Capri

From Wikipedia for FEVERv2
Jump to navigation Jump to search

This article is about the Italian island. Capri_sentence_0

For the island's main town, see Capri, Campania. Capri_sentence_1

For other uses, see Capri (disambiguation). Capri_sentence_2

Not to be confused with Carpi, a town in northern Italy. Capri_sentence_3

Capri_table_infobox_0

CapriCapri_table_caption_0
GeographyCapri_header_cell_0_0_0
LocationCapri_header_cell_0_1_0 Tyrrhenian SeaCapri_cell_0_1_1
CoordinatesCapri_header_cell_0_2_0 Capri_cell_0_2_1
AreaCapri_header_cell_0_3_0 10.4 km (4.0 sq mi)Capri_cell_0_3_1
Highest elevationCapri_header_cell_0_4_0 589 m (1932 ft)Capri_cell_0_4_1
Highest pointCapri_header_cell_0_5_0 Monte SolaroCapri_cell_0_5_1
AdministrationCapri_header_cell_0_6_0
RegionCapri_header_cell_0_7_0 CampaniaCapri_cell_0_7_1
Metropolitan CityCapri_header_cell_0_8_0 NaplesCapri_cell_0_8_1
Largest settlementCapri_header_cell_0_9_0 Capri (pop. 7,278)Capri_cell_0_9_1
DemographicsCapri_header_cell_0_10_0
PopulationCapri_header_cell_0_11_0 12,200 (2002)Capri_cell_0_11_1
Pop. densityCapri_header_cell_0_12_0 1,170/km (3030/sq mi)Capri_cell_0_12_1

Capri (/kəˈpriː/ kə-PREE, also US: /ˈkɑːpri, ˈkæp-/ KA(H)P-ree, Italian: [ˈkaːpri / Neapolitan: [ˈkɑːpri) is an island located in the Tyrrhenian Sea off the Sorrento Peninsula, on the south side of the Gulf of Naples in the Campania region of Italy. Capri_sentence_4

The main town Capri that is located on the island shares the name. Capri_sentence_5

It has been a resort since the time of the Roman Republic. Capri_sentence_6

Some of the main features of the island include the Marina Piccola (the little harbour), the Belvedere of Tragara (a high panoramic promenade lined with villas), the limestone crags called sea stacks that project above the sea (the faraglioni), the town of Anacapri, the Blue Grotto (Grotta Azzurra), the ruins of the Imperial Roman villas, and the vistas of various towns surrounding the Island of Capri including Positano, Amalfi, Ravello, Sorrento, Nerano, and Naples. Capri_sentence_7

Capri is part of the region of Campania, Metropolitan City of Naples. Capri_sentence_8

The town of Capri is a comune and the island's main population centre. Capri_sentence_9

The island has two harbours, Marina Piccola and Marina Grande (the main port of the island). Capri_sentence_10

The separate comune of Anacapri is located high on the hills to the west. Capri_sentence_11

Etymology Capri_section_0

The etymology of the name Capri is unclear; it might be traced back to the Ancient Greek κάπρος kápros meaning "wild boar", as the Greeks were the first recorded colonists to populate the island. Capri_sentence_12

But it could also derive from Latin capreae (goats). Capri_sentence_13

Fossils of wild boars have been discovered, lending credence to the "kápros" etymology; on the other hand, the Romans called Capri "goat island". Capri_sentence_14

Finally, there is also the possibility that the name derives from an Etruscan word for "rocky," though any historical Etruscan rule of the island is disputed. Capri_sentence_15

Capri consists of limestone and sandstone rock; cliffs form much of the sides and surface of the island. Capri_sentence_16

Government Capri_section_1

The voters of the island elect representatives for the two municipalities (comuni) on the island. Capri_sentence_17

The chosen representatives then choose two mayors to govern with them. Capri_sentence_18

History Capri_section_2

Main article: History of Capri Capri_sentence_19

Ancient and Roman times Capri_section_3

The island has been inhabited since early times. Capri_sentence_20

Evidence of human settlement was discovered during the Roman era; according to Suetonius, when the foundations for the villa of Augustus were being excavated, giant bones and 'weapons of stone' were discovered. Capri_sentence_21

