Carl Linnaeus

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For his lesser-known son whose abbreviation is L.f., see Carl Linnaeus the Younger. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_0

For other uses, see Linnaeus (disambiguation). Carl Linnaeus_sentence_1

"L." redirects here. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_2

For other uses, see L (disambiguation). Carl Linnaeus_sentence_3

Carl Linnaeus_table_infobox_0

Carl LinnaeusCarl Linnaeus_header_cell_0_0_0
BornCarl Linnaeus_header_cell_0_1_0 (1707-05-23)23 May 1707

Råshult, Stenbrohult parish (now within Älmhult Municipality), SwedenCarl Linnaeus_cell_0_1_1

DiedCarl Linnaeus_header_cell_0_2_0 10 January 1778(1778-01-10) (aged 70)

Hammarby (estate), Danmark parish (outside Uppsala), SwedenCarl Linnaeus_cell_0_2_1

Resting placeCarl Linnaeus_header_cell_0_3_0 Uppsala CathedralCarl Linnaeus_cell_0_3_1
NationalityCarl Linnaeus_header_cell_0_4_0 SwedishCarl Linnaeus_cell_0_4_1
Alma materCarl Linnaeus_header_cell_0_5_0 Carl Linnaeus_cell_0_5_1
Known forCarl Linnaeus_header_cell_0_6_0 Carl Linnaeus_cell_0_6_1
Spouse(s)Carl Linnaeus_header_cell_0_7_0 Sara Elisabeth Moraea

​ ​(m. 1739)​Carl Linnaeus_cell_0_7_1

ChildrenCarl Linnaeus_header_cell_0_8_0 7Carl Linnaeus_cell_0_8_1
FieldsCarl Linnaeus_header_cell_0_9_0 Carl Linnaeus_cell_0_9_1
InstitutionsCarl Linnaeus_header_cell_0_10_0 Uppsala UniversityCarl Linnaeus_cell_0_10_1
ThesisCarl Linnaeus_header_cell_0_11_0 (1735)Carl Linnaeus_cell_0_11_1
Notable studentsCarl Linnaeus_header_cell_0_12_0 Peter AscaniusCarl Linnaeus_cell_0_12_1
Author abbrev. (botany)Carl Linnaeus_header_cell_0_13_0 L.Carl Linnaeus_cell_0_13_1
Author abbrev. (zoology)Carl Linnaeus_header_cell_0_14_0 Linn.Carl Linnaeus_cell_0_14_1
SignatureCarl Linnaeus_header_cell_0_15_0

Carl Linnaeus (/lɪˈniːəs, lɪˈneɪəs/; 23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von Linné (Swedish pronunciation: [ˈkɑːɭ fɔn lɪˈneː (listen)), was a Swedish botanist, zoologist, and physician who formalised binomial nomenclature, the modern system of naming organisms. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_4

He is known as the "father of modern taxonomy". Carl Linnaeus_sentence_5

Many of his writings were in Latin, and his name is rendered in Latin as Carolus Linnæus (after 1761 Carolus a Linné). Carl Linnaeus_sentence_6

Linnaeus was born in the countryside of Småland in southern Sweden. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_7

He received most of his higher education at Uppsala University and began giving lectures in botany there in 1730. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_8

He lived abroad between 1735 and 1738, where he studied and also published the first edition of his Systema Naturae in the Netherlands. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_9

He then returned to Sweden where he became professor of medicine and botany at Uppsala. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_10

In the 1740s, he was sent on several journeys through Sweden to find and classify plants and animals. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_11

In the 1750s and 1760s, he continued to collect and classify animals, plants, and minerals, while publishing several volumes. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_12

He was one of the most acclaimed scientists in Europe at the time of his death. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_13

Philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau sent him the message: "Tell him I know no greater man on earth." Carl Linnaeus_sentence_14

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe wrote: "With the exception of Shakespeare and Spinoza, I know no one among the no longer living who has influenced me more strongly." Carl Linnaeus_sentence_15

Swedish author August Strindberg wrote: "Linnaeus was in reality a poet who happened to become a naturalist." Carl Linnaeus_sentence_16

Linnaeus has been called Princeps botanicorum (Prince of Botanists) and "The Pliny of the North". Carl Linnaeus_sentence_17

He is also considered as one of the founders of modern ecology. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_18

In botany and zoology, the abbreviation L. is used to indicate Linnaeus as the authority for a species' name. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_19

In older publications, the abbreviation "Linn." Carl Linnaeus_sentence_20

is found. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_21

Linnaeus's remains constitute the type specimen for the species Homo sapiens following the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, since the sole specimen that he is known to have examined was himself. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_22

Early life Carl Linnaeus_section_0

Childhood Carl Linnaeus_section_1

Linnaeus was born in the village of Råshult in Småland, Sweden, on 23 May 1707. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_23

He was the first child of Nicolaus (Nils) Ingemarsson (who later adopted the family name Linnaeus) and Christina Brodersonia. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_24

His siblings were Anna Maria Linnæa, Sofia Juliana Linnæa, Samuel Linnæus (who would eventually succeed their father as rector of Stenbrohult and write a manual on beekeeping), and Emerentia Linnæa. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_25

His father taught him Latin as a small child. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_26

One of a long line of peasants and priests, Nils was an amateur botanist, a Lutheran minister, and the curate of the small village of Stenbrohult in Småland. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_27

Christina was the daughter of the rector of Stenbrohult, Samuel Brodersonius. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_28

A year after Linnaeus's birth, his grandfather Samuel Brodersonius died, and his father Nils became the rector of Stenbrohult. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_29

The family moved into the rectory from the curate's house. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_30

Even in his early years, Linnaeus seemed to have a liking for plants, flowers in particular. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_31

Whenever he was upset, he was given a flower, which immediately calmed him. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_32

Nils spent much time in his garden and often showed flowers to Linnaeus and told him their names. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_33

Soon Linnaeus was given his own patch of earth where he could grow plants. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_34

Carl's father was the first in his ancestry to adopt a permanent surname. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_35

Before that, ancestors had used the patronymic naming system of Scandinavian countries: his father was named Ingemarsson after his father Ingemar Bengtsson. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_36

When Nils was admitted to the University of Lund, he had to take on a family name. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_37

He adopted the Latinate name Linnæus after a giant linden tree (or lime tree), lind in Swedish, that grew on the family homestead. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_38

This name was spelled with the æ ligature. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_39

When Carl was born, he was named Carl Linnæus, with his father's family name. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_40

The son also always spelled it with the æ ligature, both in handwritten documents and in publications. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_41

