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Chauvinism is the belief in the superiority or dominance of one's own group or people, who are seen as strong and virtuous, while others are considered weak or unworthy. Chauvinism_sentence_0

It can be described as a form of extreme patriotism and nationalism, a fervent faith in national excellence and glory. Chauvinism_sentence_1

According to legend, French soldier Nicolas Chauvin was badly wounded in the Napoleonic Wars and received a meager pension for his injuries. Chauvinism_sentence_2

After Napoleon abdicated, Chauvin maintained his fanatical Bonapartist belief in the messianic mission of Imperial France, despite the unpopularity of this view under the Bourbon Restoration. Chauvinism_sentence_3

His single-minded blind devotion to his cause, despite neglect by his faction and harassment by its enemies, started the use of the term. Chauvinism_sentence_4

Chauvinism has extended from its original use to include fanatical devotion and undue partiality to any group or cause to which one belongs, especially when such partisanship includes prejudice against or hostility toward outsiders or rival groups and persists even in the face of overwhelming opposition. Chauvinism_sentence_5

This French quality finds its parallel in the British term jingoism, which has retained the meaning of chauvinism strictly in its original sense; that is, an attitude of belligerent nationalism. Chauvinism_sentence_6

In modern English, the word has come to be used in some quarters as shorthand for male chauvinism, a trend reflected in Merriam-Webster's Dictionary, which, as of 2018, begins its first example of use of the term chauvinism with "an attitude of superiority toward members of the opposite sex". Chauvinism_sentence_7

As nationalism Chauvinism_section_0

In 1945, political theorist Hannah Arendt described the concept thus: Chauvinism_sentence_8

Male chauvinism Chauvinism_section_1

See also: Sexism, Misogyny, Androcentrism, Machismo, and Patriarchy Chauvinism_sentence_9

Male chauvinism is the belief that men are superior to women. Chauvinism_sentence_10

The first documented use of the phrase "male chauvinism" is in the 1935 Clifford Odets play Till the Day I Die. Chauvinism_sentence_11

In the workplace Chauvinism_section_2

The balance of the workforce changed during World War II. Chauvinism_sentence_12

As men left their positions to enlist in the military and fight in the war, women started replacing them. Chauvinism_sentence_13

After the war ended, men returned home to find jobs in the workplace now occupied by women, which "threatened the self-esteem many men derive from their dominance over women in the family, the economy, and society at large." Chauvinism_sentence_14

Consequently, male chauvinism was on the rise, according to Cynthia B. Lloyd. Chauvinism_sentence_15

Lloyd and Michael Korda have argued that as they integrated back into the workforce, men returned to predominate, holding positions of power while women worked as their secretaries, usually typing dictations and answering telephone calls. Chauvinism_sentence_16

This division of labor was understood and expected, and women typically felt unable to challenge their position or male superiors, argue Korda and Lloyd. Chauvinism_sentence_17

Causes Chauvinism_section_3

Chauvinist assumptions are seen by some as a bias in the TAT psychological personality test. Chauvinism_sentence_18

Through cross-examinations, the TAT exhibits a tendency toward chauvinistic stimuli for its questions and has the "potential for unfavorable clinical evaluation" for women. Chauvinism_sentence_19

An often cited study done in 1976 by Sherwyn Woods, Some Dynamics of Male Chauvinism, attempts to find the underlying causes of male chauvinism. Chauvinism_sentence_20

Adam Jukes argues that a reason for male chauvinism is masculinity itself: Chauvinism_sentence_21

Female chauvinism Chauvinism_section_4

See also: Sexism, Misandry, Gynocentrism, Feminism, and Matriarchy Chauvinism_sentence_22

Female chauvinism is the belief that women are morally superior to men, and is considered anti-feminist. Chauvinism_sentence_23

The term has been adopted by critics of some types or aspects of feminism; second-wave feminist Betty Friedan is a notable example. Chauvinism_sentence_24

Ariel Levy used the term in similar, but opposite sense in her book, Female Chauvinist Pigs, in which she argues that many young women in the United States and beyond are replicating male chauvinism and older misogynist stereotypes. Chauvinism_sentence_25

Karen Salmansohn described what female chauvinists believe in Psychology Today when she wrote, "female chauvinists believe that men can't be emotionally evolved enough to want to grow, communicate from the heart, empathize and validate [their] female partners," and then labeling this description of men the same as calling men "emotional bimbos." Chauvinism_sentence_26

See also Chauvinism_section_5

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