Chicago

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This article is about the city in Illinois. Chicago_sentence_0

For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). Chicago_sentence_1

Chicago_table_infobox_0

Chicago, IllinoisChicago_header_cell_0_0_0
CountryChicago_header_cell_0_1_0 United StatesChicago_cell_0_1_1
StateChicago_header_cell_0_2_0 IllinoisChicago_cell_0_2_1
CountiesChicago_header_cell_0_3_0 Cook, DuPageChicago_cell_0_3_1
SettledChicago_header_cell_0_4_0 circa 1780Chicago_cell_0_4_1
Incorporated (town)Chicago_header_cell_0_5_0 August 12, 1833Chicago_cell_0_5_1
Incorporated (city)Chicago_header_cell_0_6_0 March 4, 1837Chicago_cell_0_6_1
Founded byChicago_header_cell_0_7_0 Jean Baptiste Point du SableChicago_cell_0_7_1
GovernmentChicago_header_cell_0_8_0
TypeChicago_header_cell_0_9_0 Mayor–councilChicago_cell_0_9_1
BodyChicago_header_cell_0_10_0 Chicago City CouncilChicago_cell_0_10_1
MayorChicago_header_cell_0_11_0 Lori Lightfoot (D)Chicago_cell_0_11_1
City ClerkChicago_header_cell_0_12_0 Anna Valencia (D)Chicago_cell_0_12_1
City TreasurerChicago_header_cell_0_13_0 Melissa Conyears-Ervin (D)Chicago_cell_0_13_1
AreaChicago_header_cell_0_14_0
CityChicago_header_cell_0_15_0 234.21 sq mi (606.60 km)Chicago_cell_0_15_1
LandChicago_header_cell_0_16_0 227.41 sq mi (588.98 km)Chicago_cell_0_16_1
WaterChicago_header_cell_0_17_0 6.80 sq mi (17.62 km)  3.0%Chicago_cell_0_17_1
UrbanChicago_header_cell_0_18_0 2,122 sq mi (5,496 km)Chicago_cell_0_18_1
MetroChicago_header_cell_0_19_0 10,874 sq mi (28,160 km)Chicago_cell_0_19_1
Elevation (mean)Chicago_header_cell_0_20_0 597.18 ft (182.02 m)Chicago_cell_0_20_1
Highest elevation

– near Blue IslandChicago_header_cell_0_21_0

672 ft (205 m)Chicago_cell_0_21_1
Lowest elevation

– at Lake MichiganChicago_header_cell_0_22_0

578 ft (176 m)Chicago_cell_0_22_1
Population (2010)Chicago_header_cell_0_23_0
CityChicago_header_cell_0_24_0 2,695,598Chicago_cell_0_24_1
Estimate (2019)Chicago_header_cell_0_25_0 2,693,976Chicago_cell_0_25_1
RankChicago_header_cell_0_26_0 3rd, U.S.Chicago_cell_0_26_1
DensityChicago_header_cell_0_27_0 11,846.55/sq mi (4,573.98/km)Chicago_cell_0_27_1
UrbanChicago_header_cell_0_28_0 8,667,303Chicago_cell_0_28_1
MetroChicago_header_cell_0_29_0 9,533,040 (3rd)Chicago_cell_0_29_1
CSAChicago_header_cell_0_30_0 9,901,711 (US: 3rd)Chicago_cell_0_30_1
Demonym(s)Chicago_header_cell_0_31_0 ChicagoanChicago_cell_0_31_1
Time zoneChicago_header_cell_0_32_0 UTC−06:00 (Central)Chicago_cell_0_32_1
Summer (DST)Chicago_header_cell_0_33_0 UTC−05:00 (Central)Chicago_cell_0_33_1
ZIP Code PrefixesChicago_header_cell_0_34_0 606xx, 607xx, 608xxChicago_cell_0_34_1
Area codesChicago_header_cell_0_35_0 312/872 and 773/872Chicago_cell_0_35_1
FIPS codeChicago_header_cell_0_36_0 Chicago_cell_0_36_1
GNIS feature IDChicago_header_cell_0_37_0 Chicago_cell_0_37_1
Major AirportsChicago_header_cell_0_38_0 O'Hare Airport

Midway Airport Rockford AirportChicago_cell_0_38_1

Commuter RailChicago_header_cell_0_39_0 MetraChicago_cell_0_39_1
Rapid transitChicago_header_cell_0_40_0 Chicago_Transit_AuthorityChicago_cell_0_40_1
WebsiteChicago_header_cell_0_41_0 Chicago_cell_0_41_1

Chicago (/ʃɪˈkɑːɡoʊ/ (listen) shih-KAH-goh, locally also /ʃɪˈkɔːɡoʊ/ shih-KAW-goh), officially the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in the U.S. Chicago_sentence_2

state of Illinois, and the third most populous city in the United States. Chicago_sentence_3

With an estimated population of 2,693,976 in 2019, it is also the most populous city in the Midwestern United States. Chicago_sentence_4

Chicago is the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the U.S., while a small portion of the city's O'Hare Airport also extends into DuPage County. Chicago_sentence_5

Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area, defined as either the U.S. Census Bureau's Metropolitan Statistical Area (9.4 million people) or the larger Combined Statistical Area (almost 10 million residents), often called Chicagoland. Chicago_sentence_6

Both constitute the third most populous urban area in the United States after New York City and Los Angeles. Chicago_sentence_7

Located on the shores of freshwater Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed and grew rapidly in the mid-19th century. Chicago_sentence_8

After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, which destroyed several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, the city made a concerted effort to rebuild. Chicago_sentence_9

The construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the following decades, and by 1900, less than 30 years after the great fire, Chicago was the fifth-largest city in the world. Chicago_sentence_10

Chicago made noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, including new construction styles (including the Chicago School of architecture), the development of the City Beautiful Movement, and the steel-framed skyscraper. Chicago_sentence_11

Chicago is an international hub for finance, culture, commerce, industry, education, technology, telecommunications, and transportation. Chicago_sentence_12

It is the site of the creation of the first standardized futures contracts, issued by the Chicago Board of Trade, which today is part of the largest and most diverse derivatives market in the world, generating 20% of all volume in commodities and financial futures alone. Chicago_sentence_13

O'Hare International Airport is routinely ranked among the world's top six busiest airports according to tracked data by the Airports Council International. Chicago_sentence_14

The region also has the largest number of federal highways and is the nation's railroad hub. Chicago_sentence_15

The Chicago area has one of the highest gross domestic products (GDP) in the world, generating $689 billion in 2018. Chicago_sentence_16

The economy of Chicago is diverse, with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce. Chicago_sentence_17

Chicago is home to several Fortune 500 companies, including Allstate, Boeing, Caterpillar, Exelon, Kraft Heinz, McDonald's, Mondelez International, Sears, United Airlines Holdings, US Foods, and Walgreens. Chicago_sentence_18

Chicago's 58 million tourist visitors in 2018 set a new record, and Chicago has been voted the best large city in the U.S. for four years in a row by Condé Nast Traveler. Chicago_sentence_19

The city was ranked first in the 2018 Time Out City Life Index, a global urban quality of life survey of 15,000 people in 32 cities. Chicago_sentence_20

Landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis (Sears) Tower, Grant Park, the Museum of Science and Industry, and Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicago_sentence_21

Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, literature, film, theatre, comedy (especially improvisational comedy), food, and music, particularly jazz, blues, soul, hip-hop, gospel, and electronic dance music including house music. Chicago_sentence_22

Of the area's many colleges and universities, the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, and the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities. Chicago_sentence_23

Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues, including two Major League Baseball teams. Chicago_sentence_24

Etymology and nicknames Chicago_section_0

Main article: List of nicknames for Chicago Chicago_sentence_25

The name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the indigenous Miami-Illinois word shikaakwa for a wild relative of the onion; it is known to botanists as Allium tricoccum and known more commonly as "ramps". Chicago_sentence_26

The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir. Chicago_sentence_27

Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the eponymous wild "garlic" grew abundantly in the area. Chicago_sentence_28

According to his diary of late September 1687: Chicago_sentence_29

The city has had several nicknames throughout its history, such as the Windy City, Chi-Town, Second City, and City of the Big Shoulders. Chicago_sentence_30

History Chicago_section_1

Further information: History of Chicago and Origin of Chicago's "Windy City" nickname Chicago_sentence_31

See also: Timeline of Chicago history Chicago_sentence_32

Beginnings Chicago_section_2

In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by the Potawatomi, a Native American tribe who had succeeded the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples in this region. Chicago_sentence_33

The first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was explorer Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Chicago_sentence_34

Du Sable was of African and French descent and arrived in the 1780s. Chicago_sentence_35

He is commonly known as the "Founder of Chicago". Chicago_sentence_36

In 1795, following the victory of the new United States in the Northwest Indian War, an area that was to be part of Chicago was turned over to the US for a military post by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville. Chicago_sentence_37

In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn. Chicago_sentence_38

This was destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn by the British and their native allies. Chicago_sentence_39

It was later rebuilt. Chicago_sentence_40

After the War of 1812, the Ottawa, Ojibwe, and Potawatomi tribes ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis. Chicago_sentence_41

The Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833 and sent west of the Mississippi River during Indian Removal. Chicago_sentence_42

19th century Chicago_section_3

On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Chicago_sentence_43

Within seven years it grew to more than 6,000 people. Chicago_sentence_44

On June 15, 1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as Receiver of Public Monies. Chicago_sentence_45

The City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837, and for several decades was the world's fastest-growing city. Chicago_sentence_46

As the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States. Chicago_sentence_47

Chicago's first railway, Galena and Chicago Union Railroad, and the Illinois and Michigan Canal opened in 1848. Chicago_sentence_48

The canal allowed steamboats and sailing ships on the Great Lakes to connect to the Mississippi River. Chicago_sentence_49

A flourishing economy brought residents from rural communities and immigrants from abroad. Chicago_sentence_50

Manufacturing and retail and finance sectors became dominant, influencing the American economy. Chicago_sentence_51

The Chicago Board of Trade (established 1848) listed the first-ever standardized "exchange-traded" forward contracts, which were called futures contracts. Chicago_sentence_52

In the 1850s, Chicago gained national political prominence as the home of Senator Stephen Douglas, the champion of the Kansas–Nebraska Act and the "popular sovereignty" approach to the issue of the spread of slavery. Chicago_sentence_53

These issues also helped propel another Illinoisan, Abraham Lincoln, to the national stage. Chicago_sentence_54

Lincoln was nominated in Chicago for US president at the 1860 Republican National Convention, which was held in Chicago in a temporary building called the Wigwam. Chicago_sentence_55

He defeated Douglas in the general election, and this set the stage for the American Civil War. Chicago_sentence_56

To accommodate rapid population growth and demand for better sanitation, the city improved its infrastructure. Chicago_sentence_57

In February 1856, Chicago's Common Council approved Chesbrough's plan to build the United States' first comprehensive sewerage system. Chicago_sentence_58

The project raised much of central Chicago to a new grade. Chicago_sentence_59

While elevating Chicago, and at first improving the city's health, the untreated sewage and industrial waste now flowed into the Chicago River, and subsequently into Lake Michigan, polluting the city's primary freshwater source. Chicago_sentence_60

The city responded by tunneling two miles (3.2 km) out into Lake Michigan to newly built water cribs. Chicago_sentence_61

In 1900, the problem of sewage contamination was largely resolved when the city completed a major engineering feat. Chicago_sentence_62

It reversed the flow of the Chicago River so that the water flowed away from Lake Michigan rather than into it. Chicago_sentence_63

This project began with the construction and improvement of the Illinois and Michigan Canal, and was completed with the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal that connects to the Illinois River, which flows into the Mississippi River. Chicago_sentence_64

In 1871, the Great Chicago Fire destroyed an area about 4 miles (6.4 km) long and 1-mile (1.6 km) wide, a large section of the city at the time. Chicago_sentence_65

Much of the city, including railroads and stockyards, survived intact, and from the ruins of the previous wooden structures arose more modern constructions of steel and stone. Chicago_sentence_66

These set a precedent for worldwide construction. Chicago_sentence_67

During its rebuilding period, Chicago constructed the world's first skyscraper in 1885, using steel-skeleton construction. Chicago_sentence_68

The city has grown significantly in size and population by incorporating many neighboring townships between 1851 and 1920, with the largest annexation happening in 1889, with five townships joining the city, including the Hyde Park Township, which now comprises most of the South Side of Chicago and the far southeast of Chicago, and the Jefferson Township, which now makes up most of Chicago's Northwest Side. Chicago_sentence_69

The desire to join the city was driven by municipal services that the city could provide its residents. Chicago_sentence_70

