to the mountains, rainfall is significantly higher and averages closer to 1000 millimetres (40 in). Cape Town_sentence_80

Summer, which lasts from December to March, is warm and dry with an average maximum of 26 °C (79 °F) and minimum of 16 °C (61 °F). Cape Town_sentence_81

The region can get uncomfortably hot when the Berg Wind, meaning "mountain wind", blows from the Karoo interior for a couple of weeks in February or March. Cape Town_sentence_82

Spring and summer generally feature a strong wind from the south-east, known locally as the south-easter or the Cape Doctor, so called because it blows air pollution away. Cape Town_sentence_83

This wind is caused by a high-pressure system which sits in the South Atlantic to the west of Cape Town, known as the South Atlantic High. Cape Town_sentence_84

Cape Town receives 3,100 hours of sunshine per year. Cape Town_sentence_85

Water temperatures range greatly, between 10 °C (50 °F) on the Atlantic Seaboard, to over 22 °C (72 °F) in False Bay. Cape Town_sentence_86

Average annual Ocean temperatures are between 13 °C (55 °F) on the Atlantic Seaboard (similar to Californian waters, such as San Francisco or Big Sur), and 17 °C (63 °F) in False Bay (similar to Northern Mediterranean temperatures, such as Nice or Monte Carlo). Cape Town_sentence_87

Unlike other parts of the country the city does not have many thunderstorms most of these storms happen around October to December and March to April. Cape Town_sentence_88

Flora and fauna Cape Town_section_8

Main article: Biodiversity of Cape Town Cape Town_sentence_89

Located in a CI Biodiversity hotspot as well as the unique Cape Floristic Region, the city of Cape Town has one of the highest levels of biodiversity of any equivalent area in the world. Cape Town_sentence_90

These protected areas are a World Heritage Site, and an estimated 2,200 species of plants are confined to Table Mountain – more than exist in the whole of the United Kingdom which has 1200 plant species and 67 endemic plant species. Cape Town_sentence_91

Many of these species, including a great many types of proteas, are endemic to the mountain and can be found nowhere else. Cape Town_sentence_92

It is home to a total of 19 different vegetation types, of which several are endemic to the city and occur nowhere else in the world. Cape Town_sentence_93

It is also the only habitat of hundreds of endemic species, and hundreds of others which are severely restricted or threatened. Cape Town_sentence_94

This enormous species diversity is mainly because the city is uniquely located at the convergence point of several different soil types and micro-climates. Cape Town_sentence_95

Table Mountain has an unusually rich biodiversity. Cape Town_sentence_96

Its vegetation consists predominantly of several different types of the unique and rich Cape Fynbos. Cape Town_sentence_97

The main vegetation type is endangered Peninsula Sandstone Fynbos, but critically endangered Peninsula Granite Fynbos, Peninsula Shale Renosterveld and Afromontane forest occur in smaller portions on the mountain. Cape Town_sentence_98

Unfortunately, rapid population growth and urban sprawl has covered much of these ecosystems with development. Cape Town_sentence_99

Consequently, Cape Town now has over 300 threatened plant species and 13 which are now extinct. Cape Town_sentence_100

The Cape Peninsula, which lies entirely within the city of Cape Town, has the highest concentration of threatened species of any continental area of equivalent size in the world. Cape Town_sentence_101

Tiny remnant populations of critically endangered or near extinct plants sometimes survive on road sides, pavements and sports fields. Cape Town_sentence_102

The remaining ecosystems are partially protected through a system of over 30 nature reserves – including the massive Table Mountain National Park. Cape Town_sentence_103

Cape Town reached first place in the 2019 iNaturalist City Nature Challenge in two out of the three categories: Most Observations, and Most Species. Cape Town_sentence_104

This was the first entry by Capetonians in this annual competition to observe and record the local biodiversity over a four-day long weekend during what is considered the worst time of the year for local observations. Cape Town_sentence_105

However, a worldwide survey showed that the extinction rate of endemic plants from the City of Cape Town is one of the highest in the world, at roughly three per year since 1900 - partly a consequence of the very small and localised habitats and high endemicity. Cape Town_sentence_106

Suburbs Cape Town_section_9

City Bowl Cape Town_section_10

Main article: City Bowl Cape Town_sentence_107

The City Bowl is a natural amphitheatre-shaped area bordered by Table Bay and defined by the mountains of Signal Hill, Lion's Head, Table Mountain and Devil's Peak. Cape Town_sentence_108

The area includes the central business district of Cape Town, the harbour, the Company's Garden, and the residential suburbs of De Waterkant, Devil's Peak, District Six, Zonnebloem, Gardens, Bo-Kaap, Higgovale, Oranjezicht, Schotsche Kloof, Tamboerskloof, University Estate, Vredehoek, Walmer Estate and Woodstock. Cape Town_sentence_109

The Foreshore Freeway Bridge has stood in its unfinished state since construction officially ended in 1977. Cape Town_sentence_110

It was intended to be the Eastern Boulevard Highway in the city bowl, but is unfinished due to budget constraints. Cape Town_sentence_111

Atlantic Seaboard Cape Town_section_11

The Atlantic Seaboard lies west of the City Bowl and Table Mountain, and is characterised by its beaches, cliffs, promenade and hillside communities. Cape Town_sentence_112

The area includes, from north to south, the neighbourhoods of Green Point, Mouille Point, Three Anchor Bay, Sea Point, Fresnaye, Bantry Bay, Clifton, Camps Bay, Llandudno, and Hout Bay. Cape Town_sentence_113

The Atlantic Seaboard has some of the most expensive real estate in South Africa particularly on Nettleton and Clifton Roads in Clifton, Ocean View Drive and St Leon Avenue in Bantry Bay, Theresa Avenue in Bakoven and Fishermans Bend in Llandudno. Cape Town_sentence_114

Camps Bay is home to the highest concentration of multimillionaires in Cape Town and has the highest number of high-priced mansions in South Africa with more than 155 residential units exceeding R20 million (or $US1.8 million). Cape Town_sentence_115

