|Born||Úrsula Hilaria Celia de la Caridad Cruz Alfonso|
|Died||July 16, 2003(2003-07-16) (aged 77)
Fort Lee, New Jersey, U.S.
|Resting place||Woodlawn Cemetery (Bronx, New York)|
Úrsula Hilaria Celia de la Caridad Cruz Alfonso (October 21, 1925 – July 16, 2003), known as Celia Cruz, was a Cuban singer and one of the most popular Latin artists of the 20th century.
Cruz rose to fame in Cuba during the 1950s as a singer of guarachas, earning the nickname "La Guarachera de Cuba".
In the following decades, she became known internationally as the "Queen of Salsa" or "The Queen of Latin Music" due to her contributions to Latin music in the United States.
In 1960, after the Cuban Revolution caused the nationalization of the music industry, Cruz left her native country, becoming one of the symbols and spokespersons of the Cuban community in exile.
In the 1960s, she collaborated with Tito Puente, recording her signature tune "Bemba colorá".
Her musical legacy is made up of a total of 37 studio albums, as well as numerous live albums and collaborations.
In addition to her prolific career in music, Cruz also made several appearances as an actress in movies and telenovelas.
Her catchphrase "¡Azúcar!"
has become one of the most recognizable symbols of salsa music.
Her father, Simón Cruz, was a railway stoker, and her mother, Catalina Alfonso Ramos, a housewife who took care of an extended family.
Celia was one of the eldest among fourteen children, including her three siblings, Dolores, Gladys and Bárbaro, and she used to sing cradle songs to put them to sleep.
According to her mother, she began singing as a child at 9 or 10 months of age, often in the middle of the night.
She also sang in school during the Fridays' actos cívicos and in her neighborhood ensemble, Botón de oro.
While growing up in Cuba's diverse 1930s musical climate, Cruz listened to many musicians who influenced her adult career, including Fernando Collazo, Abelardo Barroso, Pablo Quevedo, Antonio Arcaño and Arsenio Rodríguez.
Cruz also studied the words to Yoruba songs with colleague Merceditas Valdés (an akpwon, a santería singer) from Cuba and later made various recordings of this religious genre, even singing backup for other female akpwons like Candita Batista.
As a teenager, her aunt took her and her cousin to cabarets to sing, but her father encouraged her to attend school in the hope she would become a teacher.
After high school, she attended the Normal School for Teachers in Havana with the intent of becoming a literature teacher.
At the time being a singer was not viewed as an entirely respectable career.
However, one of her teachers told her that, as an entertainer, she could earn in one day what most Cuban teachers earned in a month.
From 1947, Cruz studied music theory, voice, and piano at Havana's National Conservatory of Music.
One day, her cousin took her to Havana's radio station Radio García-Serra, where she became a contestant in the "Hora del té" amateur radio program.
On other occasions she won silver chains, as well as opportunities to participate in more contests.
She also sang in other amateur radio programs such as La suprema corte del arte, broadcast by CMQ, always winning first prize.
The only exception was when she competed against Vilma Valle, having to split their earnings: 25 dollars each.
In 2004, the Miami Herald revealed from partially declassified US State Department papers that Cruz had been linked to Cuba's pre-Revolution communist party, the Popular Socialist Party (PSP), as early as the 1940s.
The article, promoted as an "exclusive", was written by Miami Herald journalist Carol Rosenberg from Freedom of Information Act requests.
It made several revelations.
Among them, that the US Embassy in Havana denied Cruz a US visa in 1952 and 1955 because of suspected communist affiliations.
The article also states that Cruz had joined the youth wing of the PSP at age 20 and had used a concert to arrange a secret meeting with communists in South America on behalf of its then general secretary, Blas Roca Calderío, who was also founded the party in 1925.
Cruz had also signed a public letter in support of one of the Party's front groups, the Pro-Peace Congress.
The article states that Cruz's surviving husband, Pedro Knight, was asked about this, and is quoted he knew nothing about it.
"She never told me about that.
She never talked about politics," the article quotes Knight.
She later joined Orquesta de Ernesto Duarte, Gloria Matancera, Sonora Caracas and Orquesta Anacaona.
From 1947, she started to sing in Havana's most popular cabarets: Tropicana, Sans Souci, Bamboo, Topeka, etc.
In 1948, Roderico Rodney Neyra founded the group of dancers and singers Las Mulatas de Fuego (The Fiery Mulattas).
Cruz was hired with this group as a singer, reaching great success and making presentations in Mexico and Venezuela, where she made her first recordings.
