Charles Darwin

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For other people named Charles Darwin, see Charles Darwin (disambiguation). Charles Darwin_sentence_0

For other uses, see Darwin. Charles Darwin_sentence_1

Charles Darwin_table_infobox_0

Charles Darwin

FRS FRGS FLS FZSCharles Darwin_header_cell_0_0_0

BornCharles Darwin_header_cell_0_1_0 Charles Robert Darwin

(1809-02-12)12 February 1809 The Mount, Shrewsbury, Shropshire, EnglandCharles Darwin_cell_0_1_1

DiedCharles Darwin_header_cell_0_2_0 19 April 1882(1882-04-19) (aged 73)

Down House, Downe, Kent, EnglandCharles Darwin_cell_0_2_1

Resting placeCharles Darwin_header_cell_0_3_0 Westminster AbbeyCharles Darwin_cell_0_3_1
Known forCharles Darwin_header_cell_0_4_0 Charles Darwin_cell_0_4_1
Spouse(s)Charles Darwin_header_cell_0_5_0 Emma Wedgwood ​(m. 1839)​Charles Darwin_cell_0_5_1
ChildrenCharles Darwin_header_cell_0_6_0 10Charles Darwin_cell_0_6_1
AwardsCharles Darwin_header_cell_0_7_0 Charles Darwin_cell_0_7_1
FieldsCharles Darwin_header_cell_0_8_0 Natural history, geologyCharles Darwin_cell_0_8_1
InstitutionsCharles Darwin_header_cell_0_9_0 Tertiary education:

Professional institution:Charles Darwin_cell_0_9_1

Academic advisorsCharles Darwin_header_cell_0_10_0 Charles Darwin_cell_0_10_1
InfluencesCharles Darwin_header_cell_0_11_0 Charles Darwin_cell_0_11_1
InfluencedCharles Darwin_header_cell_0_12_0 Hooker, Huxley, Romanes, Haeckel, LubbockCharles Darwin_cell_0_12_1
SignatureCharles Darwin_header_cell_0_13_0

Charles Robert Darwin FRS FRGS FLS FZS (/ˈdɑːrwɪn/; 12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution. Charles Darwin_sentence_2

His proposition that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestors is now widely accepted, and considered a foundational concept in science. Charles Darwin_sentence_3

In a joint publication with Alfred Russel Wallace, he introduced his scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection, in which the struggle for existence has a similar effect to the artificial selection involved in selective breeding. Charles Darwin_sentence_4

Darwin has been described as one of the most influential figures in human history, and he was honoured by burial in Westminster Abbey. Charles Darwin_sentence_5

Darwin published his theory of evolution with compelling evidence in his 1859 book On the Origin of Species. Charles Darwin_sentence_6

By the 1870s, the scientific community and a majority of the educated public had accepted evolution as a fact. Charles Darwin_sentence_7

However, many favoured competing explanations which gave only a minor role to natural selection, and it was not until the emergence of the modern evolutionary synthesis from the 1930s to the 1950s that a broad consensus developed in which natural selection was the basic mechanism of evolution. Charles Darwin_sentence_8

Darwin's scientific discovery is the unifying theory of the life sciences, explaining the diversity of life. Charles Darwin_sentence_9

Darwin's early interest in nature led him to neglect his medical education at the University of Edinburgh; instead, he helped to investigate marine invertebrates. Charles Darwin_sentence_10

Studies at the University of Cambridge (Christ's College) encouraged his passion for natural science. Charles Darwin_sentence_11

His five-year voyage on HMS Beagle established him as an eminent geologist whose observations and theories supported Charles Lyell's conception of gradual geological change, and publication of his journal of the voyage made him famous as a popular author. Charles Darwin_sentence_12

Puzzled by the geographical distribution of wildlife and fossils he collected on the voyage, Darwin began detailed investigations, and in 1838 conceived his theory of natural selection. Charles Darwin_sentence_13

Although he discussed his ideas with several naturalists, he needed time for extensive research and his geological work had priority. Charles Darwin_sentence_14

He was writing up his theory in 1858 when Alfred Russel Wallace sent him an essay that described the same idea, prompting immediate joint publication of both of their theories. Charles Darwin_sentence_15

Darwin's work established evolutionary descent with modification as the dominant scientific explanation of diversification in nature. Charles Darwin_sentence_16

In 1871 he examined human evolution and sexual selection in The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex, followed by The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals (1872). Charles Darwin_sentence_17

His research on plants was published in a series of books, and in his final book, The Formation of Vegetable Mould, through the Actions of Worms (1881), he examined earthworms and their effect on soil. Charles Darwin_sentence_18

Biography Charles Darwin_section_0

Early life and education Charles Darwin_section_1

See also: Charles Darwin's education and Darwin-Wedgwood family Charles Darwin_sentence_19

Charles Robert Darwin was born in Shrewsbury, Shropshire, on 12 February 1809, at his family's home, The Mount. Charles Darwin_sentence_20

He was the fifth of six children of wealthy society doctor and financier Robert Darwin and Susannah Darwin (née Wedgwood). Charles Darwin_sentence_21

His grandfathers Erasmus Darwin and Josiah Wedgwood were both prominent abolitionists. Charles Darwin_sentence_22

Erasmus Darwin had praised general concepts of evolution and common descent in his Zoonomia (1794), a poetic fantasy of gradual creation including undeveloped ideas anticipating concepts his grandson expanded. Charles Darwin_sentence_23

Both families were largely Unitarian, though the Wedgwoods were adopting Anglicanism. Charles Darwin_sentence_24

Robert Darwin, himself quietly a freethinker, had baby Charles baptised in November 1809 in the Anglican St Chad's Church, Shrewsbury, but Charles and his siblings attended the Unitarian chapel with their mother. Charles Darwin_sentence_25

The eight-year-old Charles already had a taste for natural history and collecting when he joined the day school run by its preacher in 1817. Charles Darwin_sentence_26

That July, his mother died. Charles Darwin_sentence_27

From September 1818, he joined his older brother Erasmus attending the nearby Anglican Shrewsbury School as a boarder. Charles Darwin_sentence_28

Darwin spent the summer of 1825 as an apprentice doctor, helping his father treat the poor of Shropshire, before going to the University of Edinburgh Medical School (at the time the best medical school in the UK) with his brother Erasmus in October 1825. Charles Darwin_sentence_29

Darwin found lectures dull and surgery distressing, so he neglected his studies. Charles Darwin_sentence_30

He learned taxidermy in around 40 daily hour-long sessions from John Edmonstone, a freed black slave who had accompanied Charles Waterton in the South American rainforest. Charles Darwin_sentence_31

In Darwin's second year at the university he joined the Plinian Society, a student natural-history group featuring lively debates in which radical democratic students with materialistic views challenged orthodox religious concepts of science. Charles Darwin_sentence_32

He assisted Robert Edmond Grant's investigations of the anatomy and life cycle of marine invertebrates in the Firth of Forth, and on 27 March 1827 presented at the Plinian his own discovery that black spores found in oyster shells were the eggs of a skate leech. Charles Darwin_sentence_33

One day, Grant praised Lamarck's evolutionary ideas. Charles Darwin_sentence_34

Darwin was astonished by Grant's audacity, but had recently read similar ideas in his grandfather Erasmus' journals. Charles Darwin_sentence_35

Darwin was rather bored by Robert Jameson's natural-history course, which covered geology—including the debate between Neptunism and Plutonism. Charles Darwin_sentence_36