Carl's patronymic would have been Nilsson, as in Carl Nilsson Linnæus. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_42

Early education Carl Linnaeus_section_2

Linnaeus's father began teaching him basic Latin, religion, and geography at an early age. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_43

When Linnaeus was seven, Nils decided to hire a tutor for him. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_44

The parents picked Johan Telander, a son of a local yeoman. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_45

Linnaeus did not like him, writing in his autobiography that Telander "was better calculated to extinguish a child's talents than develop them". Carl Linnaeus_sentence_46

Two years after his tutoring had begun, he was sent to the Lower Grammar School at Växjö in 1717. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_47

Linnaeus rarely studied, often going to the countryside to look for plants. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_48

He reached the last year of the Lower School when he was fifteen, which was taught by the headmaster, Daniel Lannerus, who was interested in botany. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_49

Lannerus noticed Linnaeus's interest in botany and gave him the run of his garden. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_50

He also introduced him to Johan Rothman, the state doctor of Småland and a teacher at Katedralskolan (a gymnasium) in Växjö. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_51

Also a botanist, Rothman broadened Linnaeus's interest in botany and helped him develop an interest in medicine. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_52

By the age of 17, Linnaeus had become well acquainted with the existing botanical literature. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_53

He remarks in his journal that he "read day and night, knowing like the back of my hand, Arvidh Månsson's Rydaholm Book of Herbs, Tillandz's Flora Åboensis, Palmberg's Serta Florea Suecana, Bromelii Chloros Gothica and Rudbeckii Hortus Upsaliensis". Carl Linnaeus_sentence_54

Linnaeus entered the Växjö Katedralskola in 1724, where he studied mainly Greek, Hebrew, theology and mathematics, a curriculum designed for boys preparing for the priesthood. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_55

In the last year at the gymnasium, Linnaeus's father visited to ask the professors how his son's studies were progressing; to his dismay, most said that the boy would never become a scholar. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_56

Rothman believed otherwise, suggesting Linnaeus could have a future in medicine. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_57

The doctor offered to have Linnaeus live with his family in Växjö and to teach him physiology and botany. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_58

Nils accepted this offer. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_59

University studies Carl Linnaeus_section_3

Lund Carl Linnaeus_section_4

Rothman showed Linnaeus that botany was a serious subject. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_60

He taught Linnaeus to classify plants according to Tournefort's system. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_61

Linnaeus was also taught about the sexual reproduction of plants, according to Sébastien Vaillant. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_62

In 1727, Linnaeus, age 21, enrolled in Lund University in Skåne. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_63

He was registered as Carolus Linnæus, the Latin form of his full name, which he also used later for his Latin publications. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_64

Professor Kilian Stobæus, natural scientist, physician and historian, offered Linnaeus tutoring and lodging, as well as the use of his library, which included many books about botany. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_65

He also gave the student free admission to his lectures. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_66

In his spare time, Linnaeus explored the flora of Skåne, together with students sharing the same interests. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_67

Uppsala Carl Linnaeus_section_5

In August 1728, Linnaeus decided to attend Uppsala University on the advice of Rothman, who believed it would be a better choice if Linnaeus wanted to study both medicine and botany. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_68

Rothman based this recommendation on the two professors who taught at the medical faculty at Uppsala: Olof Rudbeck the Younger and Lars Roberg. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_69

Although Rudbeck and Roberg had undoubtedly been good professors, by then they were older and not so interested in teaching. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_70

Rudbeck no longer gave public lectures, and had others stand in for him. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_71

The botany, zoology, pharmacology and anatomy lectures were not in their best state. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_72

In Uppsala, Linnaeus met a new benefactor, Olof Celsius, who was a professor of theology and an amateur botanist. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_73

He received Linnaeus into his home and allowed him use of his library, which was one of the richest botanical libraries in Sweden. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_74

In 1729, Linnaeus wrote a thesis, Praeludia Sponsaliorum Plantarum on plant sexual reproduction. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_75

This attracted the attention of Rudbeck; in May 1730, he selected Linnaeus to give lectures at the University although the young man was only a second-year student. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_76

His lectures were popular, and Linnaeus often addressed an audience of 300 people. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_77

In June, Linnaeus moved from Celsius's house to Rudbeck's to become the tutor of the three youngest of his 24 children. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_78

His friendship with Celsius did not wane and they continued their botanical expeditions. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_79

Over that winter, Linnaeus began to doubt Tournefort's system of classification and decided to create one of his own. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_80

His plan was to divide the plants by the number of stamens and pistils. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_81

He began writing several books, which would later result in, for example, Genera Plantarum and Critica Botanica. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_82

He also produced a book on the plants grown in the Uppsala Botanical Garden, Adonis Uplandicus. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_83

Rudbeck's former assistant, Nils Rosén, returned to the University in March 1731 with a degree in medicine. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_84

Rosén started giving anatomy lectures and tried to take over Linnaeus's botany lectures, but Rudbeck prevented that. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_85

Until December, Rosén gave Linnaeus private tutoring in medicine. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_86

In December, Linnaeus had a "disagreement" with Rudbeck's wife and had to move out of his mentor's house; his relationship with Rudbeck did not appear to suffer. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_87

That Christmas, Linnaeus returned home to Stenbrohult to visit his parents for the first time in about three years. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_88

His mother had disapproved of his failing to become a priest, but she was pleased to learn he was teaching at the University. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_89

Expedition to Lapland Carl Linnaeus_section_6

Main articles: Expedition to Lapland and Flora Lapponica Carl Linnaeus_sentence_90

During a visit with his parents, Linnaeus told them about his plan to travel to Lapland; Rudbeck had made the journey in 1695, but the detailed results of his exploration were lost in a fire seven years afterwards. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_91

Linnaeus's hope was to find new plants, animals and possibly valuable minerals. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_92

He was also curious about the customs of the native Sami people, reindeer-herding nomads who wandered Scandinavia's vast tundras. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_93

In April 1732, Linnaeus was awarded a grant from the Royal Society of Sciences in Uppsala for his journey. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_94

Linnaeus began his expedition from Uppsala on 12 May 1732, just before he turned 25. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_95

He travelled on foot and horse, bringing with him his journal, botanical and ornithological manuscripts and sheets of paper for pressing plants. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_96

Near Gävle he found great quantities of Campanula serpyllifolia, later known as Linnaea borealis, the twinflower that would become his favourite. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_97

He sometimes dismounted on the way to examine a flower or rock and was particularly interested in mosses and lichens, the latter a main part of the diet of the reindeer, a common and economically important animal in Lapland. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_98

