Cesar Department

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For other uses, see Cesar (disambiguation). Cesar Department_sentence_0

Cesar Department_table_infobox_0

Cesar Department

Departamento del CesarCesar Department_header_cell_0_0_0

CountryCesar Department_header_cell_0_1_0 ColombiaCesar Department_cell_0_1_1
RegionCesar Department_header_cell_0_2_0 Caribbean RegionCesar Department_cell_0_2_1
EstablishedCesar Department_header_cell_0_3_0 December 1967Cesar Department_cell_0_3_1
CapitalCesar Department_header_cell_0_4_0 ValleduparCesar Department_cell_0_4_1
GovernmentCesar Department_header_cell_0_5_0
GovernorCesar Department_header_cell_0_6_0 Francisco Fernando Ovalle Angarita (2016-2019)Cesar Department_cell_0_6_1
AreaCesar Department_header_cell_0_7_0
TotalCesar Department_header_cell_0_8_0 22,905 km (8,844 sq mi)Cesar Department_cell_0_8_1
Area rankCesar Department_header_cell_0_9_0 22ndCesar Department_cell_0_9_1
Population (2018)Cesar Department_header_cell_0_10_0
TotalCesar Department_header_cell_0_11_0 1,200,574Cesar Department_cell_0_11_1
RankCesar Department_header_cell_0_12_0 16thCesar Department_cell_0_12_1
DensityCesar Department_header_cell_0_13_0 52/km (140/sq mi)Cesar Department_cell_0_13_1
Time zoneCesar Department_header_cell_0_14_0 UTC-05Cesar Department_cell_0_14_1
ISO 3166 codeCesar Department_header_cell_0_15_0 CO-CESCesar Department_cell_0_15_1
HDI (2017)Cesar Department_header_cell_0_16_0 0.709

high · 21stCesar Department_cell_0_16_1

WebsiteCesar Department_header_cell_0_17_0 Cesar Department_cell_0_17_1

Cesar Department (Spanish: Departamento del Cesar) or simply Cesar (Spanish pronunciation: [seˈsaɾ) is a department of Colombia located in the north of the country in the Caribbean region, bordering to the north with the Department of La Guajira, to the west with the Department of Magdalena and Department of Bolivar, to the south with Department of Santander, to the east with the Department of North Santander, and further to the east with the country of Venezuela (Zulia State). Cesar Department_sentence_1

The department capital city is Valledupar. Cesar Department_sentence_2

The region was first inhabited by indigenous peoples known as Euparíes in the Valley of Upar and Guatapuríes in the Valley of the Cesar river, among these were the Orejones pertaining to the Tupe, Acanayutos pertaining to the Motilon and Alcoholados pertaining to the Chimila. Cesar Department_sentence_3

The first European to explore the area was Spanish Captain Pedro de Vadillo, but German Ambrosio Alfínger savagely conquered the region in 1532. Cesar Department_sentence_4

In 1550 the village of Valle de Upar was founded by Hernando de Santana and Juan de Castellanos. Cesar Department_sentence_5

In 1813, María de la Concepción Loperena proclaimed the independence in Valledupar and donated 300 horses to Simón Bolívar. Cesar Department_sentence_6

In 1829 Valledupar became a cantón of the province of Santa Marta. Cesar Department_sentence_7

By Law 15 of 1850, Valledupar was segregated from Santa Marta becoming the province of Valledupar. Cesar Department_sentence_8

In 1857 became a province of the state of Magdalena and by Law of December 29, 1864 became the department of Valledupar pertaining to state of Magdalena. Cesar Department_sentence_9

On December 21, 1967 the department of Cesar was created officially. Cesar Department_sentence_10

Etymology Cesar Department_section_0

The "Cesar" name is an adaptation from the Chimila indigenous word Chet-tzar or Zazare ("calm water") into Spanish, in reference to the Cesar River. Cesar Department_sentence_11

The valley that its basin covers is also named after the river and extends through most of the department. Cesar Department_sentence_12

The department of Cesar was created in 1967 by decree and the name officially adopted. Cesar Department_sentence_13