He learned the classification of plants, and assisted with work on the collections of the University Museum, one of the largest museums in Europe at the time. Charles Darwin_sentence_37

Darwin's neglect of medical studies annoyed his father, who shrewdly sent him to Christ's College, Cambridge, to study for a Bachelor of Arts degree as the first step towards becoming an Anglican country parson. Charles Darwin_sentence_38

As Darwin was unqualified for the Tripos, he joined the ordinary degree course in January 1828. Charles Darwin_sentence_39

He preferred riding and shooting to studying. Charles Darwin_sentence_40

During the first few months of Darwin's enrollment, his second cousin William Darwin Fox was also studying at Christ's Church. Charles Darwin_sentence_41

Fox impressed him with his butterfly collection, introducing Darwin to entomology and influencing him to pursue beetle collecting. Charles Darwin_sentence_42

He did this zealously, and had some of his finds published in James Francis Stephens' Illustrations of British entomology (1829–32). Charles Darwin_sentence_43

Also through Fox, Darwin became a close friend and follower of botany professor John Stevens Henslow. Charles Darwin_sentence_44

He met other leading parson-naturalists who saw scientific work as religious natural theology, becoming known to these dons as "the man who walks with Henslow". Charles Darwin_sentence_45

When his own exams drew near, Darwin applied himself to his studies and was delighted by the language and logic of William Paley's Evidences of Christianity (1794). Charles Darwin_sentence_46

In his final examination in January 1831 Darwin did well, coming tenth out of 178 candidates for the ordinary degree. Charles Darwin_sentence_47

Darwin had to stay at Cambridge until June 1831. Charles Darwin_sentence_48

He studied Paley's Natural Theology or Evidences of the Existence and Attributes of the Deity (first published in 1802), which made an argument for divine design in nature, explaining adaptation as God acting through laws of nature. Charles Darwin_sentence_49

He read John Herschel's new book, Preliminary Discourse on the Study of Natural Philosophy (1831), which described the highest aim of natural philosophy as understanding such laws through inductive reasoning based on observation, and Alexander von Humboldt's Personal Narrative of scientific travels in 1799–1804. Charles Darwin_sentence_50

Inspired with "a burning zeal" to contribute, Darwin planned to visit Tenerife with some classmates after graduation to study natural history in the tropics. Charles Darwin_sentence_51

In preparation, he joined Adam Sedgwick's geology course, then on 4 August travelled with him to spend a fortnight mapping strata in Wales. Charles Darwin_sentence_52

Survey voyage on HMS Beagle Charles Darwin_section_2

Further information: Second voyage of HMS Beagle Charles Darwin_sentence_53

After leaving Sedgwick in Wales, Darwin spent a week with student friends at Barmouth, then returned home on 29 August to find a letter from Henslow proposing him as a suitable (if unfinished) naturalist for a self-funded place on HMS Beagle with captain Robert FitzRoy, emphasising that this was a position for a gentleman rather than "a mere collector". Charles Darwin_sentence_54

The ship was to leave in four weeks on an expedition to chart the coastline of South America. Charles Darwin_sentence_55

Robert Darwin objected to his son's planned two-year voyage, regarding it as a waste of time, but was persuaded by his brother-in-law, Josiah Wedgwood II, to agree to (and fund) his son's participation. Charles Darwin_sentence_56

Darwin took care to remain in a private capacity to retain control over his collection, intending it for a major scientific institution. Charles Darwin_sentence_57

After delays, the voyage began on 27 December 1831; it lasted almost five years. Charles Darwin_sentence_58

As FitzRoy had intended, Darwin spent most of that time on land investigating geology and making natural history collections, while HMS Beagle surveyed and charted coasts. Charles Darwin_sentence_59

He kept careful notes of his observations and theoretical speculations, and at intervals during the voyage his specimens were sent to Cambridge together with letters including a copy of his journal for his family. Charles Darwin_sentence_60

He had some expertise in geology, beetle collecting and dissecting marine invertebrates, but in all other areas was a novice and ably collected specimens for expert appraisal. Charles Darwin_sentence_61

Despite suffering badly from seasickness, Darwin wrote copious notes while on board the ship. Charles Darwin_sentence_62

Most of his zoology notes are about marine invertebrates, starting with plankton collected in a calm spell. Charles Darwin_sentence_63

On their first stop ashore at St Jago in Cape Verde, Darwin found that a white band high in the volcanic rock cliffs included seashells. Charles Darwin_sentence_64

FitzRoy had given him the first volume of Charles Lyell's Principles of Geology, which set out uniformitarian concepts of land slowly rising or falling over immense periods, and Darwin saw things Lyell's way, theorising and thinking of writing a book on geology. Charles Darwin_sentence_65

When they reached Brazil, Darwin was delighted by the tropical forest, but detested the sight of slavery, and disputed this issue with Fitzroy. Charles Darwin_sentence_66

The survey continued to the south in Patagonia. Charles Darwin_sentence_67

They stopped at Bahía Blanca, and in cliffs near Punta Alta Darwin made a major find of fossil bones of huge extinct mammals beside modern seashells, indicating recent extinction with no signs of change in climate or catastrophe. Charles Darwin_sentence_68

He identified the little-known Megatherium by a tooth and its association with bony armour, which had at first seemed to him to be like a giant version of the armour on local armadillos. Charles Darwin_sentence_69

The finds brought great interest when they reached England. Charles Darwin_sentence_70

On rides with gauchos into the interior to explore geology and collect more fossils, Darwin gained social, political and anthropological insights into both native and colonial people at a time of revolution, and learnt that two types of rhea had separate but overlapping territories. Charles Darwin_sentence_71

Further south, he saw stepped plains of shingle and seashells as raised beaches showing a series of elevations. Charles Darwin_sentence_72

He read Lyell's second volume and accepted its view of "centres of creation" of species, but his discoveries and theorising challenged Lyell's ideas of smooth continuity and of extinction of species. Charles Darwin_sentence_73

Three Fuegians on board had been seized during the first Beagle voyage, then during a year in England were educated as missionaries. Charles Darwin_sentence_74

Darwin found them friendly and civilised, yet at Tierra del Fuego he met "miserable, degraded savages", as different as wild from domesticated animals. Charles Darwin_sentence_75

He remained convinced that, despite this diversity, all humans were interrelated with a shared origin and potential for improvement towards civilisation. Charles Darwin_sentence_76

Unlike his scientist friends, he now thought there was no unbridgeable gap between humans and animals. Charles Darwin_sentence_77

A year on, the mission had been abandoned. Charles Darwin_sentence_78

The Fuegian they had named Jemmy Button lived like the other natives, had a wife, and had no wish to return to England. Charles Darwin_sentence_79

Darwin experienced an earthquake in Chile in 1835 and saw signs that the land had just been raised, including mussel-beds stranded above high tide. Charles Darwin_sentence_80

High in the Andes he saw seashells, and several fossil trees that had grown on a sand beach. Charles Darwin_sentence_81

He theorised that as the land rose, oceanic islands sank, and coral reefs round them grew to form atolls. Charles Darwin_sentence_82

On the geologically new Galápagos Islands, Darwin looked for evidence attaching wildlife to an older "centre of creation", and found mockingbirds allied to those in Chile but differing from island to island. Charles Darwin_sentence_83

He heard that slight variations in the shape of tortoise shells showed which island they came from, but failed to collect them, even after eating tortoises taken on board as food. Charles Darwin_sentence_84

In Australia, the marsupial rat-kangaroo and the platypus seemed so unusual that Darwin thought it was almost as though two distinct Creators had been at work. Charles Darwin_sentence_85