The emperor ordered these to be displayed in the garden of his main residence, the Sea Palace. Capri_sentence_22

Modern excavations have shown that human presence on the island can be dated to the Neolithic and the Bronze Age. Capri_sentence_23

Augustus developed Capri; he built temples, villas, aqueducts, and planted gardens so he could enjoy his private paradise. Capri_sentence_24

In his Aeneid, Virgil states that the island had been populated by the Greek people of Teleboi, coming from the Ionian Islands. Capri_sentence_25

Strabo says that "in ancient times in Capri there were two towns, later reduced to one." Capri_sentence_26

Tacitus records that there were twelve Imperial villas in Capri. Capri_sentence_27

Ruins of one at Tragara could still be seen in the 19th century. Capri_sentence_28

Augustus' successor Tiberius built a series of villas at Capri, the most famous of which is the Villa Jovis, one of the best-preserved Roman villas in Italy. Capri_sentence_29

In 27 AD, Tiberius permanently moved to Capri, running the Empire from there until his death in 37 AD. Capri_sentence_30

In 182 AD, Emperor Commodus banished his sister Lucilla to Capri. Capri_sentence_31

She was executed shortly afterwards. Capri_sentence_32

Middle and Modern Ages Capri_section_4

After the end of the Western Roman Empire, Capri returned to the status of a dominion of Naples, and suffered various attacks and ravages by pirates. Capri_sentence_33

In 866 Emperor Louis II gave the island to Amalfi. Capri_sentence_34

In 987 Pope John XV consecrated the first bishop of Capri, when Capri, Scala, Minori, and Lettere were made dioceses to serve as suffragans of Amalfi, which thereby became a metropolitan see. Capri_sentence_35

Capri continued to be a residential diocese until 1818, when the island became part of the archdiocese of Sorrento. Capri_sentence_36

No longer a residential bishopric, Capri, Capreae in Latin, is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see. Capri_sentence_37

In 1496, Frederick IV of Naples established legal and administrative parity between the settlements of Capri and Anacapri. Capri_sentence_38

The pirate raids reached their peak during the reign of Charles V: the famous Turkish admirals Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha and Turgut Reis captured the island for the Ottoman Empire, in 1535 and 1553 respectively. Capri_sentence_39

The first recorded tourist to visit the island was French antiques dealer Jean-Jacques Bouchard in the 17th century. Capri_sentence_40

His diary, found in 1850, is an important information source about Capri. Capri_sentence_41

1800s–present Capri_section_5

French troops under Napoleon occupied Capri in January 1806. Capri_sentence_42

The British ousted the French in the following May, after which Capri was turned into a powerful naval base (a "Second Gibraltar"), but the building program caused heavy damage to the archaeological sites. Capri_sentence_43

The French reconquered Capri in 1808, and remained there until the end of the Napoleonic era (1815), when Capri was returned to the Bourbon ruling house of Naples. Capri_sentence_44

The natural scientist Ignazio Cerio catalogued Capri's flora and fauna during the 19th century. Capri_sentence_45

His work was continued by his son, author and engineer Edwin Cerio, who wrote several books on life in Capri in the 20th century. Capri_sentence_46

Prior to the First World War the island was extremely popular with wealthy gay men. Capri_sentence_47

John Ellingham Brooks and Somerset Maugham shared a villa there. Capri_sentence_48

Norman Douglas, Friedrich Alfred Krupp, Jacques d'Adelswärd-Fersen, Christian Wilhelm Allers, Emil von Behring, Curzio Malaparte, Axel Munthe, Louis Coatalen and Maxim Gorky are all reported to have owned a villa there, or to have stayed there for more than three months. Capri_sentence_49

Swedish Queen Victoria often stayed there because Axel Munthe was her doctor. Capri_sentence_50

Rose O'Neill, the American illustrator and creator of the Kewpie, owned the Villa Narcissus, formerly owned by the famous Beaux-Arts painter Charles Caryl Coleman. Capri_sentence_51

