Cesar-Ranchería Basin

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Cesar-Ranchería Basin_table_infobox_0

Cesar-Ranchería BasinCesar-Ranchería Basin_header_cell_0_0_0
CoordinatesCesar-Ranchería Basin_header_cell_0_1_0 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_0_1_1
EtymologyCesar-Ranchería Basin_header_cell_0_2_0 Cesar & Ranchería RiversCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_0_2_1
RegionCesar-Ranchería Basin_header_cell_0_3_0 Caribbean

 Guajira-Barranquilla xeric scrub ecoregionCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_0_3_1

CountryCesar-Ranchería Basin_header_cell_0_4_0 ColombiaCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_0_4_1
State(s)Cesar-Ranchería Basin_header_cell_0_5_0 Cesar, La GuajiraCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_0_5_1
CitiesCesar-Ranchería Basin_header_cell_0_6_0 ValleduparCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_0_6_1
CharacteristicsCesar-Ranchería Basin_header_cell_0_7_0
On/OffshoreCesar-Ranchería Basin_header_cell_0_8_0 OnshoreCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_0_8_1
BoundariesCesar-Ranchería Basin_header_cell_0_9_0 Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Oca Fault, Venezuela, Bucaramanga-Santa Marta FaultCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_0_9_1
Part ofCesar-Ranchería Basin_header_cell_0_10_0 Andean foreland basinsCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_0_10_1
AreaCesar-Ranchería Basin_header_cell_0_11_0 11,668 km (4,505 sq mi)Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_0_11_1
HydrologyCesar-Ranchería Basin_header_cell_0_12_0
River(s)Cesar-Ranchería Basin_header_cell_0_13_0 Cesar, Ranchería, GuatapuríCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_0_13_1
GeologyCesar-Ranchería Basin_header_cell_0_14_0
Basin typeCesar-Ranchería Basin_header_cell_0_15_0 Intermontane foreland basinCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_0_15_1
PlateCesar-Ranchería Basin_header_cell_0_16_0 North AndesCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_0_16_1
OrogenyCesar-Ranchería Basin_header_cell_0_17_0 AndeanCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_0_17_1
AgeCesar-Ranchería Basin_header_cell_0_18_0 Jurassic-HoloceneCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_0_18_1
StratigraphyCesar-Ranchería Basin_header_cell_0_19_0 StratigraphyCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_0_19_1
Field(s)Cesar-Ranchería Basin_header_cell_0_20_0 MarracasCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_0_20_1

The Cesar-Ranchería Basin (Spanish: Cuenca Cesar-Ranchería) is a sedimentary basin in northeastern Colombia. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_0

It is located in the southern part of the department of La Guajira and northeastern portion of Cesar. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_1

The basin is bound by the Oca Fault in the northeast and the Bucaramanga-Santa Marta Fault in the west. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_2

The mountain ranges Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta and the Serranía del Perijá enclose the narrow triangular intermontane basin, that covers an area of 11,668 square kilometres (4,505 sq mi). Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_3

The Cesar and Ranchería Rivers flow through the basin, bearing their names. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_4

The basin is of importance for hosting the worldwide tenth biggest and largest coal mine of Latin America, Cerrejón. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_5

The coals are mined from the Paleocene Cerrejón Formation, that also has provided several important paleontological finds, among others Titanoboa cerrejonensis, with an estimated length of 14 metres (46 ft) and a weight of 1,135 kilograms (2,502 lb), the biggest snake discovered to date, the giant crocodylians Cerrejonisuchus improcerus, Anthracosuchus balrogus and Acherontisuchus guajiraensis, and the large turtles Carbonemys cofrinii, Puentemys mushaisaensis and Cerrejonemys wayuunaiki. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_6

Various genera of flora, as Aerofructus dillhoffi, Menispermites cerrejonensis, M. guajiraensis, Montrichardia aquatica, Petrocardium cerrejonense and P. wayuuorum, Stephania palaeosudamericana and Ulmoidicarpum tupperi among others, have been found in the Cerrejón Formation, the sediments of which are interpreted as representing the first Neotropic forest in the world. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_7

Mean annual temperature has been estimated to have been between 28.5 and 33 °C (83.3 and 91.4 °F) and yearly precipitation ranging from 2,260 to 4,640 millimetres (89 to 183 in) per year. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_8

The Cesar-Ranchería Basin is relatively underexplored for hydrocarbons, compared to neighbouring hydrocarbon-rich provinces as the Maracaibo Basin and Middle Magdalena Valley. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_9

The first oil exploration was conducted in 1916 and several wells have been drilled since then. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_10

The basin is estimated to host the second-largest reserves of coal bed methane (CBM) of Colombia, with 25% of the country's total resources. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_11