Chicago's flourishing economy attracted huge numbers of new immigrants from Europe and migrants from the Eastern United States. Chicago_sentence_71

Of the total population in 1900, more than 77% were either foreign-born or born in the United States of foreign parentage. Chicago_sentence_72

Germans, Irish, Poles, Swedes and Czechs made up nearly two-thirds of the foreign-born population (by 1900, whites were 98.1% of the city's population). Chicago_sentence_73

Labor conflicts followed the industrial boom and the rapid expansion of the labor pool, including the Haymarket affair on May 4, 1886, and in 1894 the Pullman Strike. Chicago_sentence_74

Anarchist and socialist groups played prominent roles in creating very large and highly organized labor actions. Chicago_sentence_75

Concern for social problems among Chicago's immigrant poor led Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr to found Hull House in 1889. Chicago_sentence_76

Programs that were developed there became a model for the new field of social work. Chicago_sentence_77

During the 1870s and 1880s, Chicago attained national stature as the leader in the movement to improve public health. Chicago_sentence_78

City, and later, state laws that upgraded standards for the medical profession and fought urban epidemics of cholera, smallpox, and yellow fever were both passed and enforced. Chicago_sentence_79

These laws became templates for public health reform in other cities and states. Chicago_sentence_80

The city established many large, well-landscaped municipal parks, which also included public sanitation facilities. Chicago_sentence_81

The chief advocate for improving public health in Chicago was Dr. Chicago_sentence_82

John H. Rauch, M.D. Rauch established a plan for Chicago's park system in 1866. Chicago_sentence_83

He created Lincoln Park by closing a cemetery filled with shallow graves, and in 1867, in response to an outbreak of cholera he helped establish a new Chicago Board of Health. Chicago_sentence_84

Ten years later, he became the secretary and then the president of the first Illinois State Board of Health, which carried out most of its activities in Chicago. Chicago_sentence_85

In the 1800s, Chicago became the nation's railroad hub, and by 1910 over 20 railroads operated passenger service out of six different downtown terminals. Chicago_sentence_86

In 1883, Chicago's railway managers needed a general time convention, so they developed the standardized system of North American time zones. Chicago_sentence_87

This system for telling time spread throughout the continent. Chicago_sentence_88

In 1893, Chicago hosted the World's Columbian Exposition on former marshland at the present location of Jackson Park. Chicago_sentence_89

The Exposition drew 27.5 million visitors, and is considered the most influential world's fair in history. Chicago_sentence_90

The University of Chicago, formerly at another location, moved to the same South Side location in 1892. Chicago_sentence_91

The term "midway" for a fair or carnival referred originally to the Midway Plaisance, a strip of park land that still runs through the University of Chicago campus and connects the Washington and Jackson Parks. Chicago_sentence_92

20th and 21st centuries Chicago_section_4

1900 to 1939 Chicago_section_5

During World War I and the 1920s there was a major expansion in industry. Chicago_sentence_93

The availability of jobs attracted African Americans from the Southern United States. Chicago_sentence_94

Between 1910 and 1930, the African American population of Chicago increased dramatically, from 44,103 to 233,903. Chicago_sentence_95

This Great Migration had an immense cultural impact, called the Chicago Black Renaissance, part of the New Negro Movement, in art, literature, and music. Chicago_sentence_96

Continuing racial tensions and violence, such as the Chicago Race Riot of 1919, also occurred. Chicago_sentence_97

The ratification of the 18th amendment to the Constitution in 1919 made the production and sale (including exportation) of alcoholic beverages illegal in the United States. Chicago_sentence_98

This ushered in the beginning of what is known as the Gangster Era, a time that roughly spans from 1919 until 1933 when Prohibition was repealed. Chicago_sentence_99

The 1920s saw gangsters, including Al Capone, Dion O'Banion, Bugs Moran and Tony Accardo battle law enforcement and each other on the streets of Chicago during the Prohibition era. Chicago_sentence_100

Chicago was the location of the infamous St. Chicago_sentence_101

Valentine's Day Massacre in 1929, when Al Capone sent men to gun down members of a rival gang, North Side, led by Bugs Moran. Chicago_sentence_102

Chicago was the first American city to have a homosexual-rights organization. Chicago_sentence_103

The organization, formed in 1924, was called the Society for Human Rights. Chicago_sentence_104

It produced the first American publication for homosexuals, Friendship and Freedom. Chicago_sentence_105

Police and political pressure caused the organization to disband. Chicago_sentence_106

The Great Depression brought unprecedented suffering to Chicago, in no small part due to the city's heavy reliance on heavy industry. Chicago_sentence_107

Notably, industrial areas on the south side and neighborhoods lining both branches of the Chicago River were devastated; by 1933 over 50% of industrial jobs in the city had been lost, and unemployment rates amongst blacks and Mexicans in the city were over 40%. Chicago_sentence_108

The Republican political machine in Chicago was utterly destroyed by the economic crisis, and every mayor since 1931 has been a Democrat. Chicago_sentence_109

From 1928 to 1933, the city witnessed a tax revolt, and the city was unable to meet payroll or provide relief efforts. Chicago_sentence_110

Unemployed workers, relief recipients, and unpaid schoolteachers held huge demonstrations during the early years of the Great Depression. Chicago_sentence_111

The fiscal crisis was resolved by 1933, and at the same time, federal relief funding began to flow into Chicago and enabled the city to complete construction of Lake Shore Drive, landscape numerous parks, construct 30 new schools, and build a thoroughly modernized State Street Subway. Chicago_sentence_112

Chicago was also a hotbed of labor activism, with Unemployed Councils contributing heavily in the early depression to create solidarity for the poor and demand relief, these organizations were created by socialist and communist groups. Chicago_sentence_113

By 1935 the Workers Alliance of America begun organizing the poor, workers, the unemployed. Chicago_sentence_114

In the spring of 1937 Republic Steel Works witnessed the Memorial Day massacre of 1937 in the neighborhood of East Side. Chicago_sentence_115

In 1933, Chicago Mayor Anton Cermak was fatally wounded in Miami, Florida, during a failed assassination attempt on President-elect Franklin D. Roosevelt. Chicago_sentence_116

In 1933 and 1934, the city celebrated its centennial by hosting the Century of Progress International Exposition World's Fair. Chicago_sentence_117

The theme of the fair was technological innovation over the century since Chicago's founding. Chicago_sentence_118

1940 to 1979 Chicago_section_6

When general prosperity returned in 1940, Chicago had an entrenched Democratic machine, a fully solvent city government, and a population that had enthusiastically shared mass culture and mass movements. Chicago_sentence_119

Over one-third of the workers in Chicago's manufacturing sector were unionized. Chicago_sentence_120

During World War II, the city of Chicago alone produced more steel than the United Kingdom every year from 1939 - 1945, and more than Nazi Germany from 1943 - 1945. Chicago_sentence_121

The city's diversified industrial base made it second only to Detroit in the value—$24 billion—of war goods produced. Chicago_sentence_122

Over 1,400 companies produced everything from field rations to parachutes to torpedoes, while new aircraft plants employed 100,000 in the construction of engines, aluminum sheeting, bombsights, and other components. Chicago_sentence_123

The Great Migration, which had been on pause due to the Depression, resumed at an even faster pace in the second wave, as hundreds of thousands of blacks from the South arrived in the city to work in the steel mills, railroads, and shipping yards. Chicago_sentence_124

On December 2, 1942, physicist Enrico Fermi conducted the world's first controlled nuclear reaction at the University of Chicago as part of the top-secret Manhattan Project. Chicago_sentence_125

This led to the creation of the atomic bomb by the United States, which it used in World War II in 1945. Chicago_sentence_126

Mayor Richard J. Daley, a Democrat, was elected in 1955, in the era of machine politics. Chicago_sentence_127

In 1956, the city conducted its last major expansion when it annexed the land under O'Hare airport, including a small portion of DuPage County. Chicago_sentence_128

By the 1960s, white residents in several neighborhoods left the city for the suburban areas – in many American cities, a process known as white flight – as Blacks continued to move beyond the Black Belt. Chicago_sentence_129

While home loan discriminatory redlining against blacks continued, the real estate industry practiced what became known as blockbusting, completely changing the racial composition of whole neighborhoods. Chicago_sentence_130

Structural changes in industry, such as globalization and job outsourcing, caused heavy job losses for lower-skilled workers. Chicago_sentence_131

At its peak during the 1960s, some 250,000 workers were employed in the steel industry in Chicago, but the steel crisis of the 1970s and 1980s reduced this number to just 28,000 in 2015. Chicago_sentence_132

In 1966, Martin Luther King Jr. and Albert Raby led the Chicago Freedom Movement, which culminated in agreements between Mayor Richard J. Daley and the movement leaders. Chicago_sentence_133

Two years later, the city hosted the tumultuous 1968 Democratic National Convention, which featured physical confrontations both inside and outside the convention hall, with anti-war protesters, journalists and bystanders being beaten by police. Chicago_sentence_134

Major construction projects, including the Sears Tower (now known as the Willis Tower, which in 1974 became the world's tallest building), University of Illinois at Chicago, McCormick Place, and O'Hare International Airport, were undertaken during Richard J. Daley's tenure. Chicago_sentence_135

In 1979, Jane Byrne, the city's first female mayor, was elected. Chicago_sentence_136

She was notable for temporarily moving into the crime-ridden Cabrini-Green housing project and for leading Chicago's school system out of a financial crisis. Chicago_sentence_137

1980 to present Chicago_section_7

In 1983, Harold Washington became the first black mayor of Chicago. Chicago_sentence_138

Washington's first term in office directed attention to poor and previously neglected minority neighborhoods. Chicago_sentence_139

He was re‑elected in 1987 but died of a heart attack soon after. Chicago_sentence_140

Washington was succeeded by 6th ward Alderman Eugene Sawyer, who was elected by the Chicago City Council and served until a special election. Chicago_sentence_141

Richard M. Daley, son of Richard J. Daley, was elected in 1989. Chicago_sentence_142

His accomplishments included improvements to parks and creating incentives for sustainable development, as well as closing Meigs Field in the middle of the night and destroying the runways. Chicago_sentence_143

After successfully running for re-election five times, and becoming Chicago's longest-serving mayor, Richard M. Daley declined to run for a seventh term. Chicago_sentence_144

In 1992, a construction accident near the Kinzie Street Bridge produced a breach connecting the Chicago River to a tunnel below, which was part of an abandoned freight tunnel system extending throughout the downtown Loop district. Chicago_sentence_145

The tunnels filled with 250 million US gallons (1,000,000 m) of water, affecting buildings throughout the district and forcing a shutdown of electrical power. Chicago_sentence_146

The area was shut down for three days and some buildings did not reopen for weeks; losses were estimated at $1.95 billion. Chicago_sentence_147

On February 23, 2011, former Illinois Congressman and White House Chief of Staff Rahm Emanuel won the mayoral election. Chicago_sentence_148

Emanuel was sworn in as mayor on May 16, 2011, and won re-election in 2015. Chicago_sentence_149

Lori Lightfoot, the city's first African American woman mayor and its first openly LGBTQ Mayor, was elected to succeed Emanuel as mayor in 2019. Chicago_sentence_150

All three city-wide elective offices were held by women for the first time in Chicago history: in addition to Lightfoot, the City Clerk was Anna Valencia and City Treasurer, Melissa Conyears-Ervin. Chicago_sentence_151

Geography Chicago_section_8

Main article: Geography of Chicago Chicago_sentence_152

Topography Chicago_section_9

Chicago is located in northeastern Illinois on the southwestern shores of freshwater Lake Michigan. Chicago_sentence_153

It is the principal city in the Chicago metropolitan area, situated in both the Midwestern United States and the Great Lakes region. Chicago_sentence_154

The city rests on a continental divide at the site of the Chicago Portage, connecting the Mississippi River and the Great Lakes watersheds. Chicago_sentence_155

In addition to it lying beside Lake Michigan, two rivers—the Chicago River in downtown and the Calumet River in the industrial far South Side—flow either entirely or partially through the city. Chicago_sentence_156

Chicago's history and economy are closely tied to its proximity to Lake Michigan. Chicago_sentence_157

While the Chicago River historically handled much of the region's waterborne cargo, today's huge lake freighters use the city's Lake Calumet Harbor on the South Side. Chicago_sentence_158

The lake also provides another positive effect: moderating Chicago's climate, making waterfront neighborhoods slightly warmer in winter and cooler in summer. Chicago_sentence_159

When Chicago was founded in 1837, most of the early building was around the mouth of the Chicago River, as can be seen on a map of the city's original 58 blocks. Chicago_sentence_160

