Catholic Church

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"Roman Catholic Church" redirects here. Catholic Church_sentence_0

For other uses, see Roman Catholic Church (disambiguation). Catholic Church_sentence_1

For other uses, see Catholic Church (disambiguation). Catholic Church_sentence_2

Catholic Church_table_infobox_0

Catholic ChurchCatholic Church_header_cell_0_0_0
ClassificationCatholic Church_header_cell_0_1_0 CatholicCatholic Church_cell_0_1_1
ScriptureCatholic Church_header_cell_0_2_0 BibleCatholic Church_cell_0_2_1
TheologyCatholic Church_header_cell_0_3_0 Catholic theologyCatholic Church_cell_0_3_1
PolityCatholic Church_header_cell_0_4_0 EpiscopalCatholic Church_cell_0_4_1
StructureCatholic Church_header_cell_0_5_0 CommunionCatholic Church_cell_0_5_1
PopeCatholic Church_header_cell_0_6_0 FrancisCatholic Church_cell_0_6_1
AdministrationCatholic Church_header_cell_0_7_0 Roman CuriaCatholic Church_cell_0_7_1
Particular churches

sui iurisCatholic Church_header_cell_0_8_0

Latin Church, and 23 Eastern Catholic ChurchesCatholic Church_cell_0_8_1
DiocesesCatholic Church_header_cell_0_9_0 Catholic Church_cell_0_9_1
ParishesCatholic Church_header_cell_0_10_0 221,700Catholic Church_cell_0_10_1
RegionCatholic Church_header_cell_0_11_0 WorldwideCatholic Church_cell_0_11_1
LanguageCatholic Church_header_cell_0_12_0 Ecclesiastical Latin and native languagesCatholic Church_cell_0_12_1
LiturgyCatholic Church_header_cell_0_13_0 Western and EasternCatholic Church_cell_0_13_1
HeadquartersCatholic Church_header_cell_0_14_0 Vatican CityCatholic Church_cell_0_14_1
FounderCatholic Church_header_cell_0_15_0 Jesus, according to

sacred traditionCatholic Church_cell_0_15_1

OriginCatholic Church_header_cell_0_16_0 1st century

Holy Land, Roman EmpireCatholic Church_cell_0_16_1

MembersCatholic Church_header_cell_0_17_0 1.329 billion (2018) (baptized)Catholic Church_cell_0_17_1
ClergyCatholic Church_header_cell_0_18_0 Catholic Church_cell_0_18_1
HospitalsCatholic Church_header_cell_0_19_0 5,500Catholic Church_cell_0_19_1
Primary schoolsCatholic Church_header_cell_0_20_0 95,200Catholic Church_cell_0_20_1
Secondary schoolsCatholic Church_header_cell_0_21_0 43,800Catholic Church_cell_0_21_1
Official websiteCatholic Church_header_cell_0_22_0 Catholic Church_cell_0_22_1

The Catholic Church, sometimes referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with approximately 1.3 billion baptised Catholics worldwide as of 2018. Catholic Church_sentence_3

As the world's oldest and largest continuously functioning international institution, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilization. Catholic Church_sentence_4

The church consists of almost 3,500 dioceses (also called "local churches") around the world on every continent, each shepherded by its bishop. Catholic Church_sentence_5

The pope, who is the Bishop of Rome (and whose titles also include Vicar of Jesus Christ and Successor of St. Peter), is the chief pastor of the whole church, entrusted with the universal Petrine ministry of unity and correction. Catholic Church_sentence_6

The church's international administration is the Holy See, located in the tiny, independent European state of Vatican City in Rome, Italy, of which the pope is also head of state. Catholic Church_sentence_7

The Christian beliefs of Catholicism are found in the Nicene Creed. Catholic Church_sentence_8

The Catholic Church teaches that it is the one, holy, catholic and apostolic church founded by Jesus Christ in his Great Commission, that its bishops are the successors of Christ's apostles, and that the pope is the successor to Saint Peter, upon whom primacy was conferred by Jesus Christ. Catholic Church_sentence_9

It maintains that it practises the original Christian faith, reserving infallibility, passed down by sacred tradition. Catholic Church_sentence_10

The Latin Church, the twenty-three Eastern Catholic Churches, and institutes such as mendicant orders, enclosed monastic orders and third orders reflect a variety of theological and spiritual emphases in the church. Catholic Church_sentence_11

Of its seven sacraments, the Eucharist is the principal one, celebrated liturgically in the Mass. Catholic Church_sentence_12

The church teaches that through consecration by a priest, the sacrificial bread and wine become the body and blood of Christ. Catholic Church_sentence_13

The Virgin Mary is venerated in the Catholic Church as Mother of God and Queen of Heaven, honoured in dogmas and devotions. Catholic Church_sentence_14

Its teaching includes Divine Mercy, sanctification through faith and evangelization of the Gospel as well as Catholic social teaching, which emphasises voluntary support for the sick, the poor, and the afflicted through the corporal and spiritual works of mercy. Catholic Church_sentence_15

The Catholic Church operates thousands of Catholic schools, hospitals, and orphanages around the world, and is the largest non-government provider of education and health care in the world. Catholic Church_sentence_16

Among its other social services are numerous charitable and humanitarian organizations. Catholic Church_sentence_17

The Catholic Church has influenced Western philosophy, culture, art, and science. Catholic Church_sentence_18

Catholics live all over the world through missions, diaspora, and conversions. Catholic Church_sentence_19

Since the 20th century the majority reside in the southern hemisphere, due to secularization in Europe, and increased persecution in the Middle East. Catholic Church_sentence_20

The Catholic Church shared communion with the Eastern Orthodox Church until the East–West Schism in 1054, disputing particularly the authority of the pope. Catholic Church_sentence_21

Before the Council of Ephesus in AD 431, the Church of the East also shared in this communion, as did the Oriental Orthodox churches before the Council of Chalcedon in AD 451; all separated primarily over differences in Christology. Catholic Church_sentence_22

In the 16th century, the Reformation led to Protestantism also breaking away. Catholic Church_sentence_23

From the late 20th century, the Catholic Church has been criticized for its teachings on sexuality, its inability to ordain women, and its handling of sexual abuse cases involving clergy. Catholic Church_sentence_24

Name Catholic Church_section_0

Further information: Catholic (term) and Roman Catholic (term) Catholic Church_sentence_25

Catholic (from Greek: καθολικός, romanized: katholikos, lit. Catholic Church_sentence_26

'universal') was first used to describe the church in the early 2nd century. Catholic Church_sentence_27

The first known use of the phrase "the catholic church" (καθολικὴ ἐκκλησία he katholike ekklesia) occurred in the letter written about 110 AD from Saint Ignatius of Antioch to the Smyrnaeans. Catholic Church_sentence_28

In the Catechetical Lectures (c. 350) of Saint Cyril of Jerusalem, the name "Catholic Church" was used to distinguish it from other groups that also called themselves "the church". Catholic Church_sentence_29

The "Catholic" notion was further stressed in the edict De fide Catolica issued 380 by Theodosius I, the last emperor to rule over both the eastern and the western halves of the Roman Empire, when establishing the state church of the Roman Empire. Catholic Church_sentence_30

Since the East–West Schism of 1054, the Eastern Church has taken the adjective "Orthodox" as its distinctive epithet (however, its official name continues to be the "Orthodox Catholic Church") and the Western Church in communion with the Holy See has similarly taken "Catholic", keeping that description also after the Protestant Reformation of the 16th century, when those who ceased to be in communion became known as "Protestants". Catholic Church_sentence_31

While the "Roman Church" has been used to describe the pope's Diocese of Rome since the Fall of the Western Roman Empire and into the Early Middle Ages (6th–10th century), the "Roman Catholic Church" has been applied to the whole church in the English language since the Protestant Reformation in the late 16th century. Catholic Church_sentence_32

"Roman Catholic" has occasionally appeared also in documents produced both by the Holy See, notably applied to certain national episcopal conferences, and local dioceses. Catholic Church_sentence_33

The name "Catholic Church" for the whole church is used in the Catechism of the Catholic Church (1990) and the Code of Canon Law (1983). Catholic Church_sentence_34

The name "Catholic Church" is also used in the documents of the Second Vatican Council (1962–1965), the First Vatican Council (1869–1870), the Council of Trent (1545–1563), and numerous other official documents. Catholic Church_sentence_35

Organization Catholic Church_section_1

Main articles: Hierarchy of the Catholic Church and Catholic Church by country Catholic Church_sentence_36

The Catholic Church follows an episcopal polity, led by bishops who have received the sacrament of Holy Orders who are given formal jurisdictions of governance within the church. Catholic Church_sentence_37

There are three levels of clergy, the episcopate, composed of bishops who hold jurisdiction over a geographic area called a diocese or eparchy; the presbyterate, composed of priests ordained by bishops and who work in local diocese or religious orders; and the diaconate, composed of deacons who assist bishops and priests in a variety of ministerial roles. Catholic Church_sentence_38

Ultimately leading the entire Catholic Church is the Bishop of Rome, commonly called the pope, whose jurisdiction is called the Holy See. Catholic Church_sentence_39

In parallel to the diocesan structure are a variety of religious institutes that function autonomously, often subject only to the authority of the pope, though sometimes subject to the local bishop. Catholic Church_sentence_40

Most religious institutes only have male or female members but some have both. Catholic Church_sentence_41

Additionally, lay members aid many liturgical functions during worship services. Catholic Church_sentence_42

Holy See, papacy, Roman Curia, and College of Cardinals Catholic Church_section_2

Main articles: Holy See, Pope, Roman Curia, and College of Cardinals Catholic Church_sentence_43

Further information: List of popes Catholic Church_sentence_44

The hierarchy of the Catholic Church is headed by the Bishop of Rome, known as the pope (Latin: papa; "father"), who is the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church. Catholic Church_sentence_45

The current pope, Francis, was elected on 13 March 2013 by papal conclave. Catholic Church_sentence_46

The office of the pope is known as the papacy. Catholic Church_sentence_47

The Catholic Church holds that Christ instituted the papacy upon giving the keys of Heaven to Saint Peter. Catholic Church_sentence_48

His ecclesiastical jurisdiction is called the "Holy See" (Sancta Sedes in Latin), or the "Apostolic See" (meaning the see of the apostle Peter). Catholic Church_sentence_49

Directly serving the pope is the Roman Curia, the central governing body that administers the day-to-day business of the Catholic Church. Catholic Church_sentence_50

The pope is also Sovereign of Vatican City, a small city-state entirely enclaved within the city of Rome, which is an entity distinct from the Holy See. Catholic Church_sentence_51

It is as head of the Holy See, not as head of Vatican City State, that the pope receives ambassadors of states and sends them his own diplomatic representatives. Catholic Church_sentence_52

The Holy See also confers orders, decorations and medals, such as the orders of chivalry originating from the Middle Ages. Catholic Church_sentence_53

While the famous Saint Peter's Basilica is located in Vatican City, above the traditional site of Saint Peter's tomb, the papal cathedral for the Diocese of Rome is the Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran, located within the city of Rome, though enjoying extraterritorial privileges accredited to the Holy See. Catholic Church_sentence_54

The position of cardinal is a rank of honour bestowed by popes on certain clerics, such as leaders within the Roman Curia, bishops serving in major cities and distinguished theologians. Catholic Church_sentence_55

For advice and assistance in governing, the pope may turn to the College of Cardinals. Catholic Church_sentence_56