The coal of the basin is mined in several quarries, most notably Cerrejón and La Francia. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_12

The total production of coal from the Cesar-Ranchería Basin in 2016 was almost 81 Megatons. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_13

Etymology Cesar-Ranchería Basin_section_0

The name of the basin is taken from the Cesar and Ranchería Rivers. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_14

Description Cesar-Ranchería Basin_section_1

The Cesar-Ranchería Basin is an intermontane foreland basin enclosed by two main mountain ranges; the northernmost Andean Serranía del Perijá in the southeast of the basin and the triangular Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta to the northwest. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_15

The northeastern limit is sharply formed by the dextral strike-slip Oca Fault, while the Bucaramanga-Santa Marta Fault forms the boundary to the west. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_16

The faults form the border with the Guajira Basin and Middle Magdalena Valley respectively. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_17

The basin has a general orientation of 30 degrees from north. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_18

The Cesar-Ranchería Basin is subdivided into the Cesar Basin in the west, named after and hydrographically dominated by the Cesar River in the Magdalena River watershed, and the Ranchería Basin in the east. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_19

The latter is named after the Ranchería River flowing towards the Caribbean Sea and separated from the Cesar River by the intrabasinal Valledupar High, an extension of the Verdesia High. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_20

The southeastern edge of the basin is formed by the border with Venezuela. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_21

In total, the basin covers an area of 11,668 square kilometres (4,505 sq mi). Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_22

The sedimentary sequence inside the basin comprises Jurassic to Quaternary rocks, underlain by Paleozoic basement. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_23

An important unit is the Paleocene Cerrejón Formation, hosting major coal reserves, excavated in several open-pit mines of which Cerrejón in the northeast of the basin is the most striking. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_24

Cerrejón is the tenth biggest coal mine worldwide and the largest of Latin America. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_25

The formation provides low-ash, low-sulphur bituminous coal with a total production in 2016 of almost 33 Megatons. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_26

Other coal mines include La Francia, in the western Cesar portion of the basin. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_27

The total coal production of the Cesar-Ranchería Basin in 2016 was nearly 81 Megatons. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_28

The Cesar-Ranchería Basin is located at the northern edge of the South American Plate, close to the Caribbean Plate. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_29

During the Mesozoic and early Cenozoic eras, the basin was connected to the Magdalena River basins (Middle and Lower Magdalena Valleys) and the Sinú-Jacinto Basin in the west and the Maracaibo Basin, of which the Catatumbo Basin forms the Colombian part, in the east. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_30

Compressional tectonic movement commenced in the Late Paleogene, creating an intermontane foreland basin enclosed by the Serranía del Perijá and the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_31

The east-west oriented dextral strike-slip Oca Fault in the north is estimated to have been active since the Early Eocene with a total displacement of 180 kilometres (110 mi). Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_32

The Bucaramanga-Santa Marta Fault was a Jurassic extensional rift fault, reactivated as oblique reverse fault in the Oligocene. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_33

Petroleum exploration in the Cesar-Ranchería Basin commenced in 1916. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_34

The first exploitation of hydrocarbons was performed in 1921 and 1922 at Infantas in the Ranchería Basin and in 1938 the first well (El Paso-1) was drilled in the Cesar Basin. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_35

The basin is relatively underexplored. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_36

The first 2D seismic lines were shot in the late 1970s and 1980s. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_37

The deepest well, El Paso-3, drilled to a total depth of 3,538 metres (11,608 ft) into the Cretaceous Aguas Blancas Formation. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_38

Oil extracted from the La Luna and Lagunitas Formations in the Papayal-1 well provided API gravities between 27 and 42. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_39

Gas is produced from the Colón and La Luna Formations at the Maracas Field in the extreme southwest of the basin. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_40

A 2012 study of the yet-to-find potential of the Colombian sedimentary basins provided estimates of (P90-P10) 6 to 217 billion barrels (950×10^ to 34,500×10^ m) total generated oil in the Cesar-Ranchería Basin. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_41

The basin is considered to be the second-most prospective of Colombia in coal bed methane (CBM) with 25% of the country's total resources. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_42

Total probable gas reserves from this unconventional source have been estimated in 2014 at between 12.8 and 25.1 trillion cubic feet (360×10^ and 710×10^ m), up from an estimate ten years before of 6.9 trillion cubic feet (200×10^ m). Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_43

