Charles Mingus

From Wikipedia for FEVERv2
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Charles Mingus_table_infobox_0

Charles MingusCharles Mingus_header_cell_0_0_0
Background informationCharles Mingus_header_cell_0_1_0
Birth nameCharles Mingus_header_cell_0_2_0 Charles Mingus Jr.Charles Mingus_cell_0_2_1
BornCharles Mingus_header_cell_0_3_0 (1922-04-22)April 22, 1922

Nogales, Arizona, U.S.Charles Mingus_cell_0_3_1

OriginCharles Mingus_header_cell_0_4_0 Los Angeles, California, U.S.Charles Mingus_cell_0_4_1
DiedCharles Mingus_header_cell_0_5_0 January 5, 1979(1979-01-05) (aged 56)

Cuernavaca, MexicoCharles Mingus_cell_0_5_1

GenresCharles Mingus_header_cell_0_6_0 Jazz, hard bop, bebop, avant-garde jazz, post-bop, Third Stream, orchestral jazz, free jazzCharles Mingus_cell_0_6_1
Occupation(s)Charles Mingus_header_cell_0_7_0 Musician, composer, bandleaderCharles Mingus_cell_0_7_1
InstrumentsCharles Mingus_header_cell_0_8_0 Double bass, piano, celloCharles Mingus_cell_0_8_1
Years activeCharles Mingus_header_cell_0_9_0 1943–1979Charles Mingus_cell_0_9_1
LabelsCharles Mingus_header_cell_0_10_0 Atlantic, Candid, Columbia, Debut, Impulse!, Mercury, United ArtistsCharles Mingus_cell_0_10_1
Associated actsCharles Mingus_header_cell_0_11_0 Pepper Adams, Jaki Byard, Miles Davis, Eric Dolphy, Duke Ellington, Jimmy Knepper, Joni Mitchell, Charlie Parker, Don Pullen, Dannie Richmond, Max Roach, Jack WalrathCharles Mingus_cell_0_11_1
WebsiteCharles Mingus_header_cell_0_12_0 Charles Mingus_cell_0_12_1

Charles Mingus Jr. (April 22, 1922 – January 5, 1979) was an American jazz double bassist, pianist, composer and bandleader. Charles Mingus_sentence_0

A major proponent of collective improvisation, he is considered to be one of the greatest jazz musicians and composers in history, with a career spanning three decades and collaborations with other jazz legends such as Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, Charlie Parker, Dizzy Gillespie, Dannie Richmond, and Herbie Hancock. Charles Mingus_sentence_1

Mingus' compositions continue to be played by contemporary musicians ranging from the repertory bands Mingus Big Band, Mingus Dynasty, and Mingus Orchestra, to the high school students who play the charts and compete in the Charles Mingus High School Competition. Charles Mingus_sentence_2

In 1993, the Library of Congress acquired Mingus's collected papers—including scores, sound recordings, correspondence and photos—in what they described as "the most important acquisition of a manuscript collection relating to jazz in the Library's history". Charles Mingus_sentence_3

Biography Charles Mingus_section_0

Early life and career Charles Mingus_section_1

Charles Mingus was born in Nogales, Arizona. Charles Mingus_sentence_4

His father, Charles Mingus Sr., was a sergeant in the U.S. Army. Charles Mingus_sentence_5

Mingus was largely raised in the Watts area of Los Angeles. Charles Mingus_sentence_6

His maternal grandfather was a Chinese British subject from Hong Kong, and his maternal grandmother was an African-American from the southern United States. Charles Mingus_sentence_7

Mingus was the third great-grandson of the family's founding patriarch who was, by most accounts, a German immigrant. Charles Mingus_sentence_8

His ancestors included German American, African American, and Native American. Charles Mingus_sentence_9

In Mingus's autobiography Beneath the Underdog his mother was described as "the daughter of an English/Chinese man and a South-American woman", and his father was the son "of a black farm worker and a Swedish woman". Charles Mingus_sentence_10

Charles Mingus Sr. claims to have been raised by his mother and her husband as a white person until he was fourteen, when his mother revealed to her family that the child's true father was a black slave, after which he had to run away from his family and live on his own. Charles Mingus_sentence_11