Blaauwberg Cape Town_section_12

The Blaauwberg suburbs is a coastal region of the Cape Town Metropolitan area and lies along the coast to the north of Cape Town, and include Bloubergstrand, Milnerton, Tableview, West Beach, Big Bay, Sunset Beach, Sunningdale, Parklands and Parklands North, as well as the exurbs of Atlantis, Mamre and Melkbosstrand. Cape Town_sentence_116

The Koeberg Nuclear Power Station is located within this area and maximum housing density regulations are enforced in much of the area surrounding the nuclear plant. Cape Town_sentence_117

Northern Suburbs Cape Town_section_13

Main article: Northern Suburbs, Cape Town Cape Town_sentence_118

The Northern Suburbs is a predominantly Afrikaans-speaking region of the Cape Town Metropolitan area and includes Belhar, Bellville, Blue Downs, Bothasig, Burgundy Estate, Durbanville, Edgemead, Brackenfell, Elsie's River, Eerste River, Kraaifontein, Goodwood, Kensington, Maitland, Monte Vista, Panorama, Parow, Richwood, Kraaifontein and Kuils River. Cape Town_sentence_119

The Northern Suburbs are home to Tygerberg Hospital, the largest hospital in the Western Cape and second largest in South Africa Cape Town_sentence_120

Southern Suburbs Cape Town_section_14

Main article: Southern Suburbs, Cape Town Cape Town_sentence_121

The Southern Suburbs lie along the eastern slopes of Table Mountain, southeast of the city centre. Cape Town_sentence_122

This area is predominantly English-speaking, and includes, from north to south, Observatory, Mowbray, Pinelands, Rosebank, Rondebosch, Rondebosch East, Newlands, Claremont, Lansdowne, Kenilworth, Bishopscourt, Constantia, Wynberg, Plumstead, Ottery, Bergvliet and Diep River. Cape Town_sentence_123

West of Wynberg lies Constantia which, in addition to being a wealthy neighbourhood, is a notable wine-growing region within the City of Cape Town, and attracts tourists for its well-known wine farms and Cape Dutch architecture. Cape Town_sentence_124

The Southern Suburbs is also well known as having some of the oldest, and most sought after residential areas within the City of Cape Town. Cape Town_sentence_125

South Peninsula Cape Town_section_15

The South Peninsula is a predominantly English-speaking area in the Cape Town Metropolitan area and is generally regarded as the area South of Muizenberg on False Bay and Noordhoek on the Atlantic Ocean, all the way to Cape Point. Cape Town_sentence_126

Until recently, this region was quite rural, however the population of the area is growing quickly as new coastal developments proliferate and larger plots are subdivided to provide more compact housing. Cape Town_sentence_127

It includes Capri Village, Clovelly, Fish Hoek, Glencairn, Kalk Bay, Kommetjie, Masiphumelele, Muizenberg, Noordhoek, Ocean View, Scarborough, Simon's Town, St James, Sunnydale and Sun Valley. Cape Town_sentence_128

South Africa's largest naval base is located at Simon's Town harbour, and close by is Boulders Beach, the site of a large colony of African penguins. Cape Town_sentence_129

Cape Flats Cape Town_section_16

Main article: Cape Flats Cape Town_sentence_130

The Cape Flats is an expansive, low-lying, flat area situated to the southeast of the city centre. Cape Town_sentence_131

Due to the region having a Mediterranean climate, the wettest months on the Cape Flats are from April to September, with 82% most of its rainfall occurring between these months. Cape Town_sentence_132

The rainfall patterns on the Cape Flats vary with longitude, such that the eastern parts get a minimum of 214mm per year and the central and western parts get 800mm per year. Cape Town_sentence_133

A significant portion of this water ends up in the Cape Flats Aquifer, which lie beneath the central and southern parts of the Cape Flats. Cape Town_sentence_134

Most of the land of the Cape Flats is used for residential areas, the majority of which are formal, but with several informal settlements present. Cape Town_sentence_135

Light industrial areas are also found in the area. Cape Town_sentence_136

A part of the land in the south-east is used for cultivation and contains many smallholdings. Cape Town_sentence_137

Helderberg Cape Town_section_17

Main article: Helderberg Cape Town_sentence_138

The Helderberg is a small region in the Cape Town Metropolitan area and is located on the north-eastern corner of False Bay. Cape Town_sentence_139

It consists of Somerset West, Strand, Gordons Bay and a few other suburbs which were previously towns in the Helderberg district. Cape Town_sentence_140

The district takes its name from the imposing Helderberg Mountain, which reaches a height of 1,137 metres (3,730 feet) Cape Town_sentence_141

Government Cape Town_section_18

Main article: City of Cape Town Cape Town_sentence_142

Cape Town is governed by a 231-member city council elected in a system of mixed-member proportional representation. Cape Town_sentence_143

The city is divided into 116 wards, each of which elects a councillor by first-past-the-post voting. Cape Town_sentence_144

The remaining 115 councillors are elected from party lists so that the total number of councillors for each party is proportional to the number of votes received by that party. Cape Town_sentence_145

In the local government elections of 3 August 2016, the Democratic Alliance (DA) won an outright majority, taking 154 of the 231 council seats. Cape Town_sentence_146

The African National Congress, the national ruling party, received 57 seats. Cape Town_sentence_147

As a result of this victory, Patricia de Lille of the Democratic Alliance was re-elected to a second term as Executive Mayor. Cape Town_sentence_148

However, De Lille resigned as Mayor on 31 October 2018. Cape Town_sentence_149

The Democratic Alliance designated Dan Plato as their candidate to replace her. Cape Town_sentence_150

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  • Cape Town_item_0_0
  • Cape Town_item_0_1
  • Cape Town_item_0_2
  • Cape Town_item_0_3

Demographics Cape Town_section_19

According to the South African National Census of 2011, the population of the City of Cape Town metropolitan municipality – an area that includes suburbs and exurbs not always considered as part of Cape Town – is 3,740,026 people. Cape Town_sentence_151

This represents an annual growth rate of 2.6% compared to the results of the previous census in 2001 which found a population of 2,892,243 people. Cape Town_sentence_152

The sex ratio is 96, meaning that there are slightly more women than men. Cape Town_sentence_153