Linnaeus travelled clockwise around the coast of the Gulf of Bothnia, making major inland incursions from Umeå, Luleå and Tornio. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_99

He returned from his six-month-long, over 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi) expedition in October, having gathered and observed many plants, birds and rocks. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_100

Although Lapland was a region with limited biodiversity, Linnaeus described about 100 previously unidentified plants. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_101

These became the basis of his book Flora Lapponica. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_102

However, on the expedition to Lapland, Linnaeus used Latin names to describe organisms because he had not yet developed the binomial system. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_103

In Flora Lapponica Linnaeus's ideas about nomenclature and classification were first used in a practical way, making this the first proto-modern Flora. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_104

The account covered 534 species, used the Linnaean classification system and included, for the described species, geographical distribution and taxonomic notes. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_105

It was Augustin Pyramus de Candolle who attributed Linnaeus with Flora Lapponica as the first example in the botanical genre of Flora writing. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_106

Botanical historian E. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_107 L. Greene described Flora Lapponica as "the most classic and delightful" of Linnaeus's works. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_108

It was also during this expedition that Linnaeus had a flash of insight regarding the classification of mammals. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_109

Upon observing the lower jawbone of a horse at the side of a road he was travelling, Linnaeus remarked: "If I only knew how many teeth and of what kind every animal had, how many teats and where they were placed, I should perhaps be able to work out a perfectly natural system for the arrangement of all quadrupeds." Carl Linnaeus_sentence_110

In 1734, Linnaeus led a small group of students to Dalarna. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_111

Funded by the Governor of Dalarna, the expedition was to catalogue known natural resources and discover new ones, but also to gather intelligence on Norwegian mining activities at Røros. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_112

Seminal years in the Dutch Republic (1735–38) Carl Linnaeus_section_7

See also: Herman Boerhaave, Johannes Burman, Georg Eberhard Rumphius, Carl Peter Thunberg, George Clifford III, and Hartekamp Carl Linnaeus_sentence_113

Doctorate Carl Linnaeus_section_8

His relations with Nils Rosén having worsened, Linnaeus accepted an invitation from Claes Sohlberg, son of a mining inspector, to spend the Christmas holiday in Falun, where Linnaeus was permitted to visit the mines. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_114

In April 1735, at the suggestion of Sohlberg's father, Linnaeus and Sohlberg set out for the Dutch Republic, where Linnaeus intended to study medicine at the University of Harderwijk while tutoring Sohlberg in exchange for an annual salary. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_115

At the time, it was common for Swedes to pursue doctoral degrees in the Netherlands, then a highly revered place to study natural history. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_116

On the way, the pair stopped in Hamburg, where they met the mayor, who proudly showed them a supposed wonder of nature in his possession: the taxidermied remains of a seven-headed hydra. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_117

Linnaeus quickly discovered the specimen was a fake cobbled together from the jaws and paws of weasels and the skins of snakes. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_118

The provenance of the hydra suggested to Linnaeus that it had been manufactured by monks to represent the Beast of Revelation. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_119

Even at the risk of incurring the mayor's wrath, Linnaeus made his observations public, dashing the mayor's dreams of selling the hydra for an enormous sum. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_120

Linnaeus and Sohlberg were forced to flee from Hamburg. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_121

Linnaeus began working towards his degree as soon as he reached Harderwijk, a university known for awarding degrees in as little as a week. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_122

He submitted a dissertation, written back in Sweden, entitled Dissertatio medica inauguralis in qua exhibetur hypothesis nova de febrium intermittentium causa, in which he laid out his hypothesis that malaria arose only in areas with clay-rich soils. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_123

Although he failed to identify the true source of disease transmission, (i.e., the Anopheles mosquito), he did correctly predict that Artemisia annua (wormwood) would become a source of antimalarial medications. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_124

Within two weeks he had completed his oral and practical examinations and was awarded a doctoral degree. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_125

That summer Linnaeus reunited with Peter Artedi, a friend from Uppsala with whom he had once made a pact that should either of the two predecease the other, the survivor would finish the decedent's work. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_126

Ten weeks later, Artedi drowned in the canals of Amsterdam, leaving behind an unfinished manuscript on the classification of fish. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_127

Publishing of Systema Naturae Carl Linnaeus_section_9

One of the first scientists Linnaeus met in the Netherlands was Johan Frederik Gronovius to whom Linnaeus showed one of the several manuscripts he had brought with him from Sweden. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_128

The manuscript described a new system for classifying plants. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_129

When Gronovius saw it, he was very impressed, and offered to help pay for the printing. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_130

With an additional monetary contribution by the Scottish doctor Isaac Lawson, the manuscript was published as Systema Naturae (1735). Carl Linnaeus_sentence_131

Linnaeus became acquainted with one of the most respected physicians and botanists in the Netherlands, Herman Boerhaave, who tried to convince Linnaeus to make a career there. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_132

Boerhaave offered him a journey to South Africa and America, but Linnaeus declined, stating he would not stand the heat. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_133

Instead, Boerhaave convinced Linnaeus that he should visit the botanist Johannes Burman. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_134

After his visit, Burman, impressed with his guest's knowledge, decided Linnaeus should stay with him during the winter. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_135

During his stay, Linnaeus helped Burman with his Thesaurus Zeylanicus. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_136

Burman also helped Linnaeus with the books on which he was working: Fundamenta Botanica and Bibliotheca Botanica. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_137

George Clifford, Philip Miller, and Johann Jacob Dillenius Carl Linnaeus_section_10

In August 1735, during Linnaeus's stay with Burman, he met George Clifford III, a director of the Dutch East India Company and the owner of a rich botanical garden at the estate of Hartekamp in Heemstede. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_138

Clifford was very impressed with Linnaeus's ability to classify plants, and invited him to become his physician and superintendent of his garden. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_139

Linnaeus had already agreed to stay with Burman over the winter, and could thus not accept immediately. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_140

However, Clifford offered to compensate Burman by offering him a copy of Sir Hans Sloane's Natural History of Jamaica, a rare book, if he let Linnaeus stay with him, and Burman accepted. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_141

On 24 September 1735, Linnaeus moved to Hartekamp to become personal physician to Clifford, and curator of Clifford's herbarium. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_142

He was paid 1,000 florins a year, with free board and lodging. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_143

Though the agreement was only for a winter of that year, Linnaeus practically stayed there until 1738. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_144

It was here that he wrote a book Hortus Cliffortianus, in the preface of which he described his experience as "the happiest time of my life". Carl Linnaeus_sentence_145

(A portion of Hartekamp was declared as public garden in April 1956 by the Heemstede local authority, and was named "Linnaeushof". Carl Linnaeus_sentence_146