Following the death or resignation of a pope, members of the College of Cardinals who are under age 80 act as an electoral college, meeting in a papal conclave to elect a successor. Catholic Church_sentence_57

Although the conclave may elect any male Catholic as pope since 1389 only cardinals have been elected. Catholic Church_sentence_58

Canon law Catholic Church_section_3

Main article: Canon law of the Catholic Church Catholic Church_sentence_59

See also: Catholic Church § Liturgy Catholic Church_sentence_60

Canon law (Latin: jus canonicum) is the system of laws and legal principles made and enforced by the hierarchical authorities of the Catholic Church to regulate its external organization and government and to order and direct the activities of Catholics toward the mission of the church. Catholic Church_sentence_61

The canon law of the Latin Church was the first modern Western legal system and is the oldest continuously functioning legal system in the West, while the distinctive traditions of Oriental canon law govern the 23 Eastern Catholic particular churches sui iuris. Catholic Church_sentence_62

Positive ecclesiastical laws, based directly or indirectly upon immutable divine law or natural law, derive formal authority in the case of universal laws from promulgation by the supreme legislator—the Supreme Pontiff—who possesses the totality of legislative, executive and judicial power in his person, while particular laws derive formal authority from promulgation by a legislator inferior to the supreme legislator, whether an ordinary or a delegated legislator. Catholic Church_sentence_63

The actual subject material of the canons is not just doctrinal or moral in nature, but all-encompassing of the human condition. Catholic Church_sentence_64

It has all the ordinary elements of a mature legal system: laws, courts, lawyers, judges, a fully articulated legal code for the Latin Church as well as a code for the Eastern Catholic Churches, principles of legal interpretation, and coercive penalties. Catholic Church_sentence_65

Canon law concerns the Catholic Church's life and organization and is distinct from civil law. Catholic Church_sentence_66

In its own field it gives force to civil law only by specific enactment in matters such as the guardianship of minors. Catholic Church_sentence_67

Similarly, civil law may give force in its field to canon law, but only by specific enactment, as with regard to canonical marriages. Catholic Church_sentence_68

Currently, the 1983 Code of Canon Law is in effect for the Latin Church. Catholic Church_sentence_69

The distinct 1990 Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches (CCEO, after the Latin initials) applies to the autonomous Eastern Catholic Churches. Catholic Church_sentence_70

Latin and Eastern churches Catholic Church_section_4

Main articles: Catholic particular churches and liturgical rites, Latin Church, and Eastern Catholic Churches Catholic Church_sentence_71

In the first thousand years of Catholic history, different varieties of Christianity developed in the Western and Eastern Christian areas of Europe. Catholic Church_sentence_72

Though most Eastern-tradition churches are no longer in communion with the Catholic Church after the Great Schism of 1054, autonomous particular churches of both traditions currently participate, also known as "churches sui iuris" (Latin: "of one's own right"). Catholic Church_sentence_73

The largest and most well known is the Latin Church, the only Western-tradition church, with more than 1 billion members worldwide. Catholic Church_sentence_74

Relatively small in terms of adherents compared to the Latin Church, are the 23 self-governing Eastern Catholic Churches with a combined membership of 17.3 million as of 2010. Catholic Church_sentence_75

The Latin Church is governed by the pope and diocesan bishops directly appointed by him. Catholic Church_sentence_76

The pope exercises a direct patriarchal role over the Latin Church, which is considered to form the original and still major part of Western Christianity, a heritage of certain beliefs and customs originating in Europe and northwestern Africa, some of which are inherited by many Christian denominations that trace their origins to the Protestant Reformation. Catholic Church_sentence_77

The Eastern Catholic Churches follow the traditions and spirituality of Eastern Christianity and are churches which have always remained in full communion with the Catholic Church or who have chosen to re-enter full communion in the centuries following the East–West Schism and earlier divisions. Catholic Church_sentence_78

These churches are communities of Catholic Christians whose forms of worship reflect distinct historical and cultural influences rather than differences in doctrine. Catholic Church_sentence_79

A church sui iuris is defined in the Code of Canons for the Eastern Churches as a "group of Christian faithful united by a hierarchy" that is recognised by the pope in his capacity as the supreme authority on matters of doctrine within the church. Catholic Church_sentence_80

The term is an innovation of the CCEO to denote the relative autonomy of the Eastern Catholic Churches, who remain in full communion with the pope, but have governance structures and liturgical traditions separate from that of the Latin Church. Catholic Church_sentence_81

While the Latin Church's canons do not explicitly use the term, it is tacitly recognised as equivalent. Catholic Church_sentence_82

Some Eastern Catholic churches are governed by a patriarch who is elected by the synod of the bishops of that church, others are headed by a major archbishop, others are under a metropolitan, and others are organized as individual eparchies. Catholic Church_sentence_83

Each church has authority over the particulars of its internal organization, liturgical rites, liturgical calendar and other aspects of its spirituality, subject only to the authority of the pope. Catholic Church_sentence_84

The Roman Curia has a specific department, the Congregation for the Oriental Churches, to maintain relations with them. Catholic Church_sentence_85

The pope does not generally appoint bishops or clergy in the Eastern Catholic Churches, deferring to their internal governance structures, but may intervene if he feels it necessary. Catholic Church_sentence_86

Dioceses, parishes, organizations and institutes Catholic Church_section_5

Further information: List of Catholic dioceses (structured view), Parish in the Catholic Church, Religious institute, and Catholic charities Catholic Church_sentence_87

Individual countries, regions, or major cities are served by particular churches known as dioceses in the Latin Church, or eparchies in the Eastern Catholic Churches, each overseen by a bishop. Catholic Church_sentence_88

As of 2008, the Catholic Church has 2,795 dioceses. Catholic Church_sentence_89

The bishops in a particular country are members of a national or regional episcopal conference. Catholic Church_sentence_90

Dioceses are divided into parishes, each with one or more priests, deacons or lay ecclesial ministers. Catholic Church_sentence_91

Parishes are responsible for the day to day celebration of the sacraments and pastoral care of the laity. Catholic Church_sentence_92

As of 2016, there are 221,700 parishes worldwide. Catholic Church_sentence_93

In the Latin Church, Catholic men may serve as deacons or priests by receiving sacramental ordination. Catholic Church_sentence_94

Men and women may serve as extraordinary ministers of Holy Communion, as readers (lectors), or as altar servers. Catholic Church_sentence_95

Historically, boys and men have only been permitted to serve as altar servers; however, since the 1990s, girls and women have also been permitted. Catholic Church_sentence_96

Ordained Catholics, as well as members of the laity, may enter into consecrated life either on an individual basis, as a hermit or consecrated virgin, or by joining an institute of consecrated life (a religious institute or a secular institute) in which to take vows confirming their desire to follow the three evangelical counsels of chastity, poverty and obedience. Catholic Church_sentence_97

Examples of institutes of consecrated life are the Benedictines, the Carmelites, the Dominicans, the Franciscans, the Missionaries of Charity, the Legionaries of Christ and the Sisters of Mercy. Catholic Church_sentence_98

"Religious institutes" is a modern term encompassing both "religious orders" and "religious congregations," which were once distinguished in canon law. Catholic Church_sentence_99

The terms "religious order" and "religious institute" tend to be used as synonyms colloquially. Catholic Church_sentence_100

By means of Catholic charities and beyond, the Catholic Church is the largest non-government provider of education and health care in the world. Catholic Church_sentence_101

Membership Catholic Church_section_6

Main article: Catholic Church by country Catholic Church_sentence_102

Further information: List of Christian denominations by number of members Catholic Church_sentence_103

Catholicism is the second largest religious body in the world, surpassed in size only by Sunni Islam. Catholic Church_sentence_104

Church membership, defined as baptised Catholics, was 1.329 billion at the end of 2018, which is 18% of the world population. Catholic Church_sentence_105

Catholics represent about half of all Christians. Catholic Church_sentence_106

Geographic distribution of Catholics worldwide continues to shift, with 17.8% in Africa, 48.3% in the Americas, 11.1% Asia, 21.5% in Europe, and 0.9% in Oceania. Catholic Church_sentence_107

Catholic ministers include ordained clergy, lay ecclesial ministers, missionaries, and catechists. Catholic Church_sentence_108

Also as of the end of 2014, there were 465,595 ordained clergy, including 5,237 bishops, 415,792 priests (diocesan and religious), and 44,566 deacons (permanent). Catholic Church_sentence_109

Non-ordained ministers included 3,157,568 catechists, 367,679 lay missionaries, and 39,951 lay ecclesial ministers. Catholic Church_sentence_110

Catholics who have committed to religious or consecrated life instead of marriage or single celibacy, as a state of life or relational vocation, include 54,559 male religious, 705,529 women religious. Catholic Church_sentence_111

These are not ordained, nor generally considered ministers unless also engaged in one of the lay minister categories above. Catholic Church_sentence_112

Doctrine Catholic Church_section_7

Main articles: Catholic theology and Catholic Bible Catholic Church_sentence_113

Catholic doctrine has developed over the centuries, reflecting direct teachings of early Christians, formal definitions of heretical and orthodox beliefs by ecumenical councils and in papal bulls, and theological debate by scholars. Catholic Church_sentence_114

The church believes that it is continually guided by the Holy Spirit as it discerns new theological issues and is protected infallibly from falling into doctrinal error when a firm decision on an issue is reached. Catholic Church_sentence_115

It teaches that revelation has one common source, God, and two distinct modes of transmission: Sacred Scripture and Sacred Tradition, and that these are authentically interpreted by the Magisterium. Catholic Church_sentence_116

Sacred Scripture consists of the 73 books of the Catholic Bible, consisting of 46 Old Testament and 27 New Testament writings. Catholic Church_sentence_117

Sacred Tradition consists of those teachings believed by the church to have been handed down since the time of the Apostles. Catholic Church_sentence_118

Sacred Scripture and Sacred Tradition are collectively known as the "deposit of faith" (depositum fidei in Latin). Catholic Church_sentence_119

These are in turn interpreted by the Magisterium (from magister, Latin for "teacher"), the church's teaching authority, which is exercised by the pope and the College of Bishops in union with the pope, the Bishop of Rome. Catholic Church_sentence_120

Catholic doctrine is authoritatively summarized in the Catechism of the Catholic Church, published by the Holy See. Catholic Church_sentence_121

Nature of God Catholic Church_section_8

Main article: Trinity Catholic Church_sentence_122

The Catholic Church holds that there is one eternal God, who exists as a perichoresis ("mutual indwelling") of three hypostases, or "persons": God the Father; God the Son; and God the Holy Spirit, which together are called the "Holy Trinity". Catholic Church_sentence_123

Catholics believe that Jesus Christ is the "Second Person" of the Trinity, God the Son. Catholic Church_sentence_124

In an event known as the Incarnation, through the power of the Holy Spirit, God became united with human nature through the conception of Christ in the womb of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Catholic Church_sentence_125

Christ, therefore, is understood as being both fully divine and fully human, including possessing a human soul. Catholic Church_sentence_126

It is taught that Christ's mission on earth included giving people his teachings and providing his example for them to follow as recorded in the four Gospels. Catholic Church_sentence_127

Jesus is believed to have remained sinless while on earth, and to have allowed himself to be unjustly executed by crucifixion, as a sacrifice of himself to reconcile humanity to God; this reconciliation is known as the Paschal Mystery. Catholic Church_sentence_128

