Charlie Chaplin

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"Charles Chaplin" redirects here. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_0

For other uses, see Charles Chaplin (disambiguation). Charlie Chaplin_sentence_1

Charlie Chaplin_table_infobox_0


Charlie Chaplin KBECharlie Chaplin_header_cell_0_0_0

BornCharlie Chaplin_header_cell_0_1_0 Charles Spencer Chaplin

(1889-04-16)16 April 1889 Walworth, London, EnglandCharlie Chaplin_cell_0_1_1

DiedCharlie Chaplin_header_cell_0_2_0 25 December 1977(1977-12-25) (aged 88)

Manoir de Ban, Riviera-Pays-d'Enhaut District, Vaud, SwitzerlandCharlie Chaplin_cell_0_2_1

Resting placeCharlie Chaplin_header_cell_0_3_0 Cimetière de Corsier-sur-Vevey, Corsier-sur-Vevey, Riviera-Pays-d'Enhaut District, Vaud, SwitzerlandCharlie Chaplin_cell_0_3_1
OccupationCharlie Chaplin_header_cell_0_4_0 Charlie Chaplin_cell_0_4_1
Years activeCharlie Chaplin_header_cell_0_5_0 1899–1976Charlie Chaplin_cell_0_5_1
Spouse(s)Charlie Chaplin_header_cell_0_6_0 Charlie Chaplin_cell_0_6_1
ChildrenCharlie Chaplin_header_cell_0_7_0 11Charlie Chaplin_cell_0_7_1
Parent(s)Charlie Chaplin_header_cell_0_8_0 Charles Chaplin Sr (father)

Hannah Chaplin (née Hill) (mother)Charlie Chaplin_cell_0_8_1

RelativesCharlie Chaplin_header_cell_0_9_0 Chaplin familyCharlie Chaplin_cell_0_9_1
WebsiteCharlie Chaplin_header_cell_0_10_0 Charlie Chaplin_cell_0_10_1
SignatureCharlie Chaplin_header_cell_0_11_0

Sir Charles Spencer Chaplin KBE (16 April 1889 – 25 December 1977) was an English comic actor, filmmaker, and composer who rose to fame in the era of silent film. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_2

He became a worldwide icon through his screen persona, "The Tramp", and is considered one of the most important figures in the history of the film industry. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_3

His career spanned more than 75 years, from childhood in the Victorian era until a year before his death in 1977, and encompassed both adulation and controversy. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_4

Chaplin's childhood in London was one of poverty and hardship, as his father was absent and his mother struggled financially, and he was sent to a workhouse twice before the age of nine. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_5

When he was 14, his mother was committed to a mental asylum. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_6

Chaplin began performing at an early age, touring music halls and later working as a stage actor and comedian. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_7

At 19, he was signed to the prestigious Fred Karno company, which took him to America. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_8

He was scouted for the film industry and began appearing in 1914 for Keystone Studios. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_9

He soon developed the Tramp persona and formed a large fan base. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_10

He directed his own films and continued to hone his craft as he moved to the Essanay, Mutual, and First National corporations. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_11

By 1918, he was one of the best-known figures in the world. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_12

In 1919, Chaplin co-founded the distribution company United Artists, which gave him complete control over his films. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_13

His first feature-length film was The Kid (1921), followed by A Woman of Paris (1923), The Gold Rush (1925), and The Circus (1928). Charlie Chaplin_sentence_14

He initially refused to move to sound films in the 1930s, instead producing City Lights (1931) and Modern Times (1936) without dialogue. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_15

He became increasingly political, and his first sound film was The Great Dictator (1940), which satirised Adolf Hitler. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_16

The 1940s were a decade marked with controversy for Chaplin, and his popularity declined rapidly. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_17

He was accused of communist sympathies, and some members of the press and public found his involvement in a paternity suit, and marriages to much younger women, scandalous. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_18

An FBI investigation was opened, and Chaplin was forced to leave the United States and settle in Switzerland. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_19

He abandoned the Tramp in his later films, which include Monsieur Verdoux (1947), Limelight (1952), A King in New York (1957), and A Countess from Hong Kong (1967). Charlie Chaplin_sentence_20

Chaplin wrote, directed, produced, edited, starred in, and composed the music for most of his films. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_21

He was a perfectionist, and his financial independence enabled him to spend years on the development and production of a picture. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_22

His films are characterised by slapstick combined with pathos, typified in the Tramp's struggles against adversity. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_23

Many contain social and political themes, as well as autobiographical elements. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_24

He received an Honorary Academy Award for "the incalculable effect he has had in making motion pictures the art form of this century" in 1972, as part of a renewed appreciation for his work. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_25

He continues to be held in high regard, with The Gold Rush, City Lights, Modern Times, and The Great Dictator often ranked on lists of the greatest films of all time. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_26

Biography Charlie Chaplin_section_0

1889–1913: Early years Charlie Chaplin_section_1

Background and childhood hardship Charlie Chaplin_section_2

Charles Spencer Chaplin was born on 16 April 1889 to Hannah Chaplin (born Hannah Harriet Pedlingham Hill) and Charles Chaplin Sr. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_27

There is no official record of his birth, although Chaplin believed he was born at East Street, Walworth, in South London. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_28

His parents had married four years previously, at which time Charles Sr. became the legal guardian of Hannah's illegitimate son, Sydney John Hill. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_29

At the time of his birth, Chaplin's parents were both music hall entertainers. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_30

Hannah, the daughter of a shoemaker, had a brief and unsuccessful career under the stage name Lily Harley, while Charles Sr., a butcher's son, was a popular singer. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_31

Although they never divorced, Chaplin's parents were estranged by around 1891. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_32

The following year, Hannah gave birth to a third son, George Wheeler Dryden, fathered by the music hall entertainer Leo Dryden. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_33

The child was taken by Dryden at six months old, and did not re-enter Chaplin's life for thirty years. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_34

Chaplin's childhood was fraught with poverty and hardship, making his eventual trajectory "the most dramatic of all the rags to riches stories ever told" according to his authorised biographer David Robinson. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_35

Chaplin's early years were spent with his mother and brother Sydney in the London district of Kennington; Hannah had no means of income, other than occasional nursing and dressmaking, and Chaplin Sr. provided no financial support. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_36

As the situation deteriorated, Chaplin was sent to Lambeth Workhouse when he was seven years old. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_37

The council housed him at the Central London District School for paupers, which Chaplin remembered as "a forlorn existence". Charlie Chaplin_sentence_38

He was briefly reunited with his mother 18 months later, before Hannah was forced to readmit her family to the workhouse in July 1898. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_39

The boys were promptly sent to Norwood Schools, another institution for destitute children. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_40

In September 1898, Hannah was committed to Cane Hill mental asylum; she had developed a psychosis seemingly brought on by an infection of syphilis and malnutrition. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_41

For the two months she was there, Chaplin and his brother Sydney were sent to live with their father, whom the young boys scarcely knew. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_42

Charles Sr. was by then a severe alcoholic, and life there was bad enough to provoke a visit from the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_43

Chaplin's father died two years later, at 38 years old, from cirrhosis of the liver. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_44

Hannah entered a period of remission but, in May 1903, became ill again. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_45

Chaplin, then 14, had the task of taking his mother to the infirmary, from where she was sent back to Cane Hill. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_46

He lived alone for several days, searching for food and occasionally sleeping rough, until Sydney – who had joined the Navy two years earlier – returned. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_47

Hannah was released from the asylum eight months later, but in March 1905, her illness returned, this time permanently. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_48

"There was nothing we could do but accept poor mother's fate," Chaplin later wrote, and she remained in care until her death in 1928. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_49

Young performer Charlie Chaplin_section_3

Between his time in the poor schools and his mother succumbing to mental illness, Chaplin began to perform on stage. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_50

He later recalled making his first amateur appearance at the age of five years, when he took over from Hannah one night in Aldershot. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_51

This was an isolated occurrence, but by the time he was nine Chaplin had, with his mother's encouragement, grown interested in performing. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_52

He later wrote: "[she] imbued me with the feeling that I had some sort of talent". Charlie Chaplin_sentence_53

Through his father's connections, Chaplin became a member of the Eight Lancashire Lads clog-dancing troupe, with whom he toured English music halls throughout 1899 and 1900. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_54

Chaplin worked hard, and the act was popular with audiences, but he was not satisfied with dancing and wished to form a comedy act. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_55

In the years Chaplin was touring with the Eight Lancashire Lads, his mother ensured that he still attended school but, by age 13, he had abandoned education. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_56

He supported himself with a range of jobs, while nursing his ambition to become an actor. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_57

At 14, shortly after his mother's relapse, he registered with a theatrical agency in London's West End. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_58

The manager sensed potential in Chaplin, who was promptly given his first role as a newsboy in Harry Arthur Saintsbury's Jim, a Romance of Cockayne. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_59

It opened in July 1903, but the show was unsuccessful and closed after two weeks. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_60

Chaplin's comic performance, however, was singled out for praise in many of the reviews. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_61

