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For the publishing company, see Casemate Publishers. Casemate_sentence_0

A casemate is a fortified gun emplacement or armored structure from which guns are fired. Casemate_sentence_1

Originally, the term referred to a vaulted chamber in a fortress. Casemate_sentence_2

In armoured fighting vehicles that do not have a turret for the main gun, the structure that accommodates the gun is termed the casemate. Casemate_sentence_3

Origin of the term Casemate_section_0

The word comes from the Italian casamatta, the etymology of which is uncertain, though it could derive from casa (in the sense of "hut"), and matta (Latin ), "done with reeds and wickers", thus a low-roof hut without windows or other openings set in marshy place. Casemate_sentence_4

It could also derive from casa matta with in the sense of "false". Casemate_sentence_5

Usage Casemate_section_1

Ancient Near East Casemate_section_2

The term casemate wall is used in the archaeology of Israel/Palestine with the meaning of double city wall, with transversal walls separating the space between the walls into chambers. Casemate_sentence_6

These could be used as such, for storage or residential purposes, or could be filled with dirt, rubble and rocks during siege in order to raise the resistance of the outer wall against siege rams and projectiles. Casemate_sentence_7

Land fortification Casemate_section_3

A casemate was originally a vaulted chamber usually constructed underneath the rampart. Casemate_sentence_8

It was intended to be impenetrable and could be used for sheltering troops or stores. Casemate_sentence_9

With the addition of an embrasure through the scarp face of the rampart, it could be used as a protected gun position. Casemate_sentence_10

In the early 19th century, French military engineer Baron Haxo designed a free-standing casemate that could be built on the top of the rampart. Casemate_sentence_11

Casemates built in concrete were used in the Second World War to protect coastal artillery from air attack. Casemate_sentence_12

Naval Casemate_section_4

In warship design the term "casemate" has been used in a number of ways. Casemate_sentence_13

Casemate ironclads (American Civil War) Casemate_section_5

The American Civil War saw the use of casemate ironclads: armored steamboats with a very low freeboard and their guns on the main deck ('Casemate deck') protected by a sloped armoured casemate, which sat on top of the hull. Casemate_sentence_14

Although both sides of the Civil War used casemate ironclads, the ship is mostly associated with the southern Confederacy, as the north also employed turreted monitors, which the south was unable to produce. Casemate_sentence_15

The most famous naval battle of the war was the duel at Hampton Roads between the Union turreted ironclad USS Monitor and the Confederate casemate ironclad CSS Virginia (built from the scuttled remains of USS Merrimack). Casemate_sentence_16

Casemate ships (1864–1880) Casemate_section_6

"Casemate ship" was an alternative term for "central battery ship" (UK) or "center battery ship" (US). Casemate_sentence_17

The casemate (or central battery) was an armoured box that extended the full width of the ship protecting many guns. Casemate_sentence_18

The armoured sides of the box were the sides of hull of the ship. Casemate_sentence_19

There was an armoured bulkhead at the front and rear of the casemate, and a thick deck protecting the top. Casemate_sentence_20

The lower edge of the casemate sat on top of ship's belt armour. Casemate_sentence_21

Some ships, such as HMS Alexandra (laid down 1873), had a two-storey casemate. Casemate_sentence_22

Single casemates (1889 onwards) Casemate_section_7

A "casemate" was an armoured room in the side of a warship, from which a gun would fire. Casemate_sentence_23

A typical casemate held a 6-inch gun, and had a 4-to-6-inch (100 to 150 mm) front plate (forming part of the side of the ship), with thinner armour plates on the sides and rear, with a protected top and floor, and weighed about 20 tons (not including the gun and mounting). Casemate_sentence_24

Casemates were similar in size to turrets; ships carrying them had them in pairs, one on each side of the ship. Casemate_sentence_25

The first battleships to carry them were the British Royal Sovereign class laid down in 1889. Casemate_sentence_26

They were adopted as a result of live-firing trials against HMS Resistance in 1888. Casemate_sentence_27

Casemates were adopted because it was thought that the fixed armour plate at the front would provide better protection than a turret, and because a turret mounting would require external power and could therefore be put out of action if power were lost – unlike a casemate gun, which could be worked by hand. Casemate_sentence_28

The use of casemates enabled the 6-inch guns to be dispersed, so that a single hit would not knock out all of them. Casemate_sentence_29

Casemates were also used in protected and armoured cruisers, starting with the 1889 Edgar class. Casemate_sentence_30

and retrofitted to the 1888 Blake class during construction. Casemate_sentence_31

In the pre-dreadnought generation of warships, casemates were placed initially on the main deck, and later on the upper deck as well. Casemate_sentence_32

Casemates on the main deck were very close to the waterline. Casemate_sentence_33

In the Edgar-class cruisers, the guns in the casemates were only 10 feet (3.0 m) above the waterline. Casemate_sentence_34