He found the Aborigines "good-humoured & pleasant", and noted their depletion by European settlement. Charles Darwin_sentence_86

FitzRoy investigated how the atolls of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands had formed, and the survey supported Darwin's theorising. Charles Darwin_sentence_87

FitzRoy began writing the official Narrative of the Beagle voyages, and after reading Darwin's diary he proposed incorporating it into the account. Charles Darwin_sentence_88

Darwin's Journal was eventually rewritten as a separate third volume, on natural history. Charles Darwin_sentence_89

In Cape Town, South Africa, Darwin and FitzRoy met John Herschel, who had recently written to Lyell praising his uniformitarianism as opening bold speculation on "that mystery of mysteries, the replacement of extinct species by others" as "a natural in contradistinction to a miraculous process". Charles Darwin_sentence_90

When organising his notes as the ship sailed home, Darwin wrote that, if his growing suspicions about the mockingbirds, the tortoises and the Falkland Islands fox were correct, "such facts undermine the stability of Species", then cautiously added "would" before "undermine". Charles Darwin_sentence_91

He later wrote that such facts "seemed to me to throw some light on the origin of species". Charles Darwin_sentence_92

Inception of Darwin's evolutionary theory Charles Darwin_section_3

Further information: Inception of Darwin's theory Charles Darwin_sentence_93

By the time Darwin returned to England, he was already a celebrity in scientific circles as in December 1835 Henslow had fostered his former pupil's reputation by publishing a pamphlet of Darwin's geological letters for select naturalists. Charles Darwin_sentence_94

On 2 October 1836 the ship anchored at Falmouth, Cornwall. Charles Darwin_sentence_95

Darwin promptly made the long coach journey to Shrewsbury to visit his home and see relatives. Charles Darwin_sentence_96

He then hurried to Cambridge to see Henslow, who advised him on finding naturalists available to catalogue Darwin's animal collections and who agreed to take on the botanical specimens. Charles Darwin_sentence_97

Darwin's father organised investments, enabling his son to be a self-funded gentleman scientist, and an excited Darwin went round the London institutions being fêted and seeking experts to describe the collections. Charles Darwin_sentence_98

British zoologists at the time had a huge backlog of work due to natural history collecting being promoted and encouraged through the British Empire, and there was a danger of specimens just being left in storage. Charles Darwin_sentence_99

Charles Lyell eagerly met Darwin for the first time on 29 October and soon introduced him to the up-and-coming anatomist Richard Owen, who had the facilities of the Royal College of Surgeons to work on the fossil bones collected by Darwin. Charles Darwin_sentence_100

Owen's surprising results included other gigantic extinct ground sloths as well as the Megatherium, a near complete skeleton of the unknown Scelidotherium and a hippopotamus-sized rodent-like skull named Toxodon resembling a giant capybara. Charles Darwin_sentence_101

The armour fragments were actually from Glyptodon, a huge armadillo-like creature as Darwin had initially thought. Charles Darwin_sentence_102

These extinct creatures were related to living species in South America. Charles Darwin_sentence_103

In mid-December, Darwin took lodgings in Cambridge to organise work on his collections and rewrite his Journal. Charles Darwin_sentence_104

He wrote his first paper, showing that the South American landmass was slowly rising, and with Lyell's enthusiastic backing read it to the Geological Society of London on 4 January 1837. Charles Darwin_sentence_105

On the same day, he presented his mammal and bird specimens to the Zoological Society. Charles Darwin_sentence_106

The ornithologist John Gould soon announced that the Galapagos birds that Darwin had thought a mixture of blackbirds, "gros-beaks" and finches, were, in fact, twelve separate species of finches. Charles Darwin_sentence_107

On 17 February, Darwin was elected to the Council of the Geological Society, and Lyell's presidential address presented Owen's findings on Darwin's fossils, stressing geographical continuity of species as supporting his uniformitarian ideas. Charles Darwin_sentence_108

Early in March, Darwin moved to London to be near this work, joining Lyell's social circle of scientists and experts such as Charles Babbage, who described God as a programmer of laws. Charles Darwin_sentence_109

Darwin stayed with his freethinking brother Erasmus, part of this Whig circle and a close friend of the writer Harriet Martineau, who promoted Malthusianism underlying the controversial Whig Poor Law reforms to stop welfare from causing overpopulation and more poverty. Charles Darwin_sentence_110

As a Unitarian, she welcomed the radical implications of transmutation of species, promoted by Grant and younger surgeons influenced by Geoffroy. Charles Darwin_sentence_111

Transmutation was anathema to Anglicans defending social order, but reputable scientists openly discussed the subject and there was wide interest in John Herschel's letter praising Lyell's approach as a way to find a natural cause of the origin of new species. Charles Darwin_sentence_112

Gould met Darwin and told him that the Galápagos mockingbirds from different islands were separate species, not just varieties, and what Darwin had thought was a "wren" was also in the finch group. Charles Darwin_sentence_113

Darwin had not labelled the finches by island, but from the notes of others on the ship, including FitzRoy, he allocated species to islands. Charles Darwin_sentence_114

The two rheas were also distinct species, and on 14 March Darwin announced how their distribution changed going southwards. Charles Darwin_sentence_115

By mid-March 1837, barely six months after his return to England, Darwin was speculating in his Red Notebook on the possibility that "one species does change into another" to explain the geographical distribution of living species such as the rheas, and extinct ones such as the strange extinct mammal Macrauchenia, which resembled a giant guanaco, a llama relative. Charles Darwin_sentence_116

Around mid-July, he recorded in his "B" notebook his thoughts on lifespan and variation across generations—explaining the variations he had observed in Galápagos tortoises, mockingbirds, and rheas. Charles Darwin_sentence_117

He sketched branching descent, and then a genealogical branching of a single evolutionary tree, in which "It is absurd to talk of one animal being higher than another", discarding Lamarck's idea of independent lineages progressing to higher forms. Charles Darwin_sentence_118

Since 2000, notebooks have been missing from Cambridge University Library that are now believed to have been stolen. Charles Darwin_sentence_119

One of them contains Darwin's famous Tree of Life sketch (above right), exploring the evolutionary relationship between species. Charles Darwin_sentence_120

Digitised copies do still exist. Charles Darwin_sentence_121

Overwork, illness, and marriage Charles Darwin_section_4

See also: Charles Darwin's health Charles Darwin_sentence_122

While developing this intensive study of transmutation, Darwin became mired in more work. Charles Darwin_sentence_123

Still rewriting his Journal, he took on editing and publishing the expert reports on his collections, and with Henslow's help obtained a Treasury grant of £1,000 to sponsor this multi-volume Zoology of the Voyage of H.M.S. Charles Darwin_sentence_124 Beagle, a sum equivalent to about £92,000 in 2018. Charles Darwin_sentence_125

He stretched the funding to include his planned books on geology, and agreed to unrealistic dates with the publisher. Charles Darwin_sentence_126

As the Victorian era began, Darwin pressed on with writing his Journal, and in August 1837 began correcting printer's proofs. Charles Darwin_sentence_127

As Darwin worked under pressure, his health suffered. Charles Darwin_sentence_128

On 20 September he had "an uncomfortable palpitation of the heart", so his doctors urged him to "knock off all work" and live in the country for a few weeks. Charles Darwin_sentence_129

After visiting Shrewsbury he joined his Wedgwood relatives at Maer Hall, Staffordshire, but found them too eager for tales of his travels to give him much rest. Charles Darwin_sentence_130