The autobiography does not confirm whether Charles Mingus Sr. or Mingus himself believed this story was true, or whether it was merely an embellished version of the Mingus family's lineage. Charles Mingus_sentence_12

His mother allowed only church-related music in their home, but Mingus developed an early love for other music, especially Duke Ellington. Charles Mingus_sentence_13

He studied trombone, and later cello, although he was unable to follow the cello professionally because, at the time, it was nearly impossible for a black musician to make a career of classical music, and the cello was not yet accepted as a jazz instrument. Charles Mingus_sentence_14

Despite this, Mingus was still attached to the cello; as he studied bass with Red Callender in the late 1930s, Callender even commented that the cello was still Mingus's main instrument. Charles Mingus_sentence_15

In Beneath the Underdog, Mingus states that he did not actually start learning bass until Buddy Collette accepted him into his swing band under the stipulation that he be the band's bass player. Charles Mingus_sentence_16

Due to a poor education, the young Mingus could not read musical notation quickly enough to join the local youth orchestra. Charles Mingus_sentence_17

This had a serious impact on his early musical experiences, leaving him feeling ostracized from the classical music world. Charles Mingus_sentence_18

These early experiences, in addition to his lifelong confrontations with racism, were reflected in his music, which often focused on themes of racism, discrimination and (in)justice. Charles Mingus_sentence_19

Much of the cello technique he learned was applicable to double bass when he took up the instrument in high school. Charles Mingus_sentence_20

He studied for five years with Herman Reinshagen, principal bassist of the New York Philharmonic, and compositional techniques with Lloyd Reese. Charles Mingus_sentence_21

Throughout much of his career, he played a bass made in 1927 by the German maker Ernst Heinrich Roth. Charles Mingus_sentence_22

Beginning in his teen years, Mingus was writing quite advanced pieces; many are similar to Third Stream because they incorporate elements of classical music. Charles Mingus_sentence_23

A number of them were recorded in 1960 with conductor Gunther Schuller, and released as Pre-Bird, referring to Charlie "Bird" Parker; Mingus was one of many musicians whose perspectives on music were altered by Parker into "pre- and post-Bird" eras. Charles Mingus_sentence_24

Mingus gained a reputation as a bass prodigy. Charles Mingus_sentence_25

His first major professional job was playing with former Ellington clarinetist Barney Bigard. Charles Mingus_sentence_26

He toured with Louis Armstrong in 1943, and by early 1945 was recording in Los Angeles in a band led by Russell Jacquet, which also included Teddy Edwards, Maurice Simon, Bill Davis, and Chico Hamilton, and in May that year, in Hollywood, again with Teddy Edwards, in a band led by Howard McGhee. Charles Mingus_sentence_27

He then played with Lionel Hampton's band in the late 1940s; Hampton performed and recorded several of Mingus's pieces. Charles Mingus_sentence_28

A popular trio of Mingus, Red Norvo and Tal Farlow in 1950 and 1951 received considerable acclaim, but Mingus's race caused problems with club owners and he left the group. Charles Mingus_sentence_29

Mingus was briefly a member of Ellington's band in 1953, as a substitute for bassist Wendell Marshall. Charles Mingus_sentence_30

Mingus's notorious temper led to his being one of the few musicians personally fired by Ellington (Bubber Miley and drummer Bobby Durham are among the others), after a back-stage fight between Mingus and Juan Tizol. Charles Mingus_sentence_31

Also in the early 1950s, before attaining commercial recognition as a bandleader, Mingus played gigs with Charlie Parker, whose compositions and improvisations greatly inspired and influenced him. Charles Mingus_sentence_32

Mingus considered Parker the greatest genius and innovator in jazz history, but he had a love-hate relationship with Parker's legacy. Charles Mingus_sentence_33

Mingus blamed the Parker mythology for a derivative crop of pretenders to Parker's throne. Charles Mingus_sentence_34

He was also conflicted and sometimes disgusted by Parker's self-destructive habits and the romanticized lure of drug addiction they offered to other jazz musicians. Charles Mingus_sentence_35

In response to the many sax players who imitated Parker, Mingus titled a song "If Charlie Parker Were a Gunslinger, There'd Be a Whole Lot of Dead Copycats" (released on Mingus Dynasty as "Gunslinging Bird"). Charles Mingus_sentence_36

