Central Intelligence Agency

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"CIA" redirects here. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_0

For other uses, see CIA (disambiguation). Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_1

Central Intelligence Agency_table_infobox_0

Central Intelligence AgencyCentral Intelligence Agency_table_caption_0
Agency overviewCentral Intelligence Agency_header_cell_0_0_0
FormedCentral Intelligence Agency_header_cell_0_1_0 September 18, 1947; 73 years ago (1947-09-18)Central Intelligence Agency_cell_0_1_1
Preceding agencyCentral Intelligence Agency_header_cell_0_2_0 Central Intelligence Agency_cell_0_2_1
TypeCentral Intelligence Agency_header_cell_0_3_0 Independent (component of the Intelligence Community)Central Intelligence Agency_cell_0_3_1
HeadquartersCentral Intelligence Agency_header_cell_0_4_0 George Bush Center for Intelligence

Langley, Virginia, U.S.Central Intelligence Agency_cell_0_4_1

MottoCentral Intelligence Agency_header_cell_0_5_0 "The Work of a Nation. The Center of Intelligence."

Unofficial motto: "And ye shall know the truth and the truth shall make you free." ()Central Intelligence Agency_cell_0_5_1

EmployeesCentral Intelligence Agency_header_cell_0_6_0 21,575 (estimate)Central Intelligence Agency_cell_0_6_1
Annual budgetCentral Intelligence Agency_header_cell_0_7_0 $15 billion (as of 2013)Central Intelligence Agency_cell_0_7_1
Agency executivesCentral Intelligence Agency_header_cell_0_8_0 Central Intelligence Agency_cell_0_8_1
WebsiteCentral Intelligence Agency_header_cell_0_9_0 Central Intelligence Agency_cell_0_9_1

The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA; /siaɪˈeɪ/) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the federal government of the United States, officially tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT). Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_2

As a principal member of the United States Intelligence Community (IC), the CIA reports to the Director of National Intelligence and is primarily focused on providing intelligence for the President and Cabinet of the United States. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_3

Unlike the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), which is a domestic security service, the CIA has no law enforcement function and is officially mainly focused on overseas intelligence gathering, with only limited domestic intelligence collection. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_4

The CIA serves as the national manager for coordination of HUMINT activities across the U.S. intelligence community. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_5

It is the only agency authorized by law to carry out and oversee covert action at the behest of the President. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_6

It exerts foreign political influence through its tactical divisions, such as the Special Activities Center. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_7

The CIA was also instrumental in establishing intelligence services in several U.S. allied countries, such as Germany's BND. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_8

It has also provided support to many foreign political groups and governments, including planning, coordinating, training on torture, technical support, and was involved in several regime changes, terrorist attacks and planned assassinations of foreign leaders. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_9

Since 2004 the CIA is organized under the Director of National Intelligence (DNI). Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_10

Despite transferring some of its powers to the DNI, the CIA has grown in size as a result of the September 11 attacks. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_11

In 2013, The Washington Post reported that in the fiscal year 2010, the CIA had the largest budget of all IC agencies, exceeding previous estimates. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_12

The CIA has increasingly expanded its role, including covert paramilitary operations. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_13

One of its largest divisions, the Information Operations Center (IOC), has officially shifted focus from counter-terrorism to offensive cyber-operations. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_14

The agency has been the subject of many controversies, including human rights violations, domestic wiretapping and propaganda, and allegations of drug trafficking. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_15

It has also appeared in works of fiction, including books, films and video games. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_16

Purpose Central Intelligence Agency_section_0

When the CIA was created, its purpose was to create a clearinghouse for foreign policy intelligence and analysis. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_17

Today its primary purpose is to collect, analyze, evaluate, and disseminate foreign intelligence, and to perform covert actions. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_18

According to its fiscal 2013 budget, the CIA has five priorities: Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_19

Central Intelligence Agency_unordered_list_0

Organizational structure Central Intelligence Agency_section_1

Main article: Organizational structure of the Central Intelligence Agency Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_20

The CIA has an executive office and five major directorates: Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_21

Central Intelligence Agency_unordered_list_1

  • The Directorate of Digital InnovationCentral Intelligence Agency_item_1_5
  • The Directorate of AnalysisCentral Intelligence Agency_item_1_6
  • The Directorate of OperationsCentral Intelligence Agency_item_1_7
  • The Directorate of SupportCentral Intelligence Agency_item_1_8
  • The Directorate of Science and TechnologyCentral Intelligence Agency_item_1_9

Executive Office Central Intelligence Agency_section_2

The Director of the Central Intelligence Agency (D/CIA) is appointed by the President with Senate confirmation and reports directly to the Director of National Intelligence (DNI); in practice, the CIA director interfaces with the Director of National Intelligence (DNI), Congress, and the White House, while the Deputy Director (DD/CIA) is the internal executive of the CIA and the Chief Operating Officer (COO/CIA), known as Executive Director until 2017, leads the day-to-day work as the third highest post of the CIA. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_22

The Deputy Director is formally appointed by the Director without Senate confirmation, but as the President's opinion plays a great role in the decision, the Deputy Director is generally considered a political position, making the Chief Operating Officer the most senior non-political position for CIA career officers. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_23

The Executive Office also supports the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_24 military by providing it with information it gathers, receiving information from military intelligence organizations, and cooperates with field activities. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_25

The Executive Director is in charge of the day-to-day operation of the CIA. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_26

Each branch of the military service has its own Director. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_27

The Associate Director of military affairs, a senior military officer, manages the relationship between the CIA and the Unified Combatant Commands, who produce and deliver to the CIA regional/operational intelligence and consume national intelligence produced by the CIA. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_28

Directorate of Analysis Central Intelligence Agency_section_3

The Directorate of Analysis, through much of its history known as the Directorate of Intelligence (DI), is tasked with helping "the President and other policymakers make informed decisions about our country's national security" by looking "at all the available information on an issue and organiz[ing] it for policymakers". Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_29

The Directorate has four regional analytic groups, six groups for transnational issues, and three that focus on policy, collection, and staff support. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_30

There is an office dedicated to Iraq; regional analytical offices covering the Near East and South Asia, Russia and Europe; and the Asian Pacific, Latin American, and African offices. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_31

Directorate of Operations Central Intelligence Agency_section_4

Main article: Directorate of Operations (CIA) Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_32

The Directorate of Operations is responsible for collecting foreign intelligence (mainly from clandestine HUMINT sources), and for covert action. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_33

The name reflects its role as the coordinator of human intelligence activities between other elements of the wider U.S. intelligence community with their HUMINT operations. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_34

This Directorate was created in an attempt to end years of rivalry over influence, philosophy and budget between the United States Department of Defense (DOD) and the CIA. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_35

In spite of this, the Department of Defense recently organized its own global clandestine intelligence service, the Defense Clandestine Service (DCS), under the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA). Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_36

This Directorate is known to be organized by geographic regions and issues, but its precise organization is classified. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_37

Directorate of Science and Technology Central Intelligence Agency_section_5

Main article: Directorate of Science & Technology Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_38

The Directorate of Science & Technology was established to research, create, and manage technical collection disciplines and equipment. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_39

Many of its innovations were transferred to other intelligence organizations, or, as they became more overt, to the military services. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_40

For example, the development of the U-2 high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft was done in cooperation with the United States Air Force. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_41

The U-2's original mission was clandestine imagery intelligence over denied areas such as the Soviet Union. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_42

It was subsequently provided with signals intelligence and measurement and signature intelligence capabilities, and is now operated by the Air Force. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_43

A DS&T organization analyzed imagery intelligence collected by the U-2 and reconnaissance satellites called the National Photointerpretation Center (NPIC), which had analysts from both the CIA and the military services. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_44

Subsequently, NPIC was transferred to the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA). Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_45

Directorate of Support Central Intelligence Agency_section_6

Main article: Directorate of Support Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_46

The Directorate of Support has organizational and administrative functions to significant units including: Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_47

Central Intelligence Agency_unordered_list_2

  • The Office of SecurityCentral Intelligence Agency_item_2_10
  • The Office of CommunicationsCentral Intelligence Agency_item_2_11
  • The Office of Information TechnologyCentral Intelligence Agency_item_2_12

Directorate of Digital Innovation Central Intelligence Agency_section_7

The Directorate of Digital Innovation (DDI) focuses on accelerating innovation across the Agency's mission activities. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_48

It is the Agency's newest directorate. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_49

The Langley, Virginia-based office's mission is to streamline and integrate digital and cybersecurity capabilities into the CIA's espionage, counterintelligence, all-source analysis, open-source intelligence collection and covert action operations. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_50

It provides operations personnel with tools and techniques to use in cyber operations. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_51

It works with information technology infrastructure and practices cyber tradecraft. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_52

This means retrofitting the CIA for cyberwarfare. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_53

DDI officers help accelerate the integration of innovative methods and tools to enhance the CIA's cyber and digital capabilities on a global scale and ultimately help safeguard the United States. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_54

They also apply technical expertise to exploit clandestine and publicly available information (also known as open source data) using specialized methodologies and digital tools to plan, initiate and support the technical and human-based operations of the CIA. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_55

Before the establishment of the new digital directorate, offensive cyber operations were undertaken by the CIA's Information Operations Center. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_56

Little is known about how the office specifically functions or if it deploys offensive cyber capabilities. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_57

The directorate had been covertly operating since approximately March 2015 but formally began operations on October 1, 2015. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_58

According to classified budget documents, the CIA's computer network operations budget for fiscal year 2013 was $685.4 million. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_59

The NSA's budget was roughly $1 billion at the time. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_60

Rep. Adam Schiff, the California Democrat who serves as the ranking member of the House Intelligence Committee, endorsed the reorganization. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_61

"The director has challenged his workforce, the rest of the intelligence community and the nation to consider how we conduct the business of intelligence in a world that is profoundly different from 1947, when the CIA was founded," Schiff said. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_62

Training Central Intelligence Agency_section_8

Further information: CIA University, Sherman Kent School for Intelligence Analysis, Camp Peary, Harvey Point, and Warrenton Training Center Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_63

The CIA established its first training facility, the Office of Training and Education, in 1950. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_64

Following the end of the Cold War, the CIA's training budget was slashed, which had a negative effect on employee retention. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_65

In response, Director of Central Intelligence George Tenet established CIA University in 2002. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_66

CIA University holds between 200 and 300 courses each year, training both new hires and experienced intelligence officers, as well as CIA support staff. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_67

The facility works in partnership with the National Intelligence University, and includes the Sherman Kent School for Intelligence Analysis, the Directorate of Analysis' component of the university. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_68

For later stage training of student operations officers, there is at least one classified training area at Camp Peary, near Williamsburg, Virginia. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_69

Students are selected, and their progress evaluated, in ways derived from the OSS, published as the book Assessment of Men, Selection of Personnel for the Office of Strategic Services. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_70