It eventually became, as it is claimed, the biggest playground in Europe.) Carl Linnaeus_sentence_147

In July 1736, Linnaeus travelled to England, at Clifford's expense. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_148

He went to London to visit Sir Hans Sloane, a collector of natural history, and to see his cabinet, as well as to visit the Chelsea Physic Garden and its keeper, Philip Miller. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_149

He taught Miller about his new system of subdividing plants, as described in Systema Naturae. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_150

Miller was in fact reluctant to use the new binomial nomenclature, preferring the classifications of Joseph Pitton de Tournefort and John Ray at first. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_151

Linnaeus, nevertheless, applauded Miller's Gardeners Dictionary, The conservative Scot actually retained in his dictionary a number of pre-Linnaean binomial signifiers discarded by Linnaeus but which have been retained by modern botanists. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_152

He only fully changed to the Linnaean system in the edition of The Gardeners Dictionary of 1768. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_153

Miller ultimately was impressed, and from then on started to arrange the garden according to Linnaeus's system. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_154

Linnaeus also travelled to Oxford University to visit the botanist Johann Jacob Dillenius. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_155

He failed to make Dillenius publicly fully accept his new classification system, though the two men remained in correspondence for many years afterwards. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_156

Linnaeus dedicated his Critica botanica to him, as "opus botanicum quo absolutius mundus non vidit". Carl Linnaeus_sentence_157

Linnaeus would later name a genus of tropical tree Dillenia in his honour. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_158

He then returned to Hartekamp, bringing with him many specimens of rare plants. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_159

The next year, he published Genera Plantarum, in which he described 935 genera of plants, and shortly thereafter he supplemented it with Corollarium Generum Plantarum, with another sixty (sexaginta) genera. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_160

His work at Hartekamp led to another book, Hortus Cliffortianus, a catalogue of the botanical holdings in the herbarium and botanical garden of Hartekamp. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_161

He wrote it in nine months (completed in July 1737), but it was not published until 1738. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_162

It contains the first use of the name Nepenthes, which Linnaeus used to describe a genus of pitcher plants. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_163

Linnaeus stayed with Clifford at Hartekamp until 18 October 1737 (new style), when he left the house to return to Sweden. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_164

Illness and the kindness of Dutch friends obliged him to stay some months longer in Holland. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_165

In May 1738, he set out for Sweden again. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_166

On the way home, he stayed in Paris for about a month, visiting botanists such as Antoine de Jussieu. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_167

After his return, Linnaeus never left Sweden again. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_168

Return to Sweden Carl Linnaeus_section_11

When Linnaeus returned to Sweden on 28 June 1738, he went to Falun, where he entered into an engagement to Sara Elisabeth Moræa. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_169

Three months later, he moved to Stockholm to find employment as a physician, and thus to make it possible to support a family. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_170

Once again, Linnaeus found a patron; he became acquainted with Count Carl Gustav Tessin, who helped him get work as a physician at the Admiralty. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_171

During this time in Stockholm, Linnaeus helped found the Royal Swedish Academy of Science; he became the first Praeses of the academy by drawing of lots. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_172

Because his finances had improved and were now sufficient to support a family, he received permission to marry his fiancée, Sara Elisabeth Moræa. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_173

Their wedding was held 26 June 1739. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_174

Seventeen months later, Sara gave birth to their first son, Carl. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_175

Two years later, a daughter, Elisabeth Christina, was born, and the subsequent year Sara gave birth to Sara Magdalena, who died when 15 days old. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_176

Sara and Linnaeus would later have four other children: Lovisa, Sara Christina, Johannes and Sophia. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_177

In May 1741, Linnaeus was appointed Professor of Medicine at Uppsala University, first with responsibility for medicine-related matters. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_178

Soon, he changed place with the other Professor of Medicine, Nils Rosén, and thus was responsible for the Botanical Garden (which he would thoroughly reconstruct and expand), botany and natural history, instead. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_179

In October that same year, his wife and nine-month-old son followed him to live in Uppsala. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_180

Öland and Gotland Carl Linnaeus_section_12

Ten days after he was appointed Professor, he undertook an expedition to the island provinces of Öland and Gotland with six students from the university, to look for plants useful in medicine. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_181

First, they travelled to Öland and stayed there until 21 June, when they sailed to Visby in Gotland. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_182

Linnaeus and the students stayed on Gotland for about a month, and then returned to Uppsala. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_183

During this expedition, they found 100 previously unrecorded plants. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_184

The observations from the expedition were later published in Öländska och Gothländska Resa, written in Swedish. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_185

Like Flora Lapponica, it contained both zoological and botanical observations, as well as observations concerning the culture in Öland and Gotland. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_186

During the summer of 1745, Linnaeus published two more books: Flora Suecica and Fauna Suecica. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_187

Flora Suecica was a strictly botanical book, while Fauna Suecica was zoological. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_188

Anders Celsius had created the temperature scale named after him in 1742. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_189

Celsius's scale was inverted compared to today, the boiling point at 0 °C and freezing point at 100 °C. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_190

In 1745, Linnaeus inverted the scale to its present standard. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_191

Västergötland Carl Linnaeus_section_13

In the summer of 1746, Linnaeus was once again commissioned by the Government to carry out an expedition, this time to the Swedish province of Västergötland. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_192

He set out from Uppsala on 12 June and returned on 11 August. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_193

On the expedition his primary companion was Erik Gustaf Lidbeck, a student who had accompanied him on his previous journey. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_194

Linnaeus described his findings from the expedition in the book Wästgöta-Resa, published the next year. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_195

After he returned from the journey, the Government decided Linnaeus should take on another expedition to the southernmost province Scania. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_196

This journey was postponed, as Linnaeus felt too busy. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_197

In 1747, Linnaeus was given the title archiater, or chief physician, by the Swedish king Adolf Frederick—a mark of great respect. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_198

The same year he was elected member of the Academy of Sciences in Berlin. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_199

Scania Carl Linnaeus_section_14

In the spring of 1749, Linnaeus could finally journey to Scania, again commissioned by the Government. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_200

With him he brought his student, Olof Söderberg. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_201

On the way to Scania, he made his last visit to his brothers and sisters in Stenbrohult since his father had died the previous year. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_202

The expedition was similar to the previous journeys in most aspects, but this time he was also ordered to find the best place to grow walnut and Swedish whitebeam trees; these trees were used by the military to make rifles. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_203

The journey was successful, and Linnaeus's observations were published the next year in Skånska Resa. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_204

Rector of Uppsala University Carl Linnaeus_section_15

In 1750, Linnaeus became rector of Uppsala University, starting a period where natural sciences were esteemed. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_205