Mingus was married four times. Charles Mingus_sentence_37

His wives were Jeanne Gross, Lucille (Celia) Germanis, Judy Starkey, and Susan Graham Ungaro. Charles Mingus_sentence_38

Based in New York Charles Mingus_section_2

In 1961, Mingus spent time staying at the house of his mother's sister (Louise) and her husband, Fess Williams in Jamaica, Queens. Charles Mingus_sentence_39

Subsequently, Mingus invited Williams to play at the 1962 Town Hall Concert. Charles Mingus_sentence_40

In 1952 Mingus co-founded Debut Records with Max Roach so he could conduct his recording career as he saw fit. Charles Mingus_sentence_41

The name originated from his desire to document unrecorded young musicians. Charles Mingus_sentence_42

Despite this, the best-known recording the company issued was of the most prominent figures in bebop. Charles Mingus_sentence_43

On May 15, 1953, Mingus joined Dizzy Gillespie, Parker, Bud Powell, and Roach for a concert at Massey Hall in Toronto, which is the last recorded documentation of Gillespie and Parker playing together. Charles Mingus_sentence_44

After the event, Mingus chose to overdub his barely audible bass part back in New York; the original version was issued later. Charles Mingus_sentence_45

The two 10" albums of the Massey Hall concert (one featured the trio of Powell, Mingus and Roach) were among Debut Records' earliest releases. Charles Mingus_sentence_46

Mingus may have objected to the way the major record companies treated musicians, but Gillespie once commented that he did not receive any royalties "for years and years" for his Massey Hall appearance. Charles Mingus_sentence_47

The records, however, are often regarded as among the finest live jazz recordings. Charles Mingus_sentence_48

One story has it that Mingus was involved in a notorious incident while playing a 1955 club date billed as a "reunion" with Parker, Powell, and Roach. Charles Mingus_sentence_49

Powell, who suffered from alcoholism and mental illness (possibly exacerbated by a severe police beating and electroshock treatments), had to be helped from the stage, unable to play or speak coherently. Charles Mingus_sentence_50

As Powell's incapacitation became apparent, Parker stood in one spot at a microphone, chanting "Bud Powell...Bud Powell..." as if beseeching Powell's return. Charles Mingus_sentence_51

Allegedly, Parker continued this incantation for several minutes after Powell's departure, to his own amusement and Mingus's exasperation. Charles Mingus_sentence_52

Mingus took another microphone and announced to the crowd, "Ladies and Gentlemen, please don't associate me with any of this. Charles Mingus_sentence_53

This is not jazz. Charles Mingus_sentence_54

These are sick people." Charles Mingus_sentence_55

This was Parker's last public performance; about a week later he died after years of substance abuse. Charles Mingus_sentence_56

Mingus often worked with a mid-sized ensemble (around 8–10 members) of rotating musicians known as the Jazz Workshop. Charles Mingus_sentence_57

Mingus broke new ground, constantly demanding that his musicians be able to explore and develop their perceptions on the spot. Charles Mingus_sentence_58

Those who joined the Workshop (or Sweatshops as they were colorfully dubbed by the musicians) included Pepper Adams, Jaki Byard, Booker Ervin, John Handy, Jimmy Knepper, Charles McPherson and Horace Parlan. Charles Mingus_sentence_59

Mingus shaped these musicians into a cohesive improvisational machine that in many ways anticipated free jazz. Charles Mingus_sentence_60

Some musicians dubbed the workshop a "university" for jazz. Charles Mingus_sentence_61

Pithecanthropus Erectus and other recordings Charles Mingus_section_3

The decade that followed is generally regarded as Mingus's most productive and fertile period. Charles Mingus_sentence_62

Over a ten-year period, he made 30 records for a number of labels (Atlantic, Candid, Columbia, Impulse and others), a pace perhaps unmatched by any other musicians except Ellington. Charles Mingus_sentence_63

Mingus had already recorded around ten albums as a bandleader, but 1956 was a breakthrough year for him, with the release of Pithecanthropus Erectus, arguably his first major work as both a bandleader and composer. Charles Mingus_sentence_64