The overall grade of the city's central, built-up areas is relatively consistent with the natural flatness of its overall natural geography, generally exhibiting only slight differentiation otherwise. Chicago_sentence_161

The average land elevation is 579 ft (176.5 m) above sea level. Chicago_sentence_162

While measurements vary somewhat, the lowest points are along the lake shore at 578 ft (176.2 m), while the highest point, at 672 ft (205 m), is the morainal ridge of Blue Island in the city's far south side. Chicago_sentence_163

While the Chicago Loop is the central business district, Chicago is also a city of neighborhoods. Chicago_sentence_164

Lake Shore Drive runs adjacent to a large portion of Chicago's waterfront. Chicago_sentence_165

Some of the parks along the waterfront include Lincoln Park, Grant Park, Burnham Park, and Jackson Park. Chicago_sentence_166

There are 24 public beaches across 26 miles (42 km) of the waterfront. Chicago_sentence_167

Landfill extends into portions of the lake providing space for Navy Pier, Northerly Island, the Museum Campus, and large portions of the McCormick Place Convention Center. Chicago_sentence_168

Most of the city's high-rise commercial and residential buildings are close to the waterfront. Chicago_sentence_169

An informal name for the entire Chicago metropolitan area is "Chicagoland", which generally means the city and all its suburbs. Chicago_sentence_170

The Chicago Tribune, which coined the term, includes the city of Chicago, the rest of Cook County, and eight nearby Illinois counties: Lake, McHenry, DuPage, Kane, Kendall, Grundy, Will and Kankakee, and three counties in Indiana: Lake, Porter and LaPorte. Chicago_sentence_171

The Illinois Department of Tourism defines Chicagoland as Cook County without the city of Chicago, and only Lake, DuPage, Kane, and Will counties. Chicago_sentence_172

The Chicagoland Chamber of Commerce defines it as all of Cook and DuPage, Kane, Lake, McHenry, and Will counties. Chicago_sentence_173

Communities Chicago_section_10

See also: Community areas in Chicago and Neighborhoods in Chicago Chicago_sentence_174

Major sections of the city include the central business district, called The Loop, and the North, South, and West Sides. Chicago_sentence_175

The three sides of the city are represented on the Flag of Chicago by three horizontal white stripes. Chicago_sentence_176

The North Side is the most-densely-populated residential section of the city, and many high-rises are located on this side of the city along the lakefront. Chicago_sentence_177

The South Side is the largest section of the city, encompassing roughly 60% of the city's land area. Chicago_sentence_178

The South Side contains most of the facilities of the Port of Chicago. Chicago_sentence_179

In the late-1920s, sociologists at the University of Chicago subdivided the city into 77 distinct community areas, which can further be subdivided into over 200 informally defined neighborhoods. Chicago_sentence_180

Streetscape Chicago_section_11

Main article: Roads and expressways in Chicago Chicago_sentence_181

Chicago's streets were laid out in a street grid that grew from the city's original townsite plot, which was bounded by Lake Michigan on the east, North Avenue on the north, Wood Street on the west, and 22nd Street on the south. Chicago_sentence_182

Streets following the Public Land Survey System section lines later became arterial streets in outlying sections. Chicago_sentence_183

As new additions to the city were platted, city ordinance required them to be laid out with eight streets to the mile in one direction and sixteen in the other direction (about one street per 200 meters in one direction and one street per 100 meters in the other direction). Chicago_sentence_184

The grid's regularity provided an efficient means of developing new real estate property. Chicago_sentence_185

A scattering of diagonal streets, many of them originally Native American trails, also cross the city (Elston, Milwaukee, Ogden, Lincoln, etc.). Chicago_sentence_186

Many additional diagonal streets were recommended in the Plan of Chicago, but only the extension of Ogden Avenue was ever constructed. Chicago_sentence_187

In 2016, Chicago was ranked the sixth-most walkable large city in the United States. Chicago_sentence_188

Many of the city's residential streets have a wide patch of grass and/or trees between the street and the sidewalk itself. Chicago_sentence_189

This helps to keep pedestrians on the sidewalk further away from the street traffic. Chicago_sentence_190

Chicago's Western Avenue is the longest continuous urban street in the world. Chicago_sentence_191

Other notable streets include Michigan Avenue, State Street, Oak, Rush, Clark Street, and Belmont Avenue. Chicago_sentence_192

The City Beautiful movement inspired Chicago's boulevards and parkways. Chicago_sentence_193

Architecture Chicago_section_12

Further information: Architecture of Chicago, List of tallest buildings in Chicago, and List of Chicago Landmarks Chicago_sentence_194

The destruction caused by the Great Chicago Fire led to the largest building boom in the history of the nation. Chicago_sentence_195

In 1885, the first steel-framed high-rise building, the Home Insurance Building, rose in the city as Chicago ushered in the skyscraper era, which would then be followed by many other cities around the world. Chicago_sentence_196

Today, Chicago's skyline is among the world's tallest and densest. Chicago_sentence_197

Some of the United States' tallest towers are located in Chicago; Willis Tower (formerly Sears Tower) is the second tallest building in the Western Hemisphere after One World Trade Center, and Trump International Hotel and Tower is the third tallest in the country. Chicago_sentence_198

The Loop's historic buildings include the Chicago Board of Trade Building, the Fine Arts Building, 35 East Wacker, and the Chicago Building, 860-880 Lake Shore Drive Apartments by Mies van der Rohe. Chicago_sentence_199

Many other architects have left their impression on the Chicago skyline such as Daniel Burnham, Louis Sullivan, Charles B. Atwood, John Root, and Helmut Jahn. Chicago_sentence_200

The Merchandise Mart, once first on the list of largest buildings in the world, currently listed as 44th-largest (as of 9 September 2013), had its own zip code until 2008, and stands near the junction of the North and South branches of the Chicago River. Chicago_sentence_201

Presently, the four tallest buildings in the city are Willis Tower (formerly the Sears Tower, also a building with its own zip code), Trump International Hotel and Tower, the Aon Center (previously the Standard Oil Building), and the John Hancock Center. Chicago_sentence_202

Industrial districts, such as some areas on the South Side, the areas along the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, and the Northwest Indiana area are clustered. Chicago_sentence_203

Chicago gave its name to the Chicago School and was home to the Prairie School, two movements in architecture. Chicago_sentence_204

Multiple kinds and scales of houses, townhouses, condominiums, and apartment buildings can be found throughout Chicago. Chicago_sentence_205

Large swaths of the city's residential areas away from the lake are characterized by brick bungalows built from the early 20th century through the end of World War II. Chicago_sentence_206

Chicago is also a prominent center of the Polish Cathedral style of church architecture. Chicago_sentence_207

The Chicago suburb of Oak Park was home to famous architect Frank Lloyd Wright, who had designed The Robie House located near the University of Chicago. Chicago_sentence_208

A popular tourist activity is to take an architecture boat tour along the Chicago River. Chicago_sentence_209

Monuments and public art Chicago_section_13

Chicago is famous for its outdoor public art with donors establishing funding for such art as far back as Benjamin Ferguson's 1905 trust. Chicago_sentence_210

A number of Chicago's public art works are by modern figurative artists. Chicago_sentence_211

Among these are Chagall's Four Seasons; the Chicago Picasso; Miro's Chicago; Calder's Flamingo; Oldenburg's Batcolumn; Moore's Large Interior Form, 1953-54, Man Enters the Cosmos and Nuclear Energy; Dubuffet's Monument with Standing Beast, Abakanowicz's Agora; and, Anish Kapoor's Cloud Gate which has become an icon of the city. Chicago_sentence_212

Some events which shaped the city's history have also been memorialized by art works, including the Great Northern Migration (Saar) and the centennial of statehood for Illinois. Chicago_sentence_213

Finally, two fountains near the Loop also function as monumental works of art: Plensa's Crown Fountain as well as Burnham and Bennett's Buckingham Fountain. Chicago_sentence_214

More representational and portrait statuary includes a number of works by Lorado Taft (Fountain of Time, The Crusader, Eternal Silence, and the Heald Square Monument completed by Crunelle), French's Statue of the Republic, Edward Kemys's Lions, Saint-Gaudens's Abraham Lincoln: The Man (a.k.a. Chicago_sentence_215

Standing Lincoln) and Abraham Lincoln: The Head of State (a.k.a. Chicago_sentence_216

Seated Lincoln), Brioschi's Christopher Columbus, Meštrović's The Bowman and The Spearman, Dallin's Signal of Peace, Fairbanks's The Chicago Lincoln, Boyle's The Alarm, Polasek's memorial to Masaryk, memorials along Solidarity Promenade to Kościuszko, Havliček and Copernicus by Chodzinski, Strachovský, and Thorvaldsen, a memorial to General Logan by Saint-Gaudens, and Kearney's Moose (W-02-03). Chicago_sentence_217

A number of statues also honor recent local heroes such as Michael Jordan (by Amrany and Rotblatt-Amrany), Stan Mikita, and Bobby Hull outside of the United Center; Harry Caray (by Amrany and Cella) outside Wrigley field, Jack Brickhouse (by McKenna) next to the WGN studios, and Irv Kupcinet at the Wabash Avenue Bridge. Chicago_sentence_218

There are preliminary plans to erect a 1:1‑scale replica of Wacław Szymanowski's Art Nouveau statue of Frédéric Chopin found in Warsaw's Royal Baths along Chicago's lakefront in addition to a different sculpture commemorating the artist in Chopin Park for the 200th anniversary of Frédéric Chopin's birth. Chicago_sentence_219

Climate Chicago_section_14

Main article: Climate of Chicago Chicago_sentence_220

The city lies within the typical hot-summer humid continental climate (Köppen: Dfa), and experiences four distinct seasons. Chicago_sentence_221

Summers are hot and humid, with frequent heat waves. Chicago_sentence_222

The July daily average temperature is 75.9 °F (24.4 °C), with afternoon temperatures peaking at 85.0 °F (29.4 °C). Chicago_sentence_223

In a normal summer, temperatures reach at least 90 °F (32 °C) on as many as 23 days, with lakefront locations staying cooler when winds blow off the lake. Chicago_sentence_224

Winters are relatively cold and snowy, although the city typically sees less snow and rain in winter than that experienced in the eastern Great Lakes region; blizzards do occur, as in 2011. Chicago_sentence_225

There are many sunny but cold days in winter. Chicago_sentence_226

The normal winter high from December through March is about 36 °F (2 °C), with January and February being the coldest months; a polar vortex in January 2019 nearly broke the city's cold record of −27 °F (−33 °C), which was set on January 20, 1985. Chicago_sentence_227

Spring and autumn are mild, short seasons, typically with low humidity. Chicago_sentence_228

Dew point temperatures in the summer range from an average of 55.7 °F (13.2 °C) in June to 61.7 °F (16.5 °C) in July, but can reach nearly 80 °F (27 °C), such as during the July 2019 heat wave. Chicago_sentence_229

The city lies within USDA plant hardiness zone 6a, transitioning to 5b in the suburbs. Chicago_sentence_230

According to the National Weather Service, Chicago's highest official temperature reading of 105 °F (41 °C) was recorded on July 24, 1934, although Midway Airport reached 109 °F (43 °C) one day prior and recorded a heat index of 125 °F (52 °C) during the 1995 heatwave. Chicago_sentence_231

The lowest official temperature of −27 °F (−33 °C) was recorded on January 20, 1985, at O'Hare Airport. Chicago_sentence_232

Most of the city's rainfall is brought by thunderstorms, averaging 38 a year. Chicago_sentence_233

The region is also prone to severe thunderstorms during the spring and summer which can produce large hail, damaging winds, and occasionally tornadoes. Chicago_sentence_234

Like other major cities, Chicago experiences an urban heat island, making the city and its suburbs milder than surrounding rural areas, especially at night and in winter. Chicago_sentence_235

The proximity to Lake Michigan tends to keep the Chicago lakefront somewhat cooler in summer and less brutally cold in winter than inland parts of the city and suburbs away from the lake. Chicago_sentence_236

Northeast winds from wintertime cyclones departing south of the region sometimes bring the city lake-effect snow. Chicago_sentence_237