Municipalities Cesar-Ranchería Basin_section_2

Cesar-Ranchería Basin_table_general_1

Municipality

bold is capitalCesar-Ranchería Basin_header_cell_1_0_0

DepartmentCesar-Ranchería Basin_header_cell_1_0_1 Altitude

of urban centreCesar-Ranchería Basin_header_cell_1_0_2

Inhabitants

2015Cesar-Ranchería Basin_header_cell_1_0_3

NotesCesar-Ranchería Basin_header_cell_1_0_4 TopographyCesar-Ranchería Basin_header_cell_1_0_5
AlbaniaCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_1_0 La GuajiraCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_1_1 320 m (1,050 ft)Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_1_2 26,606Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_1_3 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_1_4 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_1_5
BarrancasCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_2_0 La GuajiraCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_2_1 40 m (130 ft)Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_2_2 34,619Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_2_3 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_2_4
HatonuevoCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_3_0 La GuajiraCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_3_1 50 m (160 ft)Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_3_2 24,916Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_3_3 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_3_4
DistracciónCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_4_0 La GuajiraCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_4_1 65 m (213 ft)Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_4_2 15,790Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_4_3 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_4_4
FonsecaCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_5_0 La GuajiraCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_5_1 11.8 m (39 ft)Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_5_2 33,254Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_5_3 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_5_4
El MolinoCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_6_0 La GuajiraCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_6_1 240 m (790 ft)Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_6_2 8718Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_6_3 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_6_4
San Juan del CesarCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_7_0 La GuajiraCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_7_1 250 m (820 ft)Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_7_2 37,327Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_7_3 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_7_4
VillanuevaCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_8_0 La GuajiraCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_8_1 250 m (820 ft)Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_8_2 27,657Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_8_3 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_8_4
UrumitaCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_9_0 La GuajiraCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_9_1 255 m (837 ft)Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_9_2 17,910Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_9_3 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_9_4
La Jagua del PilarCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_10_0 La GuajiraCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_10_1 223 m (732 ft)Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_10_2 3213Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_10_3 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_10_4
ValleduparCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_11_0 CesarCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_11_1 168 m (551 ft)Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_11_2 473,232Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_11_3 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_11_4 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_11_5
Manaure Balcón del CesarCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_12_0 CesarCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_12_1 775 m (2,543 ft)Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_12_2 14,514Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_12_3 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_12_4
La PazCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_13_0 CesarCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_13_1 165 m (541 ft)Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_13_2 22,815Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_13_3 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_13_4
Pueblo BelloCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_14_0 CesarCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_14_1 1,200 m (3,900 ft)Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_14_2 22,275Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_14_3 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_14_4
San DiegoCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_15_0 CesarCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_15_1 180 m (590 ft)Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_15_2 22,815Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_15_3 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_15_4
Agustín CodazziCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_16_0 CesarCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_16_1 131 m (430 ft)Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_16_2 50,829Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_16_3 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_16_4
BosconiaCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_17_0 CesarCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_17_1 200 m (660 ft)Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_17_2 37,248Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_17_3 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_17_4
El PasoCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_18_0 CesarCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_18_1 36 m (118 ft)Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_18_2 22,832Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_18_3 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_18_4
BecerrilCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_19_0 CesarCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_19_1 200 m (660 ft)Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_19_2 13,453Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_19_3 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_19_4
La Jagua de IbiricoCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_20_0 CesarCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_20_1 150 m (490 ft)Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_20_2 22,283Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_20_3 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_20_4
ChiriguanáCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_21_0 CesarCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_21_1 40 m (130 ft)Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_21_2 19,650Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_21_3 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_21_4
CurumaníCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_22_0 CesarCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_22_1 112 m (367 ft)Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_22_2 24,367Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_22_3 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_22_4
ChimichaguaCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_23_0 CesarCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_23_1 49 m (161 ft)Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_23_2 30,658Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_23_3 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_1_23_4

Tectonic history Cesar-Ranchería Basin_section_3

The tectonic history of the Cesar-Ranchería Basin has been subdivided into six phases. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_44

The basin started as a passive margin in the Paleozoic, followed by a compressive margin in the Late Permian to Triassic, a phase of rifting in the Jurassic. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_45

Subsequently, the basin experienced a back-arc basin setting in the Cretaceous, a second compressive margin during the Late Cretaceous to Eocene and a final intramontane phase since the Eocene. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_46

Passive margin Cesar-Ranchería Basin_section_4

The passive margin phase was characterised by the deposition of shallow marine sediments in three periods, divided by unconformities. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_47

The unconformities have been dated to the Ordovician-Silurian, Early Carboniferous and Early Permian respectively. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_48

The events were accompanied by acidic plutons found all across northern South America. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_49

Compressive margin I Cesar-Ranchería Basin_section_5

Sediments from the Late Permian to Triassic periods are absent in the Cesar-Ranchería Basin, but evidenced in the surrounding orogens. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_50

Intense magmatism and metamorphism affected the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta and the Central Ranges of the Colombian Andes. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_51