Saintsbury secured a role for Chaplin in Charles Frohman's production of Sherlock Holmes, where he played Billy the pageboy in three nationwide tours. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_62

His performance was so well received that he was called to London to play the role alongside William Gillette, the original Holmes. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_63

"It was like tidings from heaven," Chaplin recalled. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_64

At 16 years old, Chaplin starred in the play's West End production at the Duke of York's Theatre from October to December 1905. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_65

He completed one final tour of Sherlock Holmes in early 1906, before leaving the play after more than two-and-a-half years. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_66

Stage comedy and vaudeville Charlie Chaplin_section_4

Chaplin soon found work with a new company and went on tour with his brother, who was also pursuing an acting career, in a comedy sketch called Repairs. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_67

In May 1906, Chaplin joined the juvenile act Casey's Circus, where he developed popular burlesque pieces and was soon the star of the show. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_68

By the time the act finished touring in July 1907, the 18-year-old had become an accomplished comedic performer. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_69

He struggled to find more work, however, and a brief attempt at a solo act was a failure. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_70

Meanwhile, Sydney Chaplin had joined Fred Karno's prestigious comedy company in 1906 and, by 1908, he was one of their key performers. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_71

In February, he managed to secure a two-week trial for his younger brother. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_72

Karno was initially wary, and considered Chaplin a "pale, puny, sullen-looking youngster" who "looked much too shy to do any good in the theatre". Charlie Chaplin_sentence_73

However, the teenager made an impact on his first night at the London Coliseum and he was quickly signed to a contract. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_74

Chaplin began by playing a series of minor parts, eventually progressing to starring roles in 1909. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_75

In April 1910, he was given the lead in a new sketch, Jimmy the Fearless. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_76

It was a big success, and Chaplin received considerable press attention. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_77

Karno selected his new star to join the section of the company, one that also included Stan Laurel, that toured North America's vaudeville circuit. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_78

The young comedian headed the show and impressed reviewers, being described as "one of the best pantomime artists ever seen here". Charlie Chaplin_sentence_79

His most successful role was a drunk called the "Inebriate Swell", which drew him significant recognition. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_80

The tour lasted 21 months, and the troupe returned to England in June 1912. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_81

Chaplin recalled that he "had a disquieting feeling of sinking back into a depressing commonplaceness" and was, therefore, delighted when a new tour began in October. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_82

1914–1917: Entering films Charlie Chaplin_section_5

Keystone Charlie Chaplin_section_6

Six months into the second American tour, Chaplin was invited to join the New York Motion Picture Company. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_83

A representative who had seen his performances thought he could replace Fred Mace, a star of their Keystone Studios who intended to leave. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_84

Chaplin thought the Keystone comedies "a crude mélange of rough and rumble", but liked the idea of working in films and rationalised: "Besides, it would mean a new life." Charlie Chaplin_sentence_85

He met with the company and signed a $150-per-week contract in September 1913. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_86

Chaplin arrived in Los Angeles in early December, and began working for the Keystone studio on 5 January 1914. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_87

Chaplin's boss was Mack Sennett, who initially expressed concern that the 24-year-old looked too young. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_88

He was not used in a picture until late January, during which time Chaplin attempted to learn the processes of filmmaking. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_89

The one-reeler Making a Living marked his film acting debut and was released on 2 February 1914. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_90

Chaplin strongly disliked the picture, but one review picked him out as "a comedian of the first water". Charlie Chaplin_sentence_91

For his second appearance in front of the camera, Chaplin selected the costume with which he became identified. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_92

He described the process in his autobiography: Charlie Chaplin_sentence_93

The film was Mabel's Strange Predicament, but "the Tramp" character, as it became known, debuted to audiences in Kid Auto Races at Venice – shot later than Mabel's Strange Predicament but released two days earlier on 7 February 1914. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_94

Chaplin adopted the character as his screen persona and attempted to make suggestions for the films he appeared in. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_95

These ideas were dismissed by his directors. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_96

During the filming of his eleventh picture, Mabel at the Wheel, he clashed with director Mabel Normand and was almost released from his contract. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_97

Sennett kept him on, however, when he received orders from exhibitors for more Chaplin films. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_98

Sennett also allowed Chaplin to direct his next film himself after Chaplin promised to pay $1,500 ($38,803 in 2019 dollars) if the film was unsuccessful. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_99

Caught in the Rain, issued 4 May 1914, was Chaplin's directorial debut and was highly successful. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_100

Thereafter he directed almost every short film in which he appeared for Keystone, at the rate of approximately one per week, a period which he later remembered as the most exciting time of his career. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_101

Chaplin's films introduced a slower form of comedy than the typical Keystone farce, and he developed a large fan base. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_102

In November 1914, he had a supporting role in the first feature length comedy film, Tillie's Punctured Romance, directed by Sennett and starring Marie Dressler, which was a commercial success and increased his popularity. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_103

When Chaplin's contract came up for renewal at the end of the year, he asked for $1,000 a week ($25,869 in 2019 dollars) – an amount Sennett refused as too large. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_104

Essanay Charlie Chaplin_section_7

The Essanay Film Manufacturing Company of Chicago sent Chaplin an offer of $1,250 a week with a signing bonus of $10,000. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_105

He joined the studio in late December 1914, where he began forming a stock company of regular players, actors he worked with again and again, including Leo White, Bud Jamison, Paddy McGuire and Billy Armstrong. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_106

He soon recruited a leading lady, Edna Purviance, whom Chaplin met in a café and hired on account of her beauty. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_107

She went on to appear in 35 films with Chaplin over eight years; the pair also formed a romantic relationship that lasted into 1917. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_108

Chaplin asserted a high level of control over his pictures and started to put more time and care into each film. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_109

There was a month-long interval between the release of his second production, A Night Out, and his third, The Champion. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_110

The final seven of Chaplin's 14 Essanay films were all produced at this slower pace. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_111

Chaplin also began to alter his screen persona, which had attracted some criticism at Keystone for its "mean, crude, and brutish" nature. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_112

The character became more gentle and romantic; The Tramp (April 1915) was considered a particular turning point in his development. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_113

The use of pathos was developed further with The Bank, in which Chaplin created a sad ending. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_114

Robinson notes that this was an innovation in comedy films, and marked the time when serious critics began to appreciate Chaplin's work. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_115

At Essanay, writes film scholar Simon Louvish, Chaplin "found the themes and the settings that would define the Tramp's world". Charlie Chaplin_sentence_116

During 1915, Chaplin became a cultural phenomenon. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_117

Shops were stocked with Chaplin merchandise, he was featured in cartoons and comic strips, and several songs were written about him. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_118

In July, a journalist for Motion Picture Magazine wrote that "Chaplinitis" had spread across America. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_119

As his fame grew worldwide, he became the film industry's first international star. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_120

When the Essanay contract ended in December 1915, Chaplin, fully aware of his popularity, requested a $150,000 signing bonus from his next studio. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_121

He received several offers, including Universal, Fox, and Vitagraph, the best of which came from the Mutual Film Corporation at $10,000 a week. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_122

Mutual Charlie Chaplin_section_8

A contract was negotiated with Mutual that amounted to $670,000 a year ($15.7 million today), which Robinson says made Chaplin – at 26 years old – one of the highest paid people in the world. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_123

The high salary shocked the public and was widely reported in the press. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_124

John R. Freuler, the studio president, explained: "We can afford to pay Mr. Chaplin this large sum annually because the public wants Chaplin and will pay for him." Charlie Chaplin_sentence_125

Mutual gave Chaplin his own Los Angeles studio to work in, which opened in March 1916. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_126

He added two key members to his stock company, Albert Austin and Eric Campbell, and produced a series of elaborate two-reelers: The Floorwalker, The Fireman, The Vagabond, One A.M., and The Count. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_127

For The Pawnshop, he recruited the actor Henry Bergman, who was to work with Chaplin for 30 years. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_128

Behind the Screen and The Rink completed Chaplin's releases for 1916. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_129

The Mutual contract stipulated that he release a two-reel film every four weeks, which he had managed to achieve. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_130

With the new year, however, Chaplin began to demand more time. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_131

He made only four more films for Mutual over the first ten months of 1917: Easy Street, The Cure, The Immigrant, and The Adventurer. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_132

With their careful construction, these films are considered by Chaplin scholars to be among his finest work. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_133

Later in life, Chaplin referred to his Mutual years as the happiest period of his career. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_134

However, Chaplin also felt that those films became increasingly formulaic over the period of the contract and he was increasingly dissatisfied with the working conditions encouraging that. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_135

Chaplin was attacked in the British media for not fighting in the First World War. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_136

He defended himself, claiming that he would fight for Britain if called and had registered for the American draft, but he was not summoned by either country. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_137

Despite this criticism Chaplin was a favourite with the troops, and his popularity continued to grow worldwide. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_138

Harper's Weekly reported that the name of Charlie Chaplin was "a part of the common language of almost every country", and that the Tramp image was "universally familiar". Charlie Chaplin_sentence_139

In 1917, professional Chaplin imitators were so widespread that he took legal action, and it was reported that nine out of ten men who attended costume parties, did so dressed as the Tramp. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_140