Perhaps the most important contribution he made during his time at Uppsala was to teach; many of his students travelled to various places in the world to collect botanical samples. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_206

Linnaeus called the best of these students his "apostles". Carl Linnaeus_sentence_207

His lectures were normally very popular and were often held in the Botanical Garden. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_208

He tried to teach the students to think for themselves and not trust anybody, not even him. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_209

Even more popular than the lectures were the botanical excursions made every Saturday during summer, where Linnaeus and his students explored the flora and fauna in the vicinity of Uppsala. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_210

Philosophia Botanica Carl Linnaeus_section_16

Linnaeus published Philosophia Botanica in 1751. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_211

The book contained a complete survey of the taxonomy system he had been using in his earlier works. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_212

It also contained information of how to keep a journal on travels and how to maintain a botanical garden. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_213

Nutrix Noverca Carl Linnaeus_section_17

During Linnaeus's time it was normal for upper class women to have wet nurses for their babies. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_214

Linnaeus joined an ongoing campaign to end this practice in Sweden and promote breast-feeding by mothers. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_215

In 1752 Linnaeus published a thesis along with Frederick Lindberg, a physician student, based on their experiences. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_216

In the tradition of the period, this dissertation was essentially an idea of the presiding reviewer (prases) expounded upon by the student. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_217

Linnaeus's dissertation was translated into French by J.E. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_218 Gilibert in 1770 as La Nourrice marâtre, ou Dissertation sur les suites funestes du nourrisage mercénaire. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_219

Linnaeus suggested that children might absorb the personality of their wet nurse through the milk. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_220

He admired the child care practices of the Lapps and pointed out how healthy their babies were compared to those of Europeans who employed wet nurses. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_221

He compared the behaviour of wild animals and pointed out how none of them denied their newborns their breastmilk. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_222

It is thought that his activism played a role in his choice of the term Mammalia for the class of organisms. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_223

Species Plantarum Carl Linnaeus_section_18

Main article: Species Plantarum Carl Linnaeus_sentence_224

Linnaeus published Species Plantarum, the work which is now internationally accepted as the starting point of modern botanical nomenclature, in 1753. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_225

The first volume was issued on 24 May, the second volume followed on 16 August of the same year. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_226

The book contained 1,200 pages and was published in two volumes; it described over 7,300 species. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_227

The same year the king dubbed him knight of the Order of the Polar Star, the first civilian in Sweden to become a knight in this order. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_228

He was then seldom seen not wearing the order's insignia. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_229

Ennoblement Carl Linnaeus_section_19

Linnaeus felt Uppsala was too noisy and unhealthy, so he bought two farms in 1758: Hammarby and Sävja. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_230

The next year, he bought a neighbouring farm, Edeby. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_231

He spent the summers with his family at Hammarby; initially it only had a small one-storey house, but in 1762 a new, larger main building was added. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_232

In Hammarby, Linnaeus made a garden where he could grow plants that could not be grown in the Botanical Garden in Uppsala. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_233

He began constructing a museum on a hill behind Hammarby in 1766, where he moved his library and collection of plants. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_234

A fire that destroyed about one third of Uppsala and had threatened his residence there necessitated the move. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_235

Since the initial release of Systema Naturae in 1735, the book had been expanded and reprinted several times; the tenth edition was released in 1758. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_236

This edition established itself as the starting point for zoological nomenclature, the equivalent of Species Plantarum. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_237

The Swedish King Adolf Frederick granted Linnaeus nobility in 1757, but he was not ennobled until 1761. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_238

With his ennoblement, he took the name Carl von Linné (Latinised as Carolus a Linné), 'Linné' being a shortened and gallicised version of 'Linnæus', and the German nobiliary particle 'von' signifying his ennoblement. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_239

The noble family's coat of arms prominently features a twinflower, one of Linnaeus's favourite plants; it was given the scientific name Linnaea borealis in his honour by Gronovius. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_240

The shield in the coat of arms is divided into thirds: red, black and green for the three kingdoms of nature (animal, mineral and vegetable) in Linnaean classification; in the centre is an egg "to denote Nature, which is continued and perpetuated in ovo." Carl Linnaeus_sentence_241

At the bottom is a phrase in Latin, borrowed from the Aeneid, which reads "Famam extendere factis": we extend our fame by our deeds. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_242

Linnaeus inscribed this personal motto in books that were gifted to him by friends. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_243

After his ennoblement, Linnaeus continued teaching and writing. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_244

His reputation had spread over the world, and he corresponded with many different people. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_245

For example, Catherine II of Russia sent him seeds from her country. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_246

He also corresponded with Giovanni Antonio Scopoli, "the Linnaeus of the Austrian Empire", who was a doctor and a botanist in Idrija, Duchy of Carniola (nowadays Slovenia). Carl Linnaeus_sentence_247

Scopoli communicated all of his research, findings, and descriptions (for example of the olm and the dormouse, two little animals hitherto unknown to Linnaeus). Carl Linnaeus_sentence_248

Linnaeus greatly respected Scopoli and showed great interest in his work. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_249

He named a solanaceous genus, Scopolia, the source of scopolamine, after him, but because of the great distance between them, they never met. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_250

Final years Carl Linnaeus_section_20

Linnaeus was relieved of his duties in the Royal Swedish Academy of Science in 1763, but continued his work there as usual for more than ten years after. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_251

In 1769 he was elected to the American Philosophical Society for his work. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_252

He stepped down as rector at Uppsala University in December 1772, mostly due to his declining health. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_253

Linnaeus's last years were troubled by illness. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_254

He had suffered from a disease called the Uppsala fever in 1764, but survived thanks to the care of Rosén. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_255

He developed sciatica in 1773, and the next year, he had a stroke which partially paralysed him. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_256

He suffered a second stroke in 1776, losing the use of his right side and leaving him bereft of his memory; while still able to admire his own writings, he could not recognise himself as their author. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_257

In December 1777, he had another stroke which greatly weakened him, and eventually led to his death on 10 January 1778 in Hammarby. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_258

Despite his desire to be buried in Hammarby, he was buried in Uppsala Cathedral on 22 January. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_259

His library and collections were left to his widow Sara and their children. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_260

Joseph Banks, an eminent botanist, wished to purchase the collection, but his son Carl refused the offer and instead moved the collection to Uppsala. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_261

In 1783 Carl died and Sara inherited the collection, having outlived both her husband and son. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_262

She tried to sell it to Banks, but he was no longer interested; instead an acquaintance of his agreed to buy the collection. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_263