Additional mission training is conducted at Harvey Point, North Carolina. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_71

The primary training facility for the Office of Communications is Warrenton Training Center, located near Warrenton, Virginia. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_72

The facility was established in 1951 and has been used by the CIA since at least 1955. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_73

Budget Central Intelligence Agency_section_9

Main article: United States intelligence budget Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_74

Details of the overall United States intelligence budget are classified. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_75

Under the Central Intelligence Agency Act of 1949, the Director of Central Intelligence is the only federal government employee who can spend "un-vouchered" government money. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_76

The government showed its 1997 budget was $26.6 billion for the fiscal year. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_77

The government has disclosed a total figure for all non-military intelligence spending since 2007; the fiscal 2013 figure is $52.6 billion. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_78

According to the 2013 mass surveillance disclosures, the CIA's fiscal 2013 budget is $14.7 billion, 28% of the total and almost 50% more than the budget of the National Security Agency. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_79

CIA's HUMINT budget is $2.3 billion, the SIGINT budget is $1.7 billion, and spending for security and logistics of CIA missions is $2.5 billion. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_80

"Covert action programs," including a variety of activities such as the CIA's drone fleet and anti-Iranian nuclear program activities, accounts for $2.6 billion. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_81

There were numerous previous attempts to obtain general information about the budget. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_82

As a result, reports revealed that CIA's annual budget in Fiscal Year 1963 was $550 million (inflation-adjusted US$ 4.6 billion in 2020), and the overall intelligence budget in FY 1997 was US $26.6 billion (inflation-adjusted US$ 42.4 billion in 2020). Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_83

There have been accidental disclosures; for instance, Mary Margaret Graham, a former CIA official and deputy director of national intelligence for collection in 2005, said that the annual intelligence budget was $44 billion, and in 1994 Congress accidentally published a budget of $43.4 billion (in 2012 dollars) in 1994 for the non-military National Intelligence Program, including $4.8 billion for the CIA. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_84

After the Marshall Plan was approved, appropriating $13.7 billion over five years, 5% of those funds or $685 million were secretly made available to the CIA. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_85

A portion of the enormous M-fund, established by the U.S. government during the post-war period for reconstruction of Japan, was secretly steered to the CIA. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_86

Employees Central Intelligence Agency_section_10

Polygraphing Central Intelligence Agency_section_11

Robert Baer, a CNN analyst and former CIA operative, stated that normally a CIA employee undergoes a polygraph examination every three to four years. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_87

Relationship with other intelligence agencies Central Intelligence Agency_section_12

The CIA acts as the primary US HUMINT and general analytic agency, under the Director of National Intelligence, who directs or coordinates the 16 member organizations of the United States Intelligence Community. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_88

In addition, it obtains information from other U.S. government intelligence agencies, commercial information sources, and foreign intelligence services. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_89

U.S. agencies Central Intelligence Agency_section_13

CIA employees form part of the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) workforce, created as a joint office of the CIA and US Air Force to operate the spy satellites of the US military. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_90

The Special Collections Service is a joint CIA and National Security Agency (NSA) office that conducts clandestine electronic surveillance in embassies and hostile territory throughout the world. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_91

Foreign intelligence services Central Intelligence Agency_section_14

The role and functions of the CIA are roughly equivalent to those of Germany's Federal Intelligence Service (BND), the United Kingdom's Secret Intelligence Service (the SIS or MI6), the Australian Secret Intelligence Service (ASIS), the French foreign intelligence service Direction générale de la Sécurité extérieure (DGSE), the Russian Foreign Intelligence Service (Sluzhba Vneshney Razvedki, SVR), the Chinese Ministry of State Security (MSS), the Indian Research and Analysis Wing (RAW), the Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI), the Egyptian General Intelligence Service, Israel's Mossad, and South Korea's National Intelligence Service (NIS). Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_92

While the preceding agencies both collect and analyze information, some like the U.S. State Department's Bureau of Intelligence and Research are purely analytical agencies. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_93

The CIA was instrumental in the establishment of intelligence services in several U.S. allied countries, including Germany's BND. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_94

The closest links of the U.S. IC to other foreign intelligence agencies are to Anglophone countries: Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_95

Special communications signals that intelligence-related messages can be shared with these four countries. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_96

An indication of the United States' close operational cooperation is the creation of a new message distribution label within the main U.S. military communications network. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_97

Previously, the marking of NOFORN (i.e., No Foreign Nationals) required the originator to specify which, if any, non-U.S. countries could receive the information. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_98

A new handling caveat, USA/AUS/CAN/GBR/NZL Five Eyes, used primarily on intelligence messages, gives an easier way to indicate that the material can be shared with Australia, Canada, United Kingdom, and New Zealand. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_99

The task of the division called "Verbindungsstelle 61" of the German Bundesnachrichtendienst is keeping contact to the CIA office in Wiesbaden. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_100

Ireland's Directorate of Military Intelligence liaises with the CIA, although it is not a member of the Five Eyes. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_101

History Central Intelligence Agency_section_15

Main article: History of the Central Intelligence Agency Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_102

The Central Intelligence Agency was created on July 26, 1947 when Harry S. Truman signed the National Security Act into law. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_103

A major impetus for the creation of the agency was growing tensions with the USSR following the end of World War II. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_104

Immediate predecessors Central Intelligence Agency_section_16

The success of the British Commandos during World War II prompted U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt to authorize the creation of an intelligence service modeled after the British Secret Intelligence Service (MI6), and Special Operations Executive. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_105

This led to the creation of the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) established by a Presidential military order issued by President Roosevelt on June 13, 1942. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_106

On September 20, 1945, shortly after the end of World War II, Harry S Truman signed an executive order dissolving the OSS, and by October 1945 its functions had been divided between the Departments of State and War. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_107

The division lasted only a few months. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_108

The first public mention of the "Central Intelligence Agency" appeared on a command-restructuring proposal presented by Jim Forrestal and Arthur Radford to the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_109 Senate Military Affairs Committee at the end of 1945. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_110

Despite opposition from the military establishment, the United States Department of State and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Truman established the National Intelligence Authority in January 1946. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_111

Its operational extension was known as the Central Intelligence Group (CIG), which was the direct predecessor of the CIA. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_112

National Security Act Central Intelligence Agency_section_17

Lawrence Houston, head counsel of the SSU, CIG, and, later CIA, was principal draftsman of the National Security Act of 1947, which dissolved the NIA and the CIG, and established both the National Security Council and the Central Intelligence Agency. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_113

In 1949 Houston helped to draft the Central Intelligence Agency Act (Public law 81-110), which authorized the agency to use confidential fiscal and administrative procedures, and exempted it from most limitations on the use of Federal funds. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_114

It also exempted the CIA from having to disclose its "organization, functions, officials, titles, salaries, or numbers of personnel employed." Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_115

It created the program "PL-110" to handle defectors and other "essential aliens" who fell outside normal immigration procedures. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_116

Intelligence vs. action Central Intelligence Agency_section_18

At the outset of the Korean War the CIA still only had a few thousand employees, around one thousand of whom worked in analysis. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_117

Intelligence primarily came from the Office of Reports and Estimates, which drew its reports from a daily take of State Department telegrams, military dispatches, and other public documents. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_118

The CIA still lacked its intelligence gathering abilities. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_119

On August 21, 1950, shortly after the invasion of South Korea, Truman announced Walter Bedell Smith as the new Director of the CIA to correct what was seen as a grave failure of Intelligence. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_120

The CIA had different demands placed on it by the various bodies overseeing it. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_121

Truman wanted a centralized group to organize the information that reached him, the Department of Defense wanted military intelligence and covert action, and the State Department wanted to create global political change favorable to the US. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_122

Thus the two areas of responsibility for the CIA were covert action and covert intelligence. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_123

One of the main targets for intelligence gathering was the Soviet Union, which had also been a priority of the CIA's predecessors. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_124

The United States Air Force general Hoyt Vandenberg, the CIG's second director, created the Office of Special Operations (OSO), as well as the Office of Reports and Estimates (ORE). Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_125

Initially the OSO was tasked with spying and subversion overseas with a budget of $15 million, the largesse of a small number of patrons in Congress. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_126

Vandenberg's goals were much like the ones set out by his predecessor; finding out "everything about the Soviet forces in Eastern and Central Europe – their movements, their capabilities, and their intentions." Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_127

On June 18, 1948, the National Security Council issued Directive 10/2 calling for covert action against the USSR, and granting the authority to carry out covert operations against "hostile foreign states or groups" that could, if needed, be denied by the U.S. government. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_128

To this end, the Office of Policy Coordination (OPC) was created inside the new CIA. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_129

The OPC was unique; Frank Wisner, the head of the OPC, answered not to the CIA Director, but to the secretaries of defense, state, and the NSC and the OPC's actions were a secret even from the head of the CIA. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_130

Most CIA stations had two station chiefs, one working for the OSO, and one working for the OPC. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_131

The early track record of the CIA was poor, with the agency unable to provide sufficient intelligence about the Soviet takeovers of Romania and Czechoslovakia, the Soviet blockade of Berlin, and the Soviet atomic bomb project. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_132

In particular, the agency failed to predict the Chinese entry into the Korean War with 300,000 troops. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_133

The famous double agent Kim Philby was the British liaison to American Central Intelligence. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_134

Through him, the CIA coordinated hundreds of airdrops inside the iron curtain, all compromised by Philby. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_135

Arlington Hall, the nerve center of CIA cryptanalysis, was compromised by Bill Weisband, a Russian translator and Soviet spy. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_136

However, the CIA was successful in influencing the 1948 Italian election in favor of the Christian Democrats. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_137

The $200 million Exchange Stabilization Fund, earmarked for the reconstruction of Europe, was used to pay wealthy Americans of Italian heritage. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_138

Cash was then distributed to Catholic Action, the Vatican's political arm, and directly to Italian politicians. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_139

This tactic of using its large fund to purchase elections was frequently repeated in the subsequent years. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_140

Korean War Central Intelligence Agency_section_19

See also: History of the Central Intelligence Agency § Korean War Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_141

At the beginning of the Korean War, CIA officer Hans Tofte claimed to have turned a thousand North Korean expatriates into a guerrilla force tasked with infiltration, guerrilla warfare, and pilot rescue. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_142

In 1952 the CIA sent 1,500 more expatriate agents north. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_143

Seoul station chief Albert Haney would openly celebrate the capabilities of those agents, and the information they sent. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_144

In September 1952 Haney was replaced by John Limond Hart, a Europe veteran with a vivid memory for bitter experiences of misinformation. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_145

Hart was suspicious of the parade of successes reported by Tofte and Haney and launched an investigation which determined that the entirety of the information supplied by the Korean sources was false or misleading. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_146

After the war, internal reviews by the CIA would corroborate Hart's findings. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_147