Chicago_table_general_1

Climate data for ChicagoChicago_header_cell_1_0_0
MonthChicago_header_cell_1_1_0 JanChicago_header_cell_1_1_1 FebChicago_header_cell_1_1_2 MarChicago_header_cell_1_1_3 AprChicago_header_cell_1_1_4 MayChicago_header_cell_1_1_5 JunChicago_header_cell_1_1_6 JulChicago_header_cell_1_1_7 AugChicago_header_cell_1_1_8 SepChicago_header_cell_1_1_9 OctChicago_header_cell_1_1_10 NovChicago_header_cell_1_1_11 DecChicago_header_cell_1_1_12 YearChicago_header_cell_1_1_13
Mean daily daylight hoursChicago_header_cell_1_2_0 10.0Chicago_cell_1_2_1 11.0Chicago_cell_1_2_2 12.0Chicago_cell_1_2_3 13.0Chicago_cell_1_2_4 15.0Chicago_cell_1_2_5 15.0Chicago_cell_1_2_6 15.0Chicago_cell_1_2_7 14.0Chicago_cell_1_2_8 12.0Chicago_cell_1_2_9 11.0Chicago_cell_1_2_10 10.0Chicago_cell_1_2_11 9.0Chicago_cell_1_2_12 12.2Chicago_cell_1_2_13
Source: Weather AtlasChicago_header_cell_1_3_0

Time zone Chicago_section_15

As in the rest of the state of Illinois, Chicago forms part of the Central Time Zone. Chicago_sentence_238

The border with the Eastern Time Zone is located a short distance to the east, used in Michigan and certain parts of Indiana. Chicago_sentence_239

Demographics Chicago_section_16

Main article: Demographics of Chicago Chicago_sentence_240

During its first hundred years, Chicago was one of the fastest-growing cities in the world. Chicago_sentence_241

When founded in 1833, fewer than 200 people had settled on what was then the American frontier. Chicago_sentence_242

By the time of its first census, seven years later, the population had reached over 4,000. Chicago_sentence_243

In the forty years from 1850 to 1890, the city's population grew from slightly under 30,000 to over 1 million. Chicago_sentence_244

At the end of the 19th century, Chicago was the fifth-largest city in the world, and the largest of the cities that did not exist at the dawn of the century. Chicago_sentence_245

Within sixty years of the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, the population went from about 300,000 to over 3 million, and reached its highest ever recorded population of 3.6 million for the 1950 census. Chicago_sentence_246

From the last two decades of the 19th century, Chicago was the destination of waves of immigrants from Ireland, Southern, Central and Eastern Europe, including Italians, Jews, Poles, Greeks, Lithuanians, Bulgarians, Albanians, Romanians, Turkish, Croatians, Serbs, Bosnians, Montenegrins and Czechs. Chicago_sentence_247

To these ethnic groups, the basis of the city's industrial working class, were added an additional influx of African Americans from the American South—with Chicago's black population doubling between 1910 and 1920 and doubling again between 1920 and 1930. Chicago_sentence_248

In the 1920s and 1930s, the great majority of African Americans moving to Chicago settled in a so‑called "Black Belt" on the city's South Side. Chicago_sentence_249

A large number of blacks also settled on the West Side. Chicago_sentence_250

By 1930, two-thirds of Chicago's black population lived in sections of the city which were 90% black in racial composition. Chicago_sentence_251

Chicago's South Side emerged as United States second-largest urban black concentration, following New York's Harlem. Chicago_sentence_252

Today, Chicago's South Side and the adjoining south suburbs constitute the largest black majority region in the entire United States. Chicago_sentence_253

Chicago's population declined in the latter half of the 20th century, from over 3.6 million in 1950 down to under 2.7 million by 2010. Chicago_sentence_254

By the time of the official census count in 1990, it was overtaken by Los Angeles as the United States' second largest city. Chicago_sentence_255

The city has seen a rise in population for the 2000 census and is expected to have an increase for the 2020 census. Chicago_sentence_256

Per U.S. Census estimates as of July 2019, Chicago's largest racial or ethnic group is non-Hispanic White at 32.8% of the population, Blacks at 30.1% and the Hispanic population at 29.0% of the population Chicago_sentence_257

Chicago_table_general_2

Racial compositionChicago_header_cell_2_0_0 2010Chicago_header_cell_2_0_1 1990Chicago_header_cell_2_0_2 1970Chicago_header_cell_2_0_3 1940Chicago_header_cell_2_0_4
WhiteChicago_cell_2_1_0 44.9%Chicago_cell_2_1_1 45.4%Chicago_cell_2_1_2 65.6%Chicago_cell_2_1_3 91.7%Chicago_cell_2_1_4
—Non-HispanicChicago_cell_2_2_0 31.7%Chicago_cell_2_2_1 37.9%Chicago_cell_2_2_2 59.0%Chicago_cell_2_2_3 91.2%Chicago_cell_2_2_4
Black or African AmericanChicago_cell_2_3_0 32.9%Chicago_cell_2_3_1 39.1%Chicago_cell_2_3_2 32.7%Chicago_cell_2_3_3 8.2%Chicago_cell_2_3_4
Hispanic or Latino (of any race)Chicago_cell_2_4_0 28.9%Chicago_cell_2_4_1 19.6%Chicago_cell_2_4_2 7.4%Chicago_cell_2_4_3 0.5%Chicago_cell_2_4_4
AsianChicago_cell_2_5_0 5.5%Chicago_cell_2_5_1 3.7%Chicago_cell_2_5_2 0.9%Chicago_cell_2_5_3 0.1%Chicago_cell_2_5_4

As of the 2010 census, there were 2,695,598 people with 1,045,560 households living in Chicago. Chicago_sentence_258

More than half the population of the state of Illinois lives in the Chicago metropolitan area. Chicago_sentence_259

Chicago is one of the United States' most densely populated major cities, and the largest city in the Great Lakes Megalopolis. Chicago_sentence_260

The racial composition of the city was: Chicago_sentence_261

Chicago_unordered_list_0

Chicago has a Hispanic or Latino population of 28.9%. Chicago_sentence_262

(Its members may belong to any race; 21.4% Mexican, 3.8% Puerto Rican, 0.7% Guatemalan, 0.6% Ecuadorian, 0.3% Cuban, 0.3% Colombian, 0.2% Honduran, 0.2% Salvadoran, 0.2% Peruvian). Chicago_sentence_263

Chicago has the third-largest LGBT population in the United States. Chicago_sentence_264

In 2015, roughly 4% of the population identified as LGBT. Chicago_sentence_265

Since the 2013 legalization of same-sex marriage in Illinois, over 10,000 same-sex couples have wed in Cook County, a majority in Chicago. Chicago_sentence_266

Chicago became a "de jure" sanctuary city in 2012 when Mayor Rahm Emanuel and the City Council passed the Welcoming City Ordinance. Chicago_sentence_267

According to the U.S. Census Bureau's American Community Survey data estimates for 2008–2012, the median income for a household in the city was $47,408, and the median income for a family was $54,188. Chicago_sentence_268

Male full-time workers had a median income of $47,074 versus $42,063 for females. Chicago_sentence_269

About 18.3% of families and 22.1% of the population lived below the poverty line. Chicago_sentence_270

In 2018, Chicago ranked 7th globally for the highest number of ultra-high-net-worth residents with roughly 3,300 residents worth more than $30 million. Chicago_sentence_271

According to the 2008–2012 American Community Survey, the ancestral groups having 10,000 or more persons in Chicago were: Chicago_sentence_272

Persons identifying themselves as "Other groups" were classified at 1.72 million, and unclassified or not reported were approximately 153,000. Chicago_sentence_273

Religion Chicago_section_17

The majority of Chicago's population have been and remain predominantly Christian, being the 4th-most religious metropolis in the United States after Dallas, Atlanta and Houston. Chicago_sentence_274

Roman Catholicism and Protestantism are the largest branch (34% and 35% respectively), followed by Eastern Orthodoxy and Jehovah's Witnesses with 1% each. Chicago_sentence_275

Chicago also has a sizable non-Christian population. Chicago_sentence_276

Non-Christian groups include Irreligious (22%), Judaism (3%), Islam (2%), Buddhism (1%) and Hinduism (1%). Chicago_sentence_277

Chicago is the headquarters of several religious denominations, including the Evangelical Covenant Church and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America. Chicago_sentence_278

It is the seat of several dioceses. Chicago_sentence_279

The Fourth Presbyterian Church is one of the largest Presbyterian congregations in the United States based on memberships. Chicago_sentence_280

since the 20th century Chicago has also been the headquarters of the Assyrian Church of the East. Chicago_sentence_281

In 2014 the Catholic Church was the largest individual Christian domination (34%), with the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Chicago being the largest Catholic jurisdiction. Chicago_sentence_282

Evangelical Protestantism form the largest theological Protestant branch (16%), followed by Mainline Protestants (11%), and historically Black churches (8%). Chicago_sentence_283

Among denominational Protestant branches, Baptists formed the largest group in Chicago (10%); followed by Nondenominational (5%); Lutherans (4%); and Pentecostals (3%). Chicago_sentence_284

Non-Christian faiths accounted for 7% of the religious population in 2014. Chicago_sentence_285

Judaism has 261,000 adherents which is 3% of the population being the second largest religion. Chicago_sentence_286

The first two Parliament of the World's Religions in 1893 and 1993 were held in Chicago. Chicago_sentence_287

Many international religious leaders have visited Chicago, including Mother Teresa, the Dalai Lama and Pope John Paul II in 1979. Chicago_sentence_288

Economy Chicago_section_18

Main article: Economy of Chicago Chicago_sentence_289

See also: List of companies in the Chicago metropolitan area Chicago_sentence_290

Chicago has the third-largest gross metropolitan product in the United States—about $670.5 billion according to September 2017 estimates. Chicago_sentence_291

The city has also been rated as having the most balanced economy in the United States, due to its high level of diversification. Chicago_sentence_292

In 2007, Chicago was named the fourth-most important business center in the world in the MasterCard Worldwide Centers of Commerce Index. Chicago_sentence_293

Additionally, the Chicago metropolitan area recorded the greatest number of new or expanded corporate facilities in the United States for calendar year 2014. Chicago_sentence_294

The Chicago metropolitan area has the third-largest science and engineering work force of any metropolitan area in the nation. Chicago_sentence_295

In 2009 Chicago placed ninth on the UBS list of the world's richest cities. Chicago_sentence_296

Chicago was the base of commercial operations for industrialists John Crerar, John Whitfield Bunn, Richard Teller Crane, Marshall Field, John Farwell, Julius Rosenwald and many other commercial visionaries who laid the foundation for Midwestern and global industry. Chicago_sentence_297

Chicago is a major world financial center, with the second-largest central business district in the United States. Chicago_sentence_298

The city is the seat of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, the Bank's Seventh District. Chicago_sentence_299

The city has major financial and futures exchanges, including the Chicago Stock Exchange, the Chicago Board Options Exchange (CBOE), and the Chicago Mercantile Exchange (the "Merc"), which is owned, along with the Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT) by Chicago's CME Group. Chicago_sentence_300

In 2017, Chicago exchanges traded 4.7 billion derivatives with a face value of over one quadrillion dollars. Chicago_sentence_301

Chase Bank has its commercial and retail banking headquarters in Chicago's Chase Tower. Chicago_sentence_302

Academically, Chicago has been influential through the Chicago school of economics, which fielded some 12 Nobel Prize winners. Chicago_sentence_303

The city and its surrounding metropolitan area contain the third-largest labor pool in the United States with about 4.63 million workers. Chicago_sentence_304

Illinois is home to 66 Fortune 1000 companies, including those in Chicago. Chicago_sentence_305

The city of Chicago also hosts 12 Fortune Global 500 companies and 17 Financial Times 500 companies. Chicago_sentence_306

The city claims three Dow 30 companies: aerospace giant Boeing, which moved its headquarters from Seattle to the Chicago Loop in 2001, McDonald's and Walgreens Boots Alliance. Chicago_sentence_307

For six consecutive years since 2013, Chicago was ranked the nation's top metropolitan area for corporate relocations. Chicago_sentence_308

Manufacturing, printing, publishing and food processing also play major roles in the city's economy. Chicago_sentence_309

Several medical products and services companies are headquartered in the Chicago area, including Baxter International, Boeing, Abbott Laboratories, and the Healthcare division of General Electric. Chicago_sentence_310

In addition to Boeing, which located its headquarters in Chicago in 2001, and United Airlines in 2011, GE Transportation moved its offices to the city in 2013 and GE Healthcare moved its HQ to the city in 2016, as did ThyssenKrupp North America, and agriculture giant Archer Daniels Midland. Chicago_sentence_311

Moreover, the construction of the Illinois and Michigan Canal, which helped move goods from the Great Lakes south on the Mississippi River, and of the railroads in the 19th century made the city a major transportation center in the United States. Chicago_sentence_312

In the 1840s, Chicago became a major grain port, and in the 1850s and 1860s Chicago's pork and beef industry expanded. Chicago_sentence_313

As the major meat companies grew in Chicago many, such as Armour and Company, created global enterprises. Chicago_sentence_314

Although the meatpacking industry currently plays a lesser role in the city's economy, Chicago continues to be a major transportation and distribution center. Chicago_sentence_315