The acquaintance was a 24-year-old medical student, James Edward Smith, who bought the whole collection: 14,000 plants, 3,198 insects, 1,564 shells, about 3,000 letters and 1,600 books. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_264

Smith founded the Linnean Society of London five years later. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_265

The von Linné name ended with his son Carl, who never married. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_266

His other son, Johannes, had died aged 3. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_267

There are over two hundred descendants of Linnaeus through two of his daughters. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_268

Apostles Carl Linnaeus_section_21

Main article: Apostles of Linnaeus Carl Linnaeus_sentence_269

During Linnaeus's time as Professor and Rector of Uppsala University, he taught many devoted students, 17 of whom he called "apostles". Carl Linnaeus_sentence_270

They were the most promising, most committed students, and all of them made botanical expeditions to various places in the world, often with his help. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_271

The amount of this help varied; sometimes he used his influence as Rector to grant his apostles a scholarship or a place on an expedition. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_272

To most of the apostles he gave instructions of what to look for on their journeys. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_273

Abroad, the apostles collected and organised new plants, animals and minerals according to Linnaeus's system. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_274

Most of them also gave some of their collection to Linnaeus when their journey was finished. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_275

Thanks to these students, the Linnaean system of taxonomy spread through the world without Linnaeus ever having to travel outside Sweden after his return from Holland. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_276

The British botanist William T. Stearn notes, without Linnaeus's new system, it would not have been possible for the apostles to collect and organise so many new specimens. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_277

Many of the apostles died during their expeditions. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_278

Early expeditions Carl Linnaeus_section_22

Christopher Tärnström, the first apostle and a 43-year-old pastor with a wife and children, made his journey in 1746. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_279

He boarded a Swedish East India Company ship headed for China. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_280

Tärnström never reached his destination, dying of a tropical fever on Côn Sơn Island the same year. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_281

Tärnström's widow blamed Linnaeus for making her children fatherless, causing Linnaeus to prefer sending out younger, unmarried students after Tärnström. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_282

Six other apostles later died on their expeditions, including Pehr Forsskål and Pehr Löfling. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_283

Two years after Tärnström's expedition, Finnish-born Pehr Kalm set out as the second apostle to North America. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_284

There he spent two-and-a-half years studying the flora and fauna of Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey and Canada. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_285

Linnaeus was overjoyed when Kalm returned, bringing back with him many pressed flowers and seeds. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_286

At least 90 of the 700 North American species described in Species Plantarum had been brought back by Kalm. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_287

Cook expeditions and Japan Carl Linnaeus_section_23

Daniel Solander was living in Linnaeus's house during his time as a student in Uppsala. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_288

Linnaeus was very fond of him, promising Solander his eldest daughter's hand in marriage. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_289

On Linnaeus's recommendation, Solander travelled to England in 1760, where he met the English botanist Joseph Banks. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_290

With Banks, Solander joined James Cook on his expedition to Oceania on the Endeavour in 1768–71. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_291

Solander was not the only apostle to journey with James Cook; Anders Sparrman followed on the Resolution in 1772–75 bound for, among other places, Oceania and South America. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_292

Sparrman made many other expeditions, one of them to South Africa. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_293

Perhaps the most famous and successful apostle was Carl Peter Thunberg, who embarked on a nine-year expedition in 1770. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_294

He stayed in South Africa for three years, then travelled to Japan. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_295

All foreigners in Japan were forced to stay on the island of Dejima outside Nagasaki, so it was thus hard for Thunberg to study the flora. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_296

He did, however, manage to persuade some of the translators to bring him different plants, and he also found plants in the gardens of Dejima. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_297

He returned to Sweden in 1779, one year after Linnaeus's death. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_298

Major publications Carl Linnaeus_section_24

Main article: Carl Linnaeus bibliography Carl Linnaeus_sentence_299

Systema Naturae Carl Linnaeus_section_25

Main article: Systema Naturae Carl Linnaeus_sentence_300

The first edition of Systema Naturae was printed in the Netherlands in 1735. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_301

It was a twelve-page work. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_302

By the time it reached its 10th edition in 1758, it classified 4,400 species of animals and 7,700 species of plants. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_303

People from all over the world sent their specimens to Linnaeus to be included. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_304

By the time he started work on the 12th edition, Linnaeus needed a new invention—the index card—to track classifications. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_305

In Systema Naturae, the unwieldy names mostly used at the time, such as "Physalis annua ramosissima, ramis angulosis glabris, foliis dentato-serratis", were supplemented with concise and now familiar "binomials", composed of the generic name, followed by a specific epithet—in the case given, Physalis angulata. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_306

These binomials could serve as a label to refer to the species. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_307

Higher taxa were constructed and arranged in a simple and orderly manner. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_308

Although the system, now known as binomial nomenclature, was partially developed by the Bauhin brothers (see Gaspard Bauhin and Johann Bauhin) almost 200 years earlier, Linnaeus was the first to use it consistently throughout the work, including in monospecific genera, and may be said to have popularised it within the scientific community. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_309

After the decline in Linnaeus's health in the early 1770s, publication of editions of Systema Naturae went in two different directions. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_310

Another Swedish scientist, Johan Andreas Murray issued the Regnum Vegetabile section separately in 1774 as the Systema Vegetabilium, rather confusingly labelled the 13th edition. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_311

Meanwhile a 13th edition of the entire Systema appeared in parts between 1788 and 1793. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_312

It was through the Systema Vegetabilium that Linnaeus's work became widely known in England, following its translation from the Latin by the Lichfield Botanical Society as A System of Vegetables (1783–1785). Carl Linnaeus_sentence_313

Orbis eruditi judicium de Caroli Linnaei MD scriptis Carl Linnaeus_section_26

('Opinion of the learned world on the writings of Carl Linnaeus, Doctor') Published in 1740, this small octavo-sized pamphlet was presented to the State Library of New South Wales by the Linnean Society of NSW in 2018. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_314

This is considered among the rarest of all the writings of Linnaeus, and crucial to his career, securing him his appointment to a professorship of medicine at Uppsala University. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_315

From this position he laid the groundwork for his radical new theory of classifying and naming organisms for which he was considered the founder of modern taxonomy. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_316

Species Plantarum Carl Linnaeus_section_27

Main article: Species Plantarum Carl Linnaeus_sentence_317

Species Plantarum (or, more fully, Species Plantarum, exhibentes plantas rite cognitas, ad genera relatas, cum differentiis specificis, nominibus trivialibus, synonymis selectis, locis natalibus, secundum systema sexuale digestas) was first published in 1753, as a two-volume work. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_318