The same year, a study by the Boston Society for Psychical Research concluded that Chaplin was "an American obsession". Charlie Chaplin_sentence_141

The actress Minnie Maddern Fiske wrote that "a constantly increasing body of cultured, artistic people are beginning to regard the young English buffoon, Charles Chaplin, as an extraordinary artist, as well as a comic genius". Charlie Chaplin_sentence_142

1918–1922: First National Charlie Chaplin_section_9

In January 1918, Chaplin was visited by leading British singer and comedian Harry Lauder, and the two acted in a short film together. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_143

Mutual was patient with Chaplin's decreased rate of output, and the contract ended amicably. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_144

With his aforementioned concern about the declining quality of his films because of contract scheduling stipulations, Chaplin's primary concern in finding a new distributor was independence; Sydney Chaplin, then his business manager, told the press, "Charlie [must] be allowed all the time he needs and all the money for producing [films] the way he wants ... Charlie Chaplin_sentence_145

It is quality, not quantity, we are after." Charlie Chaplin_sentence_146

In June 1917, Chaplin signed to complete eight films for First National Exhibitors' Circuit in return for $1 million ($20 million today). Charlie Chaplin_sentence_147

He chose to build his own studio, situated on five acres of land off Sunset Boulevard, with production facilities of the highest order. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_148

It was completed in January 1918, and Chaplin was given freedom over the making of his pictures. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_149

A Dog's Life, released April 1918, was the first film under the new contract. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_150

In it, Chaplin demonstrated his increasing concern with story construction and his treatment of the Tramp as "a sort of Pierrot". Charlie Chaplin_sentence_151

The film was described by Louis Delluc as "cinema's first total work of art". Charlie Chaplin_sentence_152

Chaplin then embarked on the Third Liberty Bond campaign, touring the United States for one month to raise money for the Allies of the First World War. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_153

He also produced a short propaganda film at his own expense, donated to the government for fund-raising, called The Bond. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_154

Chaplin's next release was war-based, placing the Tramp in the trenches for Shoulder Arms. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_155

Associates warned him against making a comedy about the war but, as he later recalled: "Dangerous or not, the idea excited me." Charlie Chaplin_sentence_156

He spent four months filming the picture, which was released in October 1918 with great success. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_157

United Artists, Mildred Harris, and The Kid Charlie Chaplin_section_10

After the release of Shoulder Arms, Chaplin requested more money from First National, which was refused. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_158

Frustrated with their lack of concern for quality, and worried about rumours of a possible merger between the company and Famous Players-Lasky, Chaplin joined forces with Douglas Fairbanks, Mary Pickford, and D. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_159 W. Griffith to form a new distribution company, United Artists, in January 1919. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_160

The arrangement was revolutionary in the film industry, as it enabled the four partners – all creative artists – to personally fund their pictures and have complete control. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_161

Chaplin was eager to start with the new company and offered to buy out his contract with First National. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_162

They refused and insisted that he complete the final six films owed. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_163

Before the creation of United Artists, Chaplin married for the first time. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_164

The 16-year-old actress Mildred Harris had revealed that she was pregnant with his child, and in September 1918, he married her quietly in Los Angeles to avoid controversy. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_165

Soon after, the pregnancy was found to be false. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_166

Chaplin was unhappy with the union and, feeling that marriage stunted his creativity, struggled over the production of his film Sunnyside. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_167

Harris was by then legitimately pregnant, and on 7 July 1919, gave birth to a son. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_168

Norman Spencer Chaplin was born malformed and died three days later. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_169

The marriage ended in April 1920, with Chaplin explaining in his autobiography that they were "irreconcilably mismated". Charlie Chaplin_sentence_170

Losing the child, plus his own childhood experiences, are thought to have influenced Chaplin's next film, which turned the Tramp into the caretaker of a young boy. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_171

For this new venture, Chaplin also wished to do more than comedy and, according to Louvish, "make his mark on a changed world". Charlie Chaplin_sentence_172

Filming on The Kid began in August 1919, with four-year-old Jackie Coogan his co-star. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_173

The Kid was in production for nine months until May 1920 and, at 68 minutes, it was Chaplin's longest picture to date. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_174

Dealing with issues of poverty and parent–child separation, The Kid was one of the earliest films to combine comedy and drama. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_175

It was released in January 1921 with instant success, and, by 1924, had been screened in over 50 countries. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_176

Chaplin spent five months on his next film, the two-reeler The Idle Class. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_177

Following its September 1921 release, he chose to return to England for the first time in almost a decade. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_178

He wrote a book about his journey, titled "". Charlie Chaplin_sentence_179

He then worked to fulfil his First National contract, releasing Pay Day in February 1922. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_180

The Pilgrim, his final short film, was delayed by distribution disagreements with the studio and released a year later. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_181

1923–1938: Silent features Charlie Chaplin_section_11

A Woman of Paris and The Gold Rush Charlie Chaplin_section_12

Having fulfilled his First National contract, Chaplin was free to make his first picture as an independent producer. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_182

In November 1922, he began filming A Woman of Paris, a romantic drama about ill-fated lovers. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_183

Chaplin intended it to be a star-making vehicle for Edna Purviance, and did not appear in the picture himself other than in a brief, uncredited cameo. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_184

He wished the film to have a realistic feel and directed his cast to give restrained performances. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_185

In real life, he explained, "men and women try to hide their emotions rather than seek to express them". Charlie Chaplin_sentence_186

A Woman of Paris premiered in September 1923 and was acclaimed for its innovative, subtle approach. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_187

The public, however, seemed to have little interest in a Chaplin film without Chaplin, and it was a box office disappointment. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_188

The filmmaker was hurt by this failure – he had long wanted to produce a dramatic film and was proud of the result – and soon withdrew A Woman of Paris from circulation. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_189

Chaplin returned to comedy for his next project. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_190

Setting his standards high, he told himself "This next film must be an epic! Charlie Chaplin_sentence_191

The Greatest!" Charlie Chaplin_sentence_192

Inspired by a photograph of the 1898 Klondike Gold Rush, and later the story of the Donner Party of 1846–1847, he made what Geoffrey Macnab calls "an epic comedy out of grim subject matter". Charlie Chaplin_sentence_193

In The Gold Rush, the Tramp is a lonely prospector fighting adversity and looking for love. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_194

With Georgia Hale as his leading lady, Chaplin began filming the picture in February 1924. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_195

Its elaborate production, costing almost $1 million, included location shooting in the Truckee mountains in Nevada with 600 extras, extravagant sets, and special effects. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_196

The last scene was shot in May 1925 after 15 months of filming. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_197

Chaplin felt The Gold Rush was the best film he had made. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_198

It opened in August 1925 and became one of the highest-grossing films of the silent era with a U.S. box-office of $5 million. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_199

The comedy contains some of Chaplin's most famous sequences, such as the Tramp eating his shoe and the "Dance of the Rolls". Charlie Chaplin_sentence_200

Macnab has called it "the quintessential Chaplin film". Charlie Chaplin_sentence_201

Chaplin stated at its release, "This is the picture that I want to be remembered by". Charlie Chaplin_sentence_202

Lita Grey and The Circus Charlie Chaplin_section_13

While making The Gold Rush, Chaplin married for the second time. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_203

Mirroring the circumstances of his first union, Lita Grey was a teenage actress, originally set to star in the film, whose surprise announcement of pregnancy forced Chaplin into marriage. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_204

She was 16 and he was 35, meaning Chaplin could have been charged with statutory rape under California law. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_205

He therefore arranged a discreet marriage in Mexico on 25 November 1924. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_206

They originally met during her childhood and she had previously appeared in his works The Kid and The Idle Class. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_207

Their first son, Charles Spencer Chaplin, Jr., was born on 5 May 1925, followed by Sydney Earl Chaplin on 30 March 1926. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_208

It was an unhappy marriage, and Chaplin spent long hours at the studio to avoid seeing his wife. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_209

In November 1926, Grey took the children and left the family home. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_210

A bitter divorce followed, in which Grey's application – accusing Chaplin of infidelity, abuse, and of harbouring "perverted sexual desires" – was leaked to the press. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_211

Chaplin was reported to be in a state of nervous breakdown, as the story became headline news and groups formed across America calling for his films to be banned. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_212

Eager to end the case without further scandal, Chaplin's lawyers agreed to a cash settlement of $600,000 – the largest awarded by American courts at that time. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_213

His fan base was strong enough to survive the incident, and it was soon forgotten, but Chaplin was deeply affected by it. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_214

Before the divorce suit was filed, Chaplin had begun work on a new film, The Circus. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_215

He built a story around the idea of walking a tightrope while besieged by monkeys, and turned the Tramp into the accidental star of a circus. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_216

Filming was suspended for ten months while he dealt with the divorce scandal, and it was generally a trouble-ridden production. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_217

Finally completed in October 1927, The Circus was released in January 1928 to a positive reception. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_218

At the 1st Academy Awards, Chaplin was given a special trophy "For versatility and genius in acting, writing, directing and producing The Circus". Charlie Chaplin_sentence_219