Lured by a combination of large business customers, federal research dollars, and a large hiring pool fed by the area's universities, Chicago is also the site of a growing number of web startup companies like CareerBuilder, Orbitz, Basecamp, Groupon, Feedburner, Grubhub and NowSecure. Chicago_sentence_316

Prominent food companies based in Chicago include the world headquarters of Conagra, Ferrara Candy Company, Kraft Heinz, McDonald's, Mondelez International, Quaker Oats, and US Foods. Chicago_sentence_317

Chicago has been a hub of the retail sector since its early development, with Montgomery Ward, Sears, and Marshall Field's. Chicago_sentence_318

Today the Chicago metropolitan area is the headquarters of several retailers, including Walgreens, Sears, Ace Hardware, Claire's, ULTA Beauty and Crate & Barrel. Chicago_sentence_319

Late in the 19th century, Chicago was part of the bicycle craze, with the Western Wheel Company, which introduced stamping to the production process and significantly reduced costs, while early in the 20th century, the city was part of the automobile revolution, hosting the Brass Era car builder Bugmobile, which was founded there in 1907. Chicago_sentence_320

Chicago was also the site of the Schwinn Bicycle Company. Chicago_sentence_321

Chicago is a major world convention destination. Chicago_sentence_322

The city's main convention center is McCormick Place. Chicago_sentence_323

With its four interconnected buildings, it is the largest convention center in the nation and third-largest in the world. Chicago_sentence_324

Chicago also ranks third in the U.S. (behind Las Vegas and Orlando) in number of conventions hosted annually. Chicago_sentence_325

Chicago's minimum wage for non-tipped employees is one of the highest in the nation at $14 per hour and will reach $15 by 2021. Chicago_sentence_326

Culture and contemporary life Chicago_section_19

Further information: Culture of Chicago, List of people from Chicago, and List of museums and cultural institutions in Chicago Chicago_sentence_327

The city's waterfront location and nightlife has attracted residents and tourists alike. Chicago_sentence_328

Over a third of the city population is concentrated in the lakefront neighborhoods from Rogers Park in the north to South Shore in the south. Chicago_sentence_329

The city has many upscale dining establishments as well as many ethnic restaurant districts. Chicago_sentence_330

These districts include the Mexican American neighborhoods, such as Pilsen along 18th street, and La Villita along 26th Street; the Puerto Rican enclave of Paseo Boricua in the Humboldt Park neighborhood; Greektown, along South Halsted Street, immediately west of downtown; Little Italy, along Taylor Street; Chinatown in Armour Square; Polish Patches in West Town; Little Seoul in Albany Park around Lawrence Avenue; Little Vietnam near Broadway in Uptown; and the Desi area, along Devon Avenue in West Ridge. Chicago_sentence_331

Downtown is the center of Chicago's financial, cultural, governmental and commercial institutions and the site of Grant Park and many of the city's skyscrapers. Chicago_sentence_332

Many of the city's financial institutions, such as the CBOT and the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, are located within a section of downtown called "The Loop", which is an eight-block by five-block area of city streets that is encircled by elevated rail tracks. Chicago_sentence_333

The term "The Loop" is largely used by locals to refer to the entire downtown area as well. Chicago_sentence_334

The central area includes the Near North Side, the Near South Side, and the Near West Side, as well as the Loop. Chicago_sentence_335

These areas contribute famous skyscrapers, abundant restaurants, shopping, museums, a stadium for the Chicago Bears, convention facilities, parkland, and beaches. Chicago_sentence_336

Lincoln Park contains the Lincoln Park Zoo and the Lincoln Park Conservatory. Chicago_sentence_337

The River North Gallery District features the nation's largest concentration of contemporary art galleries outside of New York City. Chicago_sentence_338

Lakeview is home to Boystown, the city's large LGBT nightlife and culture center. Chicago_sentence_339

The Chicago Pride Parade, held the last Sunday in June, is one of the world's largest with over a million people in attendance. Chicago_sentence_340

North Halsted Street is the main thoroughfare of Boystown. Chicago_sentence_341

The South Side neighborhood of Hyde Park is the home of former US President Barack Obama. Chicago_sentence_342

It also contains the University of Chicago, ranked one of the world's top ten universities, and the Museum of Science and Industry. Chicago_sentence_343

The 6-mile (9.7 km) long Burnham Park stretches along the waterfront of the South Side. Chicago_sentence_344

Two of the city's largest parks are also located on this side of the city: Jackson Park, bordering the waterfront, hosted the World's Columbian Exposition in 1893, and is the site of the aforementioned museum; and slightly west sits Washington Park. Chicago_sentence_345

The two parks themselves are connected by a wide strip of parkland called the Midway Plaisance, running adjacent to the University of Chicago. Chicago_sentence_346

The South Side hosts one of the city's largest parades, the annual African American Bud Billiken Parade and Picnic, which travels through Bronzeville to Washington Park. Chicago_sentence_347

Ford Motor Company has an automobile assembly plant on the South Side in Hegewisch, and most of the facilities of the Port of Chicago are also on the South Side. Chicago_sentence_348

The West Side holds the Garfield Park Conservatory, one of the largest collections of tropical plants in any U.S. city. Chicago_sentence_349

Prominent Latino cultural attractions found here include Humboldt Park's Institute of Puerto Rican Arts and Culture and the annual Puerto Rican People's Parade, as well as the National Museum of Mexican Art and St. Chicago_sentence_350

Adalbert's Church in Pilsen. Chicago_sentence_351

The Near West Side holds the University of Illinois at Chicago and was once home to Oprah Winfrey's Harpo Studios, the site of which has been rebuilt as the global headquarters of McDonald's. Chicago_sentence_352

The city's distinctive accent, made famous by its use in classic films like The Blues Brothers and television programs like the Saturday Night Live skit "Bill Swerski's Superfans", is an advanced form of Inland Northern American English. Chicago_sentence_353

This dialect can also be found in other cities bordering the Great Lakes such as Cleveland, Milwaukee, Detroit, and Rochester, New York, and most prominently features a rearrangement of certain vowel sounds, such as the short 'a' sound as in "cat", which can sound more like "kyet" to outsiders. Chicago_sentence_354

The accent remains well associated with the city. Chicago_sentence_355

Entertainment and the arts Chicago_section_20

See also: Theater in Chicago, Visual arts of Chicago, and Music of Chicago Chicago_sentence_356

Renowned Chicago theater companies include the Goodman Theatre in the Loop; the Steppenwolf Theatre Company and Victory Gardens Theater in Lincoln Park; and the Chicago Shakespeare Theater at Navy Pier. Chicago_sentence_357

Broadway In Chicago offers Broadway-style entertainment at five theaters: the Nederlander Theatre, CIBC Theatre, Cadillac Palace Theatre, Auditorium Building of Roosevelt University, and Broadway Playhouse at Water Tower Place. Chicago_sentence_358

Polish language productions for Chicago's large Polish speaking population can be seen at the historic Gateway Theatre in Jefferson Park. Chicago_sentence_359

Since 1968, the Joseph Jefferson Awards are given annually to acknowledge excellence in theater in the Chicago area. Chicago_sentence_360

Chicago's theater community spawned modern improvisational theater, and includes the prominent groups The Second City and I.O. Chicago_sentence_361

(formerly ImprovOlympic). Chicago_sentence_362

The Chicago Symphony Orchestra (CSO) performs at Symphony Center, and is recognized as one of the best orchestras in the world. Chicago_sentence_363

Also performing regularly at Symphony Center is the Chicago Sinfonietta, a more diverse and multicultural counterpart to the CSO. Chicago_sentence_364

In the summer, many outdoor concerts are given in Grant Park and Millennium Park. Chicago_sentence_365

Ravinia Festival, located 25 miles (40 km) north of Chicago, is the summer home of the CSO, and is a favorite destination for many Chicagoans. Chicago_sentence_366

The Civic Opera House is home to the Lyric Opera of Chicago. Chicago_sentence_367

The Lithuanian Opera Company of Chicago was founded by Lithuanian Chicagoans in 1956, and presents operas in Lithuanian. Chicago_sentence_368

The Joffrey Ballet and Chicago Festival Ballet perform in various venues, including the Harris Theater in Millennium Park. Chicago_sentence_369

Chicago has several other contemporary and jazz dance troupes, such as the Hubbard Street Dance Chicago and Chicago Dance Crash. Chicago_sentence_370

Other live-music genre which are part of the city's cultural heritage include Chicago blues, Chicago soul, jazz, and gospel. Chicago_sentence_371

The city is the birthplace of house music (a popular form of electronic dance music) and industrial music, and is the site of an influential hip hop scene. Chicago_sentence_372

In the 1980s and 90s, the city was the global center for house and industrial music, two forms of music created in Chicago, as well as being popular for alternative rock, punk, and new wave. Chicago_sentence_373

The city has been a center for rave culture, since the 1980s. Chicago_sentence_374

A flourishing independent rock music culture brought forth Chicago indie. Chicago_sentence_375

Annual festivals feature various acts, such as Lollapalooza and the Pitchfork Music Festival. Chicago_sentence_376

A 2007 report on the Chicago music industry by the University of Chicago Cultural Policy Center ranked Chicago third among metropolitan U.S. areas in "size of music industry" and fourth among all U.S. cities in "number of concerts and performances". Chicago_sentence_377

Chicago has a distinctive fine art tradition. Chicago_sentence_378

For much of the twentieth century, it nurtured a strong style of figurative surrealism, as in the works of Ivan Albright and Ed Paschke. Chicago_sentence_379

In 1968 and 1969, members of the Chicago Imagists, such as Roger Brown, Leon Golub, Robert Lostutter, Jim Nutt, and Barbara Rossi produced bizarre representational paintings. Chicago_sentence_380

Henry Darger is one of the most celebrated figures of outsider art. Chicago_sentence_381

Chicago contains a number of large, outdoor works by well-known artists. Chicago_sentence_382

These include the Chicago Picasso, Miró's Chicago, Flamingo and Flying Dragon by Alexander Calder, Agora by Magdalena Abakanowicz, Monument with Standing Beast by Jean Dubuffet, Batcolumn by Claes Oldenburg, Cloud Gate by Anish Kapoor, Crown Fountain by Jaume Plensa, and the Four Seasons mosaic by Marc Chagall. Chicago_sentence_383

Chicago also has a nationally televised Thanksgiving parade that occurs annually. Chicago_sentence_384

The McDonald's Thanksgiving Parade is seen across the nation on WGN-TV and WGN America, featuring a variety of diverse acts from the community, marching bands from across the country, and is the only parade in the city to feature inflatable balloons every year. Chicago_sentence_385

Tourism Chicago_section_21

Main article: Tourism in Chicago Chicago_sentence_386

In 2014, Chicago attracted 50.17 million domestic leisure travelers, 11.09 million domestic business travelers and 1.308 million overseas visitors. Chicago_sentence_387

These visitors contributed more than US$13.7 billion to Chicago's economy. Chicago_sentence_388

Upscale shopping along the Magnificent Mile and State Street, thousands of restaurants, as well as Chicago's eminent architecture, continue to draw tourists. Chicago_sentence_389

The city is the United States' third-largest convention destination. Chicago_sentence_390

A 2017 study by Walk Score ranked Chicago the sixth-most walkable of fifty largest cities in the United States. Chicago_sentence_391

Most conventions are held at McCormick Place, just south of Soldier Field. Chicago_sentence_392

The historic Chicago Cultural Center (1897), originally serving as the Chicago Public Library, now houses the city's Visitor Information Center, galleries and exhibit halls. Chicago_sentence_393

The ceiling of its Preston Bradley Hall includes a 38-foot (12 m) Tiffany glass dome. Chicago_sentence_394

Grant Park holds Millennium Park, Buckingham Fountain (1927), and the Art Institute of Chicago. Chicago_sentence_395

The park also hosts the annual Taste of Chicago festival. Chicago_sentence_396

In Millennium Park, the reflective Cloud Gate public sculpture by artist Anish Kapoor is the centerpiece of the AT&T Plaza in Millennium Park. Chicago_sentence_397

Also, an outdoor restaurant transforms into an ice rink in the winter season. Chicago_sentence_398

Two tall glass sculptures make up the Crown Fountain. Chicago_sentence_399

The fountain's two towers display visual effects from LED images of Chicagoans' faces, along with water spouting from their lips. Chicago_sentence_400

Frank Gehry's detailed, stainless steel band shell, the Jay Pritzker Pavilion, hosts the classical Grant Park Music Festival concert series. Chicago_sentence_401

Behind the pavilion's stage is the Harris Theater for Music and Dance, an indoor venue for mid-sized performing arts companies, including the Chicago Opera Theater and Music of the Baroque. Chicago_sentence_402