Like Ellington, Mingus wrote songs with specific musicians in mind, and his band for Erectus included adventurous musicians: piano player Mal Waldron, alto saxophonist Jackie McLean and the Sonny Rollins-influenced tenor of J. Charles Mingus_sentence_65 R. Monterose. Charles Mingus_sentence_66

The title song is a ten-minute tone poem, depicting the rise of man from his hominid roots (Pithecanthropus erectus) to an eventual downfall. Charles Mingus_sentence_67

A section of the piece was free improvisation, free of structure or theme. Charles Mingus_sentence_68

Another album from this period, The Clown (1957 also on Atlantic Records), the title track of which features narration by humorist Jean Shepherd, was the first to feature drummer Dannie Richmond, who remained his preferred drummer until Mingus's death in 1979. Charles Mingus_sentence_69

The two men formed one of the most impressive and versatile rhythm sections in jazz. Charles Mingus_sentence_70

Both were accomplished performers seeking to stretch the boundaries of their music while staying true to its roots. Charles Mingus_sentence_71

When joined by pianist Jaki Byard, they were dubbed "The Almighty Three". Charles Mingus_sentence_72

Mingus Ah Um and other works Charles Mingus_section_4

In 1959 Mingus and his jazz workshop musicians recorded one of his best-known albums, Mingus Ah Um. Charles Mingus_sentence_73

Even in a year of standout masterpieces, including Dave Brubeck's Time Out, Miles Davis's Kind of Blue, John Coltrane's Giant Steps, and Ornette Coleman's prophetic The Shape of Jazz to Come, this was a major achievement, featuring such classic Mingus compositions as "Goodbye Pork Pie Hat" (an elegy to Lester Young) and the vocal-less version of "Fables of Faubus" (a protest against segregationist Arkansas governor Orval Faubus that features double-time sections). Charles Mingus_sentence_74

Also during 1959, Mingus recorded the album Blues & Roots, which was released the following year. Charles Mingus_sentence_75

As Mingus explained in his liner notes: "I was born swinging and clapped my hands in church as a little boy, but I've grown up and I like to do things other than just swing. Charles Mingus_sentence_76

But blues can do more than just swing." Charles Mingus_sentence_77

Mingus witnessed Ornette Coleman's legendary—and controversial—1960 appearances at New York City's Five Spot jazz club. Charles Mingus_sentence_78

He initially expressed rather mixed feelings for Coleman's innovative music: "...if the free-form guys could play the same tune twice, then I would say they were playing something...Most of the time they use their fingers on the saxophone and they don't even know what's going to come out. Charles Mingus_sentence_79

They're experimenting." Charles Mingus_sentence_80

That same year, however, Mingus formed a quartet with Richmond, trumpeter Ted Curson and multi-instrumentalist Eric Dolphy. Charles Mingus_sentence_81

This ensemble featured the same instruments as Coleman's quartet, and is often regarded as Mingus rising to the challenging new standard established by Coleman. Charles Mingus_sentence_82

The quartet recorded on both Charles Mingus Presents Charles Mingus and Mingus. Charles Mingus_sentence_83

The former also features the version of "Fables of Faubus" with lyrics, aptly titled "Original Faubus Fables". Charles Mingus_sentence_84

Only one misstep occurred in this era: The Town Hall Concert in October 1962, a "live workshop"/recording session. Charles Mingus_sentence_85

With an ambitious program, the event was plagued with troubles from its inception. Charles Mingus_sentence_86

Mingus's vision, now known as Epitaph, was finally realized by conductor Gunther Schuller in a concert in 1989, a decade after Mingus died. Charles Mingus_sentence_87

The Black Saint and the Sinner Lady and other Impulse! albums Charles Mingus_section_5

In 1963, Mingus released The Black Saint and the Sinner Lady, described as "one of the greatest achievements in orchestration by any composer in jazz history." Charles Mingus_sentence_88

The album was also unique in that Mingus asked his psychotherapist, Dr. Edmund Pollock, to provide notes for the record. Charles Mingus_sentence_89

Mingus also released Mingus Plays Piano, an unaccompanied album featuring some fully improvised pieces, in 1963. Charles Mingus_sentence_90

In addition, 1963 saw the release of Mingus Mingus Mingus Mingus Mingus, an album praised by critic Nat Hentoff. Charles Mingus_sentence_91