The compressive phase is associated with the Hercynian orogeny, leading to the formation of Pangea. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_52

Rift basin Cesar-Ranchería Basin_section_6

The break-up of Pangea in the Early Jurassic generated a sequence of rift basins in northern South America, surrounding the proto-Caribbean. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_53

The area of the present-day Serranía del Perijá was a continental rift, while basins to the west were marine in origin. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_54

Regional fault lineaments formed during this phase, that during the compression of the Andean orogenic stage were reactivated as thrust faults. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_55

The current compressional faults of the Cesar-Ranchería Basin are high-angle. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_56

The rift basin setting spanned the Jurassic period and was followed by post-rift sedimentation in the Early Cretaceous, evidenced by the Río Negro and Lagunitas Formations. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_57

Back-arc basin Cesar-Ranchería Basin_section_7

During the Cretaceous, the basins of northern South America were connected in a back-arc basin setting. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_58

The first phase of the Andean orogeny uplifted the Western Ranges and was characterised by magmatism in the Sierra de San Lucas in the northern Central Ranges, dated to the Albian to Cenomanian epochs. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_59

Sedimentation on the northern South American platform was of siliciclastic and carbonate character, the latter more dominant in the northern areas. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_60

In the Cesar-Ranchería Basin, this led to the deposition of the main source rock formations of the basin, most notably La Luna. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_61

Compressive margin II Cesar-Ranchería Basin_section_8

A second phase of compressive margin has been noted in the Cesar-Ranchería Basin by the strong differences between the sedimentary thicknesses of the Paleocene formations. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_62

During this stage in the basin development, the Cesar-Ranchería Basin was connected to the Middle Magdalena Valley to the west. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_63

The Paleocene Lisama Formation has a reduced thickness in the northern part of the Middle Magdalena Valley due to erosion, while the Paleocene section in the Cesar-Ranchería Basin is very thick. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_64

This has been explained by the tilt of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta and the formation of several thick-skinned thrust faults in the basin. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_65

The initiation of this compressive phase has been dated to the Maastrichtian, when tectonic uplift and deformation was active in the Central Ranges, to the west of the basin. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_66

Intermontane foreland basin Cesar-Ranchería Basin_section_9

While the Llanos Basin to the southeast experienced a foreland basin setting since the Paleogene, due to the first phases of uplift of the Eastern Ranges, the Cesar-Ranchería Basin was characterised by an intermontane basin setting with forming mountain ranges to the north and southeast; the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta and Serranía del Perijá respectively. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_67

Inside the basin, the main compressional movement is dated to this phase, where reverse faults were formed. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_68

Stratigraphy Cesar-Ranchería Basin_section_10

The stratigraphy of the Cesar-Ranchería Basin has been described by various authors. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_69

The coal producing area was mapped in 1961. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_70

Cesar-Ranchería Basin_table_general_2

AgeCesar-Ranchería Basin_header_cell_2_0_0 Cesar Sub-basinCesar-Ranchería Basin_header_cell_2_0_1 Ranchería Sub-basinCesar-Ranchería Basin_header_cell_2_0_2 Maximum thicknessCesar-Ranchería Basin_header_cell_2_0_3 Petroleum geologyCesar-Ranchería Basin_header_cell_2_0_4 NotesCesar-Ranchería Basin_header_cell_2_0_5
QuaternaryCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_1_0 Alluvial conglomeratesCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_1_1 15 m (49 ft)Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_1_3 OverburdenCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_1_4 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_1_5
Late Miocene

Early OligoceneCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_2_0

Cuesta FormationCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_2_1 Palmito ShaleCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_2_2 600 m (2,000 ft)Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_2_3 Seal rock (SL)Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_2_4 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_2_5
Oligocene

Late EoceneCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_3_0

HiatusCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_3_1 La Guajira calcareous complexCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_3_2 270 m (890 ft)Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_3_3 Reservoir rock (RES)Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_3_4 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_3_5
Eocene

Late PaleoceneCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_4_0

Tabaco FormationCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_4_1 75 m (246 ft)Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_4_2 RESCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_4_3 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_4_4
Mid-Late PaleoceneCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_5_0 La Jagua Fm., Los Cuervos Fm.Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_5_1 Cerrejón FormationCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_5_2 750 m (2,460 ft)Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_5_3 RES, SLCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_5_4 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_5_5
Early-Mid PaleoceneCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_6_0 Barco FormationCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_6_1 Manantial FormationCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_6_2 350 m (1,150 ft)Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_6_3 RESCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_6_4 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_6_5
Early Paleocene

MaastrichtianCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_7_0

Delicias FormationCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_7_1 Hato Nuevo FormationCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_7_2 135 m (443 ft)Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_7_3 RESCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_7_4 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_7_5
Maastrichtian

CampanianCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_8_0

Molino FormationCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_8_1 1,686 m (5,531 ft)Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_8_3 SL, Source rock (SR)Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_8_4 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_8_5
Coniacian

TuronianCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_9_0

La Luna FormationCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_9_1 100 m (330 ft)Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_9_3 RES, SRCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_9_4 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_9_5
Cenomanian

AptianCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_10_0

Cogollo Gp.