The CIA's Seoul station had 200 officers, but not a single speaker of Korean. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_148

Hart reported to Washington that Seoul station was hopeless, and could not be salvaged. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_149

Loftus Becker, Deputy Director of Intelligence, was sent personally to tell Hart that the CIA had to keep the station open to save face. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_150

Becker returned to Washington, pronounced the situation to be "hopeless," and that, after touring the CIA's Far East operations, the CIA's ability to gather intelligence in the far east was "almost negligible". Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_151

He then resigned. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_152

Air Force Colonel James Kallis stated that CIA director Allen Dulles continued to praise the CIA's Korean force, despite knowing that they were under enemy control. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_153

When China entered the war in 1950, the CIA attempted a number of subversive operations in the country, all of which failed due to the presence of double agents. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_154

Millions of dollars were spent in these efforts. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_155

These included a team of young CIA officers airdropped into China who were ambushed, and CIA funds being used to set up a global heroin empire in Burma's Golden Triangle following a betrayal by another double agent. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_156

1953 Iranian coup d'état Central Intelligence Agency_section_20

Main article: 1953 Iranian coup d'état Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_157

In 1951, Mohammad Mosaddegh, a member of the National Front, was elected Iranian prime-minister. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_158

As prime minister, he nationalized the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company which his predecessor had supported. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_159

The nationalization of the British-funded Iranian oil industry, including the largest oil refinery in the world, was disastrous for Mossadeq. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_160

A British naval embargo closed the British oil facilities, which Iran had no skilled workers to operate. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_161

In 1952, Mosaddegh resisted the royal refusal to approve his Minister of War and resigned in protest. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_162

The National Front took to the streets in protest. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_163

Fearing a loss of control, the military pulled its troops back five days later, and Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi gave in to Mosaddegh's demands. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_164

Mosaddegh quickly replaced military leaders loyal to the Shah with those loyal to him, giving him personal control over the military. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_165

Given six months of emergency powers, Mosaddegh unilaterally passed legislation. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_166

When that six months expired, his powers were extended for another year. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_167

In 1953, Mossadegh dismissed parliament and assumed dictatorial powers. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_168

This power grab triggered the Shah to exercise his constitutional right to dismiss Mosaddegh. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_169

Mosaddegh launched a military coup as the Shah fled the country. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_170

Under CIA Director Allen Dulles, Operation Ajax was put into motion. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_171

Its goal was to overthrow Mossadegh with military support from General Fazlollah Zahedi and install a pro-western regime headed by the Shah of Iran. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_172

Kermit Roosevelt Jr. oversaw the operation in Iran. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_173

On August 16, his new inner military circle protected a CIA paid mob led by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini would spark what a US embassy officer called "an almost spontaneous revolution" but Mosaddegh, and the CIA had been unable to gain influence within the Iranian military. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_174

Their chosen man, former general Fazlollah Zahedi, had no troops to call on. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_175

After the failure of the first coup, Roosevelt paid demonstrators to pose as communists and deface public symbols associated with the Shah. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_176

This August 19 incident helped foster public support of the Shah and led gangs of citizens on a spree of violence intent on destroying Mossadegh. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_177

An attack on his house would force Mossadegh to flee. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_178

He surrendered the next day, and his coup came to an end. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_179

1954 Guatemalan coup d'état Central Intelligence Agency_section_21

Main article: 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_180

The return of the Shah to power, and the impression, cultivated by Allen Dulles, that an effective CIA had been able to guide that nation to friendly and stable relations with the West triggered planning for Operation PBSuccess, a plan to overthrow Guatemalan President Jacobo Arbenz. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_181

The plan was exposed in major newspapers before it happened after a CIA agent left plans for the coup in his Guatemala City hotel room. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_182

The Guatemalan Revolution of 1944–54 overthrew the U.S. backed dictator Jorge Ubico and brought a democratically elected government to power. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_183

The government began an ambitious agrarian reform program attempting to grant land to millions of landless peasants. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_184

This program threatened the land holdings of the United Fruit Company, who lobbied for a coup by portraying these reforms as communist. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_185

On June 18, 1954, Carlos Castillo Armas led 480 CIA-trained men across the border from Honduras into Guatemala. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_186

The weapons had also come from the CIA. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_187

The CIA also mounted a psychological campaign to convince the Guatemalan people and government that Armas' victory was a fait accompli, the largest part of which was a radio broadcast entitled "The Voice of Liberation" which announced that Guatemalan exiles led by Castillo Armas were shortly about to liberate the country. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_188

On June 25, a CIA plane bombed Guatemala City, destroying the government's main oil reserves. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_189

Árbenz ordered the army to distribute weapons to local peasants and workers. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_190

The army refused, forcing Jacobo Árbenz's resignation on June 27, 1954. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_191

Árbenz handed over power to Colonel Carlos Enrique Diaz. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_192

The CIA then orchestrated a series of power transfers that ended with the confirmation of Castillo Armas as president in July 1954. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_193

Armas was the first in a series of military dictators that would rule the country, triggering the brutal Guatemalan Civil War in which some 200,000 people were killed, mostly by the U.S.-backed military. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_194

Syria Central Intelligence Agency_section_22

Main article: CIA activities in Syria Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_195

In 1949, Colonel Adib Shishakli rose to power in Syria in a CIA-backed coup. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_196

Four years later, he would be overthrown by the military, Ba'athists, and communists. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_197

The CIA and MI6 started funding right-wing members of the military but suffered a huge setback in the aftermath of the Suez Crisis. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_198

CIA Agent Rocky Stone, who had played a minor role in the Iranian Revolution, was working at the Damascus embassy as a diplomat but was the station chief. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_199

Syrian officers on the CIA dole quickly appeared on television stating that they had received money from "corrupt and sinister Americans" "in an attempt to overthrow the legitimate government of Syria." Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_200

Syrian forces surrounded the embassy and rousted Agent Stone, who confessed and subsequently made history as the first American diplomat expelled from an Arab nation. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_201

This strengthened ties between Syria and Egypt, helping establish the United Arab Republic, and poisoning the well for the US for the foreseeable future. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_202

Indonesia Central Intelligence Agency_section_23

Main article: CIA activities in Indonesia Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_203

See also: Indonesian mass killings of 1965–66 Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_204

The charismatic leader of Indonesia was President Sukarno. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_205

His declaration of neutrality in the Cold War put the suspicions of the CIA on him. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_206

After Sukarno hosted Bandung Conference, promoting the Non-Aligned Movement, the Eisenhower White House responded with NSC 5518 authorizing "all feasible covert means" to move Indonesia into the Western sphere. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_207

The US had no clear policy on Indonesia. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_208

Eisenhower sent his special assistant for security operations, F. M. Dearborn Jr., to Jakarta. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_209

His report that there was high instability, and that the US lacked stable allies, reinforced the domino theory. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_210

Indonesia suffered from what he described as "subversion by democracy". Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_211

The CIA decided to attempt another military coup in Indonesia, where the Indonesian military was trained by the US, had a strong professional relationship with the US military, had a pro-American officer corps that strongly supported their government, and a strong belief in civilian control of the military, instilled partly by its close association with the US military. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_212

On September 25, 1957, Eisenhower ordered the CIA to start a revolution in Indonesia with the goal of regime change. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_213

Three days later, Blitz, a Soviet-controlled weekly in India, reported that the US was plotting to overthrow Sukarno. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_214

The story was picked up by the media in Indonesia. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_215

One of the first parts of the operation was an 11,500-ton US Navy ship landing at Sumatra, delivering weapons for as many as 8,000 potential revolutionaries. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_216

The CIA described Agent Al Pope's bombing and strafing of Indonesia in a CIA B-26 to the President as attacks by "dissident planes." Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_217

Pope's B-26 was shot down over Ambon, Indonesia on May 18, 1958, and he bailed out. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_218

When he was captured, the Indonesian military found his personnel records, after-action reports, and his membership card for the officer's club at Clark Field. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_219

On March 9, Foster Dulles, the Secretary of State, and brother of DCI Allen Dulles made a public statement calling for a revolt against communist despotism under Sukarno. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_220

Three days later, the CIA reported to the White House that the Indonesian Army's actions against the CIA-instigated revolution were suppressing communism. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_221

After Indonesia, Eisenhower displayed mistrust of both the CIA and its Director, Allen Dulles. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_222

Dulles too displayed mistrust of the CIA itself. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_223

Abbot Smith, a CIA analyst who later became chief of the Office of National Estimates, said, "We had constructed for ourselves a picture of the USSR, and whatever happened had to be made to fit into this picture. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_224

Intelligence estimators can hardly commit a more abominable sin." Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_225

On December 16, Eisenhower received a report from his intelligence board of consultants that said the agency was "incapable of making objective appraisals of its own intelligence information as well as its own operations." Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_226

Democratic Republic of the Congo Central Intelligence Agency_section_24

Main article: CIA activities in the Democratic Republic of the Congo Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_227

In the election of Patrice Lumumba, and his acceptance of Soviet support the CIA saw another possible Cuba. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_228

This view swayed the White House. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_229

Eisenhower ordered that Lumumba be "eliminated." Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_230

The CIA delivered a quarter of a million dollars to Joseph Mobutu, their favored Congolese political figure. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_231

Mobutu delivered Lumumba to the Belgians, the former colonial masters of Congo, who executed him in short order. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_232

Gary Powers U-2 shootdown Central Intelligence Agency_section_25

Main article: 1960 U-2 incident Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_233

After the Bomber gap came the Missile Gap. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_234

Eisenhower wanted to use the U-2 to disprove the Missile Gap, but he had banned U-2 overflights of the USSR after meeting Secretary Khrushchev at Camp David. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_235

Another reason the President objected to the use of the U-2 was that, in the nuclear age, the intelligence he needed most was on their intentions, without which, the US would face a paralysis of intelligence. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_236

He was particularly worried that U-2 flights could be seen as preparations for first-strike attacks. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_237

He had high hopes for an upcoming meeting with Khrushchev in Paris. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_238

Eisenhower finally gave into CIA pressure to authorize a 16-day window for flights, which was extended an additional six days because of poor weather. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_239

On May 1, 1960, the USSR shot down a U-2 flying over the Soviet territory. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_240

To Eisenhower, the ensuing coverup destroyed his perceived honesty and his hope of leaving a legacy of thawing relations with Khrushchev. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_241

It would also mark the beginning of a long downward slide in the credibility of the Office of the President of the United States. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_242

Eisenhower later said that the U-2 coverup was the greatest regret of his presidency. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_243

Dominican Republic Central Intelligence Agency_section_26

See also: History of the Central Intelligence Agency § Dominican Republic Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_244

The human rights abuses of Generalissimo Rafael Trujillo had a history of more than three decades, but in August 1960 the United States severed diplomatic relations. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_245

The CIA's Special group had decided to arm Dominicans in hopes of an assassination. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_246