The Greek term "Christ" and the Hebrew "Messiah" both mean "anointed one", referring to the Christian belief that Jesus' death and resurrection are the fulfilment of the Old Testament's messianic prophecies. Catholic Church_sentence_129

The Catholic Church teaches dogmatically that "the Holy Spirit proceeds eternally from the Father and the Son, not as from two principles but as from one single principle". Catholic Church_sentence_130

It holds that the Father, as the "principle without principle", is the first origin of the Spirit, but also that he, as Father of the only Son, is with the Son the single principle from which the Spirit proceeds. Catholic Church_sentence_131

This belief is expressed in the Filioque clause which was added to the Latin version of the Nicene Creed of 381 but not included in the Greek versions of the creed used in Eastern Christianity. Catholic Church_sentence_132

Nature of the church Catholic Church_section_9

Main article: Catholic ecclesiology Catholic Church_sentence_133

The Catholic Church teaches that it is the "one true church", "the universal sacrament of salvation for the human race", and "the one true religion". Catholic Church_sentence_134

According to the Catechism, the Catholic Church is further described in the Nicene Creed as the "one, holy, catholic, and apostolic Church". Catholic Church_sentence_135

These are collectively known as the Four Marks of the Church. Catholic Church_sentence_136

The church teaches that its founder is Jesus Christ. Catholic Church_sentence_137

The New Testament records several events considered integral to the establishment of the Catholic Church, including Jesus' activities and teaching and his appointment of the apostles as witnesses to his ministry, suffering, and resurrection. Catholic Church_sentence_138

The Great Commission, after his resurrection, instructed the apostles to continue his work. Catholic Church_sentence_139

The coming of the Holy Spirit upon the apostles, in an event known as Pentecost, is seen as the beginning of the public ministry of the Catholic Church. Catholic Church_sentence_140

The church teaches that all duly consecrated bishops have a lineal succession from the apostles of Christ, known as apostolic succession. Catholic Church_sentence_141

In particular, the Bishop of Rome (the pope) is considered the successor to the apostle Simon Peter, a position from which he derives his supremacy over the church. Catholic Church_sentence_142

Catholic belief holds that the church "is the continuing presence of Jesus on earth" and that it alone possesses the full means of salvation. Catholic Church_sentence_143

Through the passion (suffering) of Christ leading to his crucifixion as described in the Gospels, it is said Christ made himself an oblation to God the Father in order to reconcile humanity to God; the Resurrection of Jesus makes him the firstborn from the dead, the first among many brethren. Catholic Church_sentence_144

By reconciling with God and following Christ's words and deeds, an individual can enter the Kingdom of God. Catholic Church_sentence_145

The church sees its liturgy and sacraments as perpetuating the graces achieved through Christ's sacrifice to strengthen a person's relationship with Christ and aid in overcoming sin. Catholic Church_sentence_146

Final judgement Catholic Church_section_10

Main article: Last Judgment § Catholicism Catholic Church_sentence_147

The Catholic Church teaches that, immediately after death, the soul of each person will receive a particular judgement from God, based on their sins and their relationship to Christ. Catholic Church_sentence_148

This teaching also attests to another day when Christ will sit in universal judgement of all mankind. Catholic Church_sentence_149

This final judgement, according to the church's teaching, will bring an end to human history and mark the beginning of both a new and better heaven and earth ruled by God in righteousness. Catholic Church_sentence_150

Depending on the judgement rendered following death, it is believed that a soul may enter one of three states of the afterlife: Catholic Church_sentence_151

Catholic Church_unordered_list_0

  • Heaven is a state of unending union with the divine nature of God, not ontologically, but by grace. It is an eternal life, in which the soul contemplates God in ceaseless beatitude.Catholic Church_item_0_0
  • Purgatory is a temporary condition for the purification of souls who, although destined for Heaven, are not fully detached from sin and thus cannot enter Heaven immediately. In Purgatory, the soul suffers, and is purged and perfected. Souls in purgatory may be aided in reaching heaven by the prayers of the faithful on earth and by the intercession of saints.Catholic Church_item_0_1
  • Final Damnation: Finally, those who persist in living in a state of mortal sin and do not repent before death subject themselves to hell, an everlasting separation from God. The church teaches that no one is condemned to hell without having freely decided to reject God. No one is predestined to hell and no one can determine with absolute certainty who has been condemned to hell. Catholicism teaches that through God's mercy a person can repent at any point before death, be illuminated with the truth of the Catholic faith, and thus obtain salvation. Some Catholic theologians have speculated that the souls of unbaptised infants and non-Christians without mortal sin but who die in original sin are assigned to limbo, although this is not an official dogma of the church.Catholic Church_item_0_2

While the Catholic Church teaches that it alone possesses the full means of salvation, it also acknowledges that the Holy Spirit can make use of Christian communities separated from itself to "impel towards Catholic unity" and "tend and lead toward the Catholic Church", and thus bring people to salvation, because these separated communities contain some elements of proper doctrine, albeit admixed with errors. Catholic Church_sentence_152

It teaches that anyone who is saved is saved through the Catholic Church but that people can be saved outside of the ordinary means known as baptism of desire, and by pre-baptismal martyrdom, known as baptism of blood, as well as when conditions of invincible ignorance are present, although invincible ignorance in itself is not a means of salvation. Catholic Church_sentence_153

Saints and devotions Catholic Church_section_11

Main articles: Saint, Canonization, Veneration, and Catholic devotions Catholic Church_sentence_154

A saint (also historically known as a hallow) is a person who is recognised as having an exceptional degree of holiness or likeness or closeness to God, while canonization is the act by which a Christian church declares that a person who has died was a saint, upon which declaration the person is included in the "canon", or list, of recognised saints. Catholic Church_sentence_155

The first persons honoured as saints were the martyrs. Catholic Church_sentence_156

Pious legends of their deaths were considered affirmations of the truth of their faith in Christ. Catholic Church_sentence_157

By the fourth century, however, "confessors"—people who had confessed their faith not by dying but by word and life—began to be venerated publicly. Catholic Church_sentence_158

In the Catholic Church, both in Latin and Eastern Catholic churches, the act of canonization is reserved to the Apostolic See and occurs at the conclusion of a long process requiring extensive proof that the candidate for canonization lived and died in such an exemplary and holy way that he is worthy to be recognised as a saint. Catholic Church_sentence_159

The church's official recognition of sanctity implies that the person is now in Heaven and that he may be publicly invoked and mentioned officially in the liturgy of the church, including in the Litany of the Saints. Catholic Church_sentence_160

Canonization allows universal veneration of the saint in the liturgy of the Roman Rite; for permission to venerate merely locally, only beatification is needed. Catholic Church_sentence_161

Devotions are "external practices of piety" which are not part of the official liturgy of the Catholic Church but are part of the popular spiritual practices of Catholics. Catholic Church_sentence_162

These include various practices regarding the veneration of the saints, especially veneration of the Virgin Mary. Catholic Church_sentence_163

Other devotional practices include the Stations of the Cross, the Sacred Heart of Jesus, the Holy Face of Jesus, the various scapulars, novenas to various saints, pilgrimages and devotions to the Blessed Sacrament, and the veneration of saintly images such as the santos. Catholic Church_sentence_164

The bishops at the Second Vatican Council reminded Catholics that "devotions should be so drawn up that they harmonise with the liturgical seasons, accord with the sacred liturgy, are in some fashion derived from it, and lead the people to it, since, in fact, the liturgy by its very nature far surpasses any of them." Catholic Church_sentence_165

Virgin Mary Catholic Church_section_12

Main articles: Veneration of Mary in the Catholic Church, Mariology of the Catholic Church, Mariology of the saints, and Mariology of the popes Catholic Church_sentence_166

Further information: Mary, mother of Jesus Catholic Church_sentence_167

Catholic Mariology deals with the doctrines and teachings concerning the life of the Mary, mother of Jesus, as well as the veneration of Mary by the faithful. Catholic Church_sentence_168

Mary is held in special regard, declared the Mother of God (Greek: Θεοτόκος, romanized: Theotokos, lit. Catholic Church_sentence_169

'God-bearer'), and believed as dogma to have remained a virgin throughout her life. Catholic Church_sentence_170

Further teachings include the doctrines of the Immaculate Conception (her own conception without the stain of original sin) and the Assumption of Mary (that her body was assumed directly into heaven at the end of her life). Catholic Church_sentence_171

Both of these doctrines were defined as infallible dogma, by Pope Pius IX in 1854 and Pope Pius XII in 1950 respectively, but only after consulting with the Catholic bishops throughout the world to ascertain that this is a Catholic belief. Catholic Church_sentence_172

Devotions to Mary are part of Catholic piety but are distinct from the worship of God. Catholic Church_sentence_173

Practices include prayers and Marian art, music, and architecture. Catholic Church_sentence_174

Several liturgical Marian feasts are celebrated throughout the Church Year and she is honoured with many titles such as Queen of Heaven. Catholic Church_sentence_175

Pope Paul VI called her Mother of the Church because, by giving birth to Christ, she is considered to be the spiritual mother to each member of the Body of Christ. Catholic Church_sentence_176

Because of her influential role in the life of Jesus, prayers and devotions such as the Hail Mary, the Rosary, the Salve Regina and the Memorare are common Catholic practices. Catholic Church_sentence_177

Pilgrimage to the sites of several Marian apparitions affirmed by the church, such as Lourdes, Fátima, and Guadalupe, are also popular Catholic devotions. Catholic Church_sentence_178

Sacraments Catholic Church_section_13

Main article: Sacraments of the Catholic Church Catholic Church_sentence_179

The Catholic Church teaches that it was entrusted with seven sacraments that were instituted by Christ. Catholic Church_sentence_180

The number and nature of the sacraments were defined by several ecumenical councils, most recently the Council of Trent. Catholic Church_sentence_181

These are Baptism, Confirmation, the Eucharist, Penance, Anointing of the Sick (formerly called Extreme Unction, one of the "Last Rites"), Holy Orders and Holy Matrimony. Catholic Church_sentence_182

Sacraments are visible rituals that Catholics see as signs of God's presence and effective channels of God's grace to all those who receive them with the proper disposition (ex opere operato). Catholic Church_sentence_183

The Catechism of the Catholic Church categorizes the sacraments into three groups, the "sacraments of Christian initiation", "sacraments of healing" and "sacraments at the service of communion and the mission of the faithful". Catholic Church_sentence_184

These groups broadly reflect the stages of people's natural and spiritual lives which each sacrament is intended to serve. Catholic Church_sentence_185

The liturgies of the sacraments are central to the church's mission. Catholic Church_sentence_186

According to the Catechism: Catholic Church_sentence_187

According to church doctrine, the sacraments of the church require the proper form, matter, and intent to be validly celebrated. Catholic Church_sentence_188

In addition, the Canon Laws for both the Latin Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches govern who may licitly celebrate certain sacraments, as well as strict rules about who may receive the sacraments. Catholic Church_sentence_189

Notably, because the church teaches that Christ is present in the Eucharist, those who are conscious of being in a state of mortal sin are forbidden to receive the sacrament until they have received absolution through the sacrament of Reconciliation (Penance). Catholic Church_sentence_190

Catholics are normally obliged to abstain from eating for at least an hour before receiving the sacrament. Catholic Church_sentence_191

Non-Catholics are ordinarily prohibited from receiving the Eucharist as well. Catholic Church_sentence_192