Despite its success, he permanently associated the film with the stress of its production; Chaplin omitted The Circus from his autobiography, and struggled to work on it when he recorded the score in his later years. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_220

City Lights Charlie Chaplin_section_14

By the time The Circus was released, Hollywood had witnessed the introduction of sound films. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_221

Chaplin was cynical about this new medium and the technical shortcomings it presented, believing that "talkies" lacked the artistry of silent films. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_222

He was also hesitant to change the formula that had brought him such success, and feared that giving the Tramp a voice would limit his international appeal. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_223

He, therefore, rejected the new Hollywood craze and began work on a new silent film. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_224

Chaplin was nonetheless anxious about this decision and remained so throughout the film's production. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_225

When filming began at the end of 1928, Chaplin had been working on the story for almost a year. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_226

City Lights followed the Tramp's love for a blind flower girl (played by Virginia Cherrill) and his efforts to raise money for her sight-saving operation. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_227

It was a challenging production that lasted 21 months, with Chaplin later confessing that he "had worked himself into a neurotic state of wanting perfection". Charlie Chaplin_sentence_228

One advantage Chaplin found in sound technology was the opportunity to record a musical score for the film, which he composed himself. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_229

Chaplin finished editing City Lights in December 1930, by which time silent films were an anachronism. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_230

A preview before an unsuspecting public audience was not a success, but a showing for the press produced positive reviews. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_231

One journalist wrote, "Nobody in the world but Charlie Chaplin could have done it. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_232

He is the only person that has that peculiar something called 'audience appeal' in sufficient quality to defy the popular penchant for movies that talk." Charlie Chaplin_sentence_233

Given its general release in January 1931, City Lights proved to be a popular and financial success, eventually grossing over $3 million. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_234

The British Film Institute cites it as Chaplin's finest accomplishment, and the critic James Agee hails the closing scene as "the greatest piece of acting and the highest moment in movies". Charlie Chaplin_sentence_235

City Lights became Chaplin's personal favourite of his films and remained so throughout his life. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_236

Travels, Paulette Goddard, and Modern Times Charlie Chaplin_section_15

City Lights had been a success, but Chaplin was unsure if he could make another picture without dialogue. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_237

He remained convinced that sound would not work in his films, but was also "obsessed by a depressing fear of being old-fashioned". Charlie Chaplin_sentence_238

In this state of uncertainty, early in 1931, the comedian decided to take a holiday and ended up travelling for 16 months. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_239

He spent months travelling Western Europe, including extended stays in France and Switzerland, and spontaneously decided to visit Japan. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_240

The day after he arrived in Japan, Prime Minister Inukai Tsuyoshi was assassinated by ultra-nationalists in the May 15 Incident. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_241

The group's original plan had been to provoke a war with the United States by assassinating Chaplin at a welcome reception organised by the prime minister, but the plan had been foiled due to delayed public announcement of the event's date. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_242

In his autobiography, Chaplin recalled that on his return to Los Angeles, "I was confused and without plan, restless and conscious of an extreme loneliness". Charlie Chaplin_sentence_243

He briefly considered retiring and moving to China. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_244

Chaplin's loneliness was relieved when he met 21-year-old actress Paulette Goddard in July 1932, and the pair began a relationship. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_245

He was not ready to commit to a film, however, and focused on writing a serial about his travels (published in Woman's Home Companion). Charlie Chaplin_sentence_246

The trip had been a stimulating experience for Chaplin, including meetings with several prominent thinkers, and he became increasingly interested in world affairs. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_247

The state of labour in America troubled him, and he feared that capitalism and machinery in the workplace would increase unemployment levels. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_248

It was these concerns that stimulated Chaplin to develop his new film. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_249

Modern Times was announced by Chaplin as "a satire on certain phases of our industrial life". Charlie Chaplin_sentence_250

Featuring the Tramp and Goddard as they endure the Great Depression, it took ten and a half months to film. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_251

Chaplin intended to use spoken dialogue but changed his mind during rehearsals. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_252

Like its predecessor, Modern Times employed sound effects but almost no speaking. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_253

Chaplin's performance of a gibberish song did, however, give the Tramp a voice for the only time on film. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_254

After recording the music, Chaplin released Modern Times in February 1936. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_255

It was his first feature in 15 years to adopt political references and social realism, a factor that attracted considerable press coverage despite Chaplin's attempts to downplay the issue. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_256

The film earned less at the box-office than his previous features and received mixed reviews, as some viewers disliked the politicising. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_257

Today, Modern Times is seen by the British Film Institute as one of Chaplin's "great features", while David Robinson says it shows the filmmaker at "his unrivalled peak as a creator of visual comedy". Charlie Chaplin_sentence_258

Following the release of Modern Times, Chaplin left with Goddard for a trip to the Far East. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_259

The couple had refused to comment on the nature of their relationship, and it was not known whether they were married or not. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_260

Some time later, Chaplin revealed that they married in Canton during this trip. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_261

By 1938, the couple had drifted apart, as both focused heavily on their work, although Goddard was again his leading lady in his next feature film, The Great Dictator. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_262

She eventually divorced Chaplin in Mexico in 1942, citing incompatibility and separation for more than a year. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_263

1939–1952: Controversies and fading popularity Charlie Chaplin_section_16

The Great Dictator Charlie Chaplin_section_17

The 1940s saw Chaplin face a series of controversies, both in his work and in his personal life, which changed his fortunes and severely affected his popularity in the United States. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_264

The first of these was his growing boldness in expressing his political beliefs. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_265

Deeply disturbed by the surge of militaristic nationalism in 1930s world politics, Chaplin found that he could not keep these issues out of his work. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_266

Parallels between himself and Adolf Hitler had been widely noted: the pair were born four days apart, both had risen from poverty to world prominence, and Hitler wore the same toothbrush moustache as Chaplin. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_267

It was this physical resemblance that supplied the plot for Chaplin's next film, The Great Dictator, which directly satirised Hitler and attacked fascism. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_268

Chaplin spent two years developing the script and began filming in September 1939, six days after Britain declared war on Germany. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_269

He had submitted to using spoken dialogue, partly out of acceptance that he had no other choice, but also because he recognised it as a better method for delivering a political message. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_270

Making a comedy about Hitler was seen as highly controversial, but Chaplin's financial independence allowed him to take the risk. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_271

"I was determined to go ahead," he later wrote, "for Hitler must be laughed at." Charlie Chaplin_sentence_272

Chaplin replaced the Tramp (while wearing similar attire) with "A Jewish Barber", a reference to the Nazi party's belief that he was Jewish. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_273

In a dual performance, he also played the dictator "Adenoid Hynkel", who parodied Hitler. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_274

The Great Dictator spent a year in production and was released in October 1940. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_275

The film generated a vast amount of publicity, with a critic for The New York Times calling it "the most eagerly awaited picture of the year", and it was one of the biggest money-makers of the era. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_276

The ending was unpopular, however, and generated controversy. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_277

Chaplin concluded the film with a five-minute speech in which he abandoned his barber character, looked directly into the camera, and pleaded against war and fascism. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_278

Charles J. Maland has identified this overt preaching as triggering a decline in Chaplin's popularity, and writes, "Henceforth, no movie fan would ever be able to separate the dimension of politics from [his] star image". Charlie Chaplin_sentence_279

Nevertheless, both Winston Churchill and Franklin D. Roosevelt liked the film, which they saw at private screenings before its release. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_280

Roosevelt subsequently invited Chaplin to read the film's final speech over the radio during his January 1941 inauguration, with the speech becoming a "hit" of the celebration. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_281

Chaplin was often invited to other patriotic functions to read the speech to audiences during the years of the war. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_282

The Great Dictator received five Academy Award nominations, including Best Picture, Best Original Screenplay and Best Actor. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_283

Legal troubles and Oona O'Neill Charlie Chaplin_section_18

In the mid-1940s, Chaplin was involved in a series of trials that occupied most of his time and significantly affected his public image. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_284

The troubles stemmed from his affair with an aspirant actress named Joan Barry, with whom he was involved intermittently between June 1941 and the autumn of 1942. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_285

Barry, who displayed obsessive behaviour and was twice arrested after they separated, reappeared the following year and announced that she was pregnant with Chaplin's child. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_286

As Chaplin denied the claim, Barry filed a paternity suit against him. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_287

The director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), J. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_288 Edgar Hoover, who had long been suspicious of Chaplin's political leanings, used the opportunity to generate negative publicity about him. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_289

As part of a smear campaign to damage Chaplin's image, the FBI named him in four indictments related to the Barry case. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_290

Most serious of these was an alleged violation of the Mann Act, which prohibits the transportation of women across state boundaries for sexual purposes. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_291

The historian Otto Friedrich has called this an "absurd prosecution" of an "ancient statute", yet if Chaplin was found guilty, he faced 23 years in jail. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_292

Three charges lacked sufficient evidence to proceed to court, but the Mann Act trial began on 21 March 1944. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_293

Chaplin was acquitted two weeks later, on 4 April. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_294