42.4% of the population described themselves as "Coloured", 38.6% as "Black African", 15.7% as "White", 1.4% as "Indian or Asian"and 1.9% as "Other". Cape Town_sentence_154

In 1944, 47% of the city's population was White, 46% was Coloured, less than 6% was Black African and 1% was Asian. Cape Town_sentence_155

Of those residents who were asked about their first language, 35.7% spoke Afrikaans, 29.8% spoke Xhosa and 28.4% spoke English. Cape Town_sentence_156

24.8% of the population is under the age of 15, while 5.5% is 65 or older. Cape Town_sentence_157

Of those residents aged 20 or older, 1.8% have no schooling, 8.1% have some schooling but did not finish primary school, 4.6% finished primary school but have no secondary schooling, 38.9% have some secondary schooling but did not finish Grade 12, 29.9% finished Grade 12 but have no higher education, and 16.7% have higher education. Cape Town_sentence_158

Overall, 46.6% have at least a Grade 12 education. Cape Town_sentence_159

Of those aged between 5 and 25, 67.8% are attending an educational institution. Cape Town_sentence_160

Amongst those aged between 15 and 65 the unemployment rate is 23.7%. Cape Town_sentence_161

The average annual household income is R161,762. Cape Town_sentence_162

There are 1,068,573 households in the municipality, giving an average household size of 3.3 people. Cape Town_sentence_163

Of those households, 78.4% are in formal structures (houses or flats), while 20.5% are in informal structures (shacks). Cape Town_sentence_164

94.0% of households use electricity for lighting. Cape Town_sentence_165

87.3% of households have piped water to the dwelling, while 12.0% have piped water through a communal tap. Cape Town_sentence_166

94.9% of households have regular refuse collection service. Cape Town_sentence_167

91.4% of households have a flush toilet or chemical toilet, while 4.5% still use a bucket toilet. Cape Town_sentence_168

82.1% of households have a refrigerator, 87.3% have a television and 70.1% have a radio. Cape Town_sentence_169

Only 34.0% have a landline telephone, but 91.3% have a cellphone. Cape Town_sentence_170

37.9% have a computer, and 49.3% have access to the Internet (either through a computer or a cellphone). Cape Town_sentence_171

Economy Cape Town_section_20

Main article: Economy of the Western Cape Cape Town_sentence_172

Cape Town is the economic hub of the Western Cape province, South Africa's second main economic centre and Africa's third main economic hub city. Cape Town_sentence_173

It serves as the regional manufacturing centre in the Western Cape. Cape Town_sentence_174

In 2011 the city's GDP was US$56.8 billion with a GDP per capita of US$15,721. Cape Town_sentence_175

In the five years preceding 2014 Cape Town GDP grew at an average of 3.7% a year. Cape Town_sentence_176

As a proportion of GDP, the agriculture and manufacturing sectors have declined whilst finance, business services, transport and logistics have grown reflecting the growth in specialised services sectors of the local economy. Cape Town_sentence_177

Fishing, clothing and textiles, wood product manufacturing, electronics, furniture, hospitality, finance and business services are industries in which Cape Town's economy has the largest comparative advantage. Cape Town_sentence_178

Between 2001 and 2010 the city's Gini coefficient, a measure of inequality, improved by dropping from 0.59 in 2007 to 0.57 in 2010 only to increase to 0.58 by 2017. Cape Town_sentence_179

The city has the lowest rate of inequality in South Africa. Cape Town_sentence_180

Cape Town has recently enjoyed a booming real estate and construction market, because of the 2010 FIFA World Cup as well as many people buying summer homes in the city or relocating there permanently. Cape Town_sentence_181

Cape Town hosted nine World Cup matches: Six first-round matches, one second-round match, one quarter final and one semifinal. Cape Town_sentence_182

The central business district is under an extensive urban renewal programme, with numerous new buildings and renovations taking place under the guidance of the Cape Town Partnership. Cape Town_sentence_183

Cape Town has four major commercial nodes, with Cape Town Central Business District containing the majority of job opportunities and office space. Cape Town_sentence_184

Century City, the Bellville/Tygervalley strip and Claremont commercial nodes are well established and contain many offices and corporate headquarters as well. Cape Town_sentence_185

Most companies headquartered in the city are insurance companies, retail groups, publishers, design houses, fashion designers, shipping companies, petrochemical companies, architects and advertising agencies. Cape Town_sentence_186

The most notable companies headquartered in the city are food and fashion retailer Woolworths, supermarket chain Pick n Pay Stores and Shoprite, New Clicks Holdings Limited, fashion retailer Foschini Group, internet service provider MWEB, Mediclinic International, eTV, multinational mass media giant Naspers, and financial services giant Sanlam. Cape Town_sentence_187

Other notable companies include Belron (vehicle glass repair and replacement group operating worldwide), CapeRay (develops, manufactures and supplies medical imaging equipment for the diagnosis of breast cancer), Ceres Fruit Juices (produces fruit juice and other fruit based products), Coronation Fund Managers (third-party fund management company), ICS (was one of the largest meat processing and distribution companies in the world), Vida e Caffè (chain of coffee retailers), Capitec Bank (commercial bank in the Republic of South Africa). Cape Town_sentence_188

The city is a manufacturing base for several multinational companies including, Johnson & Johnson, GlaxoSmithKline, Levi Strauss & Co., Adidas, Bokomo Foods, Yoco and Nampak. Cape Town_sentence_189

Most goods are handled through the Port of Cape Town or Cape Town International Airport. Cape Town_sentence_190

Most major shipbuilding companies have offices and manufacturing locations in Cape Town. Cape Town_sentence_191

The province is also a centre of energy development for the country, with the existing Koeberg nuclear power station providing energy for the Western Cape's needs. Cape Town_sentence_192

The Western Cape is an important tourist region in South Africa; the tourism industry accounts for 9.8% of the GDP of the province and employs 9.6% of the province's workforce. Cape Town_sentence_193

In 2010, over 1.5 million international tourists visited the area. Cape Town_sentence_194

With the highest number of successful Technology companies in Africa, Cape Town is an important centre for the industry on the continent. Cape Town_sentence_195

This includes an increasing number of companies in the Space industry. Cape Town_sentence_196