Dame Gracie Fields also had a villa and restaurant on the island and is buried there. Capri_sentence_52

Mariah Carey owns a villa on the island. Capri_sentence_53

In 1908, Lenin was hosted by Maxim Gorky, the Russian author, at his house near the Giardini Augusto. Capri_sentence_54

In 1970, a monument by Giacomo Manzù was erected during the centennial celebration in Lenin's honour. Capri_sentence_55

Today, Capri has become more of a resort and is visited by tourists during the summer months of July and August. Capri_sentence_56

Cultural references Capri_section_6

During the later half of the 19th century, Capri became a popular resort for European artists, writers and other celebrities. Capri_sentence_57

The book that spawned the 19th century fascination with Capri in France, Germany, and England was Entdeckung der blauen Grotte auf der Insel Capri (Discovery of the Blue Grotto on the Isle of Capri) by the German painter and writer August Kopisch, in which he describes his 1826 stay on the island and his (re)discovery of the Blue Grotto. Capri_sentence_58

John Singer Sargent and Frank Hyde are among the prominent artists who stayed on the island around the late 1870s. Capri_sentence_59

Sargent is known for his series of portraits featuring local model Rosina Ferrara. Capri_sentence_60

The English artist and adventurer, John Wood Shortridge, acquired a fortino at Marina Piccola in the 1880s, (later transformed into a private villa by Dame Gracie Fields) and married a Capri girl, Carmela Esposito. Capri_sentence_61

He formed a close friendship with the English novelist George Gissing who provides a colourful and insightful account of his stays with Shortridge in his Published Letters of George Gissing. Capri_sentence_62

In the Gissing Journal, vol. XXXV, no. Capri_sentence_63

3 (July, 1999), p. 2. it is recorded that the only mention of him in a recent book, albeit partially inaccurate, occurs in James Money's Capri: Island of Pleasure (London: Hamish Hamilton, 1986, p. 42). Capri_sentence_64

Claude Debussy refers to the island's hills in the title of his impressionistic prélude Les collines d'Anacapri (1910). Capri_sentence_65

Capri is the setting for "The Lotus Eater" (1945), a short story by Somerset Maugham. Capri_sentence_66

In the story, the protagonist from Hendon, part of the borough of Barnet in London, comes to Capri on a holiday and is so enchanted by the place he gives up his job and decides to spend the rest of his life in leisure there. Capri_sentence_67

British novelist Compton Mackenzie lived there from 1913 to 1920, with later visits, and set some of his work on the island (e.g. Vestal Fire, 1927). Capri_sentence_68

As well as being a haven for writers and artists, Capri served as a relatively safe place for foreign gay men and lesbians to lead a more open life; a small nucleus of them were attracted to live there, overlapping to some extent with the creative types mentioned above. Capri_sentence_69

Poet August von Platen-Hallermünde was one of the first. Capri_sentence_70

Jacques d'Adelswärd-Fersen wrote the roman à clef Et le feu s’éteignit sur la mer (1910) about Capri and its residents in the early 20th century, causing a minor scandal. Capri_sentence_71

Fersen's life on Capri became the subject of Roger Peyrefitte's fictionalised biography, L'Exilé de Capri. Capri_sentence_72

A satirical presentation of the island's lesbian colony is made in Mackenzie's 1928 novel Extraordinary Women, inspired by the affairs of American painter Romaine Brooks (in the novel, under the pseudonym of Olimpia Leigh). Capri_sentence_73

One of the island's most famous foreign gay exiles was Norman Douglas; his novel South Wind (1917) is a thinly fictionalised description of Capri's residents and visitors, and a number of his other works, both books and pamphlets, deal with the island, including Capri (1930) and his last work, (1952). Capri_sentence_74

Memoirs set on Capri include Edwin Cerio's Aria di Capri (1928) (translated as That Capri Air), which contains a number of historical and biographical essays on the island, including a tribute to Norman Douglas; The Story of San Michele (1929) by Swedish royal physician Axel Munthe (1857–1949), who built a villa of that name and Shirley Hazzard's Greene on Capri: A Memoir (2000), containing her reminiscences of Graham Greene. Capri_sentence_75