Navy Pier, located just east of Streeterville, is 3,000 ft (910 m) long and houses retail stores, restaurants, museums, exhibition halls and auditoriums. Chicago_sentence_403

In the summer of 2016, Navy Pier constructed a DW60 Ferris wheel. Chicago_sentence_404

Dutch Wheels, a world renowned company that manufactures ferris wheels, was selected to design the new wheel. Chicago_sentence_405

It features 42 navy blue gondolas that can hold up to eight adults and two kids. Chicago_sentence_406

It also has entertainment systems inside the gondolas as well as a climate controlled environment. Chicago_sentence_407

The DW60 stands at approximately 196 ft (60 m), which is 46 ft taller than the previous wheel. Chicago_sentence_408

The new DW60 is the first in the United States and is the sixth tallest in the U.S. Chicago was the first city in the world to ever erect a ferris wheel. Chicago_sentence_409

On June 4, 1998, the city officially opened the Museum Campus, a 10-acre (4.0 ha) lakefront park, surrounding three of the city's main museums, each of which is of national importance: the Adler Planetarium & Astronomy Museum, the Field Museum of Natural History, and the Shedd Aquarium. Chicago_sentence_410

The Museum Campus joins the southern section of Grant Park, which includes the renowned Art Institute of Chicago. Chicago_sentence_411

Buckingham Fountain anchors the downtown park along the lakefront. Chicago_sentence_412

The University of Chicago Oriental Institute has an extensive collection of ancient Egyptian and Near Eastern archaeological artifacts. Chicago_sentence_413

Other museums and galleries in Chicago include the Chicago History Museum, the Driehaus Museum, the DuSable Museum of African American History, the Museum of Contemporary Art, the Peggy Notebaert Nature Museum, the Polish Museum of America, the Museum of Broadcast Communications, the Pritzker Military Library, the Chicago Architecture Foundation, and the Museum of Science and Industry. Chicago_sentence_414

With an estimated completion date of 2020, the Barack Obama Presidential Center will be housed at the University of Chicago in Hyde Park and include both the Obama presidential library and offices of the Obama Foundation. Chicago_sentence_415

The Willis Tower (formerly named Sears Tower) is a popular destination for tourists. Chicago_sentence_416

The Willis Tower has an observation deck open to tourists year round with high up views overlooking Chicago and Lake Michigan. Chicago_sentence_417

The observation deck includes an enclosed glass balcony that extends 10 feet out on the side of the building. Chicago_sentence_418

Tourists are able to look straight down. Chicago_sentence_419

In 2013, Chicago was chosen as one of the "Top Ten Cities in the United States" to visit for its restaurants, skyscrapers, museums, and waterfront, by the readers of Condé Nast Traveler, and in 2020 for the fourth year in a row, Chicago was named the top U.S. city tourism destination. Chicago_sentence_420

Cuisine Chicago_section_22

See also: Culture of Chicago § Food and drink, and Chicago farmers' markets Chicago_sentence_421

Chicago lays claim to a large number of regional specialties that reflect the city's ethnic and working-class roots. Chicago_sentence_422

Included among these are its nationally renowned deep-dish pizza; this style is said to have originated at Pizzeria Uno. Chicago_sentence_423

The Chicago-style thin crust is also popular in the city. Chicago_sentence_424

Certain Chicago pizza favorites include Lou Malnati's and Giordano's. Chicago_sentence_425

The Chicago-style hot dog, typically an all-beef hot dog, is loaded with an array of toppings that often includes pickle relish, yellow mustard, pickled sport peppers, tomato wedges, dill pickle spear and topped off with celery salt on a poppy seed bun. Chicago_sentence_426

Enthusiasts of the Chicago-style hot dog frown upon the use of ketchup as a garnish, but may prefer to add giardiniera. Chicago_sentence_427

A distinctly Chicago sandwich, the Italian beef sandwich is thinly sliced beef simmered in au jus and served on an Italian roll with sweet peppers or spicy giardiniera. Chicago_sentence_428

A popular modification is the Combo—an Italian beef sandwich with the addition of an Italian sausage. Chicago_sentence_429

The Maxwell Street Polish is a grilled or deep-fried kielbasa—on a hot dog roll, topped with grilled onions, yellow mustard, and hot sport peppers. Chicago_sentence_430

Chicken Vesuvio is roasted bone-in chicken cooked in oil and garlic next to garlicky oven-roasted potato wedges and a sprinkling of green peas. Chicago_sentence_431

The Puerto Rican-influenced jibarito is a sandwich made with flattened, fried green plantains instead of bread. Chicago_sentence_432

The mother-in-law is a tamale topped with chili and served on a hot dog bun. Chicago_sentence_433

The tradition of serving the Greek dish saganaki while aflame has its origins in Chicago's Greek community. Chicago_sentence_434

The appetizer, which consists of a square of fried cheese, is doused with Metaxa and flambéed table-side. Chicago_sentence_435

One of the world's most decorated restaurants and a recipient of three Michelin stars, Alinea is located in Chicago. Chicago_sentence_436

Well-known chefs who have had restaurants in Chicago include: Charlie Trotter, Rick Tramonto, Grant Achatz, and Rick Bayless. Chicago_sentence_437

In 2003, Robb Report named Chicago the country's "most exceptional dining destination". Chicago_sentence_438

Literature Chicago_section_23

Further information: Chicago literature Chicago_sentence_439

Chicago literature finds its roots in the city's tradition of lucid, direct journalism, lending to a strong tradition of social realism. Chicago_sentence_440

In the Encyclopedia of Chicago, Northwestern University Professor Bill Savage describes Chicago fiction as prose which tries to "capture the essence of the city, its spaces and its people". Chicago_sentence_441

The challenge for early writers was that Chicago was a frontier outpost that transformed into a global metropolis in the span of two generations. Chicago_sentence_442

Narrative fiction of that time, much of it in the style of "high-flown romance" and "genteel realism", needed a new approach to describe the urban social, political, and economic conditions of Chicago. Chicago_sentence_443

Nonetheless, Chicagoans worked hard to create a literary tradition that would stand the test of time, and create a "city of feeling" out of concrete, steel, vast lake, and open prairie. Chicago_sentence_444

Much notable Chicago fiction focuses on the city itself, with social criticism keeping exultation in check. Chicago_sentence_445

At least three short periods in the history of Chicago have had a lasting influence on American literature. Chicago_sentence_446

These include from the time of the Great Chicago Fire to about 1900, what became known as the Chicago Literary Renaissance in the 1910s and early 1920s, and the period of the Great Depression through the 1940s. Chicago_sentence_447

What would become the influential Poetry magazine was founded in 1912 by Harriet Monroe, who was working as an art critic for the Chicago Tribune. Chicago_sentence_448

The magazine discovered such poets as Gwendolyn Brooks, James Merrill, and John Ashbery. Chicago_sentence_449

T. Chicago_sentence_450

S. Eliot's first professionally published poem, "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock", was first published by Poetry. Chicago_sentence_451

Contributors have included Ezra Pound, William Butler Yeats, William Carlos Williams, Langston Hughes, and Carl Sandburg, among others. Chicago_sentence_452

The magazine was instrumental in launching the Imagist and Objectivist poetic movements. Chicago_sentence_453

From the 1950s through 1970s, American poetry continued to evolve in Chicago. Chicago_sentence_454

In the 1980s, a modern form of poetry performance began in Chicago, the Poetry Slam. Chicago_sentence_455

Sports Chicago_section_24

Main article: Sports in Chicago Chicago_sentence_456

Sporting News named Chicago the "Best Sports City" in the United States in 1993, 2006, and 2010. Chicago_sentence_457

Along with Boston, Chicago is the only city to continuously host major professional sports since 1871, having only taken 1872 and 1873 off due to the Great Chicago Fire. Chicago_sentence_458

Additionally, Chicago is one of the eight cities in the United States to have won championships in the four major professional leagues and, along with Los Angeles, New York, Philadelphia and Washington, is one of five cities to have won soccer championships as well. Chicago_sentence_459

All of its major franchises have won championships within recent years – the Bears (1985), the Bulls (1991, 1992, 1993, 1996, 1997, and 1998), the White Sox (2005), the Cubs (2016), the Blackhawks (2010, 2013, 2015), and the Fire (1998). Chicago_sentence_460

Chicago has the third most franchises in the four major North American sports leagues with five, behind the New York and Los Angeles Metropolitan Areas, and have six top-level professional sports clubs when including Chicago Fire FC of Major League Soccer (MLS). Chicago_sentence_461

The city has two Major League Baseball (MLB) teams: the Chicago Cubs of the National League play in Wrigley Field on the North Side; and the Chicago White Sox of the American League play in Guaranteed Rate Field on the South Side. Chicago_sentence_462

Chicago is the only city that has had more than one MLB franchise every year since the AL began in 1901 (New York hosted only one between 1958 and early 1962). Chicago_sentence_463

The two teams have faced each other in a World Series only once: in 1906, when the White Sox, known as the "Hitless Wonders," defeated the Cubs, 4–2. Chicago_sentence_464

The Cubs are the oldest Major League Baseball team to have never changed their city; they have played in Chicago since 1871, and continuously so since 1874 due to the Great Chicago Fire. Chicago_sentence_465

They have played more games and have more wins than any other team in Major League baseball since 1876. Chicago_sentence_466

They have won three World Series titles, including the 2016 World Series, but had the dubious honor of having the two longest droughts in American professional sports: They had not won their sport's title since 1908, and had not participated in a World Series since 1945, both records, until they beat the Cleveland Indians in the 2016 World Series. Chicago_sentence_467

The White Sox have played on the South Side continuously since 1901, with all three of their home fields throughout the years being within blocks of one another. Chicago_sentence_468

They have won three World Series titles (1906, 1917, 2005) and six American League pennants, including the first in 1901. Chicago_sentence_469

The Sox are fifth in the American League in all-time wins, and sixth in pennants. Chicago_sentence_470

The Chicago Bears, one of the last two remaining charter members of the National Football League (NFL), have won nine NFL Championships, including the 1985 Super Bowl XX. Chicago_sentence_471

The other remaining charter franchise, the Chicago Cardinals, also started out in the city, but is now known as the Arizona Cardinals. Chicago_sentence_472

The Bears have won more games in the history of the NFL than any other team, and only the Green Bay Packers, their longtime rivals, have won more championships. Chicago_sentence_473

The Bears play their home games at Soldier Field. Chicago_sentence_474

Soldier Field re-opened in 2003 after an extensive renovation. Chicago_sentence_475

The Chicago Bulls of the National Basketball Association (NBA) is one of the most recognized basketball teams in the world. Chicago_sentence_476

During the 1990s, with Michael Jordan leading them, the Bulls won six NBA championships in eight seasons. Chicago_sentence_477

They also boast the youngest player to win the NBA Most Valuable Player Award, Derrick Rose, who won it for the 2010–11 season. Chicago_sentence_478

The Chicago Blackhawks of the National Hockey League (NHL) began play in 1926, and are one of the "Original Six" teams of the NHL. Chicago_sentence_479

The Blackhawks have won six Stanley Cups, including in 2010, 2013, and 2015. Chicago_sentence_480

Both the Bulls and the Blackhawks play at the United Center. Chicago_sentence_481