The CIA had dispersed three rifles and three .38 revolvers, but things paused as Kennedy assumed office. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_247

An order approved by Kennedy resulted in the dispersal of four machine guns. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_248

Trujillo died from gunshot wounds two weeks later. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_249

In the aftermath, Robert Kennedy wrote that the CIA had succeeded where it had failed many times in the past, but in the face of that success, it was caught flatfooted, having failed to plan what to do next. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_250

Bay of Pigs Central Intelligence Agency_section_27

Main article: Bay of Pigs invasion Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_251

See also: Assassination attempts on Fidel Castro Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_252

See also: History of the Central Intelligence Agency § Cuba Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_253

The CIA welcomed Fidel Castro on his visit to DC, and gave him a face-to-face briefing. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_254

The CIA hoped that Castro would bring about a friendly democratic government, and planned to curry his favor with money and guns. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_255

On December 11, 1959, a memo reached the DCI's desk recommending Castro's "elimination." Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_256

Dulles replaced the word "elimination" with "removal," and set the wheels in motion. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_257

By mid-August 1960, Dick Bissell would seek, with the blessing of the CIA, to hire the Mafia to assassinate Castro. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_258

The Bay of Pigs Invasion was a failed military invasion of Cuba undertaken by the CIA-sponsored paramilitary group Brigade 2506 on April 17, 1961. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_259

A counter-revolutionary military, trained and funded by the CIA, Brigade 2506 fronted the armed wing of the Democratic Revolutionary Front (DRF) and intended to overthrow the increasingly communist government of Fidel Castro. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_260

Launched from Guatemala, the invading force was defeated within three days by the Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces, under the direct command of Prime Minister Fidel Castro. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_261

US President Dwight D. Eisenhower was concerned at the direction Castro's government was taking, and in March 1960, Eisenhower allocated $13.1 million to the CIA to plan Castro's overthrow. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_262

The CIA proceeded to organize the operation with the aid of various Cuban counter-revolutionary forces, training Brigade 2506 in Guatemala. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_263

Over 1,400 paramilitaries set out for Cuba by boat on April 13. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_264

Two days later on April 15, eight CIA-supplied B-26 bombers attacked Cuban airfields. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_265

On the night of April 16, the main invasion landed in the Bay of Pigs, but by April 20, the invaders finally surrendered. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_266

The failed invasion strengthened the position of Castro's leadership as well as his ties with the USSR. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_267

This led eventually to the events of the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_268

The invasion was a major embarrassment for US foreign policy. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_269

US President John F. Kennedy ordered a number of internal investigations across Latin America. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_270

The Taylor Board was commissioned to determine what went wrong in Cuba. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_271

The Board came to the same conclusion that the Jan '61 President's Board of Consultants on Foreign Intelligence Activities had concluded, and many other reviews prior, and to come, that Covert Action had to be completely isolated from intelligence and analysis. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_272

The Inspector General of the CIA investigated the Bay of Pigs. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_273

He concluded that there was a need to improve the organization and management of the CIA drastically. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_274

The Special Group (Later renamed the 303 Committee) was convened in an oversight role. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_275

Cuba: Sabotage and Terrorism Central Intelligence Agency_section_28

Main article: Operation Mongoose Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_276

After the failure of the attempted invasion at the Bay of Pigs, the CIA proposed a program of sabotage and terrorist attacks against civilian and military targets in Cuba, with the stated intent to bring down the Cuban administration and institute a new government. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_277

It was authorized by the president in November 1961. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_278

The operation saw the CIA engage in an extensive campaign of terrorist attacks against civilians and economic targets, killing significant numbers of civilians, and carry out covert operations against the Cuban government. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_279

The CIA established a base for the operation in Miami, given the cryptonym JMWAVE. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_280

The operation was so extensive that it housed the largest number of CIA officers outside of Langley. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_281

It was a major employer in Florida, with several thousand agents in clandestine pay of the agency. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_282

The terrorist activities carried out by agents armed, organized and sponsored by the CIA were a further source of tension between the U.S. and Cuban governments. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_283

They were a major factor contributing to the Soviet decision to place missiles on Cuba, leading to the Cuban missile crisis. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_284

The attacks continued through 1965. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_285

Though the level of terrorist activity directed by the CIA lessened in the second half of the 1960s, in 1969 the CIA was directed to intensify its operations against Cuba. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_286

Exile terrorists were still in the employ of the CIA in the mid-1970s, including those responsible for the Cubana 455 bombing, the worst instance of airline terrorism in the western hemisphere prior to the attacks of September 2001 in New York. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_287

Despite the large number of civilians killed in the CIA's terrorist attacks, by the measure of its stated objective the project was a complete failure. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_288

Early Cold War, 1953–1966 Central Intelligence Agency_section_29

The CIA was involved in anti-Communist activities in Burma, Guatemala, and Laos. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_289

There have been suggestions that the Soviet attempt to put missiles into Cuba came, indirectly, when they realized how badly they had been compromised by a US–UK defector in place, Oleg Penkovsky. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_290

One of the most significant operations ever undertaken by the CIA was directed at Zaïre in support of general-turned-dictator Mobutu Sese Seko. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_291

Brazil Central Intelligence Agency_section_30

Main article: 1964 Brazilian coup d'état Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_292

The CIA and the United States government were involved in the 1964 Brazilian coup d'état. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_293

The coup occurred from March 31 to April 1, which resulted in the Brazilian Armed Forces ousting President João Goulart. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_294

The United States saw Goulart as a left-wing threat in Latin America. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_295

Secret cables written by the US Ambassador to Brazil, Lincoln Gordon, confirmed that the CIA was involved in covert action in Brazil. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_296

The CIA encouraged "pro-democracy street rallies" in Brazil, for instance, to create dissent against Goulart. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_297

Indochina, Tibet and the Vietnam War (1954–1975) Central Intelligence Agency_section_31

Main articles: CIA Tibetan program, CIA activities in Vietnam, Vietnam War, Phoenix Program, Operation Barrel Roll, CIA activities in Laos, and Laotian Civil War Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_298

The OSS Patti mission arrived in Vietnam near the end of World War II, and had significant interaction with the leaders of many Vietnamese factions, including Ho Chi Minh. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_299

The CIA Tibetan program consisted of political plots, propaganda distribution, and paramilitary and intelligence gathering based on U.S. commitments made to the Dalai Lama in 1951 and 1956. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_300

During the period of U.S. combat involvement in the Vietnam War, there was considerable argument about progress among the Department of Defense under Robert McNamara, the CIA, and, to some extent, the intelligence staff of Military Assistance Command Vietnam. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_301

Sometime between 1959 and 1961, the CIA started Project Tiger, a program of dropping South Vietnamese agents into North Vietnam to gather intelligence. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_302

These were failures; the Deputy Chief for Project Tiger, Captain Do Van Tien, admitted that he was an agent for Hanoi. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_303

Johnson Central Intelligence Agency_section_32

In the face of the failure of Project Tiger, the Pentagon wanted CIA paramilitary forces to participate in their Op Plan 64A, this resulted in the CIA's foreign paramilitaries being put under the command of the DOD, a move seen as a slippery slope inside the CIA, a slide from covert action towards militarization. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_304

The antiwar movement rapidly expanded across the United States during the Johnson presidency. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_305

Johnson wanted CIA Director Richard Helms to substantiate Johnson's hunch that Moscow and Beijing were financing and influencing the American antiwar movement. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_306

Thus, in the fall of 1967, the CIA launched a domestic surveillance program code-named Chaos that would linger for a total of seven years. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_307

Police departments across the country cooperated in tandem with the agency, amassing a "computer index of 300,000 names of American people and organizations, and extensive files on 7,200 citizens." Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_308

Helms hatched a "Special Operations Group" in which "[eleven] CIA officers grew long hair, learned the jargon of the New Left, and went off to infiltrate peace groups in the United States and Europe." Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_309

A CIA analyst's assessment of Vietnam was that the US was "becoming progressively divorced from reality... [and] proceeding with far more courage than wisdom". Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_310

Nixon Central Intelligence Agency_section_33

See also: History of the Central Intelligence Agency § Nixon Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_311

In 1971, the NSA and CIA were engaged in domestic spying. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_312

The DOD was eavesdropping on Kissinger. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_313

The White House and Camp David were wired for sound. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_314

Nixon and Kissinger were eavesdropping on their aides, as well as reporters. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_315

Famously, Nixon's Plumbers had in their number many former CIA agents, including Howard Hunt, Jim McCord, and Eugenio Martinez. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_316

On July 7, 1971, John Ehrlichman, Nixon's domestic policy chief, told DCI Cushman, Nixon's hatchet-man in the CIA, to let Cushman "know that [Hunt] was, in fact, doing some things for the President... you should consider he has pretty much carte blanche" Importantly, this included a camera, disguises, a voice-altering device, and ID papers furnished by the CIA, as well as the CIA's participation developing film from the burglary Hunt staged on the office of Pentagon Papers leaker Daniel Ellsberg's psychologist. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_317

On June 17, Nixon's Plumbers were caught burglarizing the DNC offices in the Watergate. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_318

On June 23, DCI Helms was ordered by the White House to wave the FBI off using national security as a pretext. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_319

The new DCI, Walters, another Nixon hack, called the acting director of the FBI and told him to drop the investigation as ordered. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_320

On June 26, Nixon's counsel John Dean ordered DCI Walters to pay the plumbers untraceable hush money. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_321

The CIA was the only part of the government that had the power to make off the book payments, but it could only be done on the orders of the CI, or, if he was out of the country, the DCI. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_322

The Acting Director of the FBI started breaking ranks. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_323

He demanded the CIA produce a signed document attesting to the national security threat of the investigation. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_324

Jim McCord's lawyer contacted the CIA informing them that McCord had been offered a Presidential pardon if he fingered the CIA, testifying that the break-in had been an operation of the CIA. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_325

Nixon had long been frustrated by what he saw as a liberal infection inside the CIA and had been trying for years to tear the CIA out by its roots. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_326

McCord wrote "If [DCI] Helms goes (takes the fall) and the Watergate operation is laid at the CIA's feet, where it does not belong, every tree in the forest will fall. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_327

It will be a scorched desert." Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_328

On November 13, after Nixon's landslide re-election, Nixon told Kissinger "[I intend] to ruin the Foreign Service. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_329

I mean ruin it – the old Foreign Service – and to build a new one." Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_330

He had similar designs for the CIA and intended to replace Helms with James Schlesinger. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_331

Nixon had told Helms that he was on the way out, and promised that Helms could stay on until his 60th birthday, the mandatory retirement age. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_332

On February 2, Nixon broke that promise, carrying through with his intention to "remove the deadwood" from the CIA. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_333

"Get rid of the clowns" was his order to the incoming CI. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_334