Graham Greene had a house in the town of Anacapri, the upper portion of the island, where he lived with his lover Catherine Walston. Capri_sentence_76

Main sights Capri_section_7

Annual events Capri_section_8

Capri_unordered_list_0

  • Capri Art Film Festival (every April since 2006)Capri_item_0_0
  • Festival of San Costanzo (Capri patron saint) – May 14Capri_item_0_1
  • Festival of Sant’Antonio (Anacapri patron saint) – June 13Capri_item_0_2
  • Capri Tango Festival (every June since 2007)Capri_item_0_3
  • International Folklore Festival (Anacapri) – AugustCapri_item_0_4
  • Settembrata Anacaprese (Anacapri harvest festival) – SeptemberCapri_item_0_5
  • Capri Hollywood International Film Festival (every late December/early January since 1995)Capri_item_0_6
  • Capri HollywoodCapri_item_0_7
  • Eventi Villa San MicheleCapri_item_0_8
  • Premio San MicheleCapri_item_0_9
  • Premio FaraglioniCapri_item_0_10
  • Premio Cari dell EnigmaCapri_item_0_11
  • Maraton del Golfo CapriCapri_item_0_12

Economy Capri_section_9

Capri is a tourist destination for both Italians and foreigners. Capri_sentence_77

In the 1950s Capri became a popular resort. Capri_sentence_78

In summer, the island is heavily visited by tourists, especially by day trippers from Naples and Sorrento. Capri_sentence_79

Many of these visitors make it a point to wear the Capri pants named after the destination. Capri_sentence_80

The center of Capri is the Piazza Umberto I. Capri_sentence_81

Capri is home to the Mediterranean bush, the Arboreal Euphorbia, and the Ilex Wood. Capri_sentence_82

The native fauna on the island include quails, robins, peregrine falcons, woodcocks, blackbirds, geckos, red goldfish, conger eels, sargos, groupers, mullets, and the blue lizard of the Faraglioni. Capri_sentence_83

Capri has twelve churches, seven museums and several monuments. Capri_sentence_84

The most visited attraction in Capri is the Grotta Azzurra (Blue Grotto), a cave discovered in the 19th century by foreign tourists. Capri_sentence_85

On one side of the grotto are the remains of ancient Roman rock, with a narrow cavern. Capri_sentence_86

As of 2018 there were plans to limit access to day tourists. Capri_sentence_87

The international luxury linen clothing brand 100% Capri opened its first boutique in the main town of Capri in 2000. Capri_sentence_88

Transport Capri_section_10

Capri is served by ferry or hydrofoil from Naples, Sorrento, Positano and Amalfi as well as by boat services from the ports of the Bay of Naples and the Sorrentine Peninsula. Capri_sentence_89

Boats arrive in the morning and leave after lunch (3–4 pm). Capri_sentence_90

Naples is served by two ports, Mergellina and Molo Beverello. Capri_sentence_91

Molo Beverello has a higher frequency of departures and a larger selection of boats than Mergellina. Capri_sentence_92

From Naples, the ferry takes 80 minutes, and the hydrofoil 40 minutes. Capri_sentence_93

From Sorrento, the ferry takes about 40 minutes while the hydrofoil takes about 20 minutes. Capri_sentence_94

Boats call Marina Grande, from where the Capri funicular goes up to Capri town. Capri_sentence_95

From Anacapri, a chair lift takes passengers to Monte Solaro, the highest point on the island. Capri_sentence_96

There is also a bus service that connects the centre of Capri town with Marina Grande, Marina Piccola, Anacapri and other points. Capri_sentence_97

Airports Capri_section_11

The nearest airports are: Capri_sentence_98

Capri_unordered_list_1

Twin towns - Sister cities Capri_section_12

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Italy Capri_sentence_99

Capri is twinned with: Capri_sentence_100

Capri_unordered_list_2

See also Capri_section_13

Capri_unordered_list_3


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capri.