The case was frequently headline news, with Newsweek calling it the "biggest public relations scandal since the Fatty Arbuckle murder trial in 1921". Charlie Chaplin_sentence_295

Barry's child, Carol Ann, was born in October 1943, and the paternity suit went to court in December 1944. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_296

After two arduous trials, in which the prosecuting lawyer accused him of "moral turpitude", Chaplin was declared to be the father. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_297

Evidence from blood tests which indicated otherwise were not admissible, and the judge ordered Chaplin to pay child support until Carol Ann turned 21. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_298

Media coverage of the paternity suit was influenced by the FBI, as information was fed to the prominent gossip columnist Hedda Hopper, and Chaplin was portrayed in an overwhelmingly critical light. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_299

The controversy surrounding Chaplin increased when – two weeks after the paternity suit was filed – it was announced that he had married his newest protégée, 18-year-old Oona O'Neill, the daughter of American playwright Eugene O'Neill. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_300

Chaplin, then 54, had been introduced to her by a film agent seven months earlier. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_301

In his autobiography, Chaplin described meeting O'Neill as "the happiest event of my life", and claimed to have found "perfect love". Charlie Chaplin_sentence_302

Chaplin's son, Charles Jr., reported that Oona "worshipped" his father. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_303

The couple remained married until Chaplin's death, and had eight children over 18 years: Geraldine Leigh (b. July 1944), Michael John (b. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_304

March 1946), Josephine Hannah (b. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_305

March 1949), Victoria (b. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_306

May 1951), Eugene Anthony (b. August 1953), Jane Cecil (b. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_307

May 1957), Annette Emily (b. December 1959), and Christopher James (b. July 1962). Charlie Chaplin_sentence_308

Monsieur Verdoux and communist accusations Charlie Chaplin_section_19

Chaplin claimed that the Barry trials had "crippled [his] creativeness", and it was some time before he began working again. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_309

In April 1946, he finally began filming a project that had been in development since 1942. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_310

Monsieur Verdoux was a black comedy, the story of a French bank clerk, Verdoux (Chaplin), who loses his job and begins marrying and murdering wealthy widows to support his family. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_311

Chaplin's inspiration for the project came from Orson Welles, who wanted him to star in a film about the French serial killer Henri Désiré Landru. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_312

Chaplin decided that the concept would "make a wonderful comedy", and paid Welles $5,000 for the idea. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_313

Chaplin again vocalised his political views in Monsieur Verdoux, criticising capitalism and arguing that the world encourages mass killing through wars and weapons of mass destruction. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_314

Because of this, the film met with controversy when it was released in April 1947; Chaplin was booed at the premiere, and there were calls for a boycott. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_315

Monsieur Verdoux was the first Chaplin release that failed both critically and commercially in the United States. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_316

It was more successful abroad, and Chaplin's screenplay was nominated at the Academy Awards. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_317

He was proud of the film, writing in his autobiography, "Monsieur Verdoux is the cleverest and most brilliant film I have yet made." Charlie Chaplin_sentence_318

The negative reaction to Monsieur Verdoux was largely the result of changes in Chaplin's public image. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_319

Along with damage of the Joan Barry scandal, he was publicly accused of being a communist. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_320

His political activity had heightened during World War II, when he campaigned for the opening of a Second Front to help the Soviet Union and supported various Soviet–American friendship groups. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_321

He was also friendly with several suspected communists, and attended functions given by Soviet diplomats in Los Angeles. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_322

In the political climate of 1940s America, such activities meant Chaplin was considered, as Larcher writes, "dangerously progressive and amoral". Charlie Chaplin_sentence_323

The FBI wanted him out of the country, and launched an official investigation in early 1947. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_324

Chaplin denied being a communist, instead calling himself a "peacemonger", but felt the government's effort to suppress the ideology was an unacceptable infringement of civil liberties. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_325

Unwilling to be quiet about the issue, he openly protested against the trials of Communist Party members and the activities of the House Un-American Activities Committee. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_326

Chaplin received a subpoena to appear before HUAC but was not called to testify. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_327

As his activities were widely reported in the press, and Cold War fears grew, questions were raised over his failure to take American citizenship. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_328

Calls were made for him to be deported; in one extreme and widely published example, Representative John E. Rankin, who helped establish HUAC, told Congress in June 1947: "[Chaplin's] very life in Hollywood is detrimental to the moral fabric of America. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_329

[If he is deported] ... his loathsome pictures can be kept from before the eyes of the American youth. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_330

He should be deported and gotten rid of at once." Charlie Chaplin_sentence_331

Limelight and banning from the United States Charlie Chaplin_section_20

Although Chaplin remained politically active in the years following the failure of Monsieur Verdoux, his next film, about a forgotten music hall comedian and a young ballerina in Edwardian London, was devoid of political themes. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_332

Limelight was heavily autobiographical, alluding not only to Chaplin's childhood and the lives of his parents, but also to his loss of popularity in the United States. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_333

The cast included various members of his family, including his five oldest children and his half-brother, Wheeler Dryden. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_334

Filming began in November 1951, by which time Chaplin had spent three years working on the story. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_335

He aimed for a more serious tone than any of his previous films, regularly using the word "melancholy" when explaining his plans to his co-star Claire Bloom. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_336

Limelight featured a cameo appearance from Buster Keaton, whom Chaplin cast as his stage partner in a pantomime scene. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_337

This marked the only time the comedians worked together in a feature film. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_338

Chaplin decided to hold the world premiere of Limelight in London, since it was the setting of the film. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_339

As he left Los Angeles, he expressed a premonition that he would not be returning. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_340

At New York, he boarded the RMS Queen Elizabeth with his family on 18 September 1952. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_341

The next day, United States Attorney General James P. McGranery revoked Chaplin's re-entry permit and stated that he would have to submit to an interview concerning his political views and moral behaviour to re-enter the US. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_342

Although McGranery told the press that he had "a pretty good case against Chaplin", Maland has concluded, on the basis of the FBI files that were released in the 1980s, that the US government had no real evidence to prevent Chaplin's re-entry. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_343

It is likely that he would have gained entry if he had applied for it. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_344

However, when Chaplin received a cablegram informing him of the news, he privately decided to cut his ties with the United States: Charlie Chaplin_sentence_345

Because all of his property remained in America, Chaplin refrained from saying anything negative about the incident to the press. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_346

The scandal attracted vast attention, but Chaplin and his film were warmly received in Europe. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_347

In America, the hostility towards him continued, and, although it received some positive reviews, Limelight was subjected to a wide-scale boycott. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_348

Reflecting on this, Maland writes that Chaplin's fall, from an "unprecedented" level of popularity, "may be the most dramatic in the history of stardom in America". Charlie Chaplin_sentence_349

1953–1977: European years Charlie Chaplin_section_21

Move to Switzerland and A King in New York Charlie Chaplin_section_22

Chaplin did not attempt to return to the United States after his re-entry permit was revoked, and instead sent his wife to settle his affairs. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_350

The couple decided to settle in Switzerland and, in January 1953, the family moved into their permanent home: Manoir de Ban, a 14-hectare (35-acre) estate overlooking Lake Geneva in Corsier-sur-Vevey. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_351

Chaplin put his Beverly Hills house and studio up for sale in March, and surrendered his re-entry permit in April. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_352

The next year, his wife renounced her US citizenship and became a British citizen. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_353

Chaplin severed the last of his professional ties with the United States in 1955, when he sold the remainder of his stock in United Artists, which had been in financial difficulty since the early 1940s. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_354

Chaplin remained a controversial figure throughout the 1950s, especially after he was awarded the International Peace Prize by the communist-led World Peace Council, and after his meetings with Zhou Enlai and Nikita Khrushchev. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_355

He began developing his first European film, A King in New York, in 1954. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_356

Casting himself as an exiled king who seeks asylum in the United States, Chaplin included several of his recent experiences in the screenplay. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_357

His son, Michael, was cast as a boy whose parents are targeted by the FBI, while Chaplin's character faces accusations of communism. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_358

The political satire parodied HUAC and attacked elements of 1950s culture – including consumerism, plastic surgery, and wide-screen cinema. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_359

In a review, the playwright John Osborne called it Chaplin's "most bitter" and "most openly personal" film. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_360

In a 1957 interview, when asked to clarify his political views, Chaplin stated "As for politics, I am an anarchist. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_361

I hate government and rules – and fetters ... People must be free." Charlie Chaplin_sentence_362

Chaplin founded a new production company, Attica, and used Shepperton Studios for the shooting. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_363

Filming in England proved a difficult experience, as he was used to his own Hollywood studio and familiar crew, and no longer had limitless production time. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_364

According to Robinson, this had an effect on the quality of the film. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_365

A King in New York was released in September 1957, and received mixed reviews. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_366

Chaplin banned American journalists from its Paris première and decided not to release the film in the United States. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_367

This severely limited its revenue, although it achieved moderate commercial success in Europe. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_368

A King in New York was not shown in America until 1973. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_369