His charming, intelligent, and cultured cousin Emma Wedgwood, nine months older than Darwin, was nursing his invalid aunt. Charles Darwin_sentence_131

His uncle Josiah pointed out an area of ground where cinders had disappeared under loam and suggested that this might have been the work of earthworms, inspiring "a new & important theory" on their role in soil formation, which Darwin presented at the Geological Society on 1 November 1837. Charles Darwin_sentence_132

William Whewell pushed Darwin to take on the duties of Secretary of the Geological Society. Charles Darwin_sentence_133

After initially declining the work, he accepted the post in March 1838. Charles Darwin_sentence_134

Despite the grind of writing and editing the Beagle reports, Darwin made remarkable progress on transmutation, taking every opportunity to question expert naturalists and, unconventionally, people with practical experience in selective breeding such as farmers and pigeon fanciers. Charles Darwin_sentence_135

Over time, his research drew on information from his relatives and children, the family butler, neighbours, colonists and former shipmates. Charles Darwin_sentence_136

He included mankind in his speculations from the outset, and on seeing an orangutan in the zoo on 28 March 1838 noted its childlike behaviour. Charles Darwin_sentence_137

The strain took a toll, and by June he was being laid up for days on end with stomach problems, headaches and heart symptoms. Charles Darwin_sentence_138

For the rest of his life, he was repeatedly incapacitated with episodes of stomach pains, vomiting, severe boils, palpitations, trembling and other symptoms, particularly during times of stress, such as attending meetings or making social visits. Charles Darwin_sentence_139

The cause of Darwin's illness remained unknown, and attempts at treatment had only ephemeral success. Charles Darwin_sentence_140

On 23 June, he took a break and went "geologising" in Scotland. Charles Darwin_sentence_141

He visited Glen Roy in glorious weather to see the parallel "roads" cut into the hillsides at three heights. Charles Darwin_sentence_142

He later published his view that these were marine raised beaches, but then had to accept that they were shorelines of a proglacial lake. Charles Darwin_sentence_143

Fully recuperated, he returned to Shrewsbury in July. Charles Darwin_sentence_144

Used to jotting down daily notes on animal breeding, he scrawled rambling thoughts about marriage, career and prospects on two scraps of paper, one with columns headed "Marry" and "Not Marry". Charles Darwin_sentence_145

Advantages under "Marry" included "constant companion and a friend in old age ... better than a dog anyhow", against points such as "less money for books" and "terrible loss of time." Charles Darwin_sentence_146

Having decided in favour of marriage, he discussed it with his father, then went to visit his cousin Emma on 29 July. Charles Darwin_sentence_147

He did not get around to proposing, but against his father's advice he mentioned his ideas on transmutation. Charles Darwin_sentence_148

Malthus and natural selection Charles Darwin_section_5

Continuing his research in London, Darwin's wide reading now included the sixth edition of Malthus's An Essay on the Principle of Population, and on 28 September 1838 he noted its assertion that human "population, when unchecked, goes on doubling itself every twenty five years, or increases in a geometrical ratio", a geometric progression so that population soon exceeds food supply in what is known as a Malthusian catastrophe. Charles Darwin_sentence_149

Darwin was well prepared to compare this to de Candolle's "warring of the species" of plants and the struggle for existence among wildlife, explaining how numbers of a species kept roughly stable. Charles Darwin_sentence_150

As species always breed beyond available resources, favourable variations would make organisms better at surviving and passing the variations on to their offspring, while unfavourable variations would be lost. Charles Darwin_sentence_151

He wrote that the "final cause of all this wedging, must be to sort out proper structure, & adapt it to changes", so that "One may say there is a force like a hundred thousand wedges trying force into every kind of adapted structure into the gaps of in the economy of nature, or rather forming gaps by thrusting out weaker ones." Charles Darwin_sentence_152

This would result in the formation of new species. Charles Darwin_sentence_153

As he later wrote in his Autobiography: Charles Darwin_sentence_154

By mid-December, Darwin saw a similarity between farmers picking the best stock in selective breeding, and a Malthusian Nature selecting from chance variants so that "every part of newly acquired structure is fully practical and perfected", thinking this comparison "a beautiful part of my theory". Charles Darwin_sentence_155

He later called his theory natural selection, an analogy with what he termed the "artificial selection" of selective breeding. Charles Darwin_sentence_156

On 11 November, he returned to Maer and proposed to Emma, once more telling her his ideas. Charles Darwin_sentence_157

She accepted, then in exchanges of loving letters she showed how she valued his openness in sharing their differences, also expressing her strong Unitarian beliefs and concerns that his honest doubts might separate them in the afterlife. Charles Darwin_sentence_158

While he was house-hunting in London, bouts of illness continued and Emma wrote urging him to get some rest, almost prophetically remarking "So don't be ill any more my dear Charley till I can be with you to nurse you." Charles Darwin_sentence_159

He found what they called "Macaw Cottage" (because of its gaudy interiors) in Gower Street, then moved his "museum" in over Christmas. Charles Darwin_sentence_160

On 24 January 1839, Darwin was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS). Charles Darwin_sentence_161

On 29 January, Darwin and Emma Wedgwood were married at Maer in an Anglican ceremony arranged to suit the Unitarians, then immediately caught the train to London and their new home. Charles Darwin_sentence_162

Geology books, barnacles, evolutionary research Charles Darwin_section_6

Further information: Development of Darwin's theory Charles Darwin_sentence_163

Darwin now had the framework of his theory of natural selection "by which to work", as his "prime hobby". Charles Darwin_sentence_164

His research included extensive experimental selective breeding of plants and animals, finding evidence that species were not fixed and investigating many detailed ideas to refine and substantiate his theory. Charles Darwin_sentence_165

For fifteen years this work was in the background to his main occupation of writing on geology and publishing expert reports on the Beagle collections, and in particular, the barnacles. Charles Darwin_sentence_166

When FitzRoy's Narrative was published in May 1839, Darwin's Journal and Remarks was such a success as the third volume that later that year it was published on its own. Charles Darwin_sentence_167

Early in 1842, Darwin wrote about his ideas to Charles Lyell, who noted that his ally "denies seeing a beginning to each crop of species". Charles Darwin_sentence_168

Darwin's book The Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs on his theory of atoll formation was published in May 1842 after more than three years of work, and he then wrote his first "pencil sketch" of his theory of natural selection. Charles Darwin_sentence_169

To escape the pressures of London, the family moved to rural Down House in September. Charles Darwin_sentence_170

On 11 January 1844, Darwin mentioned his theorising to the botanist Joseph Dalton Hooker, writing with melodramatic humour "it is like confessing a murder". Charles Darwin_sentence_171

Hooker replied "There may in my opinion have been a series of productions on different spots, & also a gradual change of species. Charles Darwin_sentence_172

I shall be delighted to hear how you think that this change may have taken place, as no presently conceived opinions satisfy me on the subject." Charles Darwin_sentence_173

By July, Darwin had expanded his "sketch" into a 230-page "Essay", to be expanded with his research results if he died prematurely. Charles Darwin_sentence_174

In November, the anonymously published sensational best-seller Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation brought wide interest in transmutation. Charles Darwin_sentence_175

Darwin scorned its amateurish geology and zoology, but carefully reviewed his own arguments. Charles Darwin_sentence_176

Controversy erupted, and it continued to sell well despite contemptuous dismissal by scientists. Charles Darwin_sentence_177

Darwin completed his third geological book in 1846. Charles Darwin_sentence_178

He now renewed a fascination and expertise in marine invertebrates, dating back to his student days with Grant, by dissecting and classifying the barnacles he had collected on the voyage, enjoying observing beautiful structures and thinking about comparisons with allied structures. Charles Darwin_sentence_179