Chicago_table_general_3

Major league professional teams in Chicago (ranked by attendance)Chicago_table_caption_3
ClubChicago_header_cell_3_0_0 LeagueChicago_header_cell_3_0_1 SportChicago_header_cell_3_0_2 VenueChicago_header_cell_3_0_3 AttendanceChicago_header_cell_3_0_4 FoundedChicago_header_cell_3_0_5 ChampionshipsChicago_header_cell_3_0_6
Chicago BearsChicago_header_cell_3_1_0 NFLChicago_cell_3_1_1 FootballChicago_cell_3_1_2 Soldier FieldChicago_cell_3_1_3 61,142Chicago_cell_3_1_4 1919Chicago_cell_3_1_5 9 Championships (1 Super Bowl)Chicago_cell_3_1_6
Chicago CubsChicago_header_cell_3_2_0 MLBChicago_cell_3_2_1 BaseballChicago_cell_3_2_2 Wrigley FieldChicago_cell_3_2_3 41,649Chicago_cell_3_2_4 1870Chicago_cell_3_2_5 3 World SeriesChicago_cell_3_2_6
Chicago White SoxChicago_header_cell_3_3_0 MLBChicago_cell_3_3_1 BaseballChicago_cell_3_3_2 Guaranteed Rate FieldChicago_cell_3_3_3 40,615Chicago_cell_3_3_4 1900Chicago_cell_3_3_5 3 World SeriesChicago_cell_3_3_6
Chicago BlackhawksChicago_header_cell_3_4_0 NHLChicago_cell_3_4_1 Ice hockeyChicago_cell_3_4_2 United CenterChicago_cell_3_4_3 21,653Chicago_cell_3_4_4 1926Chicago_cell_3_4_5 6 Stanley CupsChicago_cell_3_4_6
Chicago BullsChicago_header_cell_3_5_0 NBAChicago_cell_3_5_1 BasketballChicago_cell_3_5_2 20,776Chicago_cell_3_5_3 1966Chicago_cell_3_5_4 6 NBA ChampionshipsChicago_cell_3_5_5
Chicago Fire FCChicago_header_cell_3_6_0 MLSChicago_cell_3_6_1 SoccerChicago_cell_3_6_2 Soldier FieldChicago_cell_3_6_3 17,383Chicago_cell_3_6_4 1997Chicago_cell_3_6_5 1 MLS Cup, 1 Supporters ShieldChicago_cell_3_6_6
Chicago SkyChicago_header_cell_3_7_0 WNBAChicago_cell_3_7_1 BasketballChicago_cell_3_7_2 Wintrust ArenaChicago_cell_3_7_3 10,387Chicago_cell_3_7_4 2006Chicago_cell_3_7_5 0 WNBA ChampionshipsChicago_cell_3_7_6
Chicago Red StarsChicago_header_cell_3_8_0 NWSLChicago_cell_3_8_1 SoccerChicago_cell_3_8_2 SeatGeek StadiumChicago_cell_3_8_3 3,198Chicago_cell_3_8_4 2006Chicago_cell_3_8_5 1 National Women's CupChicago_cell_3_8_6

Chicago Fire FC is a member of Major League Soccer (MLS) and plays at Soldier Field. Chicago_sentence_482

After playing its first eight seasons at Soldier Field, the team moved to suburban Bridgeview to play at SeatGeek Stadium. Chicago_sentence_483

In 2019, the team announced a move back to Soldier Field. Chicago_sentence_484

The Fire have won one league title and four U.S. Chicago_sentence_485 Open Cups, since their founding in 1997. Chicago_sentence_486

In 1994, the United States hosted a successful FIFA World Cup with games played at Soldier Field. Chicago_sentence_487

The Chicago Sky is a professional basketball team playing in the Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA). Chicago_sentence_488

They play home games at the Wintrust Arena. Chicago_sentence_489

The team was founded before the 2006 WNBA season began. Chicago_sentence_490

The Chicago Marathon has been held each year since 1977 except for 1987, when a half marathon was run in its place. Chicago_sentence_491

The Chicago Marathon is one of six World Marathon Majors. Chicago_sentence_492

Five area colleges play in Division I conferences: two from major conferences—the DePaul Blue Demons (Big East Conference) and the Northwestern Wildcats (Big Ten Conference)—and three from other D1 conferences—the Chicago State Cougars (Western Athletic Conference); the Loyola Ramblers (Missouri Valley Conference); and the UIC Flames (Horizon League). Chicago_sentence_493

Chicago has also entered into eSports with the creation of the Chicago Huntsmen, a professional Call of Duty team that participates within the CDL. Chicago_sentence_494

At the Call of Duty League's Launch Week games in Minneapolis, Minnesota, the Chicago Huntsmen went on to beat both the Dallas Empire and Optic Gaming Los Angeles. Chicago_sentence_495

Parks and greenspace Chicago_section_25

Main articles: Parks in Chicago, Chicago Boulevard System, and Cook County Forest Preserves Chicago_sentence_496

When Chicago was incorporated in 1837, it chose the motto Urbs in Horto, a Latin phrase which means "City in a Garden". Chicago_sentence_497

Today, the Chicago Park District consists of more than 570 parks with over 8,000 acres (3,200 ha) of municipal parkland. Chicago_sentence_498

There are 31 sand beaches, a plethora of museums, two world-class conservatories, and 50 nature areas. Chicago_sentence_499

Lincoln Park, the largest of the city's parks, covers 1,200 acres (490 ha) and has over 20 million visitors each year, making it third in the number of visitors after Central Park in New York City, and the National Mall and Memorial Parks in Washington, D.C. Chicago_sentence_500

There is a historic boulevard system, a network of wide, tree-lined boulevards which connect a number of Chicago parks. Chicago_sentence_501

The boulevards and the parks were authorized by the Illinois legislature in 1869. Chicago_sentence_502

A number of Chicago neighborhoods emerged along these roadways in the 19th century. Chicago_sentence_503

The building of the boulevard system continued intermittently until 1942. Chicago_sentence_504

It includes nineteen boulevards, eight parks, and six squares, along twenty-six miles of interconnected streets. Chicago_sentence_505

The Chicago Park Boulevard System Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2018. Chicago_sentence_506

With berths for more than 6,000 boats, the Chicago Park District operates the nation's largest municipal harbor system. Chicago_sentence_507

In addition to ongoing beautification and renewal projects for the existing parks, a number of new parks have been added in recent years, such as the Ping Tom Memorial Park in Chinatown, DuSable Park on the Near North Side, and most notably, Millennium Park, which is in the northwestern corner of one of Chicago's oldest parks, Grant Park in the Chicago Loop. Chicago_sentence_508

The wealth of greenspace afforded by Chicago's parks is further augmented by the Cook County Forest Preserves, a network of open spaces containing forest, prairie, wetland, streams, and lakes that are set aside as natural areas which lie along the city's outskirts, including both the Chicago Botanic Garden in Glencoe and the Brookfield Zoo in Brookfield. Chicago_sentence_509

Washington Park is also one of the city's biggest parks; covering nearly 400 acres (160 ha). Chicago_sentence_510

The park is listed on the National Register of Historic Places listings in South Side Chicago. Chicago_sentence_511

Law and government Chicago_section_26

Government Chicago_section_27

Main article: Government of Chicago Chicago_sentence_512

The government of the City of Chicago is divided into executive and legislative branches. Chicago_sentence_513

The Mayor of Chicago is the chief executive, elected by general election for a term of four years, with no term limits. Chicago_sentence_514

The current mayor is Lori Lightfoot. Chicago_sentence_515

The mayor appoints commissioners and other officials who oversee the various departments. Chicago_sentence_516

As well as the mayor, Chicago's clerk and treasurer are also elected citywide. Chicago_sentence_517

The City Council is the legislative branch and is made up of 50 aldermen, one elected from each ward in the city. Chicago_sentence_518

The council takes official action through the passage of ordinances and resolutions and approves the city budget. Chicago_sentence_519

The Chicago Police Department provides law enforcement and the Chicago Fire Department provides fire suppression and emergency medical services for the city and its residents. Chicago_sentence_520

Civil and criminal law cases are heard in the Cook County Circuit Court of the State of Illinois court system, or in the Northern District of Illinois, in the federal system. Chicago_sentence_521

In the state court, the public prosecutor is the Illinois State's Attorney; in the Federal court it is the United States Attorney. Chicago_sentence_522

Politics Chicago_section_28

Main article: Political history of Chicago Chicago_sentence_523

During much of the last half of the 19th century, Chicago's politics were dominated by a growing Democratic Party organization. Chicago_sentence_524

During the 1880s and 1890s, Chicago had a powerful radical tradition with large and highly organized socialist, anarchist and labor organizations. Chicago_sentence_525

For much of the 20th century, Chicago has been among the largest and most reliable Democratic strongholds in the United States; with Chicago's Democratic vote the state of Illinois has been "solid blue" in presidential elections since 1992. Chicago_sentence_526

Even before then, it was not unheard of for Republican presidential candidates to win handily in downstate Illinois, only to lose statewide due to large Democratic margins in Chicago. Chicago_sentence_527

The citizens of Chicago have not elected a Republican mayor since 1927, when William Thompson was voted into office. Chicago_sentence_528

The strength of the party in the city is partly a consequence of Illinois state politics, where the Republicans have come to represent rural and farm concerns while the Democrats support urban issues such as Chicago's public school funding. Chicago_sentence_529

Chicago contains less than 25% of the state's population, but it is split between eight of Illinois' 19 districts in the United States House of Representatives. Chicago_sentence_530

All eight of the city's representatives are Democrats; only two Republicans have represented a significant portion of the city since 1973, for one term each: Robert P. Hanrahan from 1973 to 1975, and Michael Patrick Flanagan from 1995 to 1997. Chicago_sentence_531

Machine politics persisted in Chicago after the decline of similar machines in other large U.S. cities. Chicago_sentence_532

During much of that time, the city administration found opposition mainly from a liberal "independent" faction of the Democratic Party. Chicago_sentence_533

The independents finally gained control of city government in 1983 with the election of Harold Washington (in office 1983–1987). Chicago_sentence_534

From 1989 until May 16, 2011, Chicago was under the leadership of its longest-serving mayor, Richard M. Daley, the son of Richard J. Daley. Chicago_sentence_535

Because of the dominance of the Democratic Party in Chicago, the Democratic primary vote held in the spring is generally more significant than the general elections in November for U.S. House and Illinois State seats. Chicago_sentence_536

The aldermanic, mayoral, and other city offices are filled through nonpartisan elections with runoffs as needed. Chicago_sentence_537

Formerly a state legislator representing Chicago and later a US Senator, the city is home of former United States President Barack Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama. Chicago_sentence_538

The Obamas' residence is located near the University of Chicago in Kenwood on the city's south side. Chicago_sentence_539

Crime Chicago_section_29

Main articles: Crime in Chicago and Timeline of organized crime in Chicago Chicago_sentence_540

Chicago had a murder rate of 18.5 per 100,000 residents in 2012, ranking 16th among US cities with 100,000 people or more. Chicago_sentence_541

This was higher than in New York City and Los Angeles, the two largest cities in the United States, which have lower murder rates and lower total homicides. Chicago_sentence_542

However, it was less than in many smaller American cities, including New Orleans, Newark, and Detroit, which had 53 murders per 100,000 residents in 2012. Chicago_sentence_543

The 2015 year-end crime statistics showed there were 468 murders in Chicago in 2015 compared with 416 the year before, a 12.5% increase, as well as 2,900 shootings—13% more than the year prior, and up 29% since 2013. Chicago_sentence_544

Chicago had more homicides than any other city in 2015 in total but not on per capita basis, according to the Chicago Tribune. Chicago_sentence_545

In its annual crime statistics for 2016, the Chicago Police Department reported that the city experienced a dramatic rise in gun violence, with 4,331 shooting victims. Chicago_sentence_546

The department also reported 762 murders in Chicago for the year 2016, a total that marked a 62.79% increase in homicides from 2015. Chicago_sentence_547

In June 2017, the Chicago Police Department and the Federal ATF announced a new task force, similar to past task forces, to address the flow of illegal guns and repeat offenses with guns. Chicago_sentence_548

According to reports in 2013, "most of Chicago's violent crime comes from gangs trying to maintain control of drug-selling territories", and is specifically related to the activities of the Sinaloa Cartel, which is active in several American cities. Chicago_sentence_549

By 2006, the cartel sought to control most illicit drug sales. Chicago_sentence_550

Violent crime rates vary significantly by area of the city, with more economically developed areas having low rates, but other sections have much higher rates of crime. Chicago_sentence_551

In 2013, the violent crime rate was 910 per 100,000 people; the murder rate was 10.4 – while high crime districts saw 38.9, low crime districts saw 2.5 murders per 100,000. Chicago_sentence_552

The number of murders in Chicago peaked at 970 in 1974, when the city's population was over 3 million people (a murder rate of about 29 per 100,000), and it reached 943 murders in 1992, (a murder rate of 34 per 100,000). Chicago_sentence_553

However, Chicago, like other major U.S. cities, experienced a significant reduction in violent crime rates through the 1990s, falling to 448 homicides in 2004, its lowest total since 1965 and only 15.65 murders per 100,000. Chicago_sentence_554

Chicago's homicide tally remained low during 2005 (449), 2006 (452), and 2007 (435) but rose to 510 in 2008, breaking 500 for the first time since 2003. Chicago_sentence_555

In 2009, the murder count fell to 458 (10% down). Chicago_sentence_556

and in 2010 Chicago's murder rate fell to 435 (16.14 per 100,000), a 5% decrease from 2009 and lowest levels since 1965. Chicago_sentence_557

In 2011, Chicago's murders fell another 1.2% to 431 (a rate of 15.94 per 100,000). Chicago_sentence_558

but shot up to 506 in 2012. Chicago_sentence_559

In 2012, Chicago ranked 21st in the United States in numbers of homicides per person, and in the first half of 2013 there was a significant drop per-person, in all categories of violent crime, including homicide (down 26%). Chicago_sentence_560