With this group, known as Coro Yoruba y Tambores Batá, she made several recordings that were later released by Panart.
Since they were in need of a new singer, the band decided to give the young Celia Cruz a chance.
She auditioned in June, and at the end of July she was asked to join as lead singer, and thus became the group's first black frontwoman.
In her first rehearsal with Sonora Matancera, Cruz met her future husband Pedro Knight, who was the band's second trumpeter.
Cruz debuted with the group on August 3, 1950.
Initially, Cruz was not received with enthusiasm by the public, but Rogelio Martínez had faith in her.
On December 15, 1950, Cruz recorded her first songs with the group, which were a resounding success.
Her "musical marriage" with the Sonora Matancera lasted fifteen years.
In total Celia recorded 188 songs with the Matancera, including hits such as "Cao cao maní picao", "Mata siguaraya", "Burundanga" and "El yerbero moderno".
She won her first gold record for "Burundanga", making her first trip to the United States in 1957 to receive the award and to perform at St. , New York. Nicholas Arena
During her 15 years with Sonora Matancera, she appeared in cameos in some Mexican films such as Rincón criollo (1950), Una gallega en La Habana (1955) and Amorcito corazón (1961), toured all over Latin America and became a regular at the Tropicana.
Exile and Tico recordings
On July 15, 1960, following the Cuban Revolution, a contract for Sonora Matancera in Mexico arose.
Cruz never imagined that she would never set foot on Cuban soil again.
The new Cuban regime disapproved of the group accepting offers to work abroad, specifically in the United States.
Thus, the Castro regime arbitrarily forbade her to return to Cuba.
When she completed a month of stay in Mexico, she received the news of the death of her father Simón Cruz.
In 1961, Cruz and Sonora Matancera left Mexico for an engagement in the United States.
In 1962, before the refusal of the Cuban government to allow her to return to Cuba, Cruz acquired a house in New York.
Although she tried to return to Cuba to see her sick mother, who was struggling with terminal bladder cancer, the Cuban government denied her request to return.
On April 7, 1962, she received the news of the death of her mother Catalina Alfonso.
That same year, on July 14, Cruz was married in civil ceremony with Pedro Knight after a romance of several years.
In 1965, Cruz would culminate a vertiginous fifteen years with the Sonora Matancera.
Cruz began a solo career and her husband Pedro Knight decided to leave his position at Sonora Matancera to become her representative, arranger and personal director.
During this time, Cruz became an American citizen.
In 1966, Cruz was contacted by Tito Puente to perform with his orchestra.
Their first collaborative album, Son con guaguancó featured a recording of José Claro Fumero's guaracha "Bemba colorá", which became one of Cruz's signature songs.
Cruz and Puente went on to collaborate on another four albums together.
She also recorded albums with other musical directors such as Memo Salamanca, Juan Bruno Tarraza and Lino Frías for Tico Records.
The Fania years
Cruz's association with the Fania label had begun in 1973, when she recorded the lead vocals of "Gracia divina", a song by Larry Harlow which was part of his "Latin opera" Hommy.
She then joined the Fania All-Stars, a salsa supergroup featuring the most popular performers of the Fania roster.
With them, Cruz first sang "Bemba colorá" and "Diosa del ritmo" in San Juan, Puerto Rico in 1973.
These live recordings were commercially released years later.
Cruz recorded her first studio album for Fania in 1974 in collaboration with Johnny Pacheco, the owner of the label.
The album, Celia & Johnny, and its lead single, "Quimbara", were both a commercial success.
The following year she recorded her first LP with Colón, a collaboration that would be repeated with great success in 1981 and 1987.
When touring with Colón, Cruz wore a flamboyant costume, which included various colored wigs, tight sequined dresses, and very high heels.
Her fashion style became so famous that one of them was acquired by the Smithsonian institution.
In the late 1970s, she participated in an Eastern Air Lines commercial in Puerto Rico, singing the catchy phrase ¡Esto sí es volar!
(This is to truly fly!).
Cruz also used to sing the identifying spot for WQBA radio station in Miami, formerly known as "La Cubanísima": "I am the voice of Cuba, from this land, far away...I am liberty, I am WQBA, the most Cuban!"
(Yo soy de Cuba, la voz, desde esta tierra lejana... ¡soy libertad, soy WQBA, Cubanísima!
In 1982, Celia was reunited with the Sonora Matancera and recorded the album Feliz Encuentro.
That year, the singer received the first tribute of her career at Madison Square Garden in New York.
In 1987, Cruz performed a concert in Santa Cruz de Tenerife.