Growing at an annual rate of 8.5% and an estimated worth of R77 billion in 2010, nationwide the high tech industry in Cape Town is becoming increasingly important to the city's economy. Cape Town_sentence_197

The city was recently named as the most entrepreneurial city in South Africa, with the percentage of Capetonians pursuing business opportunities almost three times higher than the national average. Cape Town_sentence_198

Those aged between 18 and 64 were 190% more likely to pursue new business, whilst in Johannesburg, the same demographic group was only 60% more likely than the national average to pursue a new business. Cape Town_sentence_199

Numerous startups in the Space industry have been founded in Cape Town. Cape Town_sentence_200

With a number of entrepreneurship initiatives and world class universities providing skills, Cape Town has become the Silicon Valley of South Africa, hosting innovative technology startups such as Jumo, Yoco, Aerobotics, Luno and The Sun Exchange. Cape Town_sentence_201

Tourism Cape Town_section_21

Cape Town is not only a popular international tourist destination in South Africa, but Africa as a whole. Cape Town_sentence_202

This is due to its mild climate, natural setting, and well-developed infrastructure. Cape Town_sentence_203

The city has several well-known natural features that attract tourists, most notably Table Mountain, which forms a large part of the Table Mountain National Park and is the back end of the City Bowl. Cape Town_sentence_204

Reaching the top of the mountain can be achieved either by hiking up, or by taking the Table Mountain Cableway. Cape Town_sentence_205

Cape Point is recognised as the dramatic headland at the end of the Cape Peninsula. Cape Town_sentence_206

Many tourists also drive along Chapman's Peak Drive, a narrow road that links Noordhoek with Hout Bay, for the views of the Atlantic Ocean and nearby mountains. Cape Town_sentence_207

It is possible to either drive or hike up Signal Hill for closer views of the City Bowl and Table Mountain. Cape Town_sentence_208

Many tourists also visit Cape Town's beaches, which are popular with local residents. Cape Town_sentence_209

Due to the city's unique geography, it is possible to visit several different beaches in the same day, each with a different setting and atmosphere. Cape Town_sentence_210

Though the Cape's water ranges from cold to mild, the difference between the two sides of the city is dramatic. Cape Town_sentence_211

While the Atlantic Seaboard averages annual water temperatures barely above that of coastal California around 13 °C (55 °F), the False Bay coast is much warmer, averaging between 16 and 17 °C (61 and 63 °F) annually. Cape Town_sentence_212

This is similar to water temperatures in much of the Northern Mediterranean (for example Nice). Cape Town_sentence_213

In summer, False Bay water averages slightly over 20 °C (68 °F), with 22 °C (72 °F) a common high. Cape Town_sentence_214

Beaches located on the Atlantic Coast tend to have very cold water due to the Benguela current which originates from the Southern Ocean, whilst the water at False Bay beaches may be warmer by up to 10 °C (18 °F) at the same moment due to the influence of the warm Agulhas current. Cape Town_sentence_215

It is a common misconception that False Bay is part of the Indian Ocean, with Cape Point being both the meeting point of the Indian and Atlantic Oceans, and the southernmost tip of Africa. Cape Town_sentence_216

The oceans in fact meet at the actual southernmost tip, Cape Agulhas, which lies approximately 150 kilometres (93 miles) to the south east. Cape Town_sentence_217

The misconception is fuelled by the relative warmth of the False Bay water to the Atlantic Seaboard water, and the many confusing instances of "Two Oceans" in names synonymous with Cape Town, such as the Two Oceans Marathon, the Two Oceans Aquarium, and places such as Two Oceans wine farm. Cape Town_sentence_218

Both coasts are equally popular, although the beaches in affluent Clifton and elsewhere on the Atlantic Coast are better developed with restaurants and cafés, with a strip of restaurants and bars accessible to the beach at Camps Bay. Cape Town_sentence_219

The Atlantic seaboard, known as Cape Town's Riviera, is regarded as one of the most scenic routes in South Africa, along the slopes of the Twelve Apostles to the boulders and white sand beaches of Llandudno, which the route ending in Hout Bay, a diverse bustling suburb with a harbour and a seal island. Cape Town_sentence_220

This fishing village is flanked by the Constantia valley and the picturesque Chapman's Peak drive. Cape Town_sentence_221

Boulders Beach near Simon's Town is known for its colony of African penguins. Cape Town_sentence_222

Surfing is popular and the city hosts the Red Bull Big Wave Africa surfing competition every year. Cape Town_sentence_223

The city has several notable cultural attractions. Cape Town_sentence_224

The Victoria & Alfred Waterfront, built on top of part of the docks of the Port of Cape Town, is the city's most visited tourist attraction. Cape Town_sentence_225

It is also one of the city's most popular shopping venues, with several hundred shops and the Two Oceans Aquarium. Cape Town_sentence_226

The V&A also hosts the Nelson Mandela Gateway, through which ferries depart for Robben Island. Cape Town_sentence_227

It is possible to take a ferry from the V&A to Hout Bay, Simon's Town and the Cape fur seal colonies on Seal and Duiker Islands. Cape Town_sentence_228

Several companies offer tours of the Cape Flats, a mostly Coloured township, and Khayelitsha, a mostly black township. Cape Town_sentence_229

The most popular areas for visitors to stay include Camps Bay, Sea Point, the V&A Waterfront, the City Bowl, Hout Bay, Constantia, Rondebosch, Newlands, and Somerset West. Cape Town_sentence_230

In November 2013, Cape Town was voted the best global city in The Daily Telegraph's annual Travel Awards. Cape Town_sentence_231

Cape Town offers tourists a range of air, land and sea based adventure activities, including paragliding and skydiving. Cape Town_sentence_232

The City of Cape Town works closely with Cape Town Tourism to promote the city both locally and internationally. Cape Town_sentence_233

The primary focus of Cape Town Tourism is to represent Cape Town as a tourist destination. Cape Town_sentence_234

Cape Town Tourism receives a portion of its funding from the City of Cape Town while the remainder is made up of membership fees and own-generated funds. Cape Town_sentence_235

The Tristan da Cunha government owns and operates a lodging facility in Cape Town which charges discounted rates to Tristan da Cunha residents and non-resident natives. Cape Town_sentence_236