Catholics, even if they were in danger of death and unable to approach a Catholic minister, may not ask for the sacraments of the Eucharist, penance or anointing of the sick from someone, such as a Protestant minister, who is not known to be validly ordained in line with Catholic teaching on ordination. Catholic Church_sentence_193

Likewise, even in grave and pressing need, Catholic ministers may not administer these sacraments to those who do not manifest Catholic faith in the sacrament. Catholic Church_sentence_194

In relation to the churches of Eastern Christianity not in communion with the Holy See, the Catholic Church is less restrictive, declaring that "a certain communion in sacris, and so in the Eucharist, given suitable circumstances and the approval of Church authority, is not merely possible but is encouraged." Catholic Church_sentence_195

Sacraments of initiation Catholic Church_section_14

Main article: Sacraments of initiation Catholic Church_sentence_196

Baptism Catholic Church_section_15

As viewed by the Catholic Church, Baptism is the first of three sacraments of initiation as a Christian. Catholic Church_sentence_197

It washes away all sins, both original sin and personal actual sins. Catholic Church_sentence_198

It makes a person a member of the church. Catholic Church_sentence_199

As a gratuitous gift of God that requires no merit on the part of the person who is baptised, it is conferred even on children, who, though they have no personal sins, need it on account of original sin. Catholic Church_sentence_200

If a new-born child is in a danger of death, anyone—be it a doctor, a nurse, or a parent—may baptise the child. Catholic Church_sentence_201

Baptism marks a person permanently and cannot be repeated. Catholic Church_sentence_202

The Catholic Church recognises as valid baptisms conferred even by people who are not Catholics or Christians, provided that they intend to baptise ("to do what the Church does when she baptises") and that they use the Trinitarian baptismal formula. Catholic Church_sentence_203

Confirmation Catholic Church_section_16

Main article: Confirmation in the Catholic Church Catholic Church_sentence_204

The Catholic Church sees the sacrament of confirmation as required to complete the grace given in baptism. Catholic Church_sentence_205

When adults are baptised, confirmation is normally given immediately afterwards, a practice followed even with newly baptised infants in the Eastern Catholic Churches. Catholic Church_sentence_206

In the West confirmation of children is delayed until they are old enough to understand or at the bishop's discretion. Catholic Church_sentence_207

In Western Christianity, particularly Catholicism, the sacrament is called confirmation, because it confirms and strengthens the grace of baptism; in the Eastern Churches, it is called chrismation, because the essential rite is the anointing of the person with chrism, a mixture of olive oil and some perfumed substance, usually balsam, blessed by a bishop. Catholic Church_sentence_208

Those who receive confirmation must be in a state of grace, which for those who have reached the age of reason means that they should first be cleansed spiritually by the sacrament of Penance; they should also have the intention of receiving the sacrament, and be prepared to show in their lives that they are Christians. Catholic Church_sentence_209

Eucharist Catholic Church_section_17

Main article: Eucharist in the Catholic Church Catholic Church_sentence_210

For Catholics, the Eucharist is the sacrament which completes Christian initiation. Catholic Church_sentence_211

It is described as "the source and summit of the Christian life". Catholic Church_sentence_212

The ceremony in which a Catholic first receives the Eucharist is known as First Communion. Catholic Church_sentence_213

The Eucharistic celebration, also called the Mass or Divine liturgy, includes prayers and scriptural readings, as well as an offering of bread and wine, which are brought to the altar and consecrated by the priest to become the body and the blood of Jesus Christ, a change called transubstantiation. Catholic Church_sentence_214

The words of consecration reflect the words spoken by Jesus during the Last Supper, where Christ offered his body and blood to his Apostles the night before his crucifixion. Catholic Church_sentence_215

The sacrament re-presents (makes present) the sacrifice of Jesus on the cross, and perpetuates it. Catholic Church_sentence_216

Christ's death and resurrection gives grace through the sacrament that unites the faithful with Christ and one another, remits venial sin, and aids against committing moral sin (though mortal sin itself is forgiven through the sacrament of penance). Catholic Church_sentence_217

Sacraments of healing Catholic Church_section_18

The two sacraments of healing are the Sacrament of Penance and Anointing of the Sick. Catholic Church_sentence_218

Penance Catholic Church_section_19

Main article: Sacrament of Penance Catholic Church_sentence_219

The Sacrament of Penance (also called Reconciliation, Forgiveness, Confession, and Conversion) exists for the conversion of those who, after baptism, separate themselves from Christ by sin. Catholic Church_sentence_220

Essential to this sacrament are acts both by the sinner (examination of conscience, contrition with a determination not to sin again, confession to a priest, and performance of some act to repair the damage caused by sin) and by the priest (determination of the act of reparation to be performed and absolution). Catholic Church_sentence_221

Serious sins (mortal sins) should be confessed at least once a year and always before receiving Holy Communion, while confession of venial sins also is recommended. Catholic Church_sentence_222

The priest is bound under the severest penalties to maintain the "seal of confession", absolute secrecy about any sins revealed to him in confession. Catholic Church_sentence_223

Anointing of the sick Catholic Church_section_20

Main article: Anointing of the Sick in the Catholic Church Catholic Church_sentence_224

While chrism is used only for the three sacraments that cannot be repeated, a different oil is used by a priest or bishop to bless a Catholic who, because of illness or old age, has begun to be in danger of death. Catholic Church_sentence_225

This sacrament, known as Anointing of the Sick, is believed to give comfort, peace, courage and, if the sick person is unable to make a confession, even forgiveness of sins. Catholic Church_sentence_226

The sacrament is also referred to as Unction, and in the past as Extreme Unction, and it is one of the three sacraments that constitute the last rites, together with Penance and Viaticum (Eucharist). Catholic Church_sentence_227

Sacraments at the service of communion Catholic Church_section_21

According to the Catechism, there are two sacraments of communion directed towards the salvation of others: priesthood and marriage. Catholic Church_sentence_228

Within the general vocation to be a Christian, these two sacraments "consecrate to specific mission or vocation among the people of God. Catholic Church_sentence_229

Men receive the holy orders to feed the Church by the word and grace. Catholic Church_sentence_230

Spouses marry so that their love may be fortified to fulfil duties of their state". Catholic Church_sentence_231

Holy Orders Catholic Church_section_22

Main article: Holy orders in the Catholic Church Catholic Church_sentence_232

The sacrament of Holy Orders consecrates and deputes some Christians to serve the whole body as members of three degrees or orders: episcopate (bishops), presbyterate (priests) and diaconate (deacons). Catholic Church_sentence_233

The church has defined rules on who may be ordained into the clergy. Catholic Church_sentence_234

In the Latin Church, the priesthood is generally restricted to celibate men, and the episcopate is always restricted to celibate men. Catholic Church_sentence_235

Men who are already married may be ordained in certain Eastern Catholic churches in most countries, and the personal ordinariates and may become deacons even in the Western Church (see Clerical marriage). Catholic Church_sentence_236

But after becoming a Catholic priest, a man may not marry (see Clerical celibacy) unless he is formally laicized. Catholic Church_sentence_237

All clergy, whether deacons, priests or bishops, may preach, teach, baptise, witness marriages and conduct funeral liturgies. Catholic Church_sentence_238

Only bishops and priests can administer the sacraments of the Eucharist, Reconciliation (Penance) and Anointing of the Sick. Catholic Church_sentence_239

Only bishops can administer the sacrament of Holy Orders, which ordains someone into the clergy. Catholic Church_sentence_240

Matrimony Catholic Church_section_23

Main article: Marriage in the Catholic Church Catholic Church_sentence_241

See also: Catholic teachings on sexual morality Catholic Church_sentence_242

The Catholic Church teaches that marriage is a social and spiritual bond between a man and a woman, ordered towards the good of the spouses and procreation of children; according to Catholic teachings on sexual morality, it is the only appropriate context for sexual activity. Catholic Church_sentence_243

A Catholic marriage, or any marriage between baptised individuals of any Christian denomination, is viewed as a sacrament. Catholic Church_sentence_244

A sacramental marriage, once consummated, cannot be dissolved except by death. Catholic Church_sentence_245

The church recognises certain conditions, such as freedom of consent, as required for any marriage to be valid; In addition, the church sets specific rules and norms, known as canonical form, that Catholics must follow. Catholic Church_sentence_246

The church does not recognise divorce as ending a valid marriage and allows state-recognised divorce only as a means of protecting the property and well-being of the spouses and any children. Catholic Church_sentence_247

However, consideration of particular cases by the competent ecclesiastical tribunal can lead to declaration of the invalidity of a marriage, a declaration usually referred to as an annulment. Catholic Church_sentence_248

Remarriage following a divorce is not permitted unless the prior marriage was declared invalid. Catholic Church_sentence_249

Liturgy Catholic Church_section_24

Main article: Catholic liturgy Catholic Church_sentence_250

Among the 24 autonomous (sui iuris) churches, numerous liturgical and other traditions exist, called rites, which reflect historical and cultural diversity rather than differences in belief. Catholic Church_sentence_251

In the definition of the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches, "a rite is the liturgical, theological, spiritual, and disciplinary patrimony, culture and circumstances of history of a distinct people, by which its own manner of living the faith is manifested in each Church sui iuris". Catholic Church_sentence_252

The liturgy of the sacrament of the Eucharist, called the Mass in the West and Divine Liturgy or other names in the East, is the principal liturgy of the Catholic Church. Catholic Church_sentence_253

This is because it is considered the propitiatory sacrifice of Christ himself. Catholic Church_sentence_254

Its most widely used form is that of the Roman Rite as promulgated by Paul VI in 1969 and revised by Pope John Paul II in 2002. Catholic Church_sentence_255

In certain circumstances, the 1962 form of the Roman Rite remains authorized in the Latin Church. Catholic Church_sentence_256

Eastern Catholic Churches have their own rites. Catholic Church_sentence_257

The liturgies of the Eucharist and the other sacraments vary from rite to rite, reflecting different theological emphases. Catholic Church_sentence_258

Western rites Catholic Church_section_25

Main articles: Roman Rite and Latin liturgical rites Catholic Church_sentence_259

The Roman Rite is the most common rite of worship used by the Catholic Church. Catholic Church_sentence_260

Its use is found worldwide, originating in Rome and spreading throughout Europe, influencing and eventually supplanting local rites. Catholic Church_sentence_261

The present ordinary form of Mass in the Roman Rite, found in the post-1969 editions of the Roman Missal, is usually celebrated in the local vernacular language, using an officially approved translation from the original text in Latin. Catholic Church_sentence_262

An outline of its major liturgical elements can be found in the sidebar. Catholic Church_sentence_263

In 2007, Pope Benedict XVI affirmed the licitness of continued use of the 1962 Roman Missal as an "extraordinary form" (forma extraordinaria) of the Roman Rite, speaking of it also as an usus antiquior ("older use"), and issuing new more permissive norms for its employment. Catholic Church_sentence_264

An instruction issued four years later spoke of the two forms or usages of the Roman Rite approved by the pope as the ordinary form and the extraordinary form ("the forma ordinaria" and "the forma extraordinaria"). Catholic Church_sentence_265

The 1962 edition of the Roman Missal, published a few months before the Second Vatican Council opened, was the last that presented the Mass as standardized in 1570 by Pope Pius V at the request of the Council of Trent and that is therefore known as the Tridentine Mass. Catholic Church_sentence_266

Pope Pius V's Roman Missal was subjected to minor revisions by Pope Clement VIII in 1604, Pope Urban VIII in 1634, Pope Pius X in 1911, Pope Pius XII in 1955, and Pope John XXIII in 1962. Catholic Church_sentence_267