 Aguas Blancas FormationCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_10_1

390 m (1,280 ft)Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_10_3 RES, SR, SLCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_10_4 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_10_5
Albian

AptianCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_11_0

Cogollo Gp.

 Lagunitas FormationCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_11_1

350 m (1,150 ft)Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_11_3 RES, SRCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_11_4 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_11_5
Aptian

BarremianCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_12_0

Río Negro FormationCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_12_1 200 m (660 ft)Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_12_3 RESCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_12_4 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_12_5
Late JurassicCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_13_0 La Quinta FormationCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_13_1 3,000 m (9,800 ft)Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_13_3 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_13_4 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_13_5
Golero RhyoliteCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_14_0 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_14_1 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_14_2 BasementCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_14_3 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_14_4
Early-Mid JurassicCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_15_0 La Ge Group

 Tinacoa Formation  Macoíta FormationCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_15_1

Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_15_2 3,950 m (12,960 ft)Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_15_3 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_15_4
S.N. de Santa Marta Sequence

 Los Clavos Ignimbrite  La Caja de Ahorros IgnimbriteCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_16_0

Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_16_1 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_16_2 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_16_3
Mid to Late TriassicCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_17_0 HiatusCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_17_1
Early Triassic

Late PermianCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_18_0

Sevilla Metamorphic ComplexCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_18_1 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_18_3 BasementCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_18_4 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_18_5
Early PermianCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_19_0 Manaure FormationCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_19_1 800 m (2,600 ft)Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_19_3 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_19_4
CarboniferousCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_20_0 Carboniferous sequenceCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_20_1 500 m (1,600 ft)Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_20_3 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_20_4
DevonianCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_21_0 Río Cachirí GroupCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_21_1 1,100 m (3,600 ft)Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_21_3 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_21_4
SilurianCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_22_0 HiatusCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_22_1
Ordovician

NeoproterozoicCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_23_0

Perijá FormationCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_23_1 530 m (1,740 ft)Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_23_3 BasementCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_23_4 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_23_5
PrecambrianCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_24_0 Sierra Nevada Metamorphic BeltCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_24_1 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_24_3 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_2_24_4

Paleontology Cesar-Ranchería Basin_section_11

In the Cesar-Ranchería Basin several important fossils have been found, most notably in the Cerrejón Formation, together with the Lagerstãtte of the Honda Group at La Venta and the Paja Formation around Villa de Leyva, the most important fossiliferous stratigraphic unit of Colombia. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_71

The fossil flora and gigantic reptiles of the Cerrejón Formation provided abundant data on the paleo-ecology and climate of this first Neotropic environment of the Middle Paleocene. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_72

Fossil content Cesar-Ranchería Basin_section_12

Cesar-Ranchería Basin_table_general_3

FormationCesar-Ranchería Basin_header_cell_3_0_0 GroupCesar-Ranchería Basin_header_cell_3_0_1 SpeciesCesar-Ranchería Basin_header_cell_3_0_2 ImageCesar-Ranchería Basin_header_cell_3_0_3 NotesCesar-Ranchería Basin_header_cell_3_0_4
Cerrejón Fm.Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_3_1_0 SnakesCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_3_1_1 Titanoboa cerrejonensisCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_3_1_2 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_3_1_3 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_3_1_4
CrocodyliansCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_3_2_0 Acherontisuchus guajiraensisCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_3_2_1 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_3_2_2 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_3_2_3
Anthracosuchus balrogusCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_3_3_0 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_3_3_1 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_3_3_2
Cerrejonisuchus improcerusCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_3_4_0 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_3_4_1 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_3_4_2
TurtlesCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_3_5_0 Carbonemys cofriniiCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_3_5_1 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_3_5_2 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_3_5_3
Cerrejonemys wayuunaikiCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_3_6_0 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_3_6_1 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_3_6_2
Puentemys mushaisaensisCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_3_7_0 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_3_7_1 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_3_7_2
MacrofloraCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_3_8_0 Aerofructus dillhoffi, Menispermites cerrejonensis, M. guajiraensis, Montrichardia aquatica, Petrocardium cerrejonense, P. wayuuorum, Stephania palaeosudamericana, Ulmoidicarpum tupperi, Acrostichum sp., Amaryllidaceae sp., Anacardiaceae sp., Annonaceae sp., Apocynaceae sp., Araceae sp., Arecaceae sp., Dicotyledonae sp., Elaeocarpaceae sp., Euphorbiaceae sp., Fabaceae sp., Lauraceae sp., Malvaceae sp., Malvoideae sp., Meliaceae sp., Monocotyledoneae sp., Moraceae sp., Pinales sp., Pteridophyta sp., Salicaceae sp., Salvinia sp., Sapotaceae sp., Stenochlaena sp., Sterculioideae sp., Violaceae sp., Zingiberales sp.Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_3_8_1 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_3_8_2 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_3_8_3
PollenCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_3_9_0 Proxapertites operculatus, Gemmatus phanocolpites gemmatus, Mauritidlites franciscoi, M. franciscoi var. pachyexinatus, Ctenolophonidites lisamae, Psilatriatriletes guaduensis, Foveotriletes cf. margaritae, Psilamonocolpites sp., Longapertites vaneenderburgi, Retidiporites magdalenensisCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_3_9_1 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_3_9_2 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_3_9_3
Manantial Fm.