Cape Town_unordered_list_1

  • Cape Town_item_1_4
  • Cape Town_item_1_5
  • Cape Town_item_1_6
  • Cape Town_item_1_7
  • Cape Town_item_1_8

Culture Cape Town_section_22

Cape Town_unordered_list_2

  • Cape Town_item_2_9
  • Cape Town_item_2_10
  • Cape Town_item_2_11
  • Cape Town_item_2_12

Cape Town is noted for its architectural heritage, with the highest density of Cape Dutch style buildings in the world. Cape Town_sentence_237

Cape Dutch style, which combines the architectural traditions of the Netherlands, Germany, France and Indonesia, is most visible in Constantia, the old government buildings in the Central Business District, and along Long Street. Cape Town_sentence_238

The annual Cape Town Minstrel Carnival, also known by its Afrikaans name of Kaapse Klopse, is a large minstrel festival held annually on 2 January or "Tweede Nuwe Jaar" (Second New Year). Cape Town_sentence_239

Competing teams of minstrels parade in brightly coloured costumes, performing Cape Jazz, either carrying colourful umbrellas or playing an array of musical instruments. Cape Town_sentence_240

The Artscape Theatre Centre is the largest performing arts venue in Cape Town. Cape Town_sentence_241

The city also encloses the 36 hectare Kirstenbosch National Botanical Garden that contains protected natural forest and fynbos along with a variety of animals and birds. Cape Town_sentence_242

There are over 7,000 species in cultivation at Kirstenbosch, including many rare and threatened species of the Cape Floristic Region. Cape Town_sentence_243

In 2004 this Region, including Kirstenbosch, was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Cape Town_sentence_244

Cape Town's transport system links it to the rest of South Africa; it serves as the gateway to other destinations within the province. Cape Town_sentence_245

The Cape Winelands and in particular the towns of Stellenbosch, Paarl and Franschhoek are popular day trips from the city for sightseeing and wine tasting. Cape Town_sentence_246

Whale watching is popular amongst tourists: southern right whales and humpback whales are seen off the coast during the breeding season (August to November) and Bryde's whales and killer whale can be seen any time of the year. Cape Town_sentence_247

The nearby town of Hermanus is known for its Whale Festival, but whales can also be seen in False Bay. Cape Town_sentence_248

Heaviside's dolphins are endemic to the area and can be seen from the coast north of Cape Town; dusky dolphins live along the same coast and can occasionally be seen from the ferry to Robben Island. Cape Town_sentence_249

The only complete windmill in South Africa is Mostert's Mill, Mowbray. Cape Town_sentence_250

It was built in 1796 and restored in 1935 and again in 1995. Cape Town_sentence_251

Crime Cape Town_section_23

In recent years, the city has struggled with problems such as drugs, a surge in violent drug-related crime and more recently gang violence. Cape Town_sentence_252

In the Cape Flats alone, there are approximately 100,000 people in over 130 different gangs in 2018. Cape Town_sentence_253

While there are some alliances, this multitude and division is also cause for conflict between groups. Cape Town_sentence_254

At the same time, the economy has grown due to the boom in the tourism and the real estate industries. Cape Town_sentence_255

With a Gini coefficient of 0.58, Cape Town had the lowest inequality rate in South Africa in 2012. Cape Town_sentence_256

Since July 2019 widespread violent crime in poorer gang dominated areas of greater Cape Town has resulted in an ongoing military presence in these neighbourhoods. Cape Town_sentence_257

Cape Town had the highest murder rate among large South African cities at 77 murders per 100,000 people in the period April 2018 to March 2019, with 3157 murders mostly occurring in poor townships created under the apartheid regime. Cape Town_sentence_258

Places of worship Cape Town_section_24

Most places of worship in the city are Christian churches and cathedrals: Zion Christian Church, Apostolic Faith Mission of South Africa, Assemblies of God, Baptist Union of Southern Africa (Baptist World Alliance), Methodist Church of Southern Africa (World Methodist Council), Anglican Church of Southern Africa (Anglican Communion), Presbyterian Church of Africa (World Communion of Reformed Churches), Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cape Town (Catholic Church). Cape Town_sentence_259

Islam is the city's second largest religion with a long history in Cape Town resulting in a number of mosques and other Muslim religious sites spread across the city such as the Auwal Mosque South Africa's first mosque. Cape Town_sentence_260

Cape Town's significant Jewish population supports a number of synagogues most notably the historic Gardens Shul. Cape Town_sentence_261

The Cape Town Progressive Jewish Congregation (CTPJC) also has three temples in the city. Cape Town_sentence_262

Other religious sites in the city include Hindu, Buddhist and Baháʼí temples. Cape Town_sentence_263

Media Cape Town_section_25

Several newspapers, magazines and printing facilities have their offices in the city. Cape Town_sentence_264

Independent News and Media publishes the major English language papers in the city, the Cape Argus and the Cape Times. Cape Town_sentence_265

Naspers, the largest media conglomerate in South Africa, publishes Die Burger, the major Afrikaans language paper. Cape Town_sentence_266

Cape Town has many local community newspapers. Cape Town_sentence_267

Some of the largest community newspapers in English are the Athlone News from Athlone, the Atlantic Sun, the Constantiaberg Bulletin from Constantiaberg, the City Vision from Bellville, the False Bay Echo from False Bay, the Helderberg Sun from Helderberg, the Plainsman from Michell's Plain, the Sentinel News from Hout Bay, the Southern Mail from the Southern Peninsula, the Southern Suburbs Tatler from the Southern Suburbs, Table Talk from Table View and Tygertalk from Tygervalley/Durbanville. Cape Town_sentence_268

Afrikaans language community newspapers include the Landbou-Burger and the Tygerburger. Cape Town_sentence_269

Vukani, based in the Cape Flats, is published in Xhosa. Cape Town_sentence_270

Cape Town is a centre for major broadcast media with several radio stations that only broadcast within the city. Cape Town_sentence_271