Kissinger had been running the CIA since the beginning of Nixon's presidency, but Nixon impressed on Schlesinger that he must appear to Congress to be in charge, averting their suspicion of Kissinger's involvement. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_335

Nixon also hoped that Schlesinger could push through broader changes in the intelligence community that he had been working towards for years, the creation of a Director of National Intelligence, and spinning off the covert action part of the CIA into a separate organ. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_336

Before Helms would leave office, he would destroy every tape he had secretly made of meetings in his office, and many of the papers on Project MKUltra. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_337

In Schlesinger's 17-week tenure, in his assertion to President Nixon that it was "imperative to cut back on 'the prominence of CIA operations' around the world," the director fired more than 1,500 employees. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_338

As Watergate threw the spotlight on the CIA, Schlesinger, who had been kept in the dark about the CIA's involvement, decided he needed to know what skeletons were in the closet. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_339

He issued a memo to every CIA employee directing them to disclose to him any CIA activity they knew of past or present that could fall outside the scope of the CIA's charter. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_340

This became the Family Jewels. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_341

It included information linking the CIA to the assassination of foreign leaders, the illegal surveillance of some 7,000 U.S. citizens involved in the antiwar movement (Operation CHAOS), the CIA had also experimented on U.S. and Canadian citizens without their knowledge, secretly giving them LSD (among other things) and observing the results. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_342

This prompted Congress to create the Church Committee in the Senate, and the Pike Committee in the House. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_343

President Gerald Ford created the Rockefeller Commission, and issued an executive order prohibiting the assassination of foreign leaders. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_344

DCI Colby leaked the papers to the press, later he stated that he believed that providing Congress with this information was the correct thing to do, and ultimately in the CIA's interests. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_345

Congressional Investigations Central Intelligence Agency_section_34

Acting Attorney General Laurence Silberman learned of the existence of the Family Jewels and issued a subpoena for them, prompting eight congressional investigations on the domestic spying activities of the CIA. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_346

Bill Colby's short tenure as DCI would end with the Halloween Massacre. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_347

His replacement was George H.W. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_348 Bush. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_349

At the time, the DOD had control of 80% of the intelligence budget. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_350

Communication and coordination between the CIA and the DOD would suffer greatly under Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_351

The CIA's budget for hiring clandestine officers had been squeezed out by the paramilitary operations in south-east Asia, and the government's poor popularity further strained hiring. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_352

This left the agency bloated with middle management, and anemic in younger officers. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_353

With employee training taking five years, the agency's only hope would be on the trickle of new officers coming to fruition years in the future. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_354

The CIA would see another setback as communists would take Angola. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_355

William J. Casey, a member of Ford's Intelligence Advisory Board, obtained Bush's approval to allow a team from outside the CIA to produce Soviet military estimates as a "Team B." Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_356

The "B" team was composed of hawks. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_357

Their estimates were the highest that could be justified, and they painted a picture of a growing Soviet military when the Soviet military was indeed shrinking. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_358

Many of their reports found their way to the press. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_359

As a result of the investigations, congressional oversight of the CIA eventually evolved into a select intelligence committee in the House, and Senate supervising covert actions authorized by the President. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_360

Chad Central Intelligence Agency_section_35

Main article: CIA activities in Chad Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_361

Chad's neighbor Libya was a major source of weaponry to communist rebel forces. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_362

The CIA seized the opportunity to arm and finance Chad's Prime Minister, Hissène Habré, after he created a breakaway government in Western Sudan, even giving him Stinger missiles. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_363

Afghanistan Central Intelligence Agency_section_36

See also: CIA activities in Afghanistan and Operation Cyclone Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_364

Further information: Allegations of CIA assistance to Osama bin Laden Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_365

In Afghanistan, the CIA funneled $40 billion worth of weapons, which included over two thousand FIM-92 Stinger surface-to-air missiles, to Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI), which funneled them to almost 100,000 Afghan resistance fighters, notably the Mujahideen, and foreign "Afghan Arabs" from forty Muslim countries. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_366

Iran/Contra Central Intelligence Agency_section_37

See also: History of the Central Intelligence Agency § Iran/Contra Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_367

Under President Jimmy Carter, the CIA was conducting covertly funded pro-American opposition against the Sandinista. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_368

In March 1981, Reagan told Congress that the CIA would protect El Salvador by preventing the shipment of Nicaraguan arms into the country to arm Communist rebels. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_369

This was a ruse. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_370

The CIA was arming and training Nicaraguans Contras in Honduras in hopes that they could depose the Sandinistas in Nicaragua. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_371

Through the intelligence branch of the CIA supported William J. Casey's tenure as DCI little of what he said in the National Security Planning Group, or to President Reagan, so Casey formed the Central American Task Force, staffed with yes men from Covert Action. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_372

On December 21, 1982, Congress passed a law restricting the CIA to its stated mission, restricting the flow of arms from Nicaragua to El Salvador, prohibiting the use of funds to oust the Sandinistas. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_373

Reagan testified before Congress, assuring them that the CIA was not trying to topple the Nicaraguan government. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_374

Lebanon Central Intelligence Agency_section_38

The CIA's prime source in Lebanon was Bashir Gemayel, a member of the Christian Maronite sect. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_375

The uprising against the Maronite minority blinded the CIA. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_376

Israel invaded Lebanon, and, along with the CIA, propped up Gemayel. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_377

This got Gemayel's assurance that Americans would be protected in Lebanon. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_378

Thirteen days later he was assassinated. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_379

Imad Mughniyah, a Hezbollah assassin would target Americans in retaliation for the Israeli invasion, the Sabra and Shatila massacre, and the US Marines of the Multi-National Force for their role in opposing the PLO in Lebanon. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_380

On April 18, 1983, a 2,000 lb car bomb exploded in the lobby of the American embassy in Beirut, killing 63 people including 17 Americans, and 7 CIA officers, including Robert Ames, one of the CIA's best Middle East experts. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_381

America's fortunes in Lebanon would only suffer more as America's poorly-directed retaliation for the bombing was interpreted by many as support for the Christian Maronite minority. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_382

On October 23, 1983, two bombs (1983 Beirut Bombing) were set off in Beirut, including a 10-ton bomb at a US military barracks that killed 242 people. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_383

The Embassy bombing had taken the life of the CIA's Beirut Station Chief, Ken Haas. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_384

Bill Buckley was sent in to replace him. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_385

Eighteen days after the US Marines left Lebanon, Buckley was kidnapped. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_386

On March 7, 1984, Jeremy Levin, CNN Bureau Chief in Beirut was kidnapped. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_387

Twelve more Americans would be captured in Beirut during the Reagan Administration. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_388

Manucher Ghorbanifar, a former Savak agent was an information seller, and the subject of a rare CIA burn notice for his track record of misinformation. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_389

He reached out to the agency offering a back channel to Iran, suggesting a trade of missiles that would be lucrative to the intermediaries. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_390

Pakistan Central Intelligence Agency_section_39

Main article: CIA activities in Pakistan Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_391

It has been alleged by such authors as Ahmed Rashid that the CIA and ISI have been waging a clandestine war. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_392

The Afghan Taliban – with whom the United States is officially in conflict – is headquartered in Pakistan's Federally Administered Tribal Areas and according to some reports is largely funded by the ISI. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_393

The Pakistani government denies this. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_394

India–Pakistan geopolitical tensions Central Intelligence Agency_section_40

On May 11, 1998, CIA Director George Tenet and his agency were taken aback by India's second nuclear test. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_395

The bellicose gesture ruffled the feathers of its nuclear-capable adversary, Pakistan, and, furthermore, "remade the balance of power in the world." Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_396

The nuclear test was New Delhi's calculated response to Pakistan previously testing new missiles in its expanding arsenal. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_397

This seismic series of events subsequently revealed the CIA's "failure of espionage, a failure to read photographs, a failure to comprehend reports, a failure to think, and a failure to see." Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_398

Poland 1980–1989 Central Intelligence Agency_section_41

See also: Poland–United States relations Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_399

Unlike the Carter Administration, the Reagan Administration supported the Solidarity movement in Poland, and – based on CIA intelligence – waged a public relations campaign to deter what the Carter administration felt was "an imminent move by large Soviet military forces into Poland." Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_400

Colonel Ryszard Kukliński, a senior officer on the Polish General Staff, was secretly sending reports to the CIA. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_401

The CIA transferred around $2 million yearly in cash to Solidarity, which suggests that $10 million total is a reasonable estimate for the five-year total. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_402

There were no direct links between the CIA and Solidarnosc, and all money was channeled through third parties. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_403

CIA officers were barred from meeting Solidarity leaders, and the CIA's contacts with Solidarnosc activists were weaker than those of the AFL-CIO, which raised 300 thousand dollars from its members, which were used to provide material and cash directly to Solidarity, with no control of Solidarity's use of it. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_404

The U.S. Congress authorized the National Endowment for Democracy to promote democracy, and the NED allocated $10 million to Solidarity. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_405

When the Polish government launched a crackdown of its own in December 1981, however, Solidarity was not alerted. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_406

Potential explanations for this vary; some believe that the CIA was caught off guard, while others suggest that American policy-makers viewed an internal crackdown as preferable to an "inevitable Soviet intervention." Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_407

CIA support for Solidarity included money, equipment and training, which was coordinated by Special Operations CIA division. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_408

Henry Hyde, U.S. House intelligence committee member, stated that USA provided "supplies and technical assistance in terms of clandestine newspapers, broadcasting, propaganda, money, organizational help and advice". Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_409

Michael Reisman from Yale Law School named operations in Poland as one of the covert actions of CIA during Cold War. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_410

Initial funds for covert actions by CIA were $2 million, but soon after authorization was increased and by 1985 CIA successfully infiltrated Poland Rainer Thiel in Nested Games of External Democracy Promotion: The United States and the Polish Liberalization 1980–1989 mentions how covert operations by CIA and spy games among others allowed USA to proceed with successful regime change. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_411

Operation Desert Storm Central Intelligence Agency_section_42

Main article: Gulf War Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_412

During the Iran-Iraq war, the CIA had backed both sides. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_413

The CIA had maintained a network of spies in Iran, but in 1989 a CIA mistake compromised every agent they had in there, and the CIA had no agents in Iraq. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_414

In the weeks before the Invasion of Kuwait, the CIA downplayed the military buildup. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_415

During the war, CIA estimates of Iraqi abilities and intentions flip-flopped and were rarely accurate. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_416

In one particular case, the DOD had asked the CIA to identify military targets to bomb. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_417

One target the CIA identified was an underground shelter. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_418

The CIA didn't know that it was a civilian bomb shelter. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_419

In a rare instance, the CIA correctly determined that the coalition forces efforts were coming up short in their efforts to destroy SCUD missiles. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_420

Congress took away the CIA's role in interpreting spy-satellite photos, putting the CIA's satellite intelligence operations under the auspices of the military. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_421