Each successive edition was the ordinary form of the Roman Rite Mass until superseded by a later edition. Catholic Church_sentence_268

When the 1962 edition was superseded by that of Paul VI, promulgated in 1969, its continued use at first required permission from bishops; but Pope Benedict XVI's 2007 motu proprio Summorum Pontificum allowed free use of it for Mass celebrated without a congregation and authorized parish priests to permit, under certain conditions, its use even at public Masses. Catholic Church_sentence_269

Except for the scriptural readings, which Pope Benedict allowed to be proclaimed in the vernacular language, it is celebrated exclusively in liturgical Latin. Catholic Church_sentence_270

Since 2014, clergy in the small personal ordinariates set up for groups of former Anglicans under the terms of the 2009 document Anglicanorum Coetibus are permitted to use a variation of the Roman Rite called "Divine Worship" or, less formally, "Ordinariate Use", which incorporates elements of the Anglican liturgy and traditions, an accommodation protested by Anglican leaders. Catholic Church_sentence_271

In the Archdiocese of Milan, with around five million Catholics the largest in Europe, Mass is celebrated according to the Ambrosian Rite. Catholic Church_sentence_272

Other Latin Church rites include the Mozarabic and those of some religious institutes. Catholic Church_sentence_273

These liturgical rites have an antiquity of at least 200 years before 1570, the date of Pope Pius V's Quo primum, and were thus allowed to continue. Catholic Church_sentence_274

Eastern rites Catholic Church_section_26

Main article: Catholic particular churches and liturgical rites § Eastern rites Catholic Church_sentence_275

The Eastern Catholic Churches share common patrimony and liturgical rites as their counterparts, including Eastern Orthodox and other Eastern Christian churches who are no longer in communion with the Holy See. Catholic Church_sentence_276

These include churches that historically developed in Russia, Caucasus, the Balkans, North Eastern Africa, India and the Middle East. Catholic Church_sentence_277

The Eastern Catholic Churches are groups of faithful who have either never been out of communion with the Holy See or who have restored communion with it at the cost of breaking communion with their associates of the same tradition. Catholic Church_sentence_278

The rites used by the Eastern Catholic Churches include the Byzantine Rite, in its Antiochian, Greek and Slavonic varieties; the Alexandrian Rite; the Syriac Rite; the Armenian Rite; the Maronite Rite and the Chaldean Rite. Catholic Church_sentence_279

Eastern Catholic Churches have the autonomy to set the particulars of their liturgical forms and worship, within certain limits to protect the "accurate observance" of their liturgical tradition. Catholic Church_sentence_280

In the past some of the rites used by the Eastern Catholic Churches were subject to a degree of liturgical Latinization. Catholic Church_sentence_281

However, in recent years Eastern Catholic Churches have returned to traditional Eastern practices in accord with the Vatican II decree Orientalium Ecclesiarum. Catholic Church_sentence_282

Each church has its own liturgical calendar. Catholic Church_sentence_283

Social and cultural issues Catholic Church_section_27

Catholic social teaching Catholic Church_section_28

Main article: Catholic social teaching Catholic Church_sentence_284

Catholic social teaching, reflecting the concern Jesus showed for the impoverished, places a heavy emphasis on the corporal works of mercy and the spiritual works of mercy, namely the support and concern for the sick, the poor and the afflicted. Catholic Church_sentence_285

Church teaching calls for a preferential option for the poor while canon law prescribes that "The Christian faithful are also obliged to promote social justice and, mindful of the precept of the Lord, to assist the poor." Catholic Church_sentence_286

Its foundations are widely considered to have been laid by Pope Leo XIII's 1891 encyclical letter Rerum novarum which upholds the rights and dignity of labour and the right of workers to form unions. Catholic Church_sentence_287

Catholic teaching regarding sexuality calls for a practice of chastity, with a focus on maintaining the spiritual and bodily integrity of the human person. Catholic Church_sentence_288

Marriage is considered the only appropriate context for sexual activity. Catholic Church_sentence_289

Church teachings about sexuality have become an issue of increasing controversy, especially after the close of the Second Vatican Council, due to changing cultural attitudes in the Western world described as the sexual revolution. Catholic Church_sentence_290

The church has also addressed stewardship of the natural environment, and its relationship to other social and theological teachings. Catholic Church_sentence_291

In the document Laudato si', dated 24 May 2015, Pope Francis critiques consumerism and irresponsible development, and laments environmental degradation and global warming. Catholic Church_sentence_292

The pope expressed concern that the warming of the planet is a symptom of a greater problem: the developed world's indifference to the destruction of the planet as humans pursue short-term economic gains. Catholic Church_sentence_293

Social services Catholic Church_section_29

Main articles: Catholic Church and health care and Catholic education Catholic Church_sentence_294

The Catholic Church is the largest non-government provider of education and medical services in the world. Catholic Church_sentence_295

In 2010, the Catholic Church's Pontifical Council for Pastoral Assistance to Health Care Workers said that the church manages 26% of health care facilities in the world, including hospitals, clinics, orphanages, pharmacies and centres for those with leprosy. Catholic Church_sentence_296

The church has always been involved in education, since the founding of the first universities of Europe. Catholic Church_sentence_297

It runs and sponsors thousands of primary and secondary schools, colleges and universities throughout the world and operates the world's largest non-governmental school system. Catholic Church_sentence_298

Religious institutes for women have played a particularly prominent role in the provision of health and education services, as with orders such as the Sisters of Mercy, Little Sisters of the Poor, the Missionaries of Charity, the Sisters of St. Joseph of the Sacred Heart, the Sisters of the Blessed Sacrament and the Daughters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul. Catholic Church_sentence_299

The Catholic nun Mother Teresa of Calcutta, India, founder of the Missionaries of Charity, was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1979 for her humanitarian work among India's poor. Catholic Church_sentence_300

Bishop Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo won the same award in 1996 for "work towards a just and peaceful solution to the conflict in East Timor". Catholic Church_sentence_301

The church is also actively engaged in international aid and development through organizations such as Catholic Relief Services, Caritas International, Aid to the Church in Need, refugee advocacy groups such as the Jesuit Refugee Service and community aid groups such as the Saint Vincent de Paul Society. Catholic Church_sentence_302

Sexual morality Catholic Church_section_30

Main articles: Catholic theology of sexuality, Catholic theology of the body, and Marriage in the Catholic Church Catholic Church_sentence_303

The Catholic Church calls all members to practise chastity according to their state in life. Catholic Church_sentence_304

Chastity includes temperance, self-mastery, personal and cultural growth, and divine grace. Catholic Church_sentence_305

It requires refraining from lust, masturbation, fornication, pornography, prostitution and, especially, rape. Catholic Church_sentence_306

Chastity for those who are not married requires living in continence, abstaining from sexual activity; those who are married are called to conjugal chastity. Catholic Church_sentence_307

In the church's teaching, sexual activity is reserved to married couples, whether in a sacramental marriage among Christians or in a natural marriage where one or both spouses are unbaptised. Catholic Church_sentence_308

Even in romantic relationships, particularly engagement to marriage, partners are called to practise continence, in order to test mutual respect and fidelity. Catholic Church_sentence_309

Chastity in marriage requires in particular conjugal fidelity and protecting the fecundity of marriage. Catholic Church_sentence_310

The couple must foster trust and honesty as well as spiritual and physical intimacy. Catholic Church_sentence_311

Sexual activity must always be open to the possibility of life; the church calls this the procreative significance. Catholic Church_sentence_312

It must likewise always bring a couple together in love; the church calls this the unitive significance. Catholic Church_sentence_313

Contraception and certain other sexual practices are not permitted, although natural family planning methods are permitted to provide healthy spacing between births, or to postpone children for a just reason. Catholic Church_sentence_314

Pope Francis said in 2015 that he is worried that the church has grown "obsessed" with issues such as abortion, same-sex marriage and contraception and has criticized the Catholic Church for placing dogma before love, and for prioritizing moral doctrines over helping the poor and marginalized. Catholic Church_sentence_315

Divorce and declarations of nullity Catholic Church_section_31

Main article: Declaration of nullity Catholic Church_sentence_316

Further information: Divorce law by country Catholic Church_sentence_317

Canon law makes no provision for divorce between baptised individuals, as a valid, consummated sacramental marriage is considered to be a lifelong bond. Catholic Church_sentence_318

However, a declaration of nullity may be granted when the proof is produced that essential conditions for contracting a valid marriage were absent from the beginning—in other words, that the marriage was not valid due to some impediment. Catholic Church_sentence_319

A declaration of nullity, commonly called an annulment, is a judgement on the part of an ecclesiastical tribunal determining that a marriage was invalidly attempted. Catholic Church_sentence_320

In addition, marriages among unbaptised individuals may be dissolved with papal permission under certain situations, such as a desire to marry a Catholic, under Pauline or Petrine privilege. Catholic Church_sentence_321

An attempt at remarriage following divorce without a declaration of nullity places "the remarried spouse ... in a situation of public and permanent adultery". Catholic Church_sentence_322

An innocent spouse who lives in continence following divorce, or couples who live in continence following a civil divorce for a grave cause, do not sin. Catholic Church_sentence_323

Worldwide, diocesan tribunals completed over 49000 cases for nullity of marriage in 2006. Catholic Church_sentence_324

Over the past 30 years about 55 to 70% of annulments have occurred in the United States. Catholic Church_sentence_325

The growth in annulments has been substantial; in the United States, 27,000 marriages were annulled in 2006, compared to 338 in 1968. Catholic Church_sentence_326

However, approximately 200,000 married Catholics in the United States divorce each year; 10 million total as of 2006. Catholic Church_sentence_327

Divorce is increasing in some predominantly Catholic countries in Europe. Catholic Church_sentence_328

In some predominantly Catholic countries, it is only in recent years that divorce was introduced (e.g. Italy (1970), Portugal (1975), Brazil (1977), Spain (1981), Ireland (1996), Chile (2004) and Malta (2011), while the Philippines and the Vatican City have no procedure for divorce. Catholic Church_sentence_329

(The Philippines does, however, allow divorce for Muslims.) Catholic Church_sentence_330

Contraception Catholic Church_section_32

Main article: Christian views on contraception § Catholic Church Catholic Church_sentence_331

See also: Catholic Church and HIV/AIDS and Religious response to assisted reproductive technology § Catholicism Catholic Church_sentence_332

The church teaches that sexual intercourse should only take place between a man and woman who are married to each other, and should be without the use of birth control or contraception. Catholic Church_sentence_333

In his encyclical Humanae vitae (1968), Pope Paul VI firmly rejected all contraception, thus contradicting dissenters in the church that saw the birth control pill as an ethically justifiable method of contraception, though he permitted the regulation of births by means of natural family planning. Catholic Church_sentence_334

This teaching was continued especially by John Paul II in his encyclical Evangelium Vitae, where he clarified the church's position on contraception, abortion and euthanasia by condemning them as part of a "culture of death" and calling instead for a "culture of life". Catholic Church_sentence_335

Many Western Catholics have voiced significant disagreement with the church's teaching on contraception. Catholic Church_sentence_336

Catholics for Choice, a political lobbyist group which is not associated with the Catholic Church, stated in 1998 that 96% of U.S. Catholic women had used contraceptives at some point in their lives and that 72% of Catholics believed that one could be a good Catholic without obeying the church's teaching on birth control. Catholic Church_sentence_337