94.5 Kfm (94.5 MHz FM) and Good Hope FM (94–97 MHz FM) mostly play pop music. Cape Town_sentence_272

Heart FM (104.9 MHz FM), the former P4 Radio, plays jazz and R&B, while Fine Music Radio (101.3 FM) plays classical music and jazz, and Magic Music Radio (828 kHz MW) plays the best of adult contemporary and classic rock from the 60's, 70's, 80's, 90's and 00's. Cape Town_sentence_273

Bush Radio is a community radio station (89.5 MHz FM). Cape Town_sentence_274

The Voice of the Cape (95.8 MHz FM) and Cape Talk (567 kHz MW) are the major talk radio stations in the city. Cape Town_sentence_275

Bokradio (98.9 MHz FM) is an Afrikaans music station. Cape Town_sentence_276

The University of Cape Town also runs its own radio station, UCT Radio (104.5 MHz FM). Cape Town_sentence_277

The SABC has a small presence in the city, with satellite studios located at Sea Point. Cape Town_sentence_278

e.tv has a greater presence, with a large complex located at Longkloof Studios in Gardens. Cape Town_sentence_279

M-Net is not well represented with infrastructure within the city. Cape Town_sentence_280

Cape Town TV is a local TV station, supported by numerous organisation and focusing mostly on documentaries. Cape Town_sentence_281

Numerous productions companies and their support industries are located in the city, mostly supporting the production of overseas commercials, model shoots, TV-series and movies. Cape Town_sentence_282

The local media infrastructure remains primarily in Johannesburg. Cape Town_sentence_283

Sport Cape Town_section_26

Cape Town's most popular sports by participation are cricket, association football, swimming, and rugby union. Cape Town_sentence_284

In rugby union, Cape Town is the home of the Western Province side, who play at Newlands Stadium and compete in the Currie Cup. Cape Town_sentence_285

In addition, Western Province players (along with some from Wellington's Boland Cavaliers) comprise the Stormers in the Southern Hemisphere's Super Rugby competition. Cape Town_sentence_286

Cape Town also regularly hosts the national team, the Springboks, and hosted matches during the 1995 Rugby World Cup, including the opening ceremony and game, as well as the semi-final between New Zealand and England that saw Jonah Lomu run in four tries. Cape Town_sentence_287

Association football, which is also known as soccer in South Africa, is also popular. Cape Town_sentence_288

Two clubs from Cape Town play in the Premier Soccer League (PSL), South Africa's premier league. Cape Town_sentence_289

These teams are Ajax Cape Town, which formed as a result of the 1999 amalgamation of the Seven Stars and the Cape Town Spurs and resurrected Cape Town City F.C. Cape Town was also the location of several of the matches of the FIFA 2010 World Cup including a semi-final, held in South Africa. Cape Town_sentence_290

The Mother City built a new 70,000-seat stadium (Cape Town Stadium) in the Green Point area. Cape Town_sentence_291

In cricket, the Cape Cobras represent Cape Town at the Newlands Cricket Ground. Cape Town_sentence_292

The team is the result of an amalgamation of the Western Province Cricket and Boland Cricket teams. Cape Town_sentence_293

They take part in the Supersport and Standard Bank Cup Series. Cape Town_sentence_294

The Newlands Cricket Ground regularly hosts international matches. Cape Town_sentence_295

Cape Town has had Olympic aspirations. Cape Town_sentence_296

For example, in 1996, Cape Town was one of the five candidate cities shortlisted by the IOC to launch official candidatures to host the 2004 Summer Olympics. Cape Town_sentence_297

Although the Games ultimately went to Athens, Cape Town came in third place. Cape Town_sentence_298

There has been some speculation that Cape Town was seeking the South African Olympic Committee's nomination to be South Africa's bid city for the 2020 Summer Olympic Games. Cape Town_sentence_299

That however was quashed when the International Olympic Committee awarded the 2020 Games to Tokyo. Cape Town_sentence_300

Sports events Cape Town_section_27

Further information: List of sports events in Cape Town Cape Town_sentence_301

The city of Cape Town has vast experience in hosting major national and international sports events. Cape Town_sentence_302

The Cape Town Cycle Tour is the world's largest individually timed cycle race – and the first event outside Europe to be included in the International Cycling Union's Golden Bike Series. Cape Town_sentence_303

It sees over 35,000 cyclists tackling a 109 km (68 mi) route around Cape Town. Cape Town_sentence_304

The Absa Cape Epic is the largest full-service mountain bike stage race in the world. Cape Town_sentence_305

Some notable events hosted by Cape Town have included the 1995 Rugby World Cup, 2003 ICC Cricket World Cup, and World Championships in various sports such as athletics, fencing, weightlifting, hockey, cycling, canoeing, gymnastics and others. Cape Town_sentence_306

Cape Town was also a host city to the 2010 FIFA World Cup from 11 June to 11 July 2010, further enhancing its profile as a major events city. Cape Town_sentence_307

It was also one of the host cities of the 2009 Indian Premier League cricket tournament. Cape Town_sentence_308

The Mother City has also played host to the Africa leg of the annual World Rugby 7s event since 2015; for nine seasons, from 2002 until 2010, the event was staged in George in the Western Cape, before moving to Port Elizabeth for the 2011 edition, and then to Cape Town in 2015. Cape Town_sentence_309

The event usually takes place in mid-December, and is hosted at the iconic Cape Town Stadium in Green Point, perfectly set against the backdrop of the Atlantic Ocean and the unmistakable silhouette of Table Mountain . Cape Town_sentence_310

Education Cape Town_section_28

Public primary and secondary schools in Cape Town are run by the Western Cape Education Department. Cape Town_sentence_311

This provincial department is divided into seven districts; four of these are "Metropole" districts – Metropole Central, North, South, and East – which cover various areas of the city. Cape Town_sentence_312

There are also many private schools, both religious and secular, in Cape Town. Cape Town_sentence_313

Tertiary education Cape Town_section_29

Cape Town has a well-developed higher system of public universities. Cape Town_sentence_314

Cape Town is served by three public universities: the University of Cape Town (UCT), the University of the Western Cape (UWC) and the Cape Peninsula University of Technology (CPUT). Cape Town_sentence_315