In 1847, Hooker read the "Essay" and sent notes that provided Darwin with the calm critical feedback that he needed, but would not commit himself and questioned Darwin's opposition to continuing acts of creation. Charles Darwin_sentence_180

In an attempt to improve his chronic ill health, Darwin went in 1849 to Dr. James Gully's Malvern spa and was surprised to find some benefit from hydrotherapy. Charles Darwin_sentence_181

Then, in 1851, his treasured daughter Annie fell ill, reawakening his fears that his illness might be hereditary, and after a long series of crises she died. Charles Darwin_sentence_182

In eight years of work on barnacles (Cirripedia), Darwin's theory helped him to find "homologies" showing that slightly changed body parts served different functions to meet new conditions, and in some genera he found minute males parasitic on hermaphrodites, showing an intermediate stage in evolution of distinct sexes. Charles Darwin_sentence_183

In 1853, it earned him the Royal Society's Royal Medal, and it made his reputation as a biologist. Charles Darwin_sentence_184

In 1854 he became a Fellow of the Linnean Society of London, gaining postal access to its library. Charles Darwin_sentence_185

He began a major reassessment of his theory of species, and in November realised that divergence in the character of descendants could be explained by them becoming adapted to "diversified places in the economy of nature". Charles Darwin_sentence_186

Publication of the theory of natural selection Charles Darwin_section_7

Further information: Publication of Darwin's theory Charles Darwin_sentence_187

By the start of 1856, Darwin was investigating whether eggs and seeds could survive travel across seawater to spread species across oceans. Charles Darwin_sentence_188

Hooker increasingly doubted the traditional view that species were fixed, but their young friend Thomas Henry Huxley was still firmly against the transmutation of species. Charles Darwin_sentence_189

Lyell was intrigued by Darwin's speculations without realising their extent. Charles Darwin_sentence_190

When he read a paper by Alfred Russel Wallace, "On the Law which has Regulated the Introduction of New Species", he saw similarities with Darwin's thoughts and urged him to publish to establish precedence. Charles Darwin_sentence_191

Though Darwin saw no threat, on 14 May 1856 he began writing a short paper. Charles Darwin_sentence_192

Finding answers to difficult questions held him up repeatedly, and he expanded his plans to a "big book on species" titled Natural Selection, which was to include his "note on Man". Charles Darwin_sentence_193

He continued his researches, obtaining information and specimens from naturalists worldwide including Wallace who was working in Borneo. Charles Darwin_sentence_194

In mid-1857 he added a section heading; "Theory applied to Races of Man", but did not add text on this topic. Charles Darwin_sentence_195

On 5 September 1857, Darwin sent the American botanist Asa Gray a detailed outline of his ideas, including an abstract of Natural Selection, which omitted human origins and sexual selection. Charles Darwin_sentence_196

In December, Darwin received a letter from Wallace asking if the book would examine human origins. Charles Darwin_sentence_197

He responded that he would avoid that subject, "so surrounded with prejudices", while encouraging Wallace's theorising and adding that "I go much further than you." Charles Darwin_sentence_198

Darwin's book was only partly written when, on 18 June 1858, he received a paper from Wallace describing natural selection. Charles Darwin_sentence_199

Shocked that he had been "forestalled", Darwin sent it on that day to Lyell, as requested by Wallace, and although Wallace had not asked for publication, Darwin suggested he would send it to any journal that Wallace chose. Charles Darwin_sentence_200

His family was in crisis with children in the village dying of scarlet fever, and he put matters in the hands of his friends. Charles Darwin_sentence_201

After some discussion, with no reliable way of involving Wallace, Lyell and Hooker decided on a joint presentation at the Linnean Society on 1 July of On the Tendency of Species to form Varieties; and on the Perpetuation of Varieties and Species by Natural Means of Selection. Charles Darwin_sentence_202

On the evening of 28 June, Darwin's baby son died of scarlet fever after almost a week of severe illness, and he was too distraught to attend. Charles Darwin_sentence_203

There was little immediate attention to this announcement of the theory; the president of the Linnean Society remarked in May 1859 that the year had not been marked by any revolutionary discoveries. Charles Darwin_sentence_204

Only one review rankled enough for Darwin to recall it later; Professor Samuel Haughton of Dublin claimed that "all that was new in them was false, and what was true was old". Charles Darwin_sentence_205

Darwin struggled for thirteen months to produce an abstract of his "big book", suffering from ill health but getting constant encouragement from his scientific friends. Charles Darwin_sentence_206

Lyell arranged to have it published by John Murray. Charles Darwin_sentence_207

On the Origin of Species proved unexpectedly popular, with the entire stock of 1,250 copies oversubscribed when it went on sale to booksellers on 22 November 1859. Charles Darwin_sentence_208

In the book, Darwin set out "one long argument" of detailed observations, inferences and consideration of anticipated objections. Charles Darwin_sentence_209

In making the case for common descent, he included evidence of homologies between humans and other mammals. Charles Darwin_sentence_210

Having outlined sexual selection, he hinted that it could explain differences between human races. Charles Darwin_sentence_211

He avoided explicit discussion of human origins, but implied the significance of his work with the sentence; "Light will be thrown on the origin of man and his history." Charles Darwin_sentence_212

His theory is simply stated in the introduction: Charles Darwin_sentence_213

At the end of the book he concluded that: Charles Darwin_sentence_214

The last word was the only variant of "evolved" in the first five editions of the book. Charles Darwin_sentence_215

"Evolutionism" at that time was associated with other concepts, most commonly with embryological development, and Darwin first used the word evolution in The Descent of Man in 1871, before adding it in 1872 to the 6th edition of The Origin of Species. Charles Darwin_sentence_216

Responses to publication Charles Darwin_section_8

Further information: Reaction to On the Origin of Species Charles Darwin_sentence_217

The book aroused international interest, with less controversy than had greeted the popular and less scientific Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation. Charles Darwin_sentence_218

Though Darwin's illness kept him away from the public debates, he eagerly scrutinised the scientific response, commenting on press cuttings, reviews, articles, satires and caricatures, and corresponded on it with colleagues worldwide. Charles Darwin_sentence_219

The book did not explicitly discuss human origins, but included a number of hints about the animal ancestry of humans from which the inference could be made. Charles Darwin_sentence_220

The first review asked, "If a monkey has become a man–what may not a man become?" Charles Darwin_sentence_221

and said it should be left to theologians as it was too dangerous for ordinary readers. Charles Darwin_sentence_222

Amongst early favourable responses, Huxley's reviews swiped at Richard Owen, leader of the scientific establishment Huxley was trying to overthrow. Charles Darwin_sentence_223

In April, Owen's review attacked Darwin's friends and condescendingly dismissed his ideas, angering Darwin, but Owen and others began to promote ideas of supernaturally guided evolution. Charles Darwin_sentence_224

Patrick Matthew drew attention to his 1831 book which had a brief appendix suggesting a concept of natural selection leading to new species, but he had not developed the idea. Charles Darwin_sentence_225

The Church of England's response was mixed. Charles Darwin_sentence_226

Darwin's old Cambridge tutors Sedgwick and Henslow dismissed the ideas, but liberal clergymen interpreted natural selection as an instrument of God's design, with the cleric Charles Kingsley seeing it as "just as noble a conception of Deity". Charles Darwin_sentence_227