That concert was recognized by the publisher of the Guinness Book of Records as the largest free-entry outdoor concert, with an audience of 250,000 people.
She was also invited to celebrate the 65th anniversary of the Sonora Matancera in Central Park in New York.
The decline of Fania's brand of salsa dura in favor of the emergent salsa romántica gradually brought an end to Celia's musical association with the Fania All Stars.
Their final reunions took place in Puerto Rico (1994) and Colombia (1995), both of which were released on CD.
In 1990 Cruz managed to return to Cuba.
She was invited to make a presentation at the Guantanamo Bay Naval Base.
When she came out of this presentation she took in a bag a few grams of earth from Cuba, the same one she asked to be placed in her coffin when she died.
Although she had previously made musical presentations in Mexican and Cuban films, in 1992 Celia debuted as an actress in the American film Mambo Kings, along with Armand Assante and Antonio Banderas.
Cruz played the role of a black woman who gives birth to a white daughter.
In 1998, she released the album Mi vida es cantar, which featured one of her most successful songs, "La vida es un carnaval".
Thanks to this album, Cruz was awarded her first Latin Grammy.
In 2001, the album Siempre viviré makes her the creditor of her second Latin Grammy.
In 2002, Cruz released the album, La negra tiene tumbao, where she ventured into modern variants of Caribbean rhythms, influenced by rap and hip hop.
For this record she won her third Latin Grammy and her second American Grammy.
On July 16, 2002, Cruz performed to a full house at the free outdoor performing arts festival Central Park SummerStage in New York City.
During the performance she sang "Bemba Colora'."
A live recording of this song was subsequently made available in 2005 on a commemorative CD honoring the festival's then 20-year history entitled, "Central Park SummerStage: Live from the Heart of the City".
It featured musical performances by various Latin music and Anglo performers including Victor Manuelle, Paulina Rubio, José Feliciano, Milly Quezada, Los Tri-O, Estefan, Patti LaBelle, Arturo Sandoval, Ana Gabriel, Gilberto Santa Rosa, Tito Nieves, Albita, Johnny Pacheco, Alicia Villareal, Olga Tañón, Mikey Perfecto, José Alberto "El Canario", Rosario, Luis Enrique, Anthony and Gloria Gaynor.
During a presentation in Mexico in 2002, Cruz suffered a health mishap.
As a result of this, it was discovered that she suffered from glioma (a very aggressive brain tumor) and underwent an operation to remove it at the end of that year, to then try to resume her artistic career.
She recorded her last album, entitled Regalo del Alma.
This was her last public appearance.
On the afternoon of July 16, 2003, Cruz died at her home in Fort Lee, New Jersey, at the age of 77.
At her express wish, her mortal remains were first transferred to Miami for two days to receive the homage of her Cuban exile admirers, returning and finally resting in the Woodlawn Cemetery in The Bronx, New York.
An epilogue in her autobiography notes that, in accordance with her wishes, Cuban soil which she had saved from a visit to Guantánamo Bay was used in her entombment.
Tributes and legacy
Cruz's legacy has been honored since years before her death, including a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame (1987), the asteroid name 5212 Celiacruz (1989),, the Excellence Awards at the 1990 Lo Nuestro Awards, and Celia Cruz Way in Miami (1991).
She was also inducted into the International Latin Music Hall of Fame in 1999.
In the same year, she was presented with the ASCAP Latin Heritage Award becoming the first recipient of the accolade.
Through a formidable work ethic, Cruz rose to the very top in her genre.
It was announced in December 2005 that a musical called ¡Azúcar!
would open in Tenerife before touring the world.
The name comes from Cruz's well-known catch phrase of "¡Azúcar!"
In 2003, a music school was opened in the Bronx, named the Celia Cruz Bronx High School of Music.
Pedro Knight visited this school before his death to meet the students and share stories about her life.
On June 4, 2004, the heavily Cuban-American community of Union City, New Jersey heralded its annual Cuban Day Parade by dedicating its new Celia Cruz Park (also known as Celia Cruz Plaza), which features a sidewalk star in her honor, at 31st Street and Bergenline Avenue, with Cruz's widower, Pedro Knight, present.
There are four other similar dedications to Cruz around the world.
Cruz's star has expanded into Union City's "Walk of Fame", as new marble stars are added each spring to honor Latin entertainment and media personalities, such as merengue singer Joseíto Mateo, salsa singer La India, Cachao, Cuban tenor Beny Moré, Tito Puente, Spanish language television news anchor Rafael Pineda, salsa pioneer Johnny Pacheco, singer/bandleader Gilberto Santa Rosa and music promoter Ralph Mercado.