Hato Nuevo Fm.Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_3_10_0

ForaminiferaCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_3_10_1 Rzehakina epigona, Globorotalia conicotruncana, Globigerina eugubinaCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_3_10_2 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_3_10_3 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_3_10_4
PollenCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_3_11_0 Fovetriletes margaritae, Psilatriletes guaduensis, P. martinensis, Zonotricolpites cf. variabilis, Proxapertites opercutatus, P. maracaiboensis, P. humbertoides, Psilabrevitricolpites marginatus, Ctenolophonidites sp.Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_3_11_1 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_3_11_2 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_3_11_3
Molino Fm.Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_3_12_0 ForaminiferaCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_3_12_1 Globotruncana fornicata, G. caniculata ventricosa, Globigerina cretacea, Gumbelina globulosa, G. excolta, Siphogenerinoides cretacea, S. bramlettei, Abathomphalus mayorensis, Guembelitria cretacea, Globorotruncanita conica, Gansserina gansseri, Racemiguembelina fructicosa, Heferohelix striata, H. navarroensis, Pseudoguembelina excolata, P. palpebra, Globotruncana aegyptiacaCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_3_12_2 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_3_12_3 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_3_12_4
PollenCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_3_13_0 Echitriporites suescae, Echimonocolpites ruedae, Foveotriletes margaritae, Mauritildites protofranciscoi, Psilatriletes guaduensis, , Rugutriletes sp., Proxapertites operculatus, P. psilatus, Spiniferites cf. ramosus, Achomosphaera sp., Dinogymnium sp.Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_3_13_1 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_3_13_2 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_3_13_3
La Luna Fm.Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_3_14_0 Molluscs, & foraminiferaCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_3_14_1 Neoptychites sp., Holitoides sp., Fagesia sp., Prothocantoceras sp., Eucalycoceras sp., Cloleopoceras sp., Baroisiceras sp., , Baculites sp., Tissotis sp., Perinoceras aff. moureti, Whiteinella archeocretaceaCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_3_14_2 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_3_14_3 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_3_14_4
Aguas Blancas Fm.Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_3_15_0 Molluscs & foraminiferaCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_3_15_1 Ostrea scyfax, Exogyra toxaster, Choffatella decipiens, Cheloniceras sp., Pseudosaynella sp., Dufrenoya sp., Turrulitas sp., Acanthoceras sp., ?Montelliceras sp., ?Calvoceras sp., Orbitolina conica texana, Heterohelix reussi, Marginotruncana sinuosaCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_3_15_2 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_3_15_3 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_3_15_4
Río Cachirí Gp.Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_3_16_0 MolluscsCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_3_16_1 Acrospirifer olssoni; Spirifer kingi, Leptaena boyaca, Fenestella venezuelansis, Neospirifer latus, Composita subtilita, Phricodrotis planoconvexa, Pecten sp.Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_3_16_2 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_3_16_3 Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_3_16_4

Basin evolution Cesar-Ranchería Basin_section_13

Paleozoic to Early Mesozoic Cesar-Ranchería Basin_section_14

The Cesar-Ranchería Basin is underlain by Neoproterozoic basement. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_73

The Sierra Nevada Metamorphic Belt was formed during the Grenville orogeny, when the supercontinent Rodinia was formed due to the collision of Amazonia, Baltica and Laurentia. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_74

The granulites and gneisses of the complex metamorphosed 1.5 to 1.0 billion years ago. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_75

The phyllites and quartzites of the Perijá Formation were formed during the Early Paleozoic and are related to the Caledonian orogeny. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_76