In 1860, the publication of Essays and Reviews by seven liberal Anglican theologians diverted clerical attention from Darwin, with its ideas including higher criticism attacked by church authorities as heresy. Charles Darwin_sentence_228

In it, Baden Powell argued that miracles broke God's laws, so belief in them was atheistic, and praised "Mr Darwin's masterly volume [supporting] the grand principle of the self-evolving powers of nature". Charles Darwin_sentence_229

Asa Gray discussed teleology with Darwin, who imported and distributed Gray's pamphlet on theistic evolution, Natural Selection is not inconsistent with natural theology. Charles Darwin_sentence_230

The most famous confrontation was at the public 1860 Oxford evolution debate during a meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, where the Bishop of Oxford Samuel Wilberforce, though not opposed to transmutation of species, argued against Darwin's explanation and human descent from apes. Charles Darwin_sentence_231

Joseph Hooker argued strongly for Darwin, and Thomas Huxley's legendary retort, that he would rather be descended from an ape than a man who misused his gifts, came to symbolise a triumph of science over religion. Charles Darwin_sentence_232

Even Darwin's close friends Gray, Hooker, Huxley and Lyell still expressed various reservations but gave strong support, as did many others, particularly younger naturalists. Charles Darwin_sentence_233

Gray and Lyell sought reconciliation with faith, while Huxley portrayed a polarisation between religion and science. Charles Darwin_sentence_234

He campaigned pugnaciously against the authority of the clergy in education, aiming to overturn the dominance of clergymen and aristocratic amateurs under Owen in favour of a new generation of professional scientists. Charles Darwin_sentence_235

Owen's claim that brain anatomy proved humans to be a separate biological order from apes was shown to be false by Huxley in a long running dispute parodied by Kingsley as the "Great Hippocampus Question", and discredited Owen. Charles Darwin_sentence_236

Darwinism became a movement covering a wide range of evolutionary ideas. Charles Darwin_sentence_237

In 1863 Lyell's Geological Evidences of the Antiquity of Man popularised prehistory, though his caution on evolution disappointed Darwin. Charles Darwin_sentence_238

Weeks later Huxley's Evidence as to Man's Place in Nature showed that anatomically, humans are apes, then The Naturalist on the River Amazons by Henry Walter Bates provided empirical evidence of natural selection. Charles Darwin_sentence_239

Lobbying brought Darwin Britain's highest scientific honour, the Royal Society's Copley Medal, awarded on 3 November 1864. Charles Darwin_sentence_240

That day, Huxley held the first meeting of what became the influential "X Club" devoted to "science, pure and free, untrammelled by religious dogmas". Charles Darwin_sentence_241

By the end of the decade most scientists agreed that evolution occurred, but only a minority supported Darwin's view that the chief mechanism was natural selection. Charles Darwin_sentence_242

The Origin of Species was translated into many languages, becoming a staple scientific text attracting thoughtful attention from all walks of life, including the "working men" who flocked to Huxley's lectures. Charles Darwin_sentence_243

Darwin's theory also resonated with various movements at the time and became a key fixture of popular culture. Charles Darwin_sentence_244

Cartoonists parodied animal ancestry in an old tradition of showing humans with animal traits, and in Britain these droll images served to popularise Darwin's theory in an unthreatening way. Charles Darwin_sentence_245

While ill in 1862 Darwin began growing a beard, and when he reappeared in public in 1866 caricatures of him as an ape helped to identify all forms of evolutionism with Darwinism. Charles Darwin_sentence_246

Descent of Man, sexual selection, and botany Charles Darwin_section_9

See also: Orchids to Variation, Descent of Man to Emotions, and Insectivorous Plants to Worms Charles Darwin_sentence_247

Despite repeated bouts of illness during the last twenty-two years of his life, Darwin's work continued. Charles Darwin_sentence_248

Having published On the Origin of Species as an abstract of his theory, he pressed on with experiments, research, and writing of his "big book". Charles Darwin_sentence_249

He covered human descent from earlier animals including evolution of society and of mental abilities, as well as explaining decorative beauty in wildlife and diversifying into innovative plant studies. Charles Darwin_sentence_250

Enquiries about insect pollination led in 1861 to novel studies of wild orchids, showing adaptation of their flowers to attract specific moths to each species and ensure cross fertilisation. Charles Darwin_sentence_251

In 1862 Fertilisation of Orchids gave his first detailed demonstration of the power of natural selection to explain complex ecological relationships, making testable predictions. Charles Darwin_sentence_252

As his health declined, he lay on his sickbed in a room filled with inventive experiments to trace the movements of climbing plants. Charles Darwin_sentence_253

Admiring visitors included Ernst Haeckel, a zealous proponent of Darwinismus incorporating Lamarckism and Goethe's idealism. Charles Darwin_sentence_254

Wallace remained supportive, though he increasingly turned to Spiritualism. Charles Darwin_sentence_255

Darwin's book The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication (1868) was the first part of his planned "big book", and included his unsuccessful hypothesis of pangenesis attempting to explain heredity. Charles Darwin_sentence_256

It sold briskly at first, despite its size, and was translated into many languages. Charles Darwin_sentence_257

He wrote most of a second part, on natural selection, but it remained unpublished in his lifetime. Charles Darwin_sentence_258

Lyell had already popularised human prehistory, and Huxley had shown that anatomically humans are apes. Charles Darwin_sentence_259

With The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex published in 1871, Darwin set out evidence from numerous sources that humans are animals, showing continuity of physical and mental attributes, and presented sexual selection to explain impractical animal features such as the peacock's plumage as well as human evolution of culture, differences between sexes, and physical and cultural racial classification, while emphasising that humans are all one species. Charles Darwin_sentence_260

His research using images was expanded in his 1872 book The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, one of the first books to feature printed photographs, which discussed the evolution of human psychology and its continuity with the behaviour of animals. Charles Darwin_sentence_261

Both books proved very popular, and Darwin was impressed by the general assent with which his views had been received, remarking that "everybody is talking about it without being shocked." Charles Darwin_sentence_262

His conclusion was "that man with all his noble qualities, with sympathy which feels for the most debased, with benevolence which extends not only to other men but to the humblest living creature, with his god-like intellect which has penetrated into the movements and constitution of the solar system—with all these exalted powers—Man still bears in his bodily frame the indelible stamp of his lowly origin." Charles Darwin_sentence_263

His evolution-related experiments and investigations led to books on Orchids, Insectivorous Plants, The Effects of Cross and Self Fertilisation in the Vegetable Kingdom, different forms of flowers on plants of the same species, and The Power of Movement in Plants. Charles Darwin_sentence_264

He continued to collect information and exchange views from scientific correspondents all over the world, including Mary Treat, whom he encouraged to persevere in her scientific work. Charles Darwin_sentence_265

His botanical work was interpreted and popularised by various writers including Grant Allen and H. Charles Darwin_sentence_266 G. Wells, and in the late 19th century and early 20th century. Charles Darwin_sentence_267

In his last book he returned to The Formation of Vegetable Mould through the Action of Worms. Charles Darwin_sentence_268

Death and funeral Charles Darwin_section_10

See also: Darwin from Insectivorous Plants to Worms Charles Darwin_sentence_269

In 1882 he was diagnosed with what was called "angina pectoris" which then meant coronary thrombosis and disease of the heart. Charles Darwin_sentence_270

At the time of his death, the physicians diagnosed "anginal attacks", and "heart-failure". Charles Darwin_sentence_271

It has been speculated that Darwin may have suffered from chronic Chagas disease. Charles Darwin_sentence_272