Its prime importance is perhaps that it is the primary starting point of plant nomenclature as it exists today. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_319

Genera Plantarum Carl Linnaeus_section_28

Main article: Genera Plantarum Carl Linnaeus_sentence_320

Genera plantarum: eorumque characteres naturales secundum numerum, figuram, situm, et proportionem omnium fructificationis partium was first published in 1737, delineating plant genera. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_321

Around 10 editions were published, not all of them by Linnaeus himself; the most important is the 1754 fifth edition. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_322

In it Linnaeus divided the plant Kingdom into 24 classes. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_323

One, Cryptogamia, included all the plants with concealed reproductive parts (algae, fungi, mosses and liverworts and ferns). Carl Linnaeus_sentence_324

Philosophia Botanica Carl Linnaeus_section_29

Main article: Philosophia Botanica Carl Linnaeus_sentence_325

Philosophia Botanica (1751) was a summary of Linnaeus's thinking on plant classification and nomenclature, and an elaboration of the work he had previously published in Fundamenta Botanica (1736) and Critica Botanica (1737). Carl Linnaeus_sentence_326

Other publications forming part of his plan to reform the foundations of botany include his Classes Plantarum and Bibliotheca Botanica: all were printed in Holland (as were Genera Plantarum (1737) and Systema Naturae (1735)), the Philosophia being simultaneously released in Stockholm. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_327

Collections Carl Linnaeus_section_30

At the end of his lifetime the Linnean collection in Uppsala was considered one of the finest collections of natural history objects in Sweden. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_328

Next to his own collection he had also built up a museum for the university of Uppsala, which was supplied by material donated by Carl Gyllenborg (in 1744–1745), crown-prince Adolf Fredrik (in 1745), Erik Petreus (in 1746), Claes Grill (in 1746), Magnus Lagerström (in 1748 and 1750) and Jonas Alströmer (in 1749). Carl Linnaeus_sentence_329

The relation between the museum and the private collection was not formalised and the steady flow of material from Linnean pupils were incorporated to the private collection rather than to the museum. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_330

Linnaeus felt his work was reflecting the harmony of nature and he said in 1754 "the earth is then nothing else but a museum of the all-wise creator's masterpieces, divided into three chambers". Carl Linnaeus_sentence_331

He had turned his own estate into a microcosm of that 'world museum'. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_332

In April 1766 parts of the town were destroyed by a fire and the Linnean private collection was subsequently moved to a barn outside the town, and shortly afterwards to a single-room stone building close to his country house at Hammarby near Uppsala. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_333

This resulted in a physical separation between the two collections; the museum collection remained in the botanical garden of the university. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_334

Some material which needed special care (alcohol specimens) or ample storage space was moved from the private collection to the museum. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_335

In Hammarby the Linnean private collections suffered seriously from damp and the depredations by mice and insects. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_336

Carl von Linné's son (Carl Linnaeus) inherited the collections in 1778 and retained them until his own death in 1783. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_337

Shortly after Carl von Linné's death his son confirmed that mice had caused "horrible damage" to the plants and that also moths and mould had caused considerable damage. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_338

He tried to rescue them from the neglect they had suffered during his father's later years, and also added further specimens. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_339

This last activity however reduced rather than augmented the scientific value of the original material. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_340

In 1784 the young medical student James Edward Smith purchased the entire specimen collection, library, manuscripts, and correspondence of Carl Linnaeus from his widow and daughter and transferred the collections to London. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_341

Not all material in Linné's private collection was transported to England. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_342

Thirty-three fish specimens preserved in alcohol were not sent and were later lost. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_343

In London Smith tended to neglect the zoological parts of the collection; he added some specimens and also gave some specimens away. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_344

Over the following centuries the Linnean collection in London suffered enormously at the hands of scientists who studied the collection, and in the process disturbed the original arrangement and labels, added specimens that did not belong to the original series and withdrew precious original type material. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_345

Much material which had been intensively studied by Linné in his scientific career belonged to the collection of Queen Lovisa Ulrika (1720–1782) (in the Linnean publications referred to as "Museum Ludovicae Ulricae" or "M. L. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_346

U."). Carl Linnaeus_sentence_347

This collection was donated by his grandson King Gustav IV Adolf (1778–1837) to the museum in Uppsala in 1804. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_348

Another important collection in this respect was that of her husband King Adolf Fredrik (1710–1771) (in the Linnean sources known as "Museum Adolphi Friderici" or "Mus. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_349

Ad. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_350

Fr."), the wet parts (alcohol collection) of which were later donated to the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, and is today housed in the Swedish Museum of Natural History at Stockholm. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_351

The dry material was transferred to Uppsala. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_352

System of taxonomy Carl Linnaeus_section_31

Main article: Linnaean taxonomy Carl Linnaeus_sentence_353

The establishment of universally accepted conventions for the naming of organisms was Linnaeus's main contribution to taxonomy—his work marks the starting point of consistent use of binomial nomenclature. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_354

During the 18th century expansion of natural history knowledge, Linnaeus also developed what became known as the Linnaean taxonomy; the system of scientific classification now widely used in the biological sciences. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_355

A previous zoologist Rumphius (1627–1702) had more or less approximated the Linnaean system and his material contributed to the later development of the binomial scientific classification by Linnaeus. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_356

The Linnaean system classified nature within a nested hierarchy, starting with three kingdoms. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_357

Kingdoms were divided into classes and they, in turn, into orders, and thence into genera (singular: genus), which were divided into species (singular: species). Carl Linnaeus_sentence_358

Below the rank of species he sometimes recognised taxa of a lower (unnamed) rank; these have since acquired standardised names such as variety in botany and subspecies in zoology. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_359

Modern taxonomy includes a rank of family between order and genus and a rank of phylum between kingdom and class that were not present in Linnaeus's original system. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_360

Linnaeus's groupings were based upon shared physical characteristics, and not simply upon differences. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_361

Of his higher groupings, only those for animals are still in use, and the groupings themselves have been significantly changed since their conception, as have the principles behind them. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_362

Nevertheless, Linnaeus is credited with establishing the idea of a hierarchical structure of classification which is based upon observable characteristics and intended to reflect natural relationships. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_363

While the underlying details concerning what are considered to be scientifically valid "observable characteristics" have changed with expanding knowledge (for example, DNA sequencing, unavailable in Linnaeus's time, has proven to be a tool of considerable utility for classifying living organisms and establishing their evolutionary relationships), the fundamental principle remains sound. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_364

Human taxonomy Carl Linnaeus_section_32

Main article: Human taxonomy § History Carl Linnaeus_sentence_365

Linnaeus's system of taxonomy was especially noted as the first to include humans (Homo) taxonomically grouped with apes (Simia), under the header of Anthropomorpha. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_366