The shales of the Río Cachirí Group were deposited in the Devonian and contain abundant fossils of brachiopods, bryozoa, corals and crinoids. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_77

The formation is time-equivalent with the fossiliferous Floresta and Cuche Formations of the Altiplano Cundiboyacense. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_78

The sediments were deposited in an epicontinental sea at the edge of the Paleo-Tethys Ocean, the last remnant of the Rheic Ocean. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_79

During the Early Carboniferous (Pennsylvanian), the Cesar-Ranchería Basin experienced a regressional phase with the deposition of sandstones and limestones. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_80

The Early Permian is represented by the Manaure Formation, a sequence of sandstones and conglomerates. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_81

The formation of Pangea in the Late Permian to Early Triassic led to the formation of a metamorphic complex, named Sevilla. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_82

The gneisses, amphibolites, greenschists and marbles are dated to 280 to 250 Ma. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_83

The basin was intruded by granites during the Early to Middle Jurassic being accompanied by volcanics and volcanoclastic sediments such as the basalts, tuffs, sandstones and breccias found in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_84

This magmatic phase correlated with the sedimentary sequence of the La Ge Group, subdivided into the Tinacoa and Macoíta Formations, a series of tuffaceous sandstones, limestones, shales and siltstones. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_85

Cesar-Ranchería Basin_table_general_4

Paleogeography of ColombiaCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_4_0_0
Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_4_1_0 170 MaCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_4_1_1
Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_4_2_0 150 MaCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_4_2_1
Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_4_3_0 120 MaCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_4_3_1
Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_4_4_0 105 MaCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_4_4_1
Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_4_5_0 90 MaCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_4_5_1
Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_4_6_0 65 MaCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_4_6_1
Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_4_7_0 50 MaCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_4_7_1
Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_4_8_0 35 MaCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_4_8_1
Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_4_9_0 20 MaCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_4_9_1
Cesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_4_10_0 PresentCesar-Ranchería Basin_cell_4_10_1

Early to Late Mesozoic Cesar-Ranchería Basin_section_15

The sedimentary sequence drilled in the basin starts with the La Quinta Formation, that is found in a widespread area across northern Colombia and Venezuela. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_86

The formation of sandstones, basalts, conglomerates and volcanic ash was deposited in a lacustrine depositional environment in a rift basin setting related to the break-up of Pangea and has been dated to the Late Jurassic and earliest Cretaceous, 160 to 140 Ma. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_87

The formation is time-equivalent with the Girón Formation of the Eastern Ranges. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_88

The Early Cretaceous Río Negro Formation, a unit composed of sandstones, conglomerates and siltstones, is very variable in thickness in the basin and associated with continental sedimentation on rift shoulders to a post-rift setting. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_89

The formation is time-equivalent with the Tibasosa Formation of the Eastern Ranges and the Tambor Formation of the Middle Magdalena Valley. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_90

The fossiliferous limestones and shales of the Lagunitas Formation, lower member of the Cogollo Group, contain beds of dolomite and are indicative of a shallow, saline environment. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_91

The formation is correlated with the Rosablanca Formation of the Middle Magdalena Valley and western Eastern Ranges and the Tibú Formation of the Maracaibo Basin. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_92

The unit is the deepest source rock for the oils in the Cesar-Ranchería Basin. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_93

The upper member of the Cogollo Group, the Aguas Blancas Formation, presents a large lateral variability in lithologies. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_94

Black biomicrites and fossiliferous limestones are indicative of a middle to outer platform environment, while sandy shales and glauconitic sandstones indicate a shallow marine environment. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_95

The variation in lithologies and organic content of this source rock formation is associated with basinal relative sea level changes and the organic-rich strata to the Aptian anoxic event, dated to approximately 120 million years ago. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_96

The Lower Cretaceous series is followed by the deposition of the regional main source rock of northern Colombia and northwestern Venezuela, La Luna. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_97

The world class source rock contains high levels of Total Organic Carbon, comparable to the Kimmeridge Clay Formation of the basins of the North Sea. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_98

The ammonite-rich shales and biomicrites of La Luna were deposited during the global anoxic event of the Cenomanian-Turonian (around 90 Ma) characterised by a maximum flooding surface sequence. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_99

The highly organic formation is time-equivalent with the Querecual Formation of eastern Venezuela, the Chipaque and Gachetá Formations of the Colombian Eastern Ranges and Llanos Basin respectively and the Celendín Formation of northeastern Peru. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_100

The Late Cretaceous Molino Formation, laterally equivalent with the Colón and Mito Juan Formations of the Maracaibo and Catatumbo Basins, and the Umir Formation of the Middle Magdalena Valley, consists of calcareous shales intercalated by sandstones. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_101