The CIA created its office of military affairs, which operated as "second-echelon support for the Pentagon... answering... questions from military men [like] 'how wide is this road?'" Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_422

Fall of the USSR Central Intelligence Agency_section_43

See also: History of the Central Intelligence Agency § Fall of the USSR Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_423

Gorbachev's announcement of the unilateral reduction of 500,000 Soviet troops took the CIA by surprise. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_424

Moreover, Doug MacEachin, the CIA's Chief of Soviet analysis said that even if the CIA had told the President, the NSC, and Congress about the cuts beforehand, it would have been ignored. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_425

"We never would have been able to publish it." Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_426

All the CIA numbers on the USSR's economy were wrong. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_427

Too often the CIA relied on inexperienced people supposedly deemed experts. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_428

Bob Gates had preceded Doug MacEachin as Chief of Soviet analysis, and he had never visited Russia. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_429

Few officers, even those stationed in the country spoke the language of the people on whom they spied. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_430

And the CIA could not send agents to respond to developing situations. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_431

The CIA analysis of Russia during the entire cold war was either driven by ideology, or by politics. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_432

William J. Crowe, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, noted that the CIA "talked about the Soviet Union as if they weren't reading the newspapers, much less developed clandestine intelligence." Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_433

President Clinton Central Intelligence Agency_section_44

On January 25, 1993, Mir Qazi opened fire at the CIA headquarters in Langley, Virginia, killing two agents and wounding three others. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_434

On February 26, Al-Qaeda terrorists led by Ramzi Yousef bombed the parking garage below the North Tower of the World Trade Center in New York City, killing six people and injuring 1,402 others. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_435

During the Bosnian War, the CIA ignored signs within and without of the Srebrenica massacre. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_436

On July 13, 1995, when the press report about the massacre came out, the CIA received pictures from spy satellite of prisoners guarded by men with guns in Srebrenica. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_437

The CIA had no agents on the ground to verify the report. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_438

Two weeks after news reports of the slaughter, the CIA sent a U-2 to photograph it. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_439

A week later the CIA completed its report on the matter. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_440

The final report came to the Oval Office on August 4, 1995. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_441

In short, it took three weeks for the agency to confirm that one of the largest mass murders in Europe since the Second World War had occurred. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_442

Another CIA mistakes in Balkan during Clinton presidency occurred in NATO bombing of Serbia. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_443

To force Slobodan Milošević to withdraw his troops from Kosovo. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_444

The CIA had been invited to provide military targets for bombings. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_445

The agency's analysts used tourist maps to fix the location. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_446

However, the agency incorrectly provided the coordinates of the Chinese Embassy as a target resulting in its bombing. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_447

The CIA had misread the target as Slobodan Milosevic 's military depot. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_448

In France, the CIA had orders for economic intelligence; a female CIA agent revealed her connections to the CIA to the French. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_449

Dick Holm, Paris Station Chief, was expelled. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_450

In Guatemala, the CIA produced the Murphy Memo, based on audio recordings made by bugs planted by Guatemalan intelligence in the bedroom of Ambassador Marilyn McAfee. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_451

In the recording, Ambassador McAfee verbally entreated "Murphy." Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_452

The CIA circulated a memo in the highest Washington circles accusing Ambassador McAfee of having an extramarital lesbian affair with her secretary, Carol Murphy. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_453

There was no affair. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_454

Ambassador McAfee was calling to Murphy, her poodle. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_455

Harold James Nicholson would burn several serving officers and three years of trainees before he was caught spying for Russia. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_456

In 1997 the House would pen another report, which said that CIA officers know little about the language or politics of the people they spy on; the conclusion was that the CIA lacked the "depth, breadth, and expertise to monitor political, military, and economic developments worldwide." Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_457

Russ Travers said in the CIA in-house journal that in five years "intelligence failure is inevitable". Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_458

In 1997 the CIA's new director George Tenet would promise a new working agency by 2002. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_459

The CIA's surprise at India's detonation of an atom bomb was a failure at almost every level. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_460

After the 1998 embassy bombings by Al Qaeda, the CIA offered two targets to be hit in retaliation. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_461

One of them was the Al-Shifa pharmaceutical factory, where traces of chemical weapon precursors had been detected. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_462

In the aftermath, it was concluded that "the decision to target al Shifa continues a tradition of operating on inadequate intelligence about Sudan." Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_463

It triggered the CIA to make "substantial and sweeping changes" to prevent "a catastrophic systemic intelligence failure." Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_464

Between 1991 and 1998 the CIA lost 3,000 employees. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_465

Aldrich Ames Central Intelligence Agency_section_45

See also: Aldrich Ames Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_466

Between 1985 and 1986, the CIA lost every spy it had in Eastern Europe. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_467

The details of the investigation into the cause were obscured from the new Director, and the investigation had little success and has been widely criticized. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_468

On February 21, 1994, FBI agents pulled Aldrich Ames out of his Jaguar. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_469

In the investigation that ensued, the CIA discovered that many of the sources for its most important analyses of the USSR were based on Soviet disinformation fed to the CIA by controlled agents. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_470

On top of that, it was discovered that, in some cases, the CIA suspected at the time that the sources were compromised, but the information was sent up the chain as genuine. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_471

Osama bin Laden Central Intelligence Agency_section_46

Agency files show that it is believed Osama bin Laden was funding the Afghan rebels against the USSR in the 1980s. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_472

In 1991, bin Laden returned to his native Saudi Arabia protesting the presence of troops, and Operation Desert Storm. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_473

He was expelled from the country. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_474

In 1996, the CIA created a team to hunt bin Laden. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_475

They were trading information with the Sudanese until, on the word of a source that would later be found to be a fabricator, the CIA closed its Sudan station later that year. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_476

In 1998, bin Laden would declare war on America, and, on August 7, strike in Tanzania and Nairobi. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_477

On October 12, 2000, Al Qaeda bombed the USS Cole. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_478

In the first days of George W. Bush's presidency, Al Qaeda threats were ubiquitous in daily presidential CIA briefings, but it may have become a case of crying wolf. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_479

The agency's predictions were dire but carried little weight, and the focus of the president and his defense staff were elsewhere. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_480

The CIA arranged the arrests of suspected Al Qaeda members through cooperation with foreign agencies, but the CIA could not definitively say what effect these arrests have had, and it could not gain hard intelligence from those captured. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_481

The President had asked the CIA if Al Qaeda could plan attacks in the US. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_482

On August 6, Bush received a daily briefing with the headline, not based on current, solid intelligence, "Al Qaeda determined to strike inside the US." Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_483

The US had been hunting bin Laden since 1996 and had had several opportunities, but neither Clinton, nor Bush had wanted to risk taking an active role in a murky assassination plot, and the perfect opportunity had never materialized for a DCI that would have given him the reassurances he needed to take the plunge. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_484

That day, Richard A. Clarke sent National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice warning of the risks, and decrying the inaction of the CIA. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_485

Al-Qaeda and the Global War on Terrorism Central Intelligence Agency_section_47

Further information: CIA transnational anti-terrorism activities, Human rights violations by the CIA, and Senate Intelligence Committee report on CIA torture Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_486

The CIA had long been dealing with terrorism originating from abroad, and in 1986 had set up a Counterterrorist Center to deal specifically with the problem. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_487

At first, confronted with secular terrorism, the agency found Islamist terrorism looming increasingly large on its scope. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_488

In January 1996, the CIA created an experimental "virtual station," the Bin Laden Issue Station, under the Counterterrorist Center, to track bin Laden's developing activities. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_489

Al-Fadl, who defected to the CIA in spring 1996, began to provide the Station with a new image of the Al Qaeda leader: he was not only a terrorist financier but a terrorist organizer as well. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_490

FBI Special Agent Dan Coleman (who together with his partner Jack Cloonan had been "seconded" to the bin Laden Station) called him Qaeda's "Rosetta Stone". Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_491

In 1999, CIA chief George Tenet launched a plan to deal with al-Qaeda. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_492

The Counterterrorist Center, its new chief, Cofer Black, and the center's bin Laden unit were the plan's developers and executors. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_493

Once it was prepared, Tenet assigned CIA intelligence chief Charles E. Allen to set up a "Qaeda cell" to oversee its tactical execution. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_494

In 2000, the CIA and USAF jointly ran a series of flights over Afghanistan with a small remote-controlled reconnaissance drone, the Predator; they obtained probable photos of bin Laden. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_495

Cofer Black and others became advocates of arming the Predator with missiles to try to assassinate bin Laden and other al-Qaeda leaders. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_496

After the Cabinet-level Principals Committee meeting on terrorism of September 4, 2001, the CIA resumed reconnaissance flights, the drones now being weapons-capable. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_497

September 11 attacks and its aftermath Central Intelligence Agency_section_48

On September 11, 2001, 19 Al-Qaeda members hijacked four passenger jets within the Northeastern United States in a series of coordinated terrorist attacks. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_498

Two planes crashed into the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in New York City, the third into the Pentagon in Arlington County, Virginia, and the fourth inadvertently into a field near Shanksville, Pennsylvania. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_499

The attacks cost the lives of 2,996 people (including the 19 hijackers), caused the destruction of the Twin Towers, and damaged the western side of the Pentagon. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_500

Soon after 9/11, The New York Times released a story stating that the CIA's New York field office was destroyed in the wake of the attacks. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_501

According to unnamed CIA sources, while first responders, military personnel and volunteers were conducting rescue efforts at the World Trade Center site, a special CIA team was searching the rubble for both digital and paper copies of classified documents. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_502

This was done according to well-rehearsed document recovery procedures put in place after the Iranian takeover of the United States Embassy in Tehran in 1979. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_503

While it was not confirmed whether the agency was able to retrieve the classified information, it is known that all agents present that day fled the building safely. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_504

While the CIA insists that those who conducted the attacks on 9/11 were not aware that the agency was operating at 7 World Trade Center under the guise of another (unidentified) federal agency, this center was the headquarters for many notable criminal terrorism investigations. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_505

Though the New York field offices' main responsibilities were to monitor and recruit foreign officials stationed at the United Nations, the field office also handled the investigations of the August 1998 bombings of United States Embassies in East Africa and the October 2000 bombing of the USS Cole. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_506

Despite the fact that the 9/11 attacks may have damaged the CIA's New York branch, and they had to loan office space from the US Mission to the United Nations and other federal agencies, there was an upside for the CIA. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_507

In the months immediately following 9/11, there was a huge increase in the number of applications for CIA positions. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_508

According to CIA representatives that spoke with The New York Times, pre-9/11 the agency received approximately 500 to 600 applications a week, in the months following 9/11 the agency received that number daily. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_509

The intelligence community as a whole, and especially the CIA, were involved in presidential planning immediately after the 9/11 attacks. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_510