Geography Cesar Department_section_1

Main article: Geography of Cesar Department Cesar Department_sentence_14

The department of Cesar is located in northern Colombia bordering to the north with the department of La Guajira, to the east with the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, to the west with the department of Magdalena, to the southwest with the Department of Bolivar and to the south with the departments of North Santander and Santander covering a total area of 22,905 km². Cesar Department_sentence_15

The majority of the Department is flat in 57% of the total area and 43% mountainous mainly in the Serranía del Perijá and the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta mountain ranges. Cesar Department_sentence_16

Ecoregions Cesar Department_section_2

The Department of Cesar contains five Ecoregions; the Serranía del Perijá mountain range, the valley of the Cesar River, the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta mountain range, the valley of the Magdalena River and the Cienaga de Zapatosa marshes complex. Cesar Department_sentence_17

Serranía del Perijá mountain range Cesar Department_section_3

The Serranía del Perijá mountain range covers most of the eastern side of the Department of Cesar between its border with Venezuela and the Department of North Santander, approximately 300 km in length penetrating into the Department of La Guajira to the north and covering 27% of the total area of Cesar. Cesar Department_sentence_18

The Serranía del Perijá covers, partially or totally the area of 17 municipalities in the Department of Cesar; Aguachica, Codazzi, Becerril, Chimichagua, Chiriguana, Curumani, Gonzalez, La Gloria, La Jagua de Ibirico, Los Robles La Paz, Manaure, Pailitas, Pelaya, Rio de Oro, San Alberto, San Diego and San Martin. Cesar Department_sentence_19

There are also the indigenous reserves pertaining to the Yukpas people; Iroka, Socorpa and Menkue-Misaya-La Pista; and to the Wiwas people; Caño Padilla, El Rosario-Bella Vista-Yucatán and Campoalegre. Cesar Department_sentence_20

Approximately 70% of the mountain range preserves unique flora and fauna and some 20 rivers are born in the mountain range among other minor streams, flowing into the Department of Cesar and feeding the Magdalena and Cesar river basins and the Cienaga de Zapatosa marshes. Cesar Department_sentence_21

The Colombian government declared it a National Forest Reserve. Cesar Department_sentence_22

Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta mountain range Cesar Department_section_4

The Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta mountain range is an isolated mountain range located in the northwestern region of the Department of Cesar. Cesar Department_sentence_23

The mountain range is shared with by Department of La Guajira, which covers the northern area, the Department of Magdalena to the western side and the Department of Cesar which covers the southern face, covering a total area of 16,615 km² (1'661,500 ha) of which 380,000 ha pertain to the Department of Cesar. Cesar Department_sentence_24

The Cesar River and the western side of its basin is born on the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, including the Guatapuri, Badillo, Ariguani, Cesarito, Los Clavos, Garupal and Rio Seco rivers. Cesar Department_sentence_25

The mountains are within the boundaries of the municipalities of Pueblo Bello, Valledupar, El Copey and Bosconia. Cesar Department_sentence_26

The Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta was declared by UNESCO as a Biosphere Reserve on October 29, 1993. Cesar Department_sentence_27

Valley of the Cesar river Cesar Department_section_5

Valley of the Magdalena river Cesar Department_section_6

Cienaga de Zapatosa marshes Cesar Department_section_7

Ciénaga de Zapatosa Cesar Department_sentence_28

Climate Cesar Department_section_8

Climate in the Department of Cesar presents variations in climate depending on altitude, as well as rainfall precipitations. Cesar Department_sentence_29

Mountain climate in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta and the Serranía del Perijá cools downs the higher the altitude reachin freezing low temperatures at the snowy peaks and the region has two rainy seasons and two dry seasons, averaging a temperature throughout the year of 28°C. Cesar Department_sentence_30

Lower lands present a warm and dry climate, annual precipitations are less than 1,300 mm a year. Cesar Department_sentence_31

The mountainous regions are characterized by low temperatures with snow at high altitude peaks and precipitations ranging more than 2,000 mm a year. Cesar Department_sentence_32

History Cesar Department_section_9

Pre-Columbian Cesar Department_section_10

The region was first inhabited by indigenous peoples known as Euparíes in the Valley of Upar and Guatapuríes in the Valley of the Cesar river, among these were the Orejones pertaining to the Tupe, Acanayutos pertaining to the Motilon and Alcoholados pertaining to the Chimila. Cesar Department_sentence_33