Use of natural family planning methods among United States Catholics purportedly is low, although the number cannot be known with certainty. Catholic Church_sentence_338

As Catholic health providers are among the largest providers of services to patients with HIV/AIDS worldwide, there is significant controversy within and outside the church regarding the use of condoms as a means of limiting new infections, as condom use ordinarily constitutes prohibited contraceptive use. Catholic Church_sentence_339

Similarly, the Catholic Church opposes in vitro fertilization (IVF), saying that the artificial process replaces the love between a husband and wife. Catholic Church_sentence_340

In addition, it opposes IVF because it might cause disposal of embryos; Catholics believe an embryo is an individual with a soul who must be treated as such. Catholic Church_sentence_341

For this reason, the church also opposes abortion. Catholic Church_sentence_342

Homosexuality Catholic Church_section_33

Main article: Homosexuality and the Catholic Church Catholic Church_sentence_343

The Catholic Church also teaches that "homosexual acts" are "contrary to the natural law", "acts of grave depravity" and "under no circumstances can they be approved", but that persons experiencing homosexual tendencies must be accorded respect and dignity. Catholic Church_sentence_344

According to the Catechism of the Catholic Church, Catholic Church_sentence_345

This part of the Catechism was quoted by Pope Francis in a 2013 press interview in which he remarked, when asked about an individual: Catholic Church_sentence_346

This remark and others made in the same interview were seen as a change in the tone, but not in the substance of the teaching of the church, which includes opposition to same-sex marriage. Catholic Church_sentence_347

Certain dissenting Catholic groups oppose the position of the Catholic Church and seek to change it. Catholic Church_sentence_348

Holy orders and women Catholic Church_section_34

Main articles: Ordination of women in the Catholic Church and Women in the Catholic Church Catholic Church_sentence_349

Women and men religious engage in a variety of occupations, from contemplative prayer, to teaching, to providing health care, to working as missionaries. Catholic Church_sentence_350

While Holy Orders are reserved for men, Catholic women have played diverse roles in the life of the church, with religious institutes providing a formal space for their participation and convents providing spaces for their self-government, prayer and influence through many centuries. Catholic Church_sentence_351

Religious sisters and nuns have been extensively involved in developing and running the church's worldwide health and education service networks. Catholic Church_sentence_352

Efforts in support of the ordination of women to the priesthood led to several rulings by the Roman Curia or popes against the proposal, as in Declaration on the Question of the Admission of Women to the Ministerial Priesthood (1976), Mulieris Dignitatem (1988) and Ordinatio sacerdotalis (1994). Catholic Church_sentence_353

According to the latest ruling, found in Ordinatio sacerdotalis, Pope John Paul II affirmed that the Catholic Church "does not consider herself authorized to admit women to priestly ordination". Catholic Church_sentence_354

In defiance of these rulings, opposition groups such as Roman Catholic Womenpriests have performed ceremonies they affirm as sacramental ordinations (with, reputedly, an ordaining male Catholic bishop in the first few instances) which, according to canon law, are both illicit and invalid and considered mere simulations of the sacrament of ordination. Catholic Church_sentence_355

The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith responded by issuing a statement clarifying that any Catholic bishops involved in ordination ceremonies for women, as well as the women themselves if they were Catholic, would automatically receive the penalty of excommunication (latae sententiae, literally "with the sentence already applied", i.e. automatically), citing canon 1378 of canon law and other church laws. Catholic Church_sentence_356

Sexual abuse cases Catholic Church_section_35

Main article: Catholic Church sexual abuse cases Catholic Church_sentence_357

From the 1990s, the issue of sexual abuse of minors by Catholic clergy and other church members has become the subject of civil litigation, criminal prosecution, media coverage and public debate in countries around the world. Catholic Church_sentence_358

The Catholic Church has been criticized for its handling of abuse complaints when it became known that some bishops had shielded accused priests, transferring them to other pastoral assignments where some continued to commit sexual offences. Catholic Church_sentence_359

In response to the scandal, formal procedures have been established to help prevent abuse, encourage the reporting of any abuse that occurs and to handle such reports promptly, although groups representing victims have disputed their effectiveness. Catholic Church_sentence_360

In 2014, Pope Francis instituted the Pontifical Commission for the Protection of Minors for the safeguarding of minors. Catholic Church_sentence_361

History Catholic Church_section_36

Main article: History of the Catholic Church Catholic Church_sentence_362

Further information: Early Christianity and Historiography of early Christianity Catholic Church_sentence_363

The Christian religion is based on the teachings of Jesus Christ, who lived and preached in the 1st century AD in the province of Judea of the Roman Empire. Catholic Church_sentence_364

Catholic theology teaches that the contemporary Catholic Church is the continuation of this early Christian community established by Jesus. Catholic Church_sentence_365

Christianity spread throughout the early Roman Empire, despite persecutions due to conflicts with the pagan state religion. Catholic Church_sentence_366

Emperor Constantine legalized the practice of Christianity in 313, and it became the state religion in 380. Catholic Church_sentence_367

Germanic invaders of Roman territory in the 5th and 6th centuries, many of whom had previously adopted Arian Christianity, eventually adopted Catholicism to ally themselves with the papacy and the monasteries. Catholic Church_sentence_368

In the 7th and 8th centuries, expanding Muslim conquests following the advent of Islam led to an Arab domination of the Mediterranean that severed political connections between that area and northern Europe, and weakened cultural connections between Rome and the Byzantine Empire. Catholic Church_sentence_369

Conflicts involving authority in the church, particularly the authority of the Bishop of Rome finally culminated in the East–West Schism in the 11th century, splitting the church into the Catholic and Orthodox Churches. Catholic Church_sentence_370

Earlier splits within the church occurred after the Council of Ephesus (431) and the Council of Chalcedon (451). Catholic Church_sentence_371

However, a few Eastern Churches remained in communion with Rome, and portions of some others established communion in the 15th century and later, forming what are called the Eastern Catholic Churches. Catholic Church_sentence_372

Early monasteries throughout Europe helped preserve Greek and Roman classical civilization. Catholic Church_sentence_373

The church eventually became the dominant influence in Western civilization into the modern age. Catholic Church_sentence_374

Many Renaissance figures were sponsored by the church. Catholic Church_sentence_375

The 16th century, however, began to see challenges to the church, in particular to its religious authority, by figures in the Protestant Reformation, as well as in the 17th century by secular intellectuals in the Enlightenment. Catholic Church_sentence_376

Concurrently, Spanish and Portuguese explorers and missionaries spread the church's influence through Africa, Asia, and the New World. Catholic Church_sentence_377

In 1870, the First Vatican Council declared the dogma of papal infallibility and the Kingdom of Italy annexed the city of Rome, the last portion of the Papal States to be incorporated into the new nation. Catholic Church_sentence_378

In the 20th century, anti-clerical governments around the world, including Mexico and Spain, persecuted or executed thousands of clerics and laypersons. Catholic Church_sentence_379

In the Second World War, the church condemned Nazism, and protected hundreds of thousands of Jews from the Holocaust; its efforts, however, have been criticized as inadequate. Catholic Church_sentence_380

After the war, freedom of religion was severely restricted in the Communist countries newly aligned with the Soviet Union, several of which had large Catholic populations. Catholic Church_sentence_381

In the 1960s, the Second Vatican Council led to reforms of the church's liturgy and practices, described as "opening the windows" by defenders, but criticized by traditionalist Catholics. Catholic Church_sentence_382

In the face of increased criticism from both within and without, the church has upheld or reaffirmed at various times controversial doctrinal positions regarding sexuality and gender, including limiting clergy to males, and moral exhortations against abortion, contraception, sexual activity outside of marriage, remarriage following divorce without annulment, and against same-sex marriage. Catholic Church_sentence_383

Apostolic era and papacy Catholic Church_section_37

Main article: Apostolic Age Catholic Church_sentence_384

The New Testament, in particular the Gospels, records Jesus' activities and teaching, his appointment of the twelve Apostles and his Great Commission of the Apostles, instructing them to continue his work. Catholic Church_sentence_385

The book Acts of Apostles, tells of the founding of the Christian church and the spread of its message to the Roman empire. Catholic Church_sentence_386

The Catholic Church teaches that its public ministry began on Pentecost, occurring fifty days following the date Christ is believed to have resurrected. Catholic Church_sentence_387

At Pentecost, the Apostles are believed to have received the Holy Spirit, preparing them for their mission in leading the church. Catholic Church_sentence_388

The Catholic Church teaches that the college of bishops, led by the Bishop of Rome are the successors to the Apostles. Catholic Church_sentence_389

In the account of the Confession of Peter found in the Gospel of Matthew, Christ designates Peter as the "rock" upon which Christ's church will be built. Catholic Church_sentence_390

The Catholic Church considers the Bishop of Rome, the pope, to be the successor to Saint Peter. Catholic Church_sentence_391

Some scholars state Peter was the first Bishop of Rome. Catholic Church_sentence_392

Others say that the institution of the papacy is not dependent on the idea that Peter was Bishop of Rome or even on his ever having been in Rome. Catholic Church_sentence_393

Many scholars hold that a church structure of plural presbyters/bishops persisted in Rome until the mid-2nd century, when the structure of a single bishop and plural presbyters was adopted, and that later writers retrospectively applied the term "bishop of Rome" to the most prominent members of the clergy in the earlier period and also to Peter himself. Catholic Church_sentence_394

On this basis, Oscar Cullmann, Henry Chadwick, and Bart D. Ehrman question whether there was a formal link between Peter and the modern papacy. Catholic Church_sentence_395

Raymond E. Brown also says that it is anachronistic to speak of Peter in terms of local bishop of Rome, but that Christians of that period would have looked on Peter as having "roles that would contribute in an essential way to the development of the role of the papacy in the subsequent church". Catholic Church_sentence_396

These roles, Brown says, "contributed enormously to seeing the bishop of Rome, the bishop of the city where Peter died, and where Paul witnessed to the truth of Christ, as the successor of Peter in care for the church universal". Catholic Church_sentence_397

Antiquity and Roman Empire Catholic Church_section_38

Main articles: Early centers of Christianity, Pentarchy, and List of Christian heresies Catholic Church_sentence_398

Conditions in the Roman Empire facilitated the spread of new ideas. Catholic Church_sentence_399

The empire's network of roads and waterways facilitated travel, and the Pax Romana made travelling safe. Catholic Church_sentence_400

The empire encouraged the spread of a common culture with Greek roots, which allowed ideas to be more easily expressed and understood. Catholic Church_sentence_401

Unlike most religions in the Roman Empire, however, Christianity required its adherents to renounce all other gods, a practice adopted from Judaism (see Idolatry). Catholic Church_sentence_402

The Christians' refusal to join pagan celebrations meant they were unable to participate in much of public life, which caused non-Christians—including government authorities—to fear that the Christians were angering the gods and thereby threatening the peace and prosperity of the Empire. Catholic Church_sentence_403

The resulting persecutions were a defining feature of Christian self-understanding until Christianity was legalized in the 4th century. Catholic Church_sentence_404

In 313, Emperor Constantine I's Edict of Milan legalized Christianity, and in 330 Constantine moved the imperial capital to Constantinople, modern Istanbul, Turkey. Catholic Church_sentence_405

In 380 the Edict of Thessalonica made Nicene Christianity the state church of the Roman Empire, a position that within the diminishing territory of the Byzantine Empire would persist until the empire itself ended in the fall of Constantinople in 1453, while elsewhere the church was independent of the empire, as became particularly clear with the East–West Schism. Catholic Church_sentence_406