Stellenbosch University, while not in the city itself, is 50 kilometres from the City Bowl and has additional campuses, such as the Tygerberg Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences and the Bellville Business Park closer to the city. Cape Town_sentence_316

Both the University of Cape Town and Stellenbosch University are leading universities in South Africa. Cape Town_sentence_317

This is due in large part to substantial financial contributions made to these institutions by both the public and private sector. Cape Town_sentence_318

UCT is an English-speaking institution. Cape Town_sentence_319

It has over 21,000 students and has an MBA programme that was ranked 51st by the Financial Times in 2006. Cape Town_sentence_320

It is also the top-ranked university in Africa, being the only African university to make the world's Top 200 university list at number 146. Cape Town_sentence_321

Since the African National Congress has become the country's ruling party, some restructuring of Western Cape universities has taken place and as such, traditionally non-white universities have seen increased financing, which has evidently benefitted the University of the Western Cape. Cape Town_sentence_322

The Cape Peninsula University of Technology was formed on 1 January 2005, when two separate institutions – Cape Technikon and Peninsula Technikon – were merged. Cape Town_sentence_323

The new university offers education primarily in English, although one may take courses in any of South Africa's official languages. Cape Town_sentence_324

The institution generally awards the National Diploma. Cape Town_sentence_325

Students from the universities and high schools are involved in the South African SEDS, Students for the Exploration and Development of Space. Cape Town_sentence_326

This is the South African SEDS, and there are many SEDS branches in other countries, preparing enthusiastic students and young professionals for the growing Space industry. Cape Town_sentence_327

Cape Town has also become a popular study abroad destination for many international college students. Cape Town_sentence_328

Many study abroad providers offer semester, summer, short-term, and internship programs in partnership with Cape Town universities as a chance for international students to gain intercultural understanding. Cape Town_sentence_329

Transport Cape Town_section_30

Air Cape Town_section_31

Cape Town International Airport serves both domestic and international flights. Cape Town_sentence_330

It is the second-largest airport in South Africa and serves as a major gateway for travelers to the Cape region. Cape Town_sentence_331

Cape Town has regularly scheduled services to Southern Africa, East Africa, Mauritius, Middle East, Far East, Europe and the United States as well as eleven domestic destinations. Cape Town_sentence_332

Cape Town International Airport recently opened a brand new central terminal building that was developed to handle an expected increase in air traffic as tourism numbers increased in the lead-up to the 2010 FIFA World Cup. Cape Town_sentence_333

Other renovations include several large new parking garages, a revamped domestic departure terminal, a new Bus Rapid Transit system station and a new double-decker road system. Cape Town_sentence_334

The airport's cargo facilities are also being expanded and several large empty lots are being developed into office space and hotels. Cape Town_sentence_335

The Cape Town International Airport was among the winners of the World Travel Awards for being Africa's leading airport. Cape Town_sentence_336

Cape Town International Airport is located 18 km from the Central Business District Cape Town_sentence_337

Sea Cape Town_section_32

Cape Town has a long tradition as a port city. Cape Town_sentence_338

The Port of Cape Town, the city's main port, is in Table Bay directly to the north of the CBD. Cape Town_sentence_339

The port is a hub for ships in the southern Atlantic: it is located along one of the busiest shipping corridors in the world. Cape Town_sentence_340

It is also a busy container port, second in South Africa only to Durban. Cape Town_sentence_341

In 2004, it handled 3,161 ships and 9.2 million tonnes of cargo. Cape Town_sentence_342

Simon's Town Harbour on the False Bay coast of the Cape Peninsula is the main operational base of the South African Navy. Cape Town_sentence_343

Until the 1970s the city was served by the Union Castle Line with service to the United Kingdom and St Helena. Cape Town_sentence_344

The RMS St Helena provided passenger and cargo service between Cape Town and St Helena until the opening of St Helena Airport. Cape Town_sentence_345

The cargo vessel M/V Helena, under AW Shipping Management, takes a limited number of passengers, between Cape Town and St Helena and Ascension Island on its voyages. Cape Town_sentence_346

Multiple vessels also take passengers to and from Tristan da Cunha, inaccessible by aircraft, to and from Cape Town. Cape Town_sentence_347

In addition NSB Niederelbe Schiffahrtsgesellschaft [] takes passengers on its cargo service to the Canary Islands and Hamburg, Germany. Cape Town_sentence_348

Rail Cape Town_section_33

The Shosholoza Meyl is the passenger rail operations of Spoornet and operates two long-distance passenger rail services from Cape Town: a daily service to and from Johannesburg via Kimberley and a weekly service to and from Durban via Kimberley, Bloemfontein and Pietermaritzburg. Cape Town_sentence_349

These trains terminate at Cape Town railway station and make a brief stop at Bellville. Cape Town_sentence_350

Cape Town is also one terminus of the luxury tourist-oriented Blue Train as well as the five-star Rovos Rail. Cape Town_sentence_351

Metrorail operates a commuter rail service in Cape Town and the surrounding area. Cape Town_sentence_352

The Metrorail network consists of 96 stations throughout the suburbs and outskirts of Cape Town. Cape Town_sentence_353

Road Cape Town_section_34

Cape Town is the origin of three national roads. Cape Town_sentence_354

The N1 and N2 begin in the foreshore area near the City Center and the N7, which runs North toward Namibia. Cape Town_sentence_355

The N1 runs East-North-East through Edgemead, Parow, Bellville, and Brackenfell. Cape Town_sentence_356

It connects Cape Town to major cities further inland, namely Bloemfontein, Johannesburg, and Pretoria An older at-grade road, the R101, runs parallel to the N1 from Bellville. Cape Town_sentence_357

The N2 runs East-South-East through Rondebosch, Guguletu, Khayelitsha, Macassar to Somerset West. Cape Town_sentence_358

It becomes a multiple-carriageway, at-grade road from the intersection with the R44 onwards. Cape Town_sentence_359

The N2 continues east along the coast, linking Cape Town to the coastal cities of Port Elizabeth, East London and Durban. Cape Town_sentence_360

An older at-grade road, the R101, runs parallel to the N1 initially, before veering south at Bellville, to join the N2 at Somerset West via the suburbs of Kuils River and Eerste River. Cape Town_sentence_361