This speculation is based on a journal entry written by Darwin, describing he was bitten by the "Kissing Bug" in Mendoza, Argentina, in 1835; and based on the constellation of clinical symptoms he exhibited, including cardiac disease which is a hallmark of chronic Chagas disease. Charles Darwin_sentence_273

Exhuming Darwin's body is likely necessary to definitively determine his state of infection by detecting DNA of infecting parasite, T. Charles Darwin_sentence_274 cruzi, that causes Chagas disease. Charles Darwin_sentence_275

He died at Down House on 19 April 1882. Charles Darwin_sentence_276

His last words were to his family, telling Emma "I am not the least afraid of death—Remember what a good wife you have been to me—Tell all my children to remember how good they have been to me", then while she rested, he repeatedly told Henrietta and Francis "It's almost worth while to be sick to be nursed by you". Charles Darwin_sentence_277

He had expected to be buried in St Mary's churchyard at Downe, but at the request of Darwin's colleagues, after public and parliamentary petitioning, William Spottiswoode (President of the Royal Society) arranged for Darwin to be honoured by burial in Westminster Abbey, close to John Herschel and Isaac Newton. Charles Darwin_sentence_278

The funeral was held on Wednesday 26 April and was attended by thousands of people, including family, friends, scientists, philosophers and dignitaries. Charles Darwin_sentence_279

Legacy Charles Darwin_section_11

By the time of his death, Darwin and his colleagues had convinced most scientists that evolution as descent with modification was correct, and he was regarded as a great scientist who had revolutionised ideas. Charles Darwin_sentence_280

In June 1909, though few at that time agreed with his view that "natural selection has been the main but not the exclusive means of modification", he was honoured by more than 400 officials and scientists from across the world who met in Cambridge to commemorate his centenary and the fiftieth anniversary of On the Origin of Species. Charles Darwin_sentence_281

Around the beginning of the 20th century, a period that has been called "the eclipse of Darwinism", scientists proposed various alternative evolutionary mechanisms, which eventually proved untenable. Charles Darwin_sentence_282

Ronald Fisher, an English statistician, finally united Mendelian genetics with natural selection, in the period between 1918 and his 1930 book The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection. Charles Darwin_sentence_283

He gave the theory a mathematical footing and brought broad scientific consensus that natural selection was the basic mechanism of evolution, thus founding the basis for population genetics and the modern evolutionary synthesis, with J.B.S. Charles Darwin_sentence_284 Haldane and Sewall Wright, which set the frame of reference for modern debates and refinements of the theory. Charles Darwin_sentence_285

Commemoration Charles Darwin_section_12

Main article: Commemoration of Charles Darwin Charles Darwin_sentence_286

See also: List of things named after Charles Darwin and List of taxa described by Charles Darwin Charles Darwin_sentence_287

During Darwin's lifetime, many geographical features were given his name. Charles Darwin_sentence_288

An expanse of water adjoining the Beagle Channel was named Darwin Sound by Robert FitzRoy after Darwin's prompt action, along with two or three of the men, saved them from being marooned on a nearby shore when a collapsing glacier caused a large wave that would have swept away their boats, and the nearby Mount Darwin in the Andes was named in celebration of Darwin's 25th birthday. Charles Darwin_sentence_289

When the Beagle was surveying Australia in 1839, Darwin's friend John Lort Stokes sighted a natural harbour which the ship's captain Wickham named Port Darwin: a nearby settlement was renamed Darwin in 1911, and it became the capital city of Australia's Northern Territory. Charles Darwin_sentence_290

Stephen Heard identified 389 species that have been named after Darwin, and there are at least 9 genera. Charles Darwin_sentence_291

In one example, the group of tanagers related to those Darwin found in the Galápagos Islands became popularly known as "Darwin's finches" in 1947, fostering inaccurate legends about their significance to his work. Charles Darwin_sentence_292

Darwin's work has continued to be celebrated by numerous publications and events. Charles Darwin_sentence_293

The Linnean Society of London has commemorated Darwin's achievements by the award of the Darwin–Wallace Medal since 1908. Charles Darwin_sentence_294

Darwin Day has become an annual celebration, and in 2009 worldwide events were arranged for the bicentenary of Darwin's birth and the 150th anniversary of the publication of On the Origin of Species. Charles Darwin_sentence_295

Darwin has been commemorated in the UK, with his portrait printed on the reverse of £10 banknotes printed along with a hummingbird and HMS Beagle, issued by the Bank of England. Charles Darwin_sentence_296

A life-size seated statue of Darwin can be seen in the main hall of the Natural History Museum in London. Charles Darwin_sentence_297

A seated statue of Darwin, unveiled 1897, stands in front of Shrewsbury Library, the building that used to house Shrewsbury School, which Darwin attended as a boy. Charles Darwin_sentence_298

Another statue of Darwin as a young man is situated in the grounds of Christ's College, Cambridge. Charles Darwin_sentence_299

Darwin College, a postgraduate college at Cambridge University, is named after the Darwin family. Charles Darwin_sentence_300

In 2008–09, the Swedish band The Knife, in collaboration with Danish performance group Hotel Pro Forma and other musicians from Denmark, Sweden and the US, created an opera about the life of Darwin, and The Origin of Species, entitled Tomorrow, in a Year. Charles Darwin_sentence_301

The show toured European theatres in 2010. Charles Darwin_sentence_302

Children Charles Darwin_section_13

See also: Darwin–Wedgwood family Charles Darwin_sentence_303

The Darwins had ten children: two died in infancy, and Annie's death at the age of ten had a devastating effect on her parents. Charles Darwin_sentence_304

Charles was a devoted father and uncommonly attentive to his children. Charles Darwin_sentence_305

Whenever they fell ill, he feared that they might have inherited weaknesses from inbreeding due to the close family ties he shared with his wife and cousin, Emma Wedgwood. Charles Darwin_sentence_306

He examined inbreeding in his writings, contrasting it with the advantages of outcrossing in many species. Charles Darwin_sentence_307

Despite his fears, most of the surviving children and many of their descendants went on to have distinguished careers. Charles Darwin_sentence_308

Of his surviving children, George, Francis and Horace became Fellows of the Royal Society, distinguished as astronomer, botanist and civil engineer, respectively. Charles Darwin_sentence_309

All three were knighted. Charles Darwin_sentence_310

Another son, Leonard, went on to be a soldier, politician, economist, eugenicist and mentor of the statistician and evolutionary biologist Ronald Fisher. Charles Darwin_sentence_311

Views and opinions Charles Darwin_section_14

Religious views Charles Darwin_section_15

Further information: Religious views of Charles Darwin Charles Darwin_sentence_312

Darwin's family tradition was nonconformist Unitarianism, while his father and grandfather were freethinkers, and his baptism and boarding school were Church of England. Charles Darwin_sentence_313

When going to Cambridge to become an Anglican clergyman, he did not doubt the literal truth of the Bible. Charles Darwin_sentence_314

He learned John Herschel's science which, like William Paley's natural theology, sought explanations in laws of nature rather than miracles and saw adaptation of species as evidence of design. Charles Darwin_sentence_315

On board HMS Beagle, Darwin was quite orthodox and would quote the Bible as an authority on morality. Charles Darwin_sentence_316

He looked for "centres of creation" to explain distribution, and suggested that the very similar antlions found in Australia and England were evidence of a divine hand. Charles Darwin_sentence_317

By his return, he was critical of the Bible as history, and wondered why all religions should not be equally valid. Charles Darwin_sentence_318