In his address to the nation at 8:30pm on September 11, 2001, George W. Bush mentioned the intelligence community: "The search is underway for those who are behind these evil acts, I've directed the full resource of our intelligence and law enforcement communities to find those responsible and bring them to justice." Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_511

The involvement of the CIA in the newly coined "War on Terror" was further increased on September 15, 2001. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_512

During a meeting at Camp David George W. Bush agreed to adopt a plan proposed by CIA director George Tenet. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_513

This plan consisted of conducting a covert war in which CIA paramilitary officers would cooperate with anti-Taliban guerillas inside Afghanistan. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_514

They would later be joined by small special operations forces teams which would call in precision airstrikes on Taliban and Al Qaeda fighters. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_515

This plan was codified on September 16, 2001, with Bush's signature of an official Memorandum of Notification that allowed the plan to proceed. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_516

On November 25–27, 2001, Taliban prisoners revolted at the Qala Jangi prison west of Mazar-e-Sharif. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_517

Though several days of struggle occurred between the Taliban prisoners and the Northern Alliance members present, the prisoners gained the upper hand and obtained North Alliance weapons. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_518

At some point during this period Johnny "Mike" Spann, a CIA officer sent to question the prisoners, was beaten to death. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_519

He became the first American to die in combat in the war in Afghanistan. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_520

After 9/11, the CIA came under criticism for not having done enough to prevent the attacks. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_521

Tenet rejected the criticism, citing the agency's planning efforts especially over the preceding two years. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_522

He also considered that the CIA's efforts had put the agency in a position to respond rapidly and effectively to the attacks, both in the "Afghan sanctuary" and in "ninety-two countries around the world". Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_523

The new strategy was called the "Worldwide Attack Matrix". Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_524

Anwar al-Awlaki, a Yemeni-American U.S. citizen and al-Qaeda member, was killed on September 30, 2011, by an airstrike conducted by the Joint Special Operations Command. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_525

After several days of surveillance of Awlaki by the Central Intelligence Agency, armed drones took off from a new, secret American base in the Arabian Peninsula, crossed into northern Yemen, and fired several Hellfire missiles at al-Awlaki's vehicle. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_526

Samir Khan, a Pakistani-American al-Qaeda member and editor of the jihadist Inspire magazine, also reportedly died in the attack. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_527

The combined CIA/JSOC drone strike was the first in Yemen since 2002 – there have been others by the military's Special Operations forces – and was part of an effort by the spy agency to duplicate in Yemen the covert war which has been running in Afghanistan and Pakistan. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_528

Use of vaccination program in hunt for Osama bin Laden Central Intelligence Agency_section_49

The agency attracted widespread criticism after it used a local doctor in Pakistan to set up a hepatitis B vaccination program in Abbottabad in 2011 to obtain DNA samples from the occupants of a compound where it was suspected bin Laden was living, hoping to obtain samples from bin Laden or his children in order to confirm his presence. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_529

It is unknown whether any useful DNA was acquired from the program, but it was deemed not successful. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_530

The doctor was later arrested and sentenced to a lengthy prison term on allegedly unrelated charges. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_531

Médecins Sans Frontières criticised the CIA for endangering and undermining trust in medical workers and The New York Times reported that the CIA's action had increased resistance to vaccination programs in Pakistan. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_532

Failures in intelligence analysis Central Intelligence Agency_section_50

A major criticism is a failure to forestall the September 11 attacks. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_533

The 9/11 Commission Report identified failures in the IC as a whole. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_534

One problem, for example, was the FBI failing to "connect the dots" by sharing information among its decentralized field offices. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_535

The report concluded that former DCI George Tenet failed to adequately prepare the agency to deal with the danger posed by al-Qaeda prior to the attacks of September 11, 2001. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_536

The report was finished in June 2005 and was partially released to the public in an agreement with Congress, over the objections of current DCI General Michael Hayden. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_537

Hayden said its publication would "consume time and attention revisiting ground that is already well plowed." Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_538

Tenet disagreed with the report's conclusions, citing his planning efforts vis-à-vis al-Qaeda, particularly from 1999. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_539

Assistant Secretary of State for Intelligence, Carl W. Ford Jr. remarked, ""As long as we rate intelligence more for its volume than its quality, we will continue to turn out the $40 billion pile of crap we have become famous for." Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_540

He further stated, "[The CIA is] broken. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_541

It's so broken that nobody wants to believe it." Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_542

Abuses of CIA authority, 1970s–1990s Central Intelligence Agency_section_51

Conditions worsened in the mid-1970s, around the time of Watergate. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_543

A dominant feature of political life during that period were the attempts of Congress to assert oversight of the U.S. Presidency and the executive branch of the U.S. government. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_544

Revelations about past CIA activities, such as assassinations and attempted assassinations of foreign leaders (most notably Fidel Castro and Rafael Trujillo) and illegal domestic spying on U.S. citizens, provided the opportunities to increase Congressional oversight of U.S. intelligence operations. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_545

CIA involvement in Contra cocaine trafficking in Nicaragua and complicity in the actions of the death squads in El Salvador and Honduras also came to light. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_546

Hastening the CIA's fall from grace was the burglary of the Watergate headquarters of the Democratic Party by former CIA officers, and President Richard Nixon's subsequent attempt to use the CIA to impede the FBI's investigation of the burglary. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_547

In the famous "smoking gun" recording that led to President Nixon's resignation, Nixon ordered his chief of staff, H. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_548 R. Haldeman, to tell the CIA that further investigation of Watergate would "open the whole can of worms about the Bay of Pigs". Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_549

In this way Nixon and Haldemann ensured that the CIA's No. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_550

1 and No. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_551

2 ranking officials, Richard Helms and Vernon Walters, communicated to FBI Director L. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_552 Patrick Gray that the FBI should not follow the money trail from the burglars to the Committee to Re-elect the President, as it would uncover CIA informants in Mexico. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_553

The FBI initially agreed to this due to a long-standing agreement between the FBI and CIA not to uncover each other's sources of information, though within a couple of weeks the FBI demanded this request in writing, and when no such formal request came, the FBI resumed its investigation into the money trail. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_554

Nonetheless, when the smoking gun tapes were made public, damage to the public's perception of CIA's top officials, and thus to the CIA as a whole, could not be avoided. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_555

Repercussions from the Iran–Contra affair arms smuggling scandal included the creation of the Intelligence Authorization Act in 1991. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_556

It defined covert operations as secret missions in geopolitical areas where the U.S. is neither openly nor engaged. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_557

This also required an authorizing chain of command, including an official, presidential finding report and the informing of the House and Senate Intelligence Committees, which, in emergencies, requires only "timely notification." Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_558

Iraq War Central Intelligence Agency_section_52

Main article: CIA activities in Iraq Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_559

Further information: Plame affair Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_560

Seventy-two days after the 9/11 attacks, President Bush told Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld to update the US plan for an invasion of Iraq, but not to tell anyone. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_561

Rumsfeld asked Bush if he could bring DCI Tenet into the loop, to which Bush agreed. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_562

The CIA had put out feelers to Iraq in the form of eight of their best officers in Kurdish territory in Northern Iraq. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_563

These officers hit a goldmine, unprecedented in the famously closed Hussein government. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_564

By December 2002, the CIA had close to a dozen functional networks in Iraq and would penetrate Iraq's SSO, tap the encrypted communications of the Deputy Prime Minister, and recruit the bodyguard of Hussein's son as an agent. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_565

As time passed, the CIA would become more and more frantic about the possibility of their networks being compromised. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_566

To the CIA, the invasion had to occur before the end of February 2003 if their sources inside Hussein's government were to survive. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_567

The rollup would happen as predicted, 37 CIA sources recognized by their Thuraya satellite telephones provided for them by the CIA. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_568

The case Colin Powell presented before the United Nations (purportedly proving an Iraqi WMD program) was inaccurate. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_569

DDCI John E. McLaughlin was part of a long discussion in the CIA about equivocation. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_570

McLaughlin, who would make, among others, the "slam dunk" presentation to the President, "felt that they had to dare to be wrong to be clearer in their judgments". Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_571

The Al Qaeda connection, for instance, was from a single source, extracted through torture, and was later denied. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_572

Curveball was a known liar, and the sole source for the mobile chemical weapons factories. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_573

A postmortem of the intelligence failures in the lead up to Iraq led by former DDCI Richard Kerr would conclude that the CIA had been a casualty of the Cold War, wiped out in a way "analogous to the effect of the meteor strikes on the dinosaurs." Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_574

The opening days of the invasion of Iraq would see successes and defeats for the CIA. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_575

With its Iraq networks compromised, and its strategic and tactical information shallow, and often wrong, the intelligence side of the invasion itself would be a black eye for the agency. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_576

The CIA would see some success with its "Scorpion" paramilitary teams composed of CIA Special Activities Division agents, along with friendly Iraqi partisans. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_577

CIA SAD officers would also help the US 10th Special Forces. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_578

The occupation of Iraq would be a low point in the history of the CIA. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_579

At the largest CIA station in the world, agents would rotate through 1–3-month tours. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_580

In Iraq, almost 500 transient agents would be trapped inside the Green Zone while Iraq station chiefs would rotate with only a little less frequency. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_581

2004, DNI takes over CIA top-level functions Central Intelligence Agency_section_53

The Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 created the office of the Director of National Intelligence (DNI), who took over some of the government and intelligence community (IC)-wide functions that had previously been the CIA's. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_582

The DNI manages the United States Intelligence Community and in so doing it manages the intelligence cycle. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_583

Among the functions that moved to the DNI were the preparation of estimates reflecting the consolidated opinion of the 16 IC agencies, and preparation of briefings for the president. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_584

On July 30, 2008, President Bush issued Executive Order 13470 amending Executive Order 12333 to strengthen the role of the DNI. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_585

Previously, the Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) oversaw the Intelligence Community, serving as the president's principal intelligence advisor, additionally serving as head of the CIA. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_586

The DCI's title now is "Director of the Central Intelligence Agency" (D/CIA), serving as head of the CIA. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_587

Currently, the CIA reports to the Director of National Intelligence. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_588

Before the establishment of the DNI, the CIA reported to the President, with informational briefings to congressional committees. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_589

The National Security Advisor is a permanent member of the National Security Council, responsible for briefing the President with pertinent information collected by all U.S. intelligence agencies, including the National Security Agency, the Drug Enforcement Administration, etc. All 16 Intelligence Community agencies are under the authority of the Director of National Intelligence. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_590

Operation Neptune Spear Central Intelligence Agency_section_54

See also: Death of Osama bin Laden Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_591

On May 1, 2011, President Barack Obama announced that Osama bin Laden was killed earlier that day by "a small team of Americans" operating in Abbottabad, Pakistan, during a CIA operation. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_592

The raid was executed from a CIA forward base in Afghanistan by elements of the U.S. Navy's Naval Special Warfare Development Group and CIA paramilitary operatives. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_593