Spanish chronicles describe the tribes as being part of a federation of tribes led by a single chief (Cacique), with the village of Eupari as the largest and central to the other villages. Cesar Department_sentence_34

These tribes are believed to be related to the Mesoamerican culture, the Caribs and Arawaks, directly associated to the Muisca culture in the Colombian eastern branch of the Andes. Cesar Department_sentence_35

Archeological findings has shown that the indigenous in the area worked with stones and wood, including a boomerang shaped weapon found in a cemetery at Los Robles La Paz. Cesar Department_sentence_36

Spanish conquest and colonization Cesar Department_section_11

The first European to explore the area was Spanish Captain Pedro de Vadillo, but German Ambrosio Alfínger savagely conquered the region in 1531. Cesar Department_sentence_37

In 1550 the village of Valle de Upar was founded by Hernando de Santana and Juan de Castellanos. Cesar Department_sentence_38

Republican era Cesar Department_section_12

In 1813, María de la Concepción Loperena proclaimed the independence of Valledupar and donated 300 horses to Simón Bolívar. Cesar Department_sentence_39

In 1829 Valledupar became a Cantón of the Province of Santa Marta. Cesar Department_sentence_40

By Law 15 of 1850, Valledupar was segregated from Santa Marta becoming the Province of Valledupar. Cesar Department_sentence_41

In 1857 became a province of the State of Magdalena and by Law of December 29, 1864 became the Department of Valledupar pertaining to State of Magdalena. Cesar Department_sentence_42

On December 21, 1967 the Department of Cesar was created officially. Cesar Department_sentence_43

Politics Cesar Department_section_13

Government and Politics Cesar Department_section_14

Governors Cesar Department_section_15

Main article: Governor of Cesar Department Cesar Department_sentence_44

Department Assembly Cesar Department_section_16

Main article: Department Assembly of Cesar Cesar Department_sentence_45

Administrative divisions Cesar Department_section_17

Municipalities Cesar Department_section_18

See also: Municipalities of Colombia Cesar Department_sentence_46

The Department of Cesar is formed by 25 municipalities, some 171 corregimientos, 990 veredas and 10 indigenous reserves. Cesar Department_sentence_47

For administrative reasons the Department of Cesar is subdivided into 4 strategic regions: Cesar Department_sentence_48

Cesar Department_unordered_list_0

  • the Northern Subregion covering the municipalities of Valledupar, Codazzi, Pueblo Bello, La Paz, Manaure and San Diego;Cesar Department_item_0_0
  • the Northwestern Subregion covering the municipalities of Bosconia, El Copey, El Paso and Astrea;Cesar Department_item_0_1
  • the Central Subregion covering the municipalities of Curumani, Becerril, Chiriguana, La Jagua de Ibirico, Chimichagua, Tamalameque and Pailitas; andCesar Department_item_0_2
  • the Southern Subregion covering the municipalities of Aguachica, Gamarra, Gonzalez, La Gloria, Pelaya, Rio de Oro, San Alberto and San Martin.Cesar Department_item_0_3

Cesar Department_table_general_1

MunicipalitiesCesar Department_header_cell_1_0_0 MapCesar Department_header_cell_1_0_1
Cesar Department_cell_1_1_0 Cesar Department_cell_1_1_1

Economy Cesar Department_section_19

The economy of the César Department is sustained by the agricultural sector, secondly by a services industry following with commercial industry and mining. Cesar Department_sentence_49

Cattle raising is exploited extensively (using large farms), and for this reason large portions of forests have been chopped off to create corrals. Cesar Department_sentence_50

In agriculture, plantations of cotton, rice, sugar cane, oil palm, cassava and plantain. Cesar Department_sentence_51

Services are centered on commerce and the industry is represented by oil products, fats and milk derived products. Cesar Department_sentence_52

As one of the biggest water resources areas of Colombia, if not America, part of the Magdalena River crosses the Department and helps create the Cienaga de Zapatosa (Zapatosa Marsh) along with the Cesar river. Cesar Department_sentence_53

It has a great potential to develop a fishing industry also. Cesar Department_sentence_54

The area between La Loma and La Jagua de Ibirico is the major coal-producing region of Colombia. Cesar Department_sentence_55


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cesar Department.