In 1964 Mingus put together one of his best-known groups, a sextet including Dannie Richmond, Jaki Byard, Eric Dolphy, trumpeter Johnny Coles, and tenor saxophonist Clifford Jordan. Charles Mingus_sentence_92

The group was recorded frequently during its short existence; Coles fell ill and left during a European tour. Charles Mingus_sentence_93

Dolphy stayed in Europe after the tour ended, and died suddenly in Berlin on June 28, 1964. Charles Mingus_sentence_94

1964 was also the year that Mingus met his future wife, Sue Graham Ungaro. Charles Mingus_sentence_95

The couple were married in 1966 by Allen Ginsberg. Charles Mingus_sentence_96

Facing financial hardship, Mingus was evicted from his New York home in 1966. Charles Mingus_sentence_97

Changes Charles Mingus_section_6

Mingus's pace slowed somewhat in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Charles Mingus_sentence_98

In 1974, after his 1970 sextet with Charles McPherson, Eddie Preston and Bobby Jones disbanded, he formed a quintet with Richmond, pianist Don Pullen, trumpeter Jack Walrath and saxophonist George Adams. Charles Mingus_sentence_99

They recorded two well-received albums, Changes One and Changes Two. Charles Mingus_sentence_100

Mingus also played with Charles McPherson in many of his groups during this time. Charles Mingus_sentence_101

Cumbia and Jazz Fusion in 1976 sought to blend Colombian music (the "Cumbia" of the title) with more traditional jazz forms. Charles Mingus_sentence_102

In 1971, Mingus taught for a semester at the University at Buffalo, The State University of New York as the Slee Professor of Music. Charles Mingus_sentence_103

Later career and death Charles Mingus_section_7

By the mid-1970s, Mingus was suffering from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Charles Mingus_sentence_104

His once formidable bass technique declined until he could no longer play the instrument. Charles Mingus_sentence_105

He continued composing, however, and supervised a number of recordings before his death. Charles Mingus_sentence_106

At the time of his death, he was working with Joni Mitchell on an album eventually titled Mingus, which included lyrics added by Mitchell to his compositions, including "Goodbye Pork Pie Hat". Charles Mingus_sentence_107

The album featured the talents of Wayne Shorter, Herbie Hancock, and another influential bassist and composer, Jaco Pastorius. Charles Mingus_sentence_108

Mingus died, aged 56, in Cuernavaca, Mexico, where he had traveled for treatment and convalescence. Charles Mingus_sentence_109

His ashes were scattered in the Ganges River. Charles Mingus_sentence_110

Musical style Charles Mingus_section_8

His compositions retained the hot and soulful feel of hard bop, drawing heavily from black gospel music and blues, while sometimes containing elements of Third Stream, free jazz, and classical music. Charles Mingus_sentence_111

He once cited Duke Ellington and church as his main influences. Charles Mingus_sentence_112

Mingus espoused collective improvisation, similar to the old New Orleans jazz parades, paying particular attention to how each band member interacted with the group as a whole. Charles Mingus_sentence_113

In creating his bands, he looked not only at the skills of the available musicians, but also their personalities. Charles Mingus_sentence_114

Many musicians passed through his bands and later went on to impressive careers. Charles Mingus_sentence_115

He recruited talented and sometimes little-known artists, whom he utilized to assemble unconventional instrumental configurations. Charles Mingus_sentence_116

As a performer, Mingus was a pioneer in double bass technique, widely recognized as one of the instrument's most proficient players. Charles Mingus_sentence_117

Because of his brilliant writing for midsize ensembles, and his catering to and emphasizing the strengths of the musicians in his groups, Mingus is often considered the heir of Duke Ellington, for whom he expressed great admiration and collaborated on the record Money Jungle. Charles Mingus_sentence_118

Indeed, Dizzy Gillespie had once claimed Mingus reminded him "of a young Duke", citing their shared "organizational genius." Charles Mingus_sentence_119

Personality and temper Charles Mingus_section_9

Nearly as well known as his ambitious music was Mingus's often fearsome temperament, which earned him the nickname "The Angry Man of Jazz". Charles Mingus_sentence_120