It resulted in the acquisition of extensive intelligence on the future attack plans of al-Qaeda. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_594

The operation was a result of years of intelligence work that included the CIA's capture and interrogation of Khalid Sheik Mohammad, which led to the identity of a courier of bin Laden's, the tracking of the courier to the compound by Special Activities Division paramilitary operatives and the establishing of a CIA safe house to provide critical tactical intelligence for the operation. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_595

Syrian Civil War Central Intelligence Agency_section_55

Main article: CIA activities in Syria Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_596

Under the aegis of operation Timber Sycamore and other clandestine activities, CIA operatives and U.S. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_597 special operations troops have trained and armed nearly 10,000 rebel fighters at a cost of $1 billion a year. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_598

The CIA has been sending weapons to anti-government rebels in Syria since at least 2012. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_599

These weapons have been reportedly falling into hands of extremists, such as al-Nusra Front and ISIL. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_600

Around February 2017, the CIA was instructed to halt military aid to Syrian rebels (Free Syrian Army or FSA), which also included training, ammunition, guided missiles, and salaries. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_601

Sources state that the hold on aid was not related to the transitions from Obama's administration to Trump's, but rather due to issues faced by the FSA. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_602

Based on responses by rebel officials, they believe that the aid freeze is related to concerns that weapons and funds will fall into the hands of ISIL. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_603

Based on information obtained by Reuters, five FSA groups have confirmed that they received funding and military support from a source called "MOM operations room." Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_604

Several countries besides the U.S., including Turkey, Qatar, and Saudi Arabia, had also contributed to the funding of the FSA. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_605

On April 6, 2017, Al-Jazeera reported that funding to the FSA was partially restored. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_606

Based on the information provided by two FSA sources, the new military operation room will receive its funds from the coalition "Friends of Syria." Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_607

The coalition consists of members from the U.S, Turkey, Western Europe, and Gulf states, which previously supported the military operation known as MOM. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_608

It was reported in July 2017 that President Donald Trump had ordered a "phasing out" of the CIA's support for anti-Assad rebels. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_609

Reorganization Central Intelligence Agency_section_56

On March 6, 2015, the office of the D/CIA issued an unclassified edition of a statement by the Director, titled "Our Agency's Blueprint for the Future," as a press release for public consumption. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_610

The press release announced sweeping plans for the reorganization and reform of the CIA, which the Director believes will bring the CIA more in line with the agency doctrine called the 'Strategic Direction.' Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_611

Among the key changes disclosed include the establishment of a new directorate, the Directorate of Digital Innovation, which is responsible for designing and crafting the digital technology to be used by the agency, to keep the CIA always ahead of its enemies. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_612

The Directorate of Digital Innovation will also train CIA staff in the use of this technology, to prepare the CIA for the future, and it will also use the technological revolution to deal with cyber-terrorism and other perceived threats. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_613

The new directorate will be the chief cyber-espionage arm of the agency going forward. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_614

Other changes which were announced include the formation of a Talent Development Center of Excellence, the enhancement and expansion of the CIA University and the creation of the office of the Chancellor to head the CIA University to consolidate and unify recruitment and training efforts. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_615

The office of the Executive Director will be empowered and expanded, and the secretarial offices serving the Executive Director will be streamlined. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_616

The restructuring of the entire Agency is to be revamped according to a new model whereby governance is modeled after the structure and hierarchy of corporations, said to increase the efficiency of workflow and to enable the Executive Director to manage day-to-day activity significantly. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_617

As well, another stated intention was to establish 'Mission Centers', each one to deal with a specific geographic region of the world, which will bring the full collaboration and joint efforts of the five Directorates together under one roof. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_618

While the Directorate heads will still retain ultimate authority over their respective Directorate, the Mission Centers will be led by an Assistant Director who will work with the capabilities and talents of all five Directorates on mission-specific goals for the parts of the world which they are given responsibility for. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_619

The unclassified version of the document ends with the announcement that the National Clandestine Service (NCS) will be reverting to its original Directorate name, the Directorate of Operations. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_620

The Directorate of Intelligence is also being renamed. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_621

It will now be the Directorate of Analysis. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_622

Drones Central Intelligence Agency_section_57

A new policy introduced by President Barack Obama removed the authority of the CIA to launch drone attacks and allowed these attacks only under Department of Defense command. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_623

This change was reversed by President Donald Trump, who authorized CIA drone strikes on suspected terrorists. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_624

Encryption devices sold through front company Central Intelligence Agency_section_58

For decades until 2018, the CIA secretly owned Crypto AG, a small Swiss company that made encryption devices, in association with West German intelligence. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_625

The company sold compromised encryption devices to over 120 countries, allowing Western intelligence to eavesdrop on communications that the users believed to be secure. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_626

Open source intelligence Central Intelligence Agency_section_59

Further information: Foreign Broadcast Information Service and Open Source Center Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_627

Until the 2004 reorganization of the intelligence community, one of the "services of common concern" that the CIA provided was open source intelligence from the Foreign Broadcast Information Service (FBIS). Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_628

FBIS, which had absorbed the Joint Publication Research Service, a military organization that translated documents, moved into the National Open Source Enterprise under the Director of National Intelligence. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_629

During the Reagan administration, Michael Sekora (assigned to the DIA), worked with agencies across the intelligence community, including the CIA, to develop and deploy a technology-based competitive strategy system called Project Socrates. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_630

Project Socrates was designed to utilize open source intelligence gathering almost exclusively. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_631

The technology-focused Socrates system supported such programs as the Strategic Defense Initiative in addition to private sector projects. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_632

As part of its mandate to gather intelligence, the CIA is looking increasingly online for information, and has become a major consumer of social media. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_633

"We're looking at YouTube, which carries some unique and honest-to-goodness intelligence," said Doug Naquin, director of the DNI Open Source Center (OSC) at CIA headquarters. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_634

"We're looking at chat rooms and things that didn't exist five years ago, and trying to stay ahead." Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_635

CIA launched a Twitter account in June 2014. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_636

Outsourcing and privatization Central Intelligence Agency_section_60

See also: Intelligence Outsourcing Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_637

Many of the duties and functions of Intelligence Community activities, not the CIA alone, are being outsourced and privatized. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_638

Mike McConnell, former Director of National Intelligence, was about to publicize an investigation report of outsourcing by U.S. intelligence agencies, as required by Congress. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_639

However, this report was then classified. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_640

Hillhouse speculates that this report includes requirements for the CIA to report: Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_641

Central Intelligence Agency_unordered_list_3

  • different standards for government employees and contractors;Central Intelligence Agency_item_3_13
  • contractors providing similar services to government workers;Central Intelligence Agency_item_3_14
  • analysis of costs of contractors vs. employees;Central Intelligence Agency_item_3_15
  • an assessment of the appropriateness of outsourced activities;Central Intelligence Agency_item_3_16
  • an estimate of the number of contracts and contractors;Central Intelligence Agency_item_3_17
  • comparison of compensation for contractors and government employees;Central Intelligence Agency_item_3_18
  • attrition analysis of government employees;Central Intelligence Agency_item_3_19
  • descriptions of positions to be converted back to the employee model;Central Intelligence Agency_item_3_20
  • an evaluation of accountability mechanisms;Central Intelligence Agency_item_3_21
  • an evaluation of procedures for "conducting oversight of contractors to ensure identification and prosecution of criminal violations, financial waste, fraud, or other abuses committed by contractors or contract personnel"; andCentral Intelligence Agency_item_3_22
  • an "identification of best practices of accountability mechanisms within service contracts."Central Intelligence Agency_item_3_23

According to investigative journalist Tim Shorrock: Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_642

Congress had required an outsourcing report by March 30, 2008. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_643

The problem is two-fold. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_644

Part of the problem, according to Author Tim Weiner, is that political appointees designated by recent presidential administrations have sometimes been under-qualified or over-zealous politically. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_645

Large scale purges have taken place in the upper echelons of the CIA, and when those talented individuals are pushed out the door they have frequently gone on to found new independent intelligence companies which can suck up CIA talent. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_646

Another part of the contracting problem comes from Congressional restrictions on the number of employees within the IC. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_647

According to Hillhouse, this resulted in 70% of the de facto workforce of the CIA's National Clandestine Service being made up of contractors. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_648

"After years of contributing to the increasing reliance upon contractors, Congress is now providing a framework for the conversion of contractors into federal government employees – more or less." Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_649

The number of independent contractors hired by the Federal government across the intelligence community has skyrocketed. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_650

So, not only does the CIA have trouble hiring, but those hires will frequently leave their permanent employ for shorter term contract gigs which have much higher pay and allow for more career mobility. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_651

As with most government agencies, building equipment often is contracted. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_652

The National Reconnaissance Office (NRO), responsible for the development and operation of airborne and spaceborne sensors, long was a joint operation of the CIA and the United States Department of Defense. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_653

The NRO had been significantly involved in the design of such sensors, but the NRO, then under DCI authority, contracted more of the design that had been their tradition, and to a contractor without extensive reconnaissance experience, Boeing. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_654

The next-generation satellite Future Imagery Architecture project "how does heaven look," which missed objectives after $4 billion in cost overruns, was the result of this contract. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_655

Some of the cost problems associated with intelligence come from one agency, or even a group within an agency, not accepting the compartmented security practices for individual projects, requiring expensive duplication. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_656

Controversies Central Intelligence Agency_section_61

Main article: List of CIA controversies Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_657

See also: Human rights violations by the CIA, Allegations of CIA drug trafficking, CIA influence on public opinion, Project Mockingbird, Extraordinary rendition, Assassination of Orlando Letelier, Cubana de Aviación Flight 455, and Operation Condor Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_658

Throughout its history, the CIA has been the subject of many controversies, both at home and abroad. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_659

In fiction Central Intelligence Agency_section_62

Main article: CIA in fiction Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_660

Fictional depictions of the CIA exist in many books, films and video games. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_661

Some fiction draws, at least in parts, on actual historical events, while other works are entirely fictional. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_662

The television series Chuck (2007), was based solely on a man who accidentally sees secret CIA encryptions and eventually becomes an asset/liability, and later on an agent in the agency. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_663

Films include Charlie Wilson's War (2007), based on the story of U.S. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_664

Congressman Charlie Wilson and CIA operative Gust Avrakotos, who supported the Afghan mujahideen, and The Good Shepherd (2006), a fictional spy film produced and directed by Robert De Niro based loosely on the development of counter-intelligence in the CIA. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_665

The fictional character Jack Ryan in Tom Clancy's books is a CIA analyst. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_666

Graham Greene's The Quiet American is about a CIA agent operating in Southeast Asia. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_667

Fictional depictions of the CIA are also used in video games, such as Tom Clancy's Splinter Cell, Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2 and Call of Duty: Black Ops. Central Intelligence Agency_sentence_668

See also Central Intelligence Agency_section_63

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central Intelligence Agency.