During the period of the Seven Ecumenical Councils, five primary sees emerged, an arrangement formalized in the mid-6th century by Emperor Justinian I as the pentarchy of Rome, Constantinople, Antioch, Jerusalem and Alexandria. Catholic Church_sentence_407

In 451 the Council of Chalcedon, in a canon of disputed validity, elevated the see of Constantinople to a position "second in eminence and power to the bishop of Rome". Catholic Church_sentence_408

From c. 350 to c. 500, the bishops, or popes, of Rome, steadily increased in authority through their consistent intervening in support of orthodox leaders in theological disputes, which encouraged appeals to them. Catholic Church_sentence_409

Emperor Justinian, who in the areas under his control definitively established a form of caesaropapism, in which "he had the right and duty of regulating by his laws the minutest details of worship and discipline, and also of dictating the theological opinions to be held in the Church", reestablished imperial power over Rome and other parts of the West, initiating the period termed the Byzantine Papacy (537–752), during which the bishops of Rome, or popes, required approval from the emperor in Constantinople or from his representative in Ravenna for consecration, and most were selected by the emperor from his Greek-speaking subjects, resulting in a "melting pot" of Western and Eastern Christian traditions in art as well as liturgy. Catholic Church_sentence_410

Most of the Germanic tribes who in the following centuries invaded the Roman Empire had adopted Christianity in its Arian form, which the Catholic Church declared heretical. Catholic Church_sentence_411

The resulting religious discord between Germanic rulers and Catholic subjects was avoided when, in 497, Clovis I, the Frankish ruler, converted to orthodox Catholicism, allying himself with the papacy and the monasteries. Catholic Church_sentence_412

The Visigoths in Spain followed his lead in 589, and the Lombards in Italy in the course of the 7th century. Catholic Church_sentence_413

Western Christianity, particularly through its monasteries, was a major factor in preserving classical civilization, with its art (see Illuminated manuscript) and literacy. Catholic Church_sentence_414

Through his Rule, Benedict of Nursia (c. 480–543), one of the founders of Western monasticism, exerted an enormous influence on European culture through the appropriation of the monastic spiritual heritage of the early Catholic Church and, with the spread of the Benedictine tradition, through the preservation and transmission of ancient culture. Catholic Church_sentence_415

During this period, monastic Ireland became a centre of learning and early Irish missionaries such as Columbanus and Columba spread Christianity and established monasteries across continental Europe. Catholic Church_sentence_416

Middle Ages and Renaissance Catholic Church_section_39

Further information: History of Christianity during the Middle Ages and Christianity in the 16th century § Renaissance Church Catholic Church_sentence_417

The Catholic Church was the dominant influence on Western civilization from Late Antiquity to the dawn of the modern age. Catholic Church_sentence_418

It was the primary sponsor of Romanesque, Gothic, Renaissance, Mannerist and Baroque styles in art, architecture and music. Catholic Church_sentence_419

Renaissance figures such as Raphael, Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Botticelli, Fra Angelico, Tintoretto, Titian, Bernini and Caravaggio are examples of the numerous visual artists sponsored by the church. Catholic Church_sentence_420

Historian Paul Legutko of Stanford University said the Catholic Church is "at the center of the development of the values, ideas, science, laws, and institutions which constitute what we call Western civilization". Catholic Church_sentence_421

The massive Islamic invasions of the mid-7th century began a long struggle between Christianity and Islam throughout the Mediterranean Basin. Catholic Church_sentence_422

The Byzantine Empire soon lost the lands of the eastern patriarchates of Jerusalem, Alexandria and Antioch and was reduced to that of Constantinople, the empire's capital. Catholic Church_sentence_423

As a result of Islamic domination of the Mediterranean, the Frankish state, centred away from that sea, was able to evolve as the dominant power that shaped the Western Europe of the Middle Ages. Catholic Church_sentence_424

The battles of Toulouse and Poitiers halted the Islamic advance in the West and the failed Siege of Constantinople halted it in the East. Catholic Church_sentence_425

Two or three decades later, in 751, the Byzantine Empire lost to the Lombards the city of Ravenna from which it governed the small fragments of Italy, including Rome, that acknowledged its sovereignty. Catholic Church_sentence_426

The fall of Ravenna meant that confirmation by a no longer existent exarch was not asked for during the election in 752 of Pope Stephen II and that the papacy was forced to look elsewhere for a civil power to protect it. Catholic Church_sentence_427

In 754, at the urgent request of Pope Stephen, the Frankish king Pepin the Short conquered the Lombards. Catholic Church_sentence_428

He then gifted the lands of the former exarchate to the pope, thus initiating the Papal States. Catholic Church_sentence_429

Rome and the Byzantine East would delve into further conflict during the Photian schism of the 860s, when Photius criticized the Latin west of adding of the filioque clause after being excommunicated by Nicholas I. Catholic Church_sentence_430

Though the schism was reconciled, unresolved issues would lead to further division. Catholic Church_sentence_431

In the 11th century, the efforts of Hildebrand of Sovana led to the creation of the College of Cardinals to elect new popes, starting with Pope Alexander II in the papal election of 1061. Catholic Church_sentence_432

When Alexander II died, Hildebrand was elected to succeed him, as Pope Gregory VII. Catholic Church_sentence_433

The basic election system of the College of Cardinals which Gregory VII helped establish has continued to function into the 21st century. Catholic Church_sentence_434

Pope Gregory VII further initiated the Gregorian Reforms regarding the independence of the clergy from secular authority. Catholic Church_sentence_435

This led to the Investiture Controversy between the church and the Holy Roman Emperors, over which had the authority to appoint bishops and popes. Catholic Church_sentence_436

In 1095, Byzantine emperor Alexius I appealed to Pope Urban II for help against renewed Muslim invasions in the Byzantine–Seljuk Wars, which caused Urban to launch the First Crusade aimed at aiding the Byzantine Empire and returning the Holy Land to Christian control. Catholic Church_sentence_437

In the 11th century, strained relations between the primarily Greek church and the Latin Church separated them in the East–West Schism, partially due to conflicts over papal authority. Catholic Church_sentence_438

The Fourth Crusade and the sacking of Constantinople by renegade crusaders proved the final breach. Catholic Church_sentence_439

In this age great gothic cathedrals in France were an expression of popular pride in the Christian faith. Catholic Church_sentence_440

In the early 13th century mendicant orders were founded by Francis of Assisi and Dominic de Guzmán. Catholic Church_sentence_441

The studia conventualia and studia generalia of the mendicant orders played a large role in the transformation of Church-sponsored cathedral schools and palace schools, such as that of Charlemagne at Aachen, into the prominent universities of Europe. Catholic Church_sentence_442

Scholastic theologians and philosophers such as the Dominican priest Thomas Aquinas studied and taught at these studia. Catholic Church_sentence_443

Aquinas' Summa Theologica was an intellectual milestone in its synthesis of the legacy of ancient Greek philosophers such as Plato and Aristotle with the content of Christian revelation. Catholic Church_sentence_444

A growing sense of church-state conflicts marked the 14th century. Catholic Church_sentence_445

To escape instability in Rome, Clement V in 1309 became the first of seven popes to reside in the fortified city of Avignon in southern France during a period known as the Avignon Papacy. Catholic Church_sentence_446

The Avignon Papacy ended in 1376 when the pope returned to Rome, but was followed in 1378 by the 38-year-long Western schism, with claimants to the papacy in Rome, Avignon and (after 1409) Pisa. Catholic Church_sentence_447

The matter was largely resolved in 1415–17 at the Council of Constance, with the claimants in Rome and Pisa agreeing to resign and the third claimant excommunicated by the cardinals, who held a new election naming Martin V pope. Catholic Church_sentence_448

In 1438, the Council of Florence convened, which featured a strong dialogue focussed on understanding the theological differences between the East and West, with the hope of reuniting the Catholic and Orthodox churches. Catholic Church_sentence_449

Several eastern churches reunited, forming the majority of the Eastern Catholic Churches. Catholic Church_sentence_450

Age of Discovery Catholic Church_section_40

Main article: Catholic Church and the Age of Discovery Catholic Church_sentence_451

The Age of Discovery beginning in the 15th century saw the expansion of Western Europe's political and cultural influence worldwide. Catholic Church_sentence_452

Because of the prominent role the strongly Catholic nations of Spain and Portugal played in Western Colonialism, Catholicism was spread to the Americas, Asia and Oceania by explorers, conquistadors, and missionaries, as well as by the transformation of societies through the socio-political mechanisms of colonial rule. Catholic Church_sentence_453

Pope Alexander VI had awarded colonial rights over most of the newly discovered lands to Spain and Portugal and the ensuing patronato system allowed state authorities, not the Vatican, to control all clerical appointments in the new colonies. Catholic Church_sentence_454

In 1521 the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan made the first Catholic converts in the Philippines. Catholic Church_sentence_455

Elsewhere, Portuguese missionaries under the Spanish Jesuit Francis Xavier evangelized in India, China, and Japan. Catholic Church_sentence_456

The French colonization of the Americas beginning in the 16th century established a Roman Catholic francophone population and forbade non-Catholics to settle in Quebec. Catholic Church_sentence_457

Protestant Reformation and Counter-Reformation Catholic Church_section_41

Main articles: Protestant Reformation and Counter-Reformation Catholic Church_sentence_458

In 1415, Jan Hus was burned at the stake for heresy, but his reform efforts encouraged Martin Luther, an Augustinian monk in Germany, who sent his Ninety-five Theses to several bishops in 1517. Catholic Church_sentence_459

His theses protested key points of Catholic doctrine as well as the sale of indulgences, and along with the Leipzig Debate this led to his excommunication in 1521. Catholic Church_sentence_460

In Switzerland, Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers further criticized Catholic teachings. Catholic Church_sentence_461

These challenges developed into the Reformation, which gave birth to the great majority of Protestant denominations and also crypto-Protestantism within the Catholic Church. Catholic Church_sentence_462

Meanwhile, Henry VIII petitioned the pope for a declaration of nullity concerning his marriage to Catherine of Aragon. Catholic Church_sentence_463

When this was denied, he had the Acts of Supremacy passed to make him head of the Church of England, spurring the English Reformation and the eventual development of Anglicanism. Catholic Church_sentence_464

The Reformation contributed to clashes between the Protestant Schmalkaldic League and the Catholic Emperor Charles V and his allies. Catholic Church_sentence_465

The first nine-year war ended in 1555 with the Peace of Augsburg but continued tensions produced a far graver conflict—the Thirty Years' War—which broke out in 1618. Catholic Church_sentence_466

In France, a series of conflicts termed the French Wars of Religion was fought from 1562 to 1598 between the Huguenots (French Calvinists) and the forces of the French Catholic League, which were backed and funded by a series of popes. Catholic Church_sentence_467

This ended under Pope Clement VIII, who hesitantly accepted King Henry IV's 1598 Edict of Nantes granting civil and religious toleration to French Protestants. Catholic Church_sentence_468

The Council of Trent (1545–1563) became the driving force behind the Counter-Reformation in response to the Protestant movement. Catholic Church_sentence_469

Doctrinally, it reaffirmed central Catholic teachings such as transubstantiation and the requirement for love and hope as well as faith to attain salvation. Catholic Church_sentence_470