His refusal to compromise his musical integrity led to many onstage eruptions, exhortations to musicians, and dismissals. Charles Mingus_sentence_121

Although respected for his musical talents, Mingus was sometimes feared for his occasionally violent onstage temper, which was at times directed at members of his band and other times aimed at the audience. Charles Mingus_sentence_122

He was physically large, prone to obesity (especially in his later years), and was by all accounts often intimidating and frightening when expressing anger or displeasure. Charles Mingus_sentence_123

When confronted with a nightclub audience talking and clinking ice in their glasses while he performed, Mingus stopped his band and loudly chastised the audience, stating: "Isaac Stern doesn't have to put up with this shit." Charles Mingus_sentence_124

Mingus reportedly destroyed a $20,000 bass in response to audience heckling at the Five Spot in New York City. Charles Mingus_sentence_125

Guitarist and singer Jackie Paris was a first-hand witness to Mingus's irascibility. Charles Mingus_sentence_126

Paris recalls his time in the Jazz Workshop: "He chased everybody off the stand except [drummer] Paul Motian and me... Charles Mingus_sentence_127

The three of us just wailed on the blues for about an hour and a half before he called the other cats back." Charles Mingus_sentence_128

On October 12, 1962, Mingus punched Jimmy Knepper in the mouth while the two men were working together at Mingus' apartment on a score for his upcoming concert at The Town Hall in New York, and Knepper refused to take on more work. Charles Mingus_sentence_129

Mingus' blow broke off a crowned tooth and its underlying stub. Charles Mingus_sentence_130

According to Knepper, this ruined his embouchure and resulted in the permanent loss of the top octave of his range on the trombone – a significant handicap for any professional trombonist. Charles Mingus_sentence_131

This attack temporarily ended their working relationship, and Knepper was unable to perform at the concert. Charles Mingus_sentence_132

Charged with assault, Mingus appeared in court in January 1963 and was given a suspended sentence. Charles Mingus_sentence_133

Knepper did again work with Mingus in 1977 and played extensively with the Mingus Dynasty, formed after Mingus' death in 1979. Charles Mingus_sentence_134

In addition to bouts of ill temper, Mingus was prone to clinical depression and tended to have brief periods of extreme creative activity intermixed with fairly long stretches of greatly decreased output, such as the five-year period following the death of Eric Dolphy. Charles Mingus_sentence_135

In 1966, Mingus was evicted from his apartment at 5 Great Jones Street in New York City for nonpayment of rent, captured in the 1968 documentary film Mingus: Charlie Mingus 1968, directed by Thomas Reichman. Charles Mingus_sentence_136

The film also features Mingus performing in clubs and in the apartment, firing a .410 shotgun indoors, composing at the piano, playing with and taking care of his young daughter Caroline, and discussing love, art, politics, and the music school he had hoped to create. Charles Mingus_sentence_137

Legacy Charles Mingus_section_10

The Mingus Big Band Charles Mingus_section_11

Charles Mingus' music is currently being performed and reinterpreted by the Mingus Big Band, which in October 2008 began playing every Monday at Jazz Standard in New York City, and often tours the rest of the U.S. and Europe. Charles Mingus_sentence_138

The Mingus Big Band, the Mingus Orchestra, and the Mingus Dynasty band are managed by Jazz Workshop, Inc. and run by Mingus' widow Sue Graham Mingus. Charles Mingus_sentence_139

Elvis Costello has written lyrics for a few Mingus pieces. Charles Mingus_sentence_140

He had once sung lyrics for one piece, "Invisible Lady", backed by the Mingus Big Band on the album, Tonight at Noon: Three of Four Shades of Love. Charles Mingus_sentence_141

Epitaph Charles Mingus_section_12

Epitaph is considered one of Charles Mingus' masterpieces. Charles Mingus_sentence_142

The composition is 4,235 measures long, requires two hours to perform, and is one of the longest jazz pieces ever written. Charles Mingus_sentence_143

Epitaph was only completely discovered, by musicologist Andrew Homzy, during the cataloging process after Mingus' death. Charles Mingus_sentence_144

With the help of a grant from the Ford Foundation, the score and instrumental parts were copied, and the piece itself was premiered by a 30-piece orchestra, conducted by Gunther Schuller. Charles Mingus_sentence_145