German biologist Ernst Haeckel speaking in 1907 noted this as the "most important sign of Linnaeus's genius". Carl Linnaeus_sentence_367

Linnaeus classified humans among the primates beginning with the first edition of Systema Naturae. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_368

During his time at Hartekamp, he had the opportunity to examine several monkeys and noted similarities between them and man. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_369

He pointed out both species basically have the same anatomy; except for speech, he found no other differences. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_370

Thus he placed man and monkeys under the same category, Anthropomorpha, meaning "manlike." Carl Linnaeus_sentence_371

This classification received criticism from other biologists such as Johan Gottschalk Wallerius, Jacob Theodor Klein and Johann Georg Gmelin on the ground that it is illogical to describe man as human-like. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_372

In a letter to Gmelin from 1747, Linnaeus replied: Carl Linnaeus_sentence_373

The theological concerns were twofold: first, putting man at the same level as monkeys or apes would lower the spiritually higher position that man was assumed to have in the great chain of being, and second, because the Bible says man was created in the image of God (theomorphism), if monkeys/apes and humans were not distinctly and separately designed, that would mean monkeys and apes were created in the image of God as well. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_374

This was something many could not accept. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_375

The conflict between world views that was caused by asserting man was a type of animal would simmer for a century until the much greater, and still ongoing, creation–evolution controversy began in earnest with the publication of On the Origin of Species by Charles Darwin in 1859. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_376

After such criticism, Linnaeus felt he needed to explain himself more clearly. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_377

The 10th edition of Systema Naturae introduced new terms, including Mammalia and Primates, the latter of which would replace Anthropomorpha as well as giving humans the full binomial Homo sapiens. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_378

The new classification received less criticism, but many natural historians still believed he had demoted humans from their former place of ruling over nature and not being a part of it. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_379

Linnaeus believed that man biologically belongs to the animal kingdom and had to be included in it. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_380

In his book Dieta Naturalis, he said, "One should not vent one's wrath on animals, Theology decree that man has a soul and that the animals are mere 'aoutomata mechanica,' but I believe they would be better advised that animals have a soul and that the difference is of nobility." Carl Linnaeus_sentence_381

Linnaeus added a second species to the genus Homo in Systema Naturae based on a figure and description by Jacobus Bontius from a 1658 publication: Homo troglodytes ("caveman") and published a third in 1771: Homo lar. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_382

Swedish historian Gunnar Broberg states that the new human species Linnaeus described were actually simians or native people clad in skins to frighten colonial settlers, whose appearance had been exaggerated in accounts to Linnaeus. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_383

In early editions of Systema Naturae, many well-known legendary creatures were included such as the phoenix, dragon, manticore, and satyrus, which Linnaeus collected into the catch-all category Paradoxa. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_384

Broberg thought Linnaeus was trying to offer a natural explanation and demystify the world of superstition. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_385

Linnaeus tried to debunk some of these creatures, as he had with the hydra; regarding the purported remains of dragons, Linnaeus wrote that they were either derived from lizards or rays. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_386

For Homo troglodytes he asked the Swedish East India Company to search for one, but they did not find any signs of its existence. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_387

Homo lar has since been reclassified as Hylobates lar, the lar gibbon. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_388

See also: Race (human categorization) Carl Linnaeus_sentence_389

In the first edition of Systema Naturae, Linnaeus subdivided the human species into four varieties based on continent and skin colour: "Europæus albesc[ens]" (whitish European), "Americanus rubesc[ens]" (redish American), "Asiaticus fuscus" (tawny Asian) and "Africanus nigr[iculus]" (blackish African). Carl Linnaeus_sentence_390

In the tenth edition of Systema Naturae he further detailed phenotypical characteristics for each variety, based on the concept of the four temperaments from classical antiquity, and changed the description of Asians' skin tone to "luridus" (yellow). Carl Linnaeus_sentence_391

Additionally, Linnaeus created a wastebasket taxon "monstrosus" for "wild and monstrous humans, unknown groups, and more or less abnormal people". Carl Linnaeus_sentence_392

In 1959, W. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_393 T. Stearn designated Linnaeus to be the lectotype of H. sapiens. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_394

Influences and economic beliefs Carl Linnaeus_section_33

Linnaeus's applied science was inspired not only by the instrumental utilitarianism general to the early Enlightenment, but also by his adherence to the older economic doctrine of Cameralism. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_395

Additionally, Linnaeus was a state interventionist. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_396

He supported tariffs, levies, export bounties, quotas, embargoes, navigation acts, subsidised investment capital, ceilings on wages, cash grants, state-licensed producer monopolies, and cartels. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_397

Commemoration Carl Linnaeus_section_34

Main article: Commemoration of Carl Linnaeus Carl Linnaeus_sentence_398

Anniversaries of Linnaeus's birth, especially in centennial years, have been marked by major celebrations. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_399

Linnaeus has appeared on numerous Swedish postage stamps and banknotes. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_400

There are numerous statues of Linnaeus in countries around the world. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_401

The Linnean Society of London has awarded the Linnean Medal for excellence in botany or zoology since 1888. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_402

Following approval by the Riksdag of Sweden, Växjö University and Kalmar College merged on 1 January 2010 to become Linnaeus University. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_403

Other things named after Linnaeus include the twinflower genus Linnaea, the crater Linné on the Earth's moon, a street in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and the cobalt sulfide mineral Linnaeite. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_404

Commentary Carl Linnaeus_section_35

Andrew Dickson White wrote in (1896): Carl Linnaeus_sentence_405

The mathematical PageRank algorithm, applied to 24 multilingual Wikipedia editions in 2014, published in PLOS ONE in 2015, placed Carl Linnaeus at the top historical figure, above Jesus, Aristotle, Napoleon, and Adolf Hitler (in that order). Carl Linnaeus_sentence_406

In the 21st century, Linnæus' taxonomy of human "races" has been problematised and discussed. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_407

Some critics claim that Linnæus was one of the forebears of the modern pseudoscientific notion of scientific racism, while others hold the view that while his classification was stereotyped, it did not imply that certain human "races" were superior to others. Carl Linnaeus_sentence_408

See also: Scientific racism § Carl Linnaeus Carl Linnaeus_sentence_409

Standard author abbreviation Carl Linnaeus_section_36

Selected publications by Linnaeus Carl Linnaeus_section_37

Main article: Carl Linnaeus bibliography Carl Linnaeus_sentence_410

See also Carl Linnaeus_section_38

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: Linnaeus.