Casemates that were too close to the waterline or too close to the bow (such as in the 1912 Iron Duke-class dreadnoughts) were prone to flooding, making the guns ineffective. Casemate_sentence_35

Shipboard casemate guns were partially rendered obsolete by the arrival of "all-big gun" battleship, pioneered by HMS Dreadnought in 1906, but were reintroduced as the increasing torpedo threat from destroyers forced an increase in secondary armament calibre. Casemate_sentence_36

Many battleships had their casemates plated over during modernization in the 1930s (or after the Attack on Pearl Harbor, in the case of US vessels) but some, like HMS Warspite carried them to the end of World War II. Casemate_sentence_37

The last ships built with casemates as new construction were the American Omaha-class cruisers of the early 1920s and the 1933 Swedish aircraft cruiser HSwMS Gotland. Casemate_sentence_38

In both cases the casemates were built into the forward angles of the forward superstructure (and the aft superstructure as well, in the Omahas). Casemate_sentence_39

Armoured vehicles Casemate_section_8

In regards to armoured fighting vehicles, casemate design refers to vehicles that have their main gun mounted directly within the hull and lack the rotating turret commonly associated with tanks. Casemate_sentence_40

Such a design generally makes the vehicle mechanically simpler in design, less costly in construction, lighter in weight and lower in profile. Casemate_sentence_41

The saved weight can be used to mount a heavier, more powerful gun or alternatively increase the vehicle's armour protection in comparison to regular, turreted tanks. Casemate_sentence_42

However, in combat the crew has to rotate the entire vehicle if an enemy target presents itself outside of the vehicle's limited gun traverse arc. Casemate_sentence_43

This can prove very disadvantageous in combat situations. Casemate_sentence_44

During World War II, casemate-type armoured fighting vehicles were heavily used by both the combined German Wehrmacht forces, and the Soviet Red Army. Casemate_sentence_45

They were mainly employed as tank destroyers and assault guns. Casemate_sentence_46

Tank destroyers, intended to operate mostly from defensive ambush operations, did not need a rotating turret as much as offensively used tanks, while assault guns were mainly used against fortified infantry positions and could afford a longer reaction time if a target presented itself outside the vehicle's gun traverse arc. Casemate_sentence_47

Thus, the weight and complexity of a turret was thought to be unnecessary, and could be saved in favour of more capable guns and armour. Casemate_sentence_48

In many cases, casemate vehicles would be used as both tank destroyers or assault guns, depending on the tactical situation. Casemate_sentence_49

The Wehrmacht employed several casemate tank destroyers, initially with the still-Panzerjäger designation Elefant with an added, fully enclosed five-sided (including its armoured roof) casemate atop the hull, with later casemate-style tank destroyers bearing the Jagdpanzer (literally 'hunting tank') designation, with much more integration of the casemate's armour with the tank hull itself. Casemate_sentence_50

Examples are the Jagdpanzer IV, the Jagdtiger and the Jagdpanther (the latter two translate as 'Hunting Tiger' and 'Hunting Panther', respectively). Casemate_sentence_51

Assault guns were designated as 'Sturmgeschütz', like the Sturmgeschütz III and Sturmgeschütz IV. Casemate_sentence_52

In the Red Army, casemate tank destroyers and self-propelled guns bore an "SU-" or "ISU-" prefix, with the "SU-" prefix an abbreviation for Samokhodnaya Ustanovka, or "self-propelled gun". Casemate_sentence_53

Examples are the SU-100 or the ISU-152. Casemate_sentence_54

Both Germany and the Soviet Union mainly built casemate AFVs by using the chassis of already existing turreted tanks, instead of designing them from scratch. Casemate_sentence_55

While casemate AFVs played a very important role in World War II (the Sturmgeschütz III for example was the most numerous armored fighting vehicle of the German Army during the entire war), they became much less common in the post-war period. Casemate_sentence_56

Heavy casemate tank destroyer designs such as the US T28 and the British Tortoise never went beyond prototype status, while casemate vehicles of a more regular weight, such as the Soviet SU-122-54, saw only very limited service. Casemate_sentence_57

The general decline of casemate vehicles can be seen in the technological progress which resulted in the rise of universal main battle tanks, which unified in them the capability to take up the roles and tasks which in the past had to be diverted between several different classes of vehicles. Casemate_sentence_58

However, vehicles such as the German Kanonenjagdpanzer of the 1960s still let the casemate concept live on, while the Swedish Army went as far as employing a casemate tank design, the Stridsvagn 103, or "S-Tank", as their main armoured fighting vehicle from the 1960s until the 1990s, favoring it over contemporary turreted designs. Casemate_sentence_59

Other casemate design ideas, such as the projected German Versuchsträger 1–2 with two main guns, were developed even later. Casemate_sentence_60

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