In subsequent centuries, Catholicism spread widely across the world, in part through missionaries and imperialism, although its hold on European populations declined due to the growth of religious scepticism during and after the Enlightenment. Catholic Church_sentence_471

Enlightenment and modern period Catholic Church_section_42

Main article: Age of Enlightenment Catholic Church_sentence_472

From the 17th century onward, the Enlightenment questioned the power and influence of the Catholic Church over Western society. Catholic Church_sentence_473

In the 18th century, writers such as Voltaire and the Encyclopédistes wrote biting critiques of both religion and the Catholic Church. Catholic Church_sentence_474

One target of their criticism was the 1685 revocation of the Edict of Nantes by King Louis XIV of France, which ended a century-long policy of religious toleration of Protestant Huguenots. Catholic Church_sentence_475

As the papacy resisted pushes for Gallicanism, the French Revolution of 1789 shifted power to the state, caused the destruction of churches, the establishment of a Cult of Reason, and the martyrdom of nuns during the Reign of Terror. Catholic Church_sentence_476

In 1798, Napoleon Bonaparte's General Louis-Alexandre Berthier invaded the Italian Peninsula, imprisoning Pope Pius VI, who died in captivity. Catholic Church_sentence_477

Napoleon later re-established the Catholic Church in France through the Concordat of 1801. Catholic Church_sentence_478

The end of the Napoleonic Wars brought Catholic revival and the return of the Papal States. Catholic Church_sentence_479

In 1854, Pope Pius IX, with the support of the overwhelming majority of Catholic bishops, whom he had consulted from 1851 to 1853, proclaimed the Immaculate Conception as a Dogma in the Catholic Church. Catholic Church_sentence_480

In 1870, the First Vatican Council affirmed the doctrine of papal infallibility when exercised in specifically defined pronouncements, striking a blow to the rival position of conciliarism. Catholic Church_sentence_481

Controversy over this and other issues resulted in a breakaway movement called the Old Catholic Church, Catholic Church_sentence_482

The Italian unification of the 1860s incorporated the Papal States, including Rome itself from 1870, into the Kingdom of Italy, thus ending the papacy's temporal power. Catholic Church_sentence_483

In response, Pope Pius IX excommunicated King Victor Emmanuel II, refused payment for the land, and rejected the Italian Law of Guarantees, which granted him special privileges. Catholic Church_sentence_484

To avoid placing himself in visible subjection to the Italian authorities, he remained a "prisoner in the Vatican". Catholic Church_sentence_485

This stand-off, which was spoken of as the Roman Question, was resolved by the 1929 Lateran Treaties, whereby the Holy See acknowledged Italian sovereignty over the former Papal States in return for payment and Italy's recognition of papal sovereignty over Vatican City as a new sovereign and independent state. Catholic Church_sentence_486

20th century Catholic Church_section_43

Main article: Catholic Church in the 20th century Catholic Church_sentence_487

A number of anti-clerical governments emerged in the 20th century. Catholic Church_sentence_488

The 1926 Calles Law separating church and state in Mexico led to the Cristero War in which more than 3,000 priests were exiled or assassinated, churches desecrated, services mocked, nuns raped, and captured priests shot. Catholic Church_sentence_489

Following the 1917 October Revolution, persecution of the church and Catholics in the Soviet Union continued into the 1930s, with the execution and exiling of clerics, monks and laymen, the confiscation of religious implements, and closure of churches. Catholic Church_sentence_490

In the 1936–39 Spanish Civil War, the Catholic hierarchy allied with Franco's Nationalists against the Popular Front government, citing as justification Republican violence against the church. Catholic Church_sentence_491

Pope Pius XI referred to these three countries as a "terrible triangle". Catholic Church_sentence_492

After violations of the 1933 Reichskonkordat between the church and Nazi Germany, Pope Pius XI issued the 1937 encyclical Mit brennender Sorge, which publicly condemned the Nazis' persecution of the church and their ideology of neo-paganism and racial superiority. Catholic Church_sentence_493

The church condemned the 1939 Invasion of Poland that started World War II and other subsequent wartime Nazi invasions. Catholic Church_sentence_494

Thousands of Catholic priests, nuns and brothers were imprisoned and murdered throughout the countries occupied by the Nazis, including Saints Maximilian Kolbe and Edith Stein. Catholic Church_sentence_495

While Pope Pius XII has been credited with helping to save hundreds of thousands of Jews during the Holocaust, the church has also been accused of having encouraged centuries of antisemitism by its teachings and not doing enough to stop Nazi atrocities. Catholic Church_sentence_496

During the post-war period, Communist governments in Eastern Europe severely restricted religious freedoms. Catholic Church_sentence_497

Although some priests and religious people collaborated with Communist regimes, many others were imprisoned, deported, or executed. Catholic Church_sentence_498

The church was an important player in the fall of Communism in Europe, particularly in the Polish People's Republic. Catholic Church_sentence_499

In 1949, the Communist victory in the Chinese Civil War led to the expulsion of all foreign missionaries. Catholic Church_sentence_500

The new government also created the Patriotic Church and appointed its bishops. Catholic Church_sentence_501

These appointments were initially rejected by Rome before many of them were accepted. Catholic Church_sentence_502

In the 1960s during the Cultural Revolution, the Chinese Communists closed all religious establishments. Catholic Church_sentence_503

When Chinese churches eventually reopened, they remained under the control of the Patriotic Church. Catholic Church_sentence_504

Many Catholic pastors and priests continued to be sent to prison for refusing to renounce allegiance to Rome. Catholic Church_sentence_505

Second Vatican Council Catholic Church_section_44

Main articles: Second Vatican Council, History of the Catholic Church since 1962, and Spirit of Vatican II Catholic Church_sentence_506

The Second Vatican Council (1962–1965) introduced the most significant changes to Catholic practices since the Council of Trent, four centuries before. Catholic Church_sentence_507

Initiated by Pope John XXIII, this ecumenical council modernised the practices of the Catholic Church, allowing the Mass to be said in the vernacular (local language) and encouraging "fully conscious, and active participation in liturgical celebrations". Catholic Church_sentence_508

It intended to engage the church more closely with the present world (aggiornamento), which was described by its advocates as an "opening of the windows". Catholic Church_sentence_509

In addition to changes in the liturgy, it led to changes to the church's approach to ecumenism, and a call to improved relations with non-Christian religions, especially Judaism, in its document Nostra aetate. Catholic Church_sentence_510

The council, however, generated significant controversy in implementing its reforms: proponents of the "Spirit of Vatican II" such as Swiss theologian Hans Küng said that Vatican II had "not gone far enough" to change church policies. Catholic Church_sentence_511

Traditionalist Catholics, such as Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre, however, strongly criticized the council, arguing that its liturgical reforms led "to the destruction of the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass and the sacraments", among other issues. Catholic Church_sentence_512

Several teachings of the Catholic Church came under increased scrutiny both concurrent with and following the council; among those teachings was the church's teaching regarding the immorality of contraception. Catholic Church_sentence_513

The recent introduction of hormonal contraception (including "the pill"), which were believed by some to be morally different from previous methods, prompted John XXIII to form a committee to advise him of the moral and theological issues with the new method. Catholic Church_sentence_514

Pope Paul VI later expanded the committee's scope to freely examine all methods, and the committee's unreleased final report was rumoured to suggest permitting at least some methods of contraception. Catholic Church_sentence_515

Paul did not agree with the arguments presented, and eventually issued Humanae vitae, saying that it upheld the constant teaching of the church against contraception. Catholic Church_sentence_516

It expressly included hormonal methods as prohibited. Catholic Church_sentence_517

This document generated a largely negative response from many Catholics. Catholic Church_sentence_518

John Paul II Catholic Church_section_45

Main article: Pope John Paul II Catholic Church_sentence_519

In 1978, Pope John Paul II, formerly Archbishop of Kraków in the Polish People's Republic, became the first non-Italian pope in 455 years. Catholic Church_sentence_520

His 26 1/2-year pontificate was one of the longest in history. Catholic Church_sentence_521

Mikhail Gorbachev, the president of the Soviet Union, credited the Polish pope with hastening the fall of Communism in Europe. Catholic Church_sentence_522

John Paul II sought to evangelize an increasingly secular world. Catholic Church_sentence_523

He instituted World Youth Day as a "worldwide encounter with the pope" for young people; it is now held every two to three years. Catholic Church_sentence_524

He travelled more than any other pope, visiting 129 countries, and used television and radio as means of spreading the church's teachings. Catholic Church_sentence_525

He also emphasised the dignity of work and natural rights of labourers to have fair wages and safe conditions in Laborem exercens. Catholic Church_sentence_526

He emphasised several church teachings, including moral exhortations against abortion, euthanasia, and against widespread use of the death penalty, in Evangelium Vitae. Catholic Church_sentence_527

From the late 20th century, the Catholic Church has been criticized for its doctrines on sexuality, its inability to ordain women, and its handling of sexual abuse cases. Catholic Church_sentence_528

21st century Catholic Church_section_46

In 2005, following the death of John Paul II, Pope Benedict XVI, head of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith under John Paul, was elected. Catholic Church_sentence_529

He was known for upholding traditional Christian values against secularization, and for increasing use of the Tridentine Mass as found in the Roman Missal of 1962. Catholic Church_sentence_530

In 2012, the 50th anniversary of Vatican II, an assembly of the Synod of Bishops discussed re-evangelising lapsed Catholics in the developed world. Catholic Church_sentence_531

Citing the frailties of advanced age, Benedict resigned in 2013, becoming the first pope to do so in nearly 600 years. Catholic Church_sentence_532

Pope Francis Catholic Church_section_47

Main article: Pope Francis Catholic Church_sentence_533

Pope Francis, the current pope of the Catholic Church, succeeded Pope Benedict XVI in 2013 as the first pope from the Americas, the first from the Southern Hemisphere, and the first Pope from outside Europe since the Syrian Gregory III, who reigned in the 8th century. Catholic Church_sentence_534

Pope Francis has been noted for his humility, emphasis on God's mercy, concern for the poor and the environment, as well as his commitment to interfaith dialogue. Catholic Church_sentence_535

He is credited with having a less formal approach to the papacy than his predecessors. Catholic Church_sentence_536

Pope Francis is recognised for his efforts "to further close the nearly 1,000-year estrangement with the Orthodox Churches". Catholic Church_sentence_537

His installation was attended by Patriarch Bartholomew I of Constantinople of the Eastern Orthodox Church, the first time since the Great Schism of 1054 that the Eastern Orthodox Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople has attended a papal installation. Catholic Church_sentence_538

On 12 February 2016, Pope Francis and Patriarch Kirill of Moscow, head of the largest Eastern Orthodox church, met in Havana, Cuba, issuing a joint declaration calling for restored Christian unity between the two churches. Catholic Church_sentence_539

This was reported as the first such high-level meeting between the two churches since the Great Schism of 1054. Catholic Church_sentence_540

In 2014, the Third Extraordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops addressed the church's ministry towards families and marriages and to Catholics in "irregular" relationships, such as those who divorced and remarried outside of the church without a declaration of nullity. Catholic Church_sentence_541

While welcomed by some, it was criticized by some for perceived ambiguity, provoking controversies among individual representatives of differing perspectives. Catholic Church_sentence_542

In 2017 during a visit in Egypt, Pope Francis reestablished mutual recognition of baptism with the Coptic Orthodox Church. Catholic Church_sentence_543

See also Catholic Church_section_48

Catholic Church_unordered_list_1

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: Church.