The widespread correlation of this unit with the neighbouring formations indicates an open marine environment all across northwestern South America. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_102

Paleogene to recent Cesar-Ranchería Basin_section_16

At the end of the Cretaceous, the tectonic regime changed to a compressive phase, due to the movement of the Caribbean Plate. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_103

The Early Paleocene deposits of the Hato Nuevo and Manantial Formations show a more calcareous character in the north, while the Cesar Sub-basin contained more siliclastic sedimentation, represented in the Barco Formation, consisting of more lithic fragments than the equivalent of the Llanos Basin. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_104

Compression continued during the Paleocene, with uplifted areas to the northwest and southeast and volcanism in the proto-Caribbean. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_105

The global climate was very hot in this period and in the restricted basin between the two forming mountain ranges, a unique ecosystem developed; the first Neotropic forest. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_106

In this hot and humid environment, the largest species of reptiles since the extinction of the dinosaurs evolved, of which Titanoboa was the main predator. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_107

It has been estimated on the basis of the fossil flora, pollen and large reptiles that the mean annual temperature was between 28.5 and 33 °C (83.3 and 91.4 °F) and yearly precipitation ranging from 2,260 to 4,640 millimetres (89 to 183 in) per year. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_108

Provenance analysis of the sediments of the Los Cuervos and Cerrejón Formations show a predominant west to east paleocurrent, followed by a more southeastern flow. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_109

A secondary source of sediments was the growing Serranía del Perijá. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_110

During the Eocene and Early Oligocene, the western part of the basin was exposed and modest deposition concentrated in the Ranchería Sub-basin. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_111

The previously humid ecosystem changed to an arid plain environment. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_112

In contrast, the Neogene conglomerates of the Cuesta Formation show a larger thickness in the southwestern part of the basin, close to the connected Middle Magdalena Valley. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_113

During this period, especially in the Late Miocene to Pliocene, the Oca and Bucaramanga-Santa Marta Faults were tectonically active, which is still observed in the present day. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_114

Ongoing uplift and reverse faulting created the intermontane fluvial-dominated basin architecture of today. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_115

Economic geology Cesar-Ranchería Basin_section_17

Petroleum geology Cesar-Ranchería Basin_section_18

Despite various detailed studies and the similarities with neighbouring hydrocarbon rich provinces as the Maracaibo, Catatumbo and Middle Magdalena Basins, the Cesar-Ranchería Basin is relatively underexplored. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_116

Minor gas production is centered in the south of the Cesar Sub-basin, but most exploration wells were drilled before the 1950s. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_117

As of 2007, 14 wells were drilled in the basin. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_118

A major project to reprocess and interpret 2D seismic lines has been conducted in 2006. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_119

The basin is considered a major target for coal bed methane (CBM), due to the major coal deposits of the Los Cuervos and Cerrejón Formations. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_120

Total probable gas reserves for CBM are estimated at between 12.8 and 25.1 trillion cubic feet (360×10^ and 710×10^ m), Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_121

Vitrinite reflectance data from several source rocks of the Cesar-Ranchería Basin show present-day mature to overmature Cretaceous formations (La Luna, Aguas Blancas and Lagunitas Formations) and (marginally) mature Paleocene source rocks, mainly Los Cuervos. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_122

Apatite fission track analysis and modeling combined with vitrinite reflectance data, showed the Cretaceous units have a significant potential for hydrocarbon generation. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_123

The Lagunitas and Aguas Blancas Formations are heavily fractured and considered a good potential fractured reservoir, while the Río Negro Formation has been analysed to be cemented and bearing low porosities. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_124

Mining Cesar-Ranchería Basin_section_19

Main articles: Cerrejón and La Francia Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_125

See also: List of mining areas in Colombia Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_126

Coal mining in the Cesar-Ranchería Basin is concentrated in the northeast, with Cerrejón spanning the municipalities Albania, Barrancas and Hatonuevo, and in the southwest, with La Francia in the municipalities Becerril and El Paso. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_127

At Cerrejón, the coal is excavated from the Cerrejón Formation and in La Francia from the time-equivalent Los Cuervos Formation. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_128

Coal is also mined in Agustín Codazzi, Chiriguaná and La Jagua de Ibirico. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_129

The total coal production of the Cesar-Ranchería Basin in 2016 was nearly 81 Megatons. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_130

Minor gold mining was active in Valledupar in 2008. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_131

A study published in 2015 on the La Quinta Formation, shows the presence of 1.45% of copper, present mainly in malachite mineralisations in the volcanoclastic beds of the formation. Cesar-Ranchería Basin_sentence_132

See also Cesar-Ranchería Basin_section_20

Cesar-Ranchería Basin_unordered_list_0


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cesar-Ranchería Basin.