This concert was produced by Mingus' widow, Sue Graham Mingus, at Alice Tully Hall on June 3, 1989, 10 years after Mingus' death. Charles Mingus_sentence_146

It was performed again at several concerts in 2007. Charles Mingus_sentence_147

The performance at Walt Disney Concert Hall is available on NPR. Charles Mingus_sentence_148

Hal Leonard published the complete score in 2008. Charles Mingus_sentence_149

Autobiography Charles Mingus_section_13

Mingus wrote the sprawling, exaggerated, quasi-autobiography, Beneath the Underdog: His World as Composed by Mingus, throughout the 1960s, and it was published in 1971. Charles Mingus_sentence_150

Its "stream of consciousness" style covered several aspects of his life that had previously been off-record. Charles Mingus_sentence_151

In addition to his musical and intellectual proliferation, Mingus goes into great detail about his perhaps overstated sexual exploits. Charles Mingus_sentence_152

He claims to have had more than 31 affairs in the course of his life (including 26 prostitutes in one sitting). Charles Mingus_sentence_153

This does not include any of his five wives (he claims to have been married to two of them simultaneously). Charles Mingus_sentence_154

In addition, he asserts that he held a brief career as a pimp. Charles Mingus_sentence_155

This has never been confirmed. Charles Mingus_sentence_156

Mingus's autobiography also serves as an insight into his psyche, as well as his attitudes about race and society. Charles Mingus_sentence_157

It includes accounts of abuse at the hands of his father from an early age, being bullied as a child, his removal from a white musician's union, and grappling with disapproval while married to white women and other examples of the hardship and prejudice. Charles Mingus_sentence_158

Scholarly influence Charles Mingus_section_14

The work of Charles Mingus has also received attention in academia. Charles Mingus_sentence_159

According to Ashon Crawley, the musicianship of Charles Mingus provides a salient example of the power of music to unsettle the dualistic, categorical distinction of sacred from profane through otherwise epistemologies. Charles Mingus_sentence_160

Crawley offers a reading of Mingus that examines the deep imbrication uniting Holiness-Pentecostal aesthetic practices and jazz. Charles Mingus_sentence_161

Mingus recognized the importance and impact of the midweek gathering of black folks at the Holiness-Pentecostal Church at 79th and Watts in Los Angeles that he would attend with his stepmother or his friend Britt Woodman. Charles Mingus_sentence_162

Crawley goes on to argue that these visits were the impetus for the song "Wednesday Prayer Meeting." Charles Mingus_sentence_163

Emphasis is placed on the ethical demand of the prayer meeting felt and experienced that, according to Crawley, Mingus attempts to capture. Charles Mingus_sentence_164

In many ways, "Wednesday Night Prayer Meeting" was Mingus's homage, to black sociality. Charles Mingus_sentence_165

By exploring Mingus' homage to black Pentecostal aesthetics, Crawley expounds on how Mingus figured out that those Holiness-Pentecostal gatherings were the constant repetition of the ongoing, deep, intense mode of study, a kind of study wherein the aesthetic forms created could not be severed from the intellectual practice because they were one and also, but not, the same." Charles Mingus_sentence_166

Gunther Schuller has suggested that Mingus should be ranked among the most important American composers, jazz or otherwise. Charles Mingus_sentence_167

In 1988, a grant from the National Endowment for the Arts made possible the cataloging of Mingus compositions, which were then donated to the Music Division of the New York Public Library for public use. Charles Mingus_sentence_168

In 1993, The Library of Congress acquired Mingus's collected papers—including scores, sound recordings, correspondence and photos—in what they described as "the most important acquisition of a manuscript collection relating to jazz in the Library's history". Charles Mingus_sentence_169

Cover versions Charles Mingus_section_15

Considering the number of compositions that Charles Mingus wrote, his works have not been recorded as often as comparable jazz composers. Charles Mingus_sentence_170

The only Mingus tribute albums recorded during his lifetime were baritone saxophonist Pepper Adams's album, Pepper Adams Plays the Compositions of Charlie Mingus, in 1963, and Joni Mitchell's album Mingus, in 1979. Charles Mingus_sentence_171