", an exhibit celebrating the life and music of Celia Cruz.
The exhibit highlights important moments in Cruz's life and career through photographs, personal documents, costumes, videos, and music.
Her biography Celia: Mi vida was also published in 2005, based on more than 500 hours of interviews with the Mexican journalist Ana Cristina Reymundo.
The journalist and TV presenter Cristina Saralegui planned to take the story of her life to the cinema and the American actress Whoopi Goldberg, admirer of the singer, expressed her interest in representing her, but the project was cancelled.
The show won four 2008 HOLA Awards from the Hispanic Organization of Latin Actors.
On March 16, 2011, Celia Cruz was honored by the United States Postal Service with a commemorative postage stamp.
The Smithsonian's National Museum of American History collaborated with photographer Robert Weingarten to create an object-based portrait of Celia Cruz featuring artifacts in the museum.
The portrait was unveiled October 3, 2012.
On October 21, 2013, Google honored her with a Google Doodle.
Also in 2013, Cruz was inducted into the New Jersey Hall Fame.
Celia was played by the actresses Jeimy Osorio and Aymée Nuviola and counted on the voice of Patty Padilla.
In 2019, Angélique Kidjo released a tribute album to Cruz, entitled Celia, including songs spanning all of Celia's Cruz career reinvented with an Afrobeat feel.
In 2018, a monument to Celia Cruz was unveiled in the Cuban Heritage Park in Hialeah, Florida.
Also in 2018, the Celia Cruz Estate launched a brand inspired by Cruz which featured merchandise inspired and about Cruz.
In 2019 Chilean-American poet Marjorie Agosin created a chamber music theatre performance titled "Las Magníficas" (The Magnificent Ones), based on the life of Celia Cruz and Chilean singer-songwriter Violeta Parra.
- Salón México (Mexico, 1950)
- Una gallega en La Habana (Mexico, 1952)
- ¡Olé... Cuba! (Mexico/Cuba, 1957)
- Affair in Havana (USA/Cuba, 1957)
- Amorcito Corazon (Mexico, 1960)
- Salsa (Documentary, 1976)
- Salsa (USA, 1988)
- "Fires Within" (USA, 1991)
- The Mambo Kings (USA, 1992)
- Valentina (TV) (Mexico, 1993)
- The Perez Family (USA, 1995) Luz Pat
- El alma no tiene color (TV) (Mexico, 1997)
- ¡Celia Cruz: Azúcar! (TV) (Tribute, USA, 2003)
- Soul Power (Documentary of Kinshasa, Zaire Music Festival 1974) (USA, 2008)
- CELIA, Celia Cruz Bio-Drama (2015 on Telemundo)
Celia Cruz has received two awards from fourteen nominations, as well as a non-competitive Lifetime Achievement award.
|Year||Nominee / work||Award||Result|
|1979||Eternos||Best Latin Recording||Nominated|
|1983||Tremendo Trio||Best Tropical Latin Recording||Nominated|
|1986||Homenaje A Beny More - Vol. III||Nominated|
|1989||"Ritmo En El Corazon"||Won|
|1992||Tributo a Ismael Rivera||Best Tropical Latin Album||Nominated|
|1995||Irrepetible||Best Tropical Latin Performance||Nominated|
|1997||"Guantanamera"||Best Rap Performance for a Duo or Group||Nominated|
|1998||Mi Vida Es Cantar||Best Tropical Latin Performance||Nominated|
|2000||Celia Cruz and Friends: A Night of Salsa||Best Salsa Album||Nominated|
|2002||La Negra Tiene Tumbao||Nominated|
|2003||Regalo del Alma||Best Salsa/Merengue Album||Won|
Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award
The Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award is presented to those who, during their lifetimes, have made creative contributions of outstanding artistic significance to the field of recording.
Celia Cruz won the award in 2016.
|Year||Nominee / work||Award||Result|
|2016||Herself||Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award||Won|
Latin Grammy Awards
Celia Cruz has won four awards out of seven nominations.
|Year||Nominee / work||Award||Result|
|2000||Celia Cruz and Friends: A Night of Salsa||Best Salsa Album||Won|
|2001||Siempre Viveré||Best Traditional Tropical Album||Won|
|2002||"La Negra Tiene Tumbao"||Record of the Year||Nominated|
|Best Music Video||Nominated|
|La Negra Tiene Tumbao||Album of the Year||Nominated|
|Best Salsa Album||Won|
|2004||Regalo del Alma||Best Salsa Album||Won|
Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Celia Cruz.