Cheryl Crawford

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Cheryl Crawford_table_infobox_0

Cheryl CrawfordCheryl Crawford_header_cell_0_0_0
BornCheryl Crawford_header_cell_0_1_0 September 24, 1902

Akron, Ohio, USA.Cheryl Crawford_cell_0_1_1

DiedCheryl Crawford_header_cell_0_2_0 October 7, 1986 (Aged 84)

New York, New York, USA.Cheryl Crawford_cell_0_2_1

NationalityCheryl Crawford_header_cell_0_3_0 AmericanCheryl Crawford_cell_0_3_1
OccupationCheryl Crawford_header_cell_0_4_0 Cheryl Crawford_cell_0_4_1
Years activeCheryl Crawford_header_cell_0_5_0 1926–1983Cheryl Crawford_cell_0_5_1
Partner(s)Cheryl Crawford_header_cell_0_6_0 Dorothy Patten (c.1930 - c.1937); Ruth Norman (c.1944 – c.1983)Cheryl Crawford_cell_0_6_1

Cheryl Crawford (September 24, 1902 – October 7, 1986) was an American theatre producer and director. Cheryl Crawford_sentence_0

Biography Cheryl Crawford_section_0

Born in Akron, Ohio, Crawford majored in drama at Smith College. Cheryl Crawford_sentence_1

Following graduation, she moved to New York City and enrolled at the Theatre Guild's school. Cheryl Crawford_sentence_2

By then she knew that she didn't want to pursue an acting career, but saw no other way to gain access to the organization producing the highest quality theatre of its time. Cheryl Crawford_sentence_3

Finishing her training in 1927, she was hired by Theresa Helburn, the Guild's Executive Director, as a casting secretary. Cheryl Crawford_sentence_4

She then worked her way through various backstage jobs, including assistant stage manager, to assistant to the “Board of Managers,” an importantant administrative job. Cheryl Crawford_sentence_5

While working at the Guild, she met Harold Clurman and Lee Strasberg who had also been working there as play reader and actor, respectively. Cheryl Crawford_sentence_6

She was impressed with these two young men and joined their animated discussions about the need for a radically new form of American theatre. Cheryl Crawford_sentence_7

In 1930 Crawford urged Clurman to start giving semi-public talks to groups of like-minded actors. Cheryl Crawford_sentence_8

After he followed her suggestion and the talks attracted more people than could fit in Clurman's apartment, Crawford arranged for the use of a showroom at the Steinway Piano Company. Cheryl Crawford_sentence_9

In 1931, Crawford, Clurman and Strasberg announced the formation of The Group Theatre and invited 28 young actors who had been attending Clurman's talks to join them for a twelve-week-long summer of training and rehearsal at Brookfield Center, Connecticut. Cheryl Crawford_sentence_10

Crawford had a major role in selecting the early plays produced by The Group, beginning with their first one, The House of Connelly by North Carolina playwright Paul Green, whom she later introduced to composer Kurt Weill. Cheryl Crawford_sentence_11

She encouraged their subsequent collaboration, Weill's first American project, the musical Johnny Johnson, was the last production she worked on before resigning from The Group Theatre in 1937 to become an independent producer. Cheryl Crawford_sentence_12

Crawford was influential in the early careers of such actors as Helen Hayes, Bojangles Robinson, Mary Martin, Ethel Barrymore, Ingrid Bergman, Tallulah Bankhead, and Paul Robeson, among many others. Cheryl Crawford_sentence_13

In 1946, she and Eva Le Gallienne founded the American Repertory Theatre. Cheryl Crawford_sentence_14

In 1947, together with former Group Theatre members Elia Kazan and Robert Lewis, she founded The Actor's Studio, which trained Marlon Brando, James Dean, Paul Newman, Marilyn Monroe, Al Pacino, Robert De Niro, Dustin Hoffman, Steve McQueen, Martin Landau, Shelley Winters, Jane Fonda, Ellen Burstyn, Harvey Keitel, Jack Nicholson, John Astin and many more. Cheryl Crawford_sentence_15

Former partner Strasberg joined them as artistic director in 1951. Cheryl Crawford_sentence_16

Crawford is a member of the American Theater Hall of Fame, earning induction in 1979. Cheryl Crawford_sentence_17

Personal Life Cheryl Crawford_section_1

Crawford was a lesbian, and was linked romantically with her fellow Group Theatre actress Dorothy Patten, with whom she lived for several years in the 1930s. Cheryl Crawford_sentence_18

Patten had also financed several of the group's shows. Cheryl Crawford_sentence_19

Patten and Crawford visited each other's family homes in Chattanooga and Akron. Cheryl Crawford_sentence_20

Following her break-up with Patten circa 1937, Crawford later became the lifelong partner of chef Ruth Norman. Cheryl Crawford_sentence_21

Notable productions Cheryl Crawford_section_2

Cheryl Crawford_unordered_list_0

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: Crawford.