Of all his works, his elegy for Lester Young, "Goodbye Pork Pie Hat" (from Mingus Ah Um) has probably had the most recordings.The song has been covered by both jazz and non-jazz artists, such as Jeff Beck, Andy Summers, Eugene Chadbourne, and Bert Jansch and John Renbourn with and without Pentangle. Charles Mingus_sentence_172

Joni Mitchell sang a version with lyrics that she wrote for it. Charles Mingus_sentence_173

Elvis Costello has recorded "Hora Decubitus" (from Mingus Mingus Mingus Mingus Mingus) on My Flame Burns Blue (2006). Charles Mingus_sentence_174

"Better Git It in Your Soul" was covered by Davey Graham on his album "Folk, Blues, and Beyond." Charles Mingus_sentence_175

Trumpeter Ron Miles performs a version of "Pithecanthropus Erectus" on his CD "Witness." Charles Mingus_sentence_176

New York Ska Jazz Ensemble has done a cover of Mingus's "Haitian Fight Song", as have the British folk rock group Pentangle and others. Charles Mingus_sentence_177

Hal Willner's 1992 tribute album Weird Nightmare: Meditations on Mingus (Columbia Records) contains idiosyncratic renditions of Mingus's works involving numerous popular musicians including Chuck D, Keith Richards, Henry Rollins and Dr. Charles Mingus_sentence_178 John. Charles Mingus_sentence_179

The Italian band Quintorigo recorded an entire album devoted to Mingus's music, titled Play Mingus. Charles Mingus_sentence_180

Gunther Schuller's edition of Mingus's "Epitaph" which premiered at Lincoln Center in 1989 was subsequently released on Columbia/Sony Records. Charles Mingus_sentence_181

One of the most elaborate tributes to Mingus came on September 29, 1969, at a festival honoring him. Charles Mingus_sentence_182

Duke Ellington performed The Clown, with Ellington reading Jean Shepherd's narration. Charles Mingus_sentence_183

It was long believed that no recording of this performance existed; however, one was discovered and premiered on July 11, 2013, by Dry River Jazz host for NPR member station KRWG-FM with re-airings on July 13, 2013, and July 26, 2014. Charles Mingus_sentence_184

Mingus's elegy for Duke, "Duke Ellington's Sound Of Love", was recorded by Kevin Mahogany on Double Rainbow (1993) and Anita Wardell on Why Do You Cry? Charles Mingus_sentence_185

(1995). Charles Mingus_sentence_186

Material loss Charles Mingus_section_16

On June 25, 2019, The New York Times Magazine listed Charles Mingus among hundreds of artists whose material was reportedly destroyed in the 2008 Universal fire. Charles Mingus_sentence_187

Awards and honors Charles Mingus_section_17

Charles Mingus_unordered_list_0

  • 1971: Guggenheim Fellowship (Music Composition).Charles Mingus_item_0_0
  • 1971: Inducted in the Down Beat Jazz Hall of Fame.Charles Mingus_item_0_1
  • 1988: The National Endowment for the Arts provided grants for a Mingus nonprofit called "Let My Children Hear Music" which cataloged all of Mingus's works. The microfilms of these works were given to the Music Division of the New York Public Library where they are currently available for study.Charles Mingus_item_0_2
  • 1993: The Library of Congress acquired Mingus's collected papers—including scores, sound recordings, correspondence and photos—in what they described as "the most important acquisition of a manuscript collection relating to jazz in the Library's history".Charles Mingus_item_0_3
  • 1995: The United States Postal Service issued a stamp in his honor.Charles Mingus_item_0_4
  • 1997: Posthumously awarded the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award.Charles Mingus_item_0_5
  • 1999: Album Mingus Dynasty (1959) inducted in the Grammy Hall of Fame.Charles Mingus_item_0_6
  • 2005: Inducted in the Jazz at Lincoln Center, Nesuhi Ertegun Jazz Hall of Fame.Charles Mingus_item_0_7

Discography Charles Mingus_section_18

Main article: Charles Mingus discography Charles Mingus_sentence_188

Filmography Charles Mingus_section_19

Charles Mingus_unordered_list_1

See also Charles Mingus_section_20

Charles Mingus_unordered_list_2

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: Mingus.