Final works and renewed appreciation Charlie Chaplin_section_23

In the last two decades of his career, Chaplin concentrated on re-editing and scoring his old films for re-release, along with securing their ownership and distribution rights. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_370

In an interview he granted in 1959, the year of his 70th birthday, Chaplin stated that there was still "room for the Little Man in the atomic age". Charlie Chaplin_sentence_371

The first of these re-releases was The Chaplin Revue (1959), which included new versions of A Dog's Life, Shoulder Arms, and The Pilgrim. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_372

In America, the political atmosphere began to change and attention was once again directed to Chaplin's films instead of his views. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_373

In July 1962, The New York Times published an editorial stating that "we do not believe the Republic would be in danger if yesterday's unforgotten little tramp were allowed to amble down the gangplank of a steamer or plane in an American port". Charlie Chaplin_sentence_374

The same month, Chaplin was invested with the honorary degree of Doctor of Letters by the universities of Oxford and Durham. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_375

In November 1963, the Plaza Theater in New York started a year-long series of Chaplin's films, including Monsieur Verdoux and Limelight, which gained excellent reviews from American critics. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_376

September 1964 saw the release of Chaplin's memoirs, My Autobiography, which he had been working on since 1957. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_377

The 500-page book became a worldwide best-seller. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_378

It focused on his early years and personal life, and was criticised for lacking information on his film career. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_379

Shortly after the publication of his memoirs, Chaplin began work on A Countess from Hong Kong (1967), a romantic comedy based on a script he had written for Paulette Goddard in the 1930s. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_380

Set on an ocean liner, it starred Marlon Brando as an American ambassador and Sophia Loren as a stowaway found in his cabin. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_381

The film differed from Chaplin's earlier productions in several aspects. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_382

It was his first to use Technicolor and the widescreen format, while he concentrated on directing and appeared on-screen only in a cameo role as a seasick steward. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_383

He also signed a deal with Universal Pictures and appointed his assistant, Jerome Epstein, as the producer. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_384

Chaplin was paid $600,000 director's fee as well as a percentage of the gross receipts. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_385

A Countess from Hong Kong premiered in January 1967, to unfavourable reviews, and was a box-office failure. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_386

Chaplin was deeply hurt by the negative reaction to the film, which turned out to be his last. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_387

Chaplin suffered a series of minor strokes in the late 1960s, which marked the beginning of a slow decline in his health. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_388

Despite the setbacks, he was soon writing a new film script, The Freak, a story of a winged girl found in South America, which he intended as a starring vehicle for his daughter, Victoria. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_389

His fragile health prevented the project from being realised. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_390

In the early 1970s, Chaplin concentrated on re-releasing his old films, including The Kid and The Circus. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_391

In 1971, he was made a Commander of the National Order of the Legion of Honour at the Cannes Film Festival. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_392

The following year, he was honoured with a special award by the Venice Film Festival. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_393

In 1972, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences offered Chaplin an Honorary Award, which Robinson sees as a sign that America "wanted to make amends". Charlie Chaplin_sentence_394

Chaplin was initially hesitant about accepting but decided to return to the US for the first time in 20 years. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_395

The visit attracted a large amount of press coverage and, at the Academy Awards gala, he was given a 12-minute standing ovation, the longest in the Academy's history. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_396

Visibly emotional, Chaplin accepted his award for "the incalculable effect he has had in making motion pictures the art form of this century". Charlie Chaplin_sentence_397

Although Chaplin still had plans for future film projects, by the mid-1970s he was very frail. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_398

He experienced several further strokes, which made it difficult for him to communicate, and he had to use a wheelchair. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_399

His final projects were compiling a pictorial autobiography, My Life in Pictures (1974) and scoring A Woman of Paris for re-release in 1976. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_400

He also appeared in a documentary about his life, The Gentleman Tramp (1975), directed by Richard Patterson. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_401

In the 1975 New Year Honours, Chaplin was awarded a knighthood by Queen Elizabeth II, though he was too weak to kneel and received the honour in his wheelchair. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_402

Death Charlie Chaplin_section_24

By October 1977, Chaplin's health had declined to the point that he needed constant care. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_403

In the early morning of 25 December 1977, Chaplin died at home after suffering a stroke in his sleep. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_404

He was 88 years old. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_405

The funeral, on 27 December, was a small and private Anglican ceremony, according to his wishes. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_406

Chaplin was interred in the Corsier-sur-Vevey cemetery. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_407

Among the film industry's tributes, director René Clair wrote, "He was a monument of the cinema, of all countries and all times ... the most beautiful gift the cinema made to us." Charlie Chaplin_sentence_408

Actor Bob Hope declared, "We were lucky to have lived in his time." Charlie Chaplin_sentence_409

On 1 March 1978, Chaplin's coffin was dug up and stolen from its grave by two unemployed immigrants, Roman Wardas, from Poland, and Gantcho Ganev, from Bulgaria. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_410

The body was held for ransom in an attempt to extort money from Oona Chaplin. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_411

The pair were caught in a large police operation in May, and Chaplin's coffin was found buried in a field in the nearby village of Noville. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_412

It was re-interred in the Corsier cemetery surrounded by reinforced concrete. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_413

Filmmaking Charlie Chaplin_section_25

Influences Charlie Chaplin_section_26

Chaplin believed his first influence to be his mother, who entertained him as a child by sitting at the window and mimicking passers-by: "it was through watching her that I learned not only how to express emotions with my hands and face, but also how to observe and study people." Charlie Chaplin_sentence_414

Chaplin's early years in music hall allowed him to see stage comedians at work; he also attended the Christmas pantomimes at Drury Lane, where he studied the art of clowning through performers like Dan Leno. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_415

Chaplin's years with the Fred Karno company had a formative effect on him as an actor and filmmaker. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_416

Simon Louvish writes that the company was his "training ground", and it was here that Chaplin learned to vary the pace of his comedy. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_417

The concept of mixing pathos with slapstick was learnt from Karno, who also used elements of absurdity that became familiar in Chaplin's gags. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_418

From the film industry, Chaplin drew upon the work of the French comedian Max Linder, whose films he greatly admired. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_419

In developing the Tramp costume and persona, he was likely inspired by the American vaudeville scene, where tramp characters were common. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_420

Method Charlie Chaplin_section_27

Chaplin never spoke more than cursorily about his filmmaking methods, claiming such a thing would be tantamount to a magician spoiling his own illusion. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_421

Little was known about his working process throughout his lifetime, but research from film historians – particularly the findings of Kevin Brownlow and David Gill that were presented in the three-part documentary Unknown Chaplin (1983) – has since revealed his unique working method. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_422

Until he began making spoken dialogue films with The Great Dictator, Chaplin never shot from a completed script. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_423

Many of his early films began with only a vague premise, for example "Charlie enters a health spa" or "Charlie works in a pawn shop". Charlie Chaplin_sentence_424

He then had sets constructed and worked with his stock company to improvise gags and "business" using them, almost always working the ideas out on film. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_425

As ideas were accepted and discarded, a narrative structure would emerge, frequently requiring Chaplin to reshoot an already-completed scene that might have otherwise contradicted the story. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_426

From A Woman of Paris onward Chaplin began the filming process with a prepared plot, but Robinson writes that every film up to Modern Times "went through many metamorphoses and permutations before the story took its final form". Charlie Chaplin_sentence_427

Producing films in this manner meant Chaplin took longer to complete his pictures than almost any other filmmaker at the time. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_428

If he was out of ideas, he often took a break from the shoot, which could last for days, while keeping the studio ready for when inspiration returned. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_429

Delaying the process further was Chaplin's rigorous perfectionism. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_430

According to his friend Ivor Montagu, "nothing but perfection would be right" for the filmmaker. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_431

Because he personally funded his films, Chaplin was at liberty to strive for this goal and shoot as many takes as he wished. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_432

The number was often excessive, for instance 53 takes for every finished take in The Kid. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_433

For The Immigrant, a 20-minute short, Chaplin shot 40,000 feet of film – enough for a feature-length. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_434

Describing his working method as "sheer perseverance to the point of madness", Chaplin would be completely consumed by the production of a picture. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_435

Robinson writes that even in Chaplin's later years, his work continued "to take precedence over everything and everyone else". Charlie Chaplin_sentence_436

The combination of story improvisation and relentless perfectionism – which resulted in days of effort and thousands of feet of film being wasted, all at enormous expense – often proved taxing for Chaplin who, in frustration, would lash out at his actors and crew. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_437

Chaplin exercised complete control over his pictures, to the extent that he would act out the other roles for his cast, expecting them to imitate him exactly. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_438

He personally edited all of his films, trawling through the large amounts of footage to create the exact picture he wanted. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_439

As a result of his complete independence, he was identified by the film historian Andrew Sarris as one of the first auteur filmmakers. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_440

Chaplin did receive help, notably from his long-time cinematographer Roland Totheroh, brother Sydney Chaplin, and various assistant directors such as Harry Crocker and Charles Reisner. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_441

Style and themes Charlie Chaplin_section_28

While Chaplin's comedic style is broadly defined as slapstick, it is considered restrained and intelligent, with the film historian Philip Kemp describing his work as a mix of "deft, balletic physical comedy and thoughtful, situation-based gags". Charlie Chaplin_sentence_442