In the next few years, while intensively speculating on geology and the transmutation of species, he gave much thought to religion and openly discussed this with his wife Emma, whose beliefs also came from intensive study and questioning. Charles Darwin_sentence_319

The theodicy of Paley and Thomas Malthus vindicated evils such as starvation as a result of a benevolent creator's laws, which had an overall good effect. Charles Darwin_sentence_320

To Darwin, natural selection produced the good of adaptation but removed the need for design, and he could not see the work of an omnipotent deity in all the pain and suffering, such as the ichneumon wasp paralysing caterpillars as live food for its eggs. Charles Darwin_sentence_321

Though he thought of religion as a tribal survival strategy, Darwin was reluctant to give up the idea of God as an ultimate lawgiver. Charles Darwin_sentence_322

He was increasingly troubled by the problem of evil. Charles Darwin_sentence_323

Darwin remained close friends with the vicar of Downe, John Brodie Innes, and continued to play a leading part in the parish work of the church, but from around 1849 would go for a walk on Sundays while his family attended church. Charles Darwin_sentence_324

He considered it "absurd to doubt that a man might be an ardent theist and an evolutionist" and, though reticent about his religious views, in 1879 he wrote that "I have never been an atheist in the sense of denying the existence of a God. Charles Darwin_sentence_325

– I think that generally ... an agnostic would be the most correct description of my state of mind". Charles Darwin_sentence_326

The "Lady Hope Story", published in 1915, claimed that Darwin had reverted to Christianity on his sickbed. Charles Darwin_sentence_327

The claims were repudiated by Darwin's children and have been dismissed as false by historians. Charles Darwin_sentence_328

Human society Charles Darwin_section_16

Darwin's views on social and political issues reflected his time and social position. Charles Darwin_sentence_329

He grew up in a family of Whig reformers who, like his uncle Josiah Wedgwood, supported electoral reform and the emancipation of slaves. Charles Darwin_sentence_330

Darwin was passionately opposed to slavery, while seeing no problem with the working conditions of English factory workers or servants. Charles Darwin_sentence_331

His taxidermy lessons in 1826 from the freed slave John Edmonstone, whom he long recalled as "a very pleasant and intelligent man", reinforced his belief that black people shared the same feelings, and could be as intelligent as people of other races. Charles Darwin_sentence_332

He took the same attitude to native people he met on the Beagle voyage. Charles Darwin_sentence_333

These attitudes were not unusual in Britain in the 1820s, much as it shocked visiting Americans. Charles Darwin_sentence_334

British society started to envisage racial differences more vividly in mid-century, but Darwin remained strongly against slavery, against "ranking the so-called races of man as distinct species", and against ill-treatment of native people. Charles Darwin_sentence_335

Darwin's interaction with Yaghans (Fuegians) such as Jemmy Button during the second voyage of HMS Beagle had a profound impact on his view of primitive peoples. Charles Darwin_sentence_336

At his arrival to Tierra del Fuego he made a colourful description of "Fuegian savages". Charles Darwin_sentence_337

This view changed as he came to know Yaghan people more in detail. Charles Darwin_sentence_338

By studying the Yaghans, Darwin concluded that a number of basic emotions by different human groups were the same and that mental capabilities were roughly the same as for Europeans. Charles Darwin_sentence_339

While interested in Yaghan culture Darwin failed to appreciate their deep ecological knowledge and elaborate cosmology until the 1850s when he inspected a dictionary of Yaghan detailing 32,000 words. Charles Darwin_sentence_340

He saw that European colonisation would often lead to the extinction of native civilisations, and "tr[ied] to integrate colonialism into an evolutionary history of civilization analogous to natural history." Charles Darwin_sentence_341

He thought men's eminence over women was the outcome of sexual selection, a view disputed by Antoinette Brown Blackwell in her 1875 book The Sexes Throughout Nature. Charles Darwin_sentence_342

Darwin was intrigued by his half-cousin Francis Galton's argument, introduced in 1865, that statistical analysis of heredity showed that moral and mental human traits could be inherited, and principles of animal breeding could apply to humans. Charles Darwin_sentence_343

In The Descent of Man, Darwin noted that aiding the weak to survive and have families could lose the benefits of natural selection, but cautioned that withholding such aid would endanger the instinct of sympathy, "the noblest part of our nature", and factors such as education could be more important. Charles Darwin_sentence_344

When Galton suggested that publishing research could encourage intermarriage within a "caste" of "those who are naturally gifted", Darwin foresaw practical difficulties, and thought it "the sole feasible, yet I fear utopian, plan of procedure in improving the human race", preferring to simply publicise the importance of inheritance and leave decisions to individuals. Charles Darwin_sentence_345

Francis Galton named this field of study "eugenics" in 1883. Charles Darwin_sentence_346

After Darwin's death, his theories were cited to promote eugenic policies. Charles Darwin_sentence_347

Evolutionary social movements Charles Darwin_section_17

Further information: Darwinism, Eugenics, and Social Darwinism Charles Darwin_sentence_348

Darwin's fame and popularity led to his name being associated with ideas and movements that, at times, had only an indirect relation to his writings, and sometimes went directly against his express comments. Charles Darwin_sentence_349

Thomas Malthus had argued that population growth beyond resources was ordained by God to get humans to work productively and show restraint in getting families; this was used in the 1830s to justify workhouses and laissez-faire economics. Charles Darwin_sentence_350

Evolution was by then seen as having social implications, and Herbert Spencer's 1851 book Social Statics based ideas of human freedom and individual liberties on his Lamarckian evolutionary theory. Charles Darwin_sentence_351

Soon after the Origin was published in 1859, critics derided his description of a struggle for existence as a Malthusian justification for the English industrial capitalism of the time. Charles Darwin_sentence_352

The term Darwinism was used for the evolutionary ideas of others, including Spencer's "survival of the fittest" as free-market progress, and Ernst Haeckel's polygenistic ideas of human development. Charles Darwin_sentence_353

Writers used natural selection to argue for various, often contradictory, ideologies such as laissez-faire dog-eat-dog capitalism, colonialism and imperialism. Charles Darwin_sentence_354

However, Darwin's holistic view of nature included "dependence of one being on another"; thus pacifists, socialists, liberal social reformers and anarchists such as Peter Kropotkin stressed the value of co-operation over struggle within a species. Charles Darwin_sentence_355

Darwin himself insisted that social policy should not simply be guided by concepts of struggle and selection in nature. Charles Darwin_sentence_356

After the 1880s, a eugenics movement developed on ideas of biological inheritance, and for scientific justification of their ideas appealed to some concepts of Darwinism. Charles Darwin_sentence_357

In Britain, most shared Darwin's cautious views on voluntary improvement and sought to encourage those with good traits in "positive eugenics". Charles Darwin_sentence_358

During the "Eclipse of Darwinism", a scientific foundation for eugenics was provided by Mendelian genetics. Charles Darwin_sentence_359

Negative eugenics to remove the "feebleminded" were popular in America, Canada and Australia, and eugenics in the United States introduced compulsory sterilisation laws, followed by several other countries. Charles Darwin_sentence_360

Subsequently, Nazi eugenics brought the field into disrepute. Charles Darwin_sentence_361

The term "Social Darwinism" was used infrequently from around the 1890s, but became popular as a derogatory term in the 1940s when used by Richard Hofstadter to attack the laissez-faire conservatism of those like William Graham Sumner who opposed reform and socialism. Charles Darwin_sentence_362

Since then, it has been used as a term of abuse by those opposed to what they think are the moral consequences of evolution. Charles Darwin_sentence_363


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles Darwin.