The N7 originates from the N1 at Wingfield Interchange near Edgemead. Cape Town_sentence_362

It begins, initially as a highway, but becoming an at-grade road from the intersection with the M5 onwards. Cape Town_sentence_363

There are also a number of regional routes linking Cape Town with surrounding areas. Cape Town_sentence_364

The R27 originates from the N1 near the Foreshore and runs north parallel to the N7, but nearer to the coast. Cape Town_sentence_365

It passes through the suburbs of Milnerton, Table View and Bloubergstrand and links the city to the West Coast, ending at the town of Velddrif. Cape Town_sentence_366

The R44 enters the east of the metro from the north, from Stellenbosch. Cape Town_sentence_367

It connects Stellenbosch to Somerset West, then crosses the N2 to Strand and Gordon's Bay. Cape Town_sentence_368

It exits the metro heading south hugging the coast, leading to the towns of Betty's Bay and Kleinmond. Cape Town_sentence_369

Of the three-digit routes, the R300, is an expressway linking the N1 at Brackenfell to the N2 near Mitchells Plain and the Cape Town International Airport. Cape Town_sentence_370

The R302 runs from the R102 in Bellville, heading north across the N1 through Durbanville leaving the metro to Malmesbury. Cape Town_sentence_371

The R304 enters the northern limits of the metro from Stellenbosch, running NNW before veering west to cross the N7 at Philadelphia to end at Atlantis at a junction with the R307. Cape Town_sentence_372

This R307 starts north of Koeberg from the R27 and, after meeting the R304, continues north to Darling. Cape Town_sentence_373

The R310 originates from Muizenberg and runs along the coast, to the south of Mitchell's Plain and Khayelitsha, before veering north-east, crossing the N2 west of Macassar, and exiting the metro heading to Stellenbosch. Cape Town_sentence_374

Cape Town, like most South African cities, uses Metropolitan or "M" routes for important intra-city routes, a layer below National (N) roads and Regional (R) routes. Cape Town_sentence_375

Each city's M roads are independently numbered. Cape Town_sentence_376

Most are at-grade roads. Cape Town_sentence_377

However, the M3 splits from the N2 and runs to the south along the eastern slopes of Table Mountain, connecting the City Bowl with Muizenberg. Cape Town_sentence_378

Except for a section between Rondebosch and Newlands that has at-grade intersections, this route is a highway. Cape Town_sentence_379

The M5 splits from the N1 further east than the M3, and links the Cape Flats to the CBD. Cape Town_sentence_380

It is a highway as far as the interchange with the M68 at Ottery, before continuing as an at-grade road. Cape Town_sentence_381

Cape Town suffers from the worst traffic congestion in South Africa. Cape Town_sentence_382

Buses Cape Town_section_35

Golden Arrow Bus Services operates scheduled bus services in the Cape Town metropolitan area. Cape Town_sentence_383

Several companies run long-distance bus services from Cape Town to the other cities in South Africa. Cape Town_sentence_384

Integrated Rapid Transit (IRT) Cape Town_section_36

Main article: MyCiTi Cape Town_sentence_385

Cape Town has a public transport system in about 10% of the city, running north to south along the west coastline of the city, comprising Phase 1 of the IRT system. Cape Town_sentence_386

This is known as the MyCiTi service. Cape Town_sentence_387

MyCiTi Phase 1 includes services linking the Airport to the Cape Town inner city, as well as the following areas: Blouberg / Table View, Dunoon, Atlantis and Melkbosstrand, Milnerton, Paarden Eiland, Century City, Salt River and Walmer Estate, and all suburbs of the City Bowl and Atlantic Seaboard all the way to Llandudno and Hout Bay. Cape Town_sentence_388

The MyCiTi N2 Express service consists of two routes each linking the Cape Town inner city and Khayelitsha and Mitchells Plain on the Cape Flats. Cape Town_sentence_389

The service use high floor articulated and standard size buses in dedicated busways, low floor articulated and standard size buses on the N2 Express service, and smaller 9-metre (30-foot) Optare buses in suburban and inner city areas. Cape Town_sentence_390

It offers universal access through level boarding and numerous other measures, and requires cashless fare payment using the EMV compliant smart card system, called myconnect. Cape Town_sentence_391

Headway of services (i.e. the time between buses on the same route) range from 3 mins to 20 mins in peak times to 60 minutes during quiet off-peak periods. Cape Town_sentence_392

Taxis Cape Town_section_37

Cape Town has two kinds of taxis: metered taxis and minibus taxis. Cape Town_sentence_393

Unlike many cities, metered taxis are not allowed to drive around the city to solicit fares and instead must be called to a specific location. Cape Town_sentence_394

Cape Town metered taxi cabs mostly operate in the city bowl, suburbs and Cape Town International Airport areas. Cape Town_sentence_395

Large companies that operate fleets of cabs can be reached by phone and are cheaper than the single operators that apply for hire from taxi ranks and Victoria and Alfred Waterfront. Cape Town_sentence_396

There are about one thousand meter taxis in Cape Town. Cape Town_sentence_397

Their rates vary from R8 per kilometre to about R15 per kilometre. Cape Town_sentence_398

The larger taxi companies in Cape Town are Excite Taxis, Cabnet and Intercab and single operators are reachable by cellular phone. Cape Town_sentence_399

The seven seated Toyota Avanza are the most popular with larger Taxi companies. Cape Town_sentence_400

Meter cabs are mostly used by tourists and are safer to use than minibus taxis. Cape Town_sentence_401

Minibus taxis are the standard form of transport for the majority of the population who cannot afford private vehicles. Cape Town_sentence_402

Although essential, these taxis are often poorly maintained and are frequently not road-worthy. Cape Town_sentence_403

These taxis make frequent unscheduled stops to pick up passengers, which can cause accidents. Cape Town_sentence_404

With the high demand for transport by the working class of South Africa, minibus taxis are often filled over their legal passenger allowance. Cape Town_sentence_405

Minibuses are generally owned and operated in fleets. Cape Town_sentence_406

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International relations Cape Town_section_38

Cape Town has eighteen active sister city agreements Cape Town_sentence_407

See also Cape Town_section_39

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Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cape Town.