Chaplin diverged from conventional slapstick by slowing the pace and exhausting each scene of its comic potential, with more focus on developing the viewer's relationship to the characters. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_443

Unlike conventional slapstick comedies, Robinson states that the comic moments in Chaplin's films centre on the Tramp's attitude to the things happening to him: the humour does not come from the Tramp bumping into a tree, but from his lifting his hat to the tree in apology. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_444

Dan Kamin writes that Chaplin's "quirky mannerisms" and "serious demeanour in the midst of slapstick action" are other key aspects of his comedy, while the surreal transformation of objects and the employment of in-camera trickery are also common features. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_445

Chaplin's silent films typically follow the Tramp's efforts to survive in a hostile world. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_446

The character lives in poverty and is frequently treated badly, but remains kind and upbeat; defying his social position, he strives to be seen as a gentleman. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_447

As Chaplin said in 1925, "The whole point of the Little Fellow is that no matter how down on his ass he is, no matter how well the jackals succeed in tearing him apart, he's still a man of dignity." Charlie Chaplin_sentence_448

The Tramp defies authority figures and "gives as good as he gets", leading Robinson and Louvish to see him as a representative for the underprivileged – an "everyman turned heroic saviour". Charlie Chaplin_sentence_449

Hansmeyer notes that several of Chaplin's films end with "the homeless and lonely Tramp [walking] optimistically ... into the sunset ... to continue his journey." Charlie Chaplin_sentence_450

The infusion of pathos is a well-known aspect of Chaplin's work, and Larcher notes his reputation for "[inducing] laughter and tears". Charlie Chaplin_sentence_451

Sentimentality in his films comes from a variety of sources, with Louvish pinpointing "personal failure, society's strictures, economic disaster, and the elements". Charlie Chaplin_sentence_452

Chaplin sometimes drew on tragic events when creating his films, as in the case of The Gold Rush (1925), which was inspired by the fate of the Donner Party. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_453

Constance B. Kuriyama has identified serious underlying themes in the early comedies, such as greed (The Gold Rush) and loss (The Kid). Charlie Chaplin_sentence_454

Chaplin also touched on controversial issues: immigration (The Immigrant, 1917); illegitimacy (The Kid, 1921); and drug use (Easy Street, 1917). Charlie Chaplin_sentence_455

He often explored these topics ironically, making comedy out of suffering. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_456

Social commentary was a feature of Chaplin's films from early in his career, as he portrayed the underdog in a sympathetic light and highlighted the difficulties of the poor. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_457

Later, as he developed a keen interest in economics and felt obliged to publicise his views, Chaplin began incorporating overtly political messages into his films. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_458

Modern Times (1936) depicted factory workers in dismal conditions, The Great Dictator (1940) parodied Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini and ended in a speech against nationalism, Monsieur Verdoux (1947) criticised war and capitalism, and A King in New York (1957) attacked McCarthyism. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_459

Several of Chaplin's films incorporate autobiographical elements, and the psychologist Sigmund Freud believed that Chaplin "always plays only himself as he was in his dismal youth". Charlie Chaplin_sentence_460

The Kid is thought to reflect Chaplin's childhood trauma of being sent into an orphanage, the main characters in Limelight (1952) contain elements from the lives of his parents, and A King in New York references Chaplin's experiences of being shunned by the United States. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_461

Many of his sets, especially in street scenes, bear a strong similarity to Kennington, where he grew up. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_462

Stephen M. Weissman has argued that Chaplin's problematic relationship with his mentally ill mother was often reflected in his female characters and the Tramp's desire to save them. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_463

Regarding the structure of Chaplin's films, the scholar Gerald Mast sees them as consisting of sketches tied together by the same theme and setting, rather than having a tightly unified storyline. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_464

Visually, his films are simple and economic, with scenes portrayed as if set on a stage. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_465

His approach to filming was described by the art director Eugène Lourié: "Chaplin did not think in 'artistic' images when he was shooting. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_466

He believed that action is the main thing. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_467

The camera is there to photograph the actors". Charlie Chaplin_sentence_468

In his autobiography, Chaplin wrote, "Simplicity is best ... pompous effects slow up action, are boring and unpleasant ... Charlie Chaplin_sentence_469

The camera should not intrude." Charlie Chaplin_sentence_470

This approach has prompted criticism, since the 1940s, for being "old fashioned", while the film scholar Donald McCaffrey sees it as an indication that Chaplin never completely understood film as a medium. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_471

Kamin, however, comments that Chaplin's comedic talent would not be enough to remain funny on screen if he did not have an "ability to conceive and direct scenes specifically for the film medium". Charlie Chaplin_sentence_472

Composing Charlie Chaplin_section_29

Chaplin developed a passion for music as a child and taught himself to play the piano, violin, and cello. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_473

He considered the musical accompaniment of a film to be important, and from A Woman of Paris onwards he took an increasing interest in this area. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_474

With the advent of sound technology, Chaplin began using a synchronised orchestral soundtrack – composed by himself – for City Lights (1931). Charlie Chaplin_sentence_475

He thereafter composed the scores for all of his films, and from the late 1950s to his death, he scored all of his silent features and some of his short films. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_476

As Chaplin was not a trained musician, he could not read sheet music and needed the help of professional composers, such as David Raksin, Raymond Rasch and Eric James, when creating his scores. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_477

Musical directors were employed to oversee the recording process, such as Alfred Newman for City Lights. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_478

Although some critics have claimed that credit for his film music should be given to the composers who worked with him, Raksin – who worked with Chaplin on Modern Times – stressed Chaplin's creative position and active participation in the composing process. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_479

This process, which could take months, would start with Chaplin describing to the composer(s) exactly what he wanted and singing or playing tunes he had improvised on the piano. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_480

These tunes were then developed further in a close collaboration among the composer(s) and Chaplin. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_481

According to film historian Jeffrey Vance, "although he relied upon associates to arrange varied and complex instrumentation, the musical imperative is his, and not a note in a Chaplin musical score was placed there without his assent." Charlie Chaplin_sentence_482

Chaplin's compositions produced three popular songs. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_483

"Smile", composed originally for Modern Times (1936) and later set to lyrics by John Turner and Geoffrey Parsons, was a hit for Nat King Cole in 1954. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_484

For Limelight, Chaplin composed "Terry's Theme", which was popularised by Jimmy Young as "Eternally" (1952). Charlie Chaplin_sentence_485

Finally, "This Is My Song", performed by Petula Clark for A Countess from Hong Kong (1967), reached number one on the UK and other European charts. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_486

Chaplin also received his only competitive Oscar for his composition work, as the Limelight theme won an Academy Award for Best Original Score in 1973 following the film's re-release. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_487

Legacy Charlie Chaplin_section_30

In 1998, the film critic Andrew Sarris called Chaplin "arguably the single most important artist produced by the cinema, certainly its most extraordinary performer and probably still its most universal icon". Charlie Chaplin_sentence_488

He is described by the British Film Institute as "a towering figure in world culture", and was included in Time magazine's list of the "100 Most Important People of the 20th Century" for the "laughter [he brought] to millions" and because he "more or less invented global recognizability and helped turn an industry into an art". Charlie Chaplin_sentence_489

The image of the Tramp has become a part of cultural history; according to Simon Louvish, the character is recognisable to people who have never seen a Chaplin film, and in places where his films are never shown. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_490

The critic Leonard Maltin has written of the "unique" and "indelible" nature of the Tramp, and argued that no other comedian matched his "worldwide impact". Charlie Chaplin_sentence_491

Praising the character, Richard Schickel suggests that Chaplin's films with the Tramp contain the most "eloquent, richly comedic expressions of the human spirit" in movie history. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_492

Memorabilia connected to the character still fetches large sums in auctions: in 2006 a bowler hat and a bamboo cane that were part of the Tramp's costume were bought for $140,000 in a Los Angeles auction. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_493

As a filmmaker, Chaplin is considered a pioneer and one of the most influential figures of the early twentieth century. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_494

He is often credited as one of the medium's first artists. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_495

Film historian Mark Cousins has written that Chaplin "changed not only the imagery of cinema, but also its sociology and grammar" and claims that Chaplin was as important to the development of comedy as a genre as D.W. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_496 Griffith was to drama. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_497

He was the first to popularise feature-length comedy and to slow down the pace of action, adding pathos and subtlety to it. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_498

Although his work is mostly classified as slapstick, Chaplin's drama A Woman of Paris (1923) was a major influence on Ernst Lubitsch's film The Marriage Circle (1924) and thus played a part in the development of "sophisticated comedy". Charlie Chaplin_sentence_499

According to David Robinson, Chaplin's innovations were "rapidly assimilated to become part of the common practice of film craft". Charlie Chaplin_sentence_500

Filmmakers who cited Chaplin as an influence include Federico Fellini (who called Chaplin "a sort of Adam, from whom we are all descended"), Jacques Tati ("Without him I would never have made a film"), René Clair ("He inspired practically every filmmaker"), Michael Powell, Billy Wilder, Vittorio De Sica, and Richard Attenborough. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_501

Russian filmmaker Andrei Tarkovsky praised Chaplin as "the only person to have gone down into cinematic history without any shadow of a doubt. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_502

The films he left behind can never grow old." Charlie Chaplin_sentence_503

Chaplin also strongly influenced the work of later comedians. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_504

Marcel Marceau said he was inspired to become a mime artist after watching Chaplin, while the actor Raj Kapoor based his screen persona on the Tramp. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_505

Mark Cousins has also detected Chaplin's comedic style in the French character Monsieur Hulot and the Italian character Totò. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_506

In other fields, Chaplin helped inspire the cartoon characters Felix the Cat and Mickey Mouse, and was an influence on the Dada art movement. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_507

As one of the founding members of United Artists, Chaplin also had a role in the development of the film industry. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_508

Gerald Mast has written that although UA never became a major company like MGM or Paramount Pictures, the idea that directors could produce their own films was "years ahead of its time". Charlie Chaplin_sentence_509

In the 21st century, several of Chaplin's films are still regarded as classics and among the greatest ever made. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_510

The 2012 Sight & Sound poll, which compiles "top ten" ballots from film critics and directors to determine each group's most acclaimed films, saw City Lights rank among the critics' top 50, Modern Times inside the top 100, and The Great Dictator and The Gold Rush placed in the top 250. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_511

The top 100 films as voted on by directors included Modern Times at number 22, City Lights at number 30, and The Gold Rush at number 91. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_512

Every one of Chaplin's features received a vote. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_513

In 2007, the American Film Institute named City Lights the 11th greatest American film of all time, while The Gold Rush and Modern Times again ranked in the top 100. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_514

Books about Chaplin continue to be published regularly, and he is a popular subject for media scholars and film archivists. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_515

Many of Chaplin's film have had a DVD and Blu-ray release. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_516

Chaplin's legacy is managed on behalf of his children by the Chaplin office, located in Paris. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_517

The office represents Association Chaplin, founded by some of his children "to protect the name, image and moral rights" to his body of work, Roy Export SAS, which owns the copyright to most of his films made after 1918, and Bubbles Incorporated S.A., which owns the copyrights to his image and name. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_518

Their central archive is held at the archives of Montreux, Switzerland and scanned versions of its contents, including 83,630 images, 118 scripts, 976 manuscripts, 7,756 letters, and thousands of other documents, are available for research purposes at the Chaplin Research Centre at the Cineteca di Bologna. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_519

The photographic archive, which includes approximately 10,000 photographs from Chaplin's life and career, is kept at the Musée de l'Elysée in Lausanne, Switzerland. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_520

The British Film Institute has also established the Charles Chaplin Research Foundation, and the first international Charles Chaplin Conference was held in London in July 2005. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_521

Elements for many of Chaplin's films are held by the Academy Film Archive as part of the Roy Export Chaplin Collection. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_522

Commemoration and tributes Charlie Chaplin_section_31

Chaplin's final home, Manoir de Ban in Corsier-sur-Vevey, Switzerland, has been converted into a museum named "Chaplin's World". Charlie Chaplin_sentence_523

It opened on 17 April 2016 after fifteen years of development, and is described by Reuters as "an interactive museum showcasing the life and works of Charlie Chaplin". Charlie Chaplin_sentence_524

On the 128th anniversary of his birth, a record-setting 662 people dressed as the Tramp in an event organised by the museum. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_525

Previously, the Museum of the Moving Image in London held a permanent display on Chaplin, and hosted a dedicated exhibition to his life and career in 1988. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_526

The London Film Museum hosted an exhibition called Charlie Chaplin – The Great Londoner, from 2010 until 2013. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_527

In London, a statue of Chaplin as the Tramp, sculpted by John Doubleday and unveiled in 1981, is located in Leicester Square. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_528

The city also includes a road named after him in central London, "Charlie Chaplin Walk", which is the location of the BFI IMAX. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_529

There are nine blue plaques memorialising Chaplin in London, Hampshire, and Yorkshire. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_530

The Swiss town of Vevey named a park in his honour in 1980 and erected a statue there in 1982. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_531

In 2011, two large murals depicting Chaplin on two 14-storey buildings were also unveiled in Vevey. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_532

Chaplin has also been honoured by the Irish town of Waterville, where he spent several summers with his family in the 1960s. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_533

A statue was erected in 1998; since 2011, the town has been host to the annual Charlie Chaplin Comedy Film Festival, which was founded to celebrate Chaplin's legacy and to showcase new comic talent. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_534

In other tributes, a minor planet, 3623 Chaplin (discovered by Soviet astronomer Lyudmila Karachkina in 1981) is named after Charlie. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_535

Throughout the 1980s, the Tramp image was used by IBM to advertise their personal computers. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_536

Chaplin's 100th birthday anniversary in 1989 was marked with several events around the world, and on 15 April 2011, a day before his 122nd birthday, Google celebrated him with a special Google Doodle video on its global and other country-wide homepages. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_537

Many countries, spanning six continents, have honoured Chaplin with a postal stamp. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_538

Characterisations Charlie Chaplin_section_32

Chaplin is the subject of a biographical film, Chaplin (1992) directed by Richard Attenborough, and starring Robert Downey Jr. in the title role and Geraldine Chaplin playing Hannah Chaplin. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_539

He is also a character in the historical drama film The Cat's Meow (2001), played by Eddie Izzard, and in the made-for-television movie The Scarlett O'Hara War (1980), played by Clive Revill. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_540

A television series about Chaplin's childhood, Young Charlie Chaplin, ran on PBS in 1989, and was nominated for an Emmy Award for Outstanding Children's Program. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_541

The French film The Price of Fame (2014) is a fictionalised account of the robbery of Chaplin's grave. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_542

Chaplin's life has also been the subject of several stage productions. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_543

Two musicals, Little Tramp and Chaplin, were produced in the early 1990s. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_544

In 2006, Thomas Meehan and Christopher Curtis created another musical, Limelight: The Story of Charlie Chaplin, which was first performed at the La Jolla Playhouse in San Diego in 2010. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_545

It was adapted for Broadway two years later, re-titled Chaplin – A Musical. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_546

Chaplin was portrayed by Robert McClure in both productions. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_547

In 2013, two plays about Chaplin premiered in Finland: Chaplin at the Svenska Teatern, and Kulkuri (The Tramp) at the Tampere Workers' Theatre. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_548

Chaplin has also been characterised in literary fiction. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_549

He is the protagonist of Robert Coover's short story "Charlie in the House of Rue" (1980; reprinted in Coover's 1987 collection A Night at the Movies), and of Glen David Gold's Sunnyside (2009), a historical novel set in the First World War period. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_550

A day in Chaplin's life in 1909 is dramatised in the chapter titled "Modern Times" in Alan Moore's Jerusalem (2016), a novel set in the author's home town of Northampton, England. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_551

Awards and recognition Charlie Chaplin_section_33

Chaplin received many awards and honours, especially later in life. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_552

In the 1975 New Year Honours, he was appointed a Knight Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire (KBE). Charlie Chaplin_sentence_553

He was also awarded honorary Doctor of Letters degrees by the University of Oxford and the University of Durham in 1962. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_554

In 1965, he and Ingmar Bergman were joint winners of the Erasmus Prize and, in 1971, he was appointed a Commander of the National Order of the Legion of Honour by the French government. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_555

From the film industry, Chaplin received a special Golden Lion at the Venice Film Festival in 1972, and a Lifetime Achievement Award from the Lincoln Center Film Society the same year. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_556

The latter has since been presented annually to filmmakers as The Chaplin Award. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_557

Chaplin was given a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in 1972, having been previously excluded because of his political beliefs. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_558

Chaplin received three Academy Awards: an Honorary Award for "versatility and genius in acting, writing, directing, and producing The Circus" in 1929, a second Honorary Award for "the incalculable effect he has had in making motion pictures the art form of this century" in 1972, and a Best Score award in 1973 for Limelight (shared with Ray Rasch and Larry Russell). Charlie Chaplin_sentence_559

He was further nominated in the Best Actor, Best Original Screenplay, and Best Picture (as producer) categories for The Great Dictator, and received another Best Original Screenplay nomination for Monsieur Verdoux. Charlie Chaplin_sentence_560

In 1976, Chaplin was made a Fellow of the British Academy of Film and Television Arts (BAFTA). Charlie Chaplin_sentence_561

Six of Chaplin's films have been selected for preservation in the National Film Registry by the United States Library of Congress: The Immigrant (1917), The Kid (1921), The Gold Rush (1925), City Lights (1931), Modern Times (1936), and The Great Dictator (1940). Charlie Chaplin_sentence_562

Filmography Charlie Chaplin_section_34

Main article: Charlie Chaplin filmography Charlie Chaplin_sentence_563

Directed features: Charlie Chaplin_sentence_564

Charlie Chaplin_unordered_list_0

See also Charlie Chaplin_section_35

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Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: Chaplin.