Chicago ended 2013 with 415 murders, the lowest number of murders since 1965, and overall crime rates dropped by 16 percent. Chicago_sentence_561

In 2013, the city's murder rate was only slightly higher than the national average as a whole. Chicago_sentence_562

According to the FBI, St. Chicago_sentence_563 Louis, New Orleans, Detroit, and Baltimore had the highest murder rate along with several other cities. Chicago_sentence_564

Jens Ludwig, director of the University of Chicago Crime Lab, estimated that shootings cost the city of Chicago $2.5 billion in 2012. Chicago_sentence_565

Employee pensions Chicago_section_30

In September 2016, an Illinois state appellate court found that cities do not have an obligation under the Illinois Constitution to pay certain benefits if those benefits had included an expiration date under whichever negotiated agreement they were covered. Chicago_sentence_566

The Illinois Constitution prohibits governments from doing anything that could cause retirement benefits for government workers to be "diminished or impaired." Chicago_sentence_567

In this particular case, the fact that the workers' agreements had expiration dates let the city of Chicago set an expiration date of 2013 for contribution to health benefits for workers who retired after 1989. Chicago_sentence_568

Education Chicago_section_31

Main article: Chicago Public Schools Chicago_sentence_569

Schools and libraries Chicago_section_32

Chicago Public Schools (CPS) is the governing body of the school district that contains over 600 public elementary and high schools citywide, including several selective-admission magnet schools. Chicago_sentence_570

There are eleven selective enrollment high schools in the Chicago Public Schools, designed to meet the needs of Chicago's most academically advanced students. Chicago_sentence_571

These schools offer a rigorous curriculum with mainly honors and Advanced Placement (AP) courses. Chicago_sentence_572

Walter Payton College Prep High School is ranked number one in the city of Chicago and the state of Illinois. Chicago_sentence_573

Northside College Preparatory High School is ranked second, Jones College Prep is third, and the oldest magnet school in the city, Whitney M. Young Magnet High School, which was opened in 1975, is ranked fourth. Chicago_sentence_574

The magnet school with the largest enrollment is Lane Technical College Prep High School. Chicago_sentence_575

Lane is one of the oldest schools in Chicago and in 2012 was designated a National Blue Ribbon School by the U.S. Department of Education. Chicago_sentence_576

Chicago high school rankings are determined by the average test scores on state achievement tests. Chicago_sentence_577

The district, with an enrollment exceeding 400,545 students (2013–2014 20th Day Enrollment), is the third-largest in the U.S. On September 10, 2012, teachers for the Chicago Teachers Union went on strike for the first time since 1987 over pay, resources and other issues. Chicago_sentence_578

According to data compiled in 2014, Chicago's "choice system", where students who test or apply and may attend one of a number of public high schools (there are about 130), sorts students of different achievement levels into different schools (high performing, middle performing, and low performing schools). Chicago_sentence_579

Chicago has a network of Lutheran schools, and several private schools are run by other denominations and faiths, such as the Ida Crown Jewish Academy in West Ridge. Chicago_sentence_580

Several private schools are completely secular, such as the Latin School of Chicago in the Near North Side neighborhood, the University of Chicago Laboratory Schools in Hyde Park, the British School of Chicago and the Francis W. Parker School in Lincoln Park, the Lycée Français de Chicago in Uptown, the Feltre School in River North and the Morgan Park Academy. Chicago_sentence_581

There are also the private Chicago Academy for the Arts, a high school focused on six different categories of the arts and the public Chicago High School for the Arts, a high school focused on five categories (visual arts, theatre, musical theatre, dance, and music) of the arts. Chicago_sentence_582

The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Chicago operates Catholic schools, that include Jesuit preparatory schools and others including St. Chicago_sentence_583 Rita of Cascia High School, De La Salle Institute, Josephinum Academy, DePaul College Prep, Cristo Rey Jesuit High School, Brother Rice High School, St. Chicago_sentence_584 Ignatius College Preparatory School, Mount Carmel High School, Queen of Peace High School, Mother McAuley Liberal Arts High School, Marist High School, St. Patrick High School and Resurrection High School. Chicago_sentence_585

The Chicago Public Library system operates 79 public libraries, including the central library, two regional libraries, and numerous branches distributed throughout the city. Chicago_sentence_586

Colleges and universities Chicago_section_33

For a more comprehensive list, see List of colleges and universities in Chicago. Chicago_sentence_587

Since the 1850s, Chicago has been a world center of higher education and research with several universities. Chicago_sentence_588

These institutions consistently rank among the top "National Universities" in the United States, as determined by U.S. Chicago_sentence_589 News & World Report. Chicago_sentence_590

Highly regarded universities in Chicago are: the University of Chicago; Illinois Institute of Technology; Loyola University Chicago; DePaul University; Columbia College Chicago and University of Illinois at Chicago. Chicago_sentence_591

Other notable schools include: Chicago State University; the School of the Art Institute of Chicago, the Illinois Institute of Art – Chicago; East–West University; National Louis University; North Park University; Northeastern Illinois University; Robert Morris University Illinois; Roosevelt University; Saint Xavier University; Rush University; and Shimer College. Chicago_sentence_592

William Rainey Harper, the first president of the University of Chicago, was instrumental in the creation of the junior college concept, establishing nearby Joliet Junior College as the first in the nation in 1901. Chicago_sentence_593

His legacy continues with the multiple community colleges in the Chicago proper, including the seven City Colleges of Chicago: Richard J. Daley College, Kennedy–King College, Malcolm X College, Olive–Harvey College, Truman College, Harold Washington College and Wilbur Wright College, in addition to the privately held MacCormac College. Chicago_sentence_594

Chicago also has a high concentration of post-baccalaureate institutions, graduate schools, seminaries, and theological schools, such as the Adler School of Professional Psychology, The Chicago School of Professional Psychology, the Erikson Institute, The Institute for Clinical Social Work, the Lutheran School of Theology at Chicago, the Catholic Theological Union, the Moody Bible Institute, the John Marshall Law School and the University of Chicago Divinity School. Chicago_sentence_595

Media Chicago_section_34

Further information: Media in Chicago, List of fiction set in Chicago, and Chicago International Film Festival Chicago_sentence_596

Television Chicago_section_35

The Chicago metropolitan area is the third-largest media market in North America, after New York City and Los Angeles and a major media hub. Chicago_sentence_597

Each of the big four U.S. Chicago_sentence_598 television networks, CBS, ABC, NBC and Fox, directly owns and operates a high-definition television station in Chicago (WBBM 2, WLS 7, WMAQ 5 and WFLD 32, respectively). Chicago_sentence_599

Former CW affiliate WGN-TV 9, which is owned by the Tribune Media, is carried with some programming differences, as "WGN America" on cable and satellite TV nationwide and in parts of the Caribbean. Chicago_sentence_600

Chicago has also been the home of several prominent talk shows, including The Oprah Winfrey Show, Steve Harvey Show, The Rosie Show, The Jerry Springer Show, The Phil Donahue Show, The Jenny Jones Show, and more. Chicago_sentence_601

The city also has one PBS member station (its second: WYCC 20, removed its affiliation with PBS in 2017): WTTW 11, producer of shows such as Sneak Previews, The Frugal Gourmet, Lamb Chop's Play-Along and The McLaughlin Group. Chicago_sentence_602

As of 2018, Windy City Live is Chicago's only daytime talk show, which is hosted by Val Warner and Ryan Chiaverini at ABC7 Studios with a live weekday audience. Chicago_sentence_603

Since 1999, Judge Mathis also films his syndicated arbitration-based reality court show at the NBC Tower. Chicago_sentence_604

Beginning in January 2019, Newsy began producing 12 of its 14 hours of live news programming per day from its new facility in Chicago. Chicago_sentence_605

Newspapers Chicago_section_36

Two major daily newspapers are published in Chicago: the Chicago Tribune and the Chicago Sun-Times, with the Tribune having the larger circulation. Chicago_sentence_606

There are also several regional and special-interest newspapers and magazines, such as Chicago, the Dziennik Związkowy (Polish Daily News), Draugas (the Lithuanian daily newspaper), the Chicago Reader, the SouthtownStar, the Chicago Defender, the Daily Herald, Newcity, StreetWise and the Windy City Times. Chicago_sentence_607

The entertainment and cultural magazine Time Out Chicago and GRAB magazine are also published in the city, as well as local music magazine Chicago Innerview. Chicago_sentence_608

In addition, Chicago is the home of satirical national news outlet, The Onion, as well as its sister pop-culture publication, The A.V. Chicago_sentence_609 Club. Chicago_sentence_610

Movies and filming Chicago_section_37

Since the 1980s, many motion pictures have been filmed and/or set in the city such as The Untouchables, The Blues Brothers, The Matrix, Brewster's Millions, Ferris Bueller's Day Off, Sixteen Candles, Home Alone, The Fugitive, I, Robot, Mean Girls, Wanted, Batman Begins, The Dark Knight, Dhoom 3, Transformers: Dark of the Moon, Transformers: Age of Extinction, Transformers: The Last Knight, Divergent, Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice, Sinister 2, Suicide Squad. Chicago_sentence_611

Chicago has also been the setting of a number of television shows, including the situation comedies Perfect Strangers and its spinoff Family Matters, Married... with Children, Punky Brewster, Kenan & Kel, Still Standing, The League, The Bob Newhart Show, and Shake It Up. Chicago_sentence_612

The city served as the venue for the medical dramas ER and Chicago Hope, as well as the fantasy drama series Early Edition and the 2005–2009 drama Prison Break. Chicago_sentence_613

Discovery Channel films two shows in Chicago: Cook County Jail and the Chicago version of Cash Cab. Chicago_sentence_614

Other notable shows include CBS's The Good Wife and Mike and Molly. Chicago_sentence_615

Chicago is currently the setting for Showtime's Shameless, and NBC's Chicago Fire, Chicago P.D. Chicago_sentence_616

and Chicago Med. Chicago_sentence_617

All three Chicago franchise shows are filmed locally throughout Chicago. Chicago_sentence_618

Radio Chicago_section_38

Chicago has five 50,000 watt AM radio stations: the CBS Radio-owned WBBM and WSCR; the Tribune Broadcasting-owned WGN; the Cumulus Media-owned WLS; and the ESPN Radio-owned WMVP. Chicago_sentence_619

Chicago is also home to a number of national radio shows, including Beyond the Beltway with Bruce DuMont on Sunday evenings. Chicago_sentence_620

Chicago Public Radio produces nationally aired programs such as PRI's This American Life and NPR's Wait Wait...Don't Tell Me! Chicago_sentence_621 . Chicago_sentence_622

Music Chicago_section_39

In 2005, indie rock artist Sufjan Stevens created a concept album about Illinois titled Illinois; many of its songs were about Chicago and its history. Chicago_sentence_623

Industrial genre Chicago_section_40

The city was particularly important for the development of the harsh and electronic based music genre known as industrial. Chicago_sentence_624

Many themes are transgressive and derived from the works of authors such as William S. Burroughs. Chicago_sentence_625

While the genre was pioneered by Throbbing Gristle in the late 70s, the genre was largely started in the United Kingdom, with the Chicago-based record label Wax Trax! Chicago_sentence_626

later establishing itself as America's home for the genre. Chicago_sentence_627

The label first found success with Ministry, with the release of the cold life single, which entered the US Dance charts in 1982. Chicago_sentence_628

The record label later signed many prominent industrial acts, with the most notable being: My Life with the Thrill Kill Kult, KMFDM, Front Line Assembly and Front 242. Chicago_sentence_629

Richard Giraldi of the Chicago Sun-Times remarked on the significance of the label and wrote, "As important as Chess Records was to blues and soul music, Chicago's Wax Trax imprint was just as significant to the punk rock, new wave and industrial genres." Chicago_sentence_630

Video games Chicago_section_41

Chicago is also featured in a few video games, including Watch Dogs and Midtown Madness, a real-life, car-driving simulation game. Chicago_sentence_631

Chicago is home to NetherRealm Studios, the developers of the Mortal Kombat series. Chicago_sentence_632

Infrastructure Chicago_section_42

Transportation Chicago_section_43

Further information: Transportation in Chicago Chicago_sentence_633

Chicago is a major transportation hub in the United States. Chicago_sentence_634

It is an important component in global distribution, as it is the third-largest inter-modal port in the world after Hong Kong and Singapore. Chicago_sentence_635

The city of Chicago has a higher than average percentage of households without a car. Chicago_sentence_636

In 2015, 26.5 percent of Chicago households were without a car, and increased slightly to 27.5 percent in 2016. Chicago_sentence_637

The national average was 8.7 percent in 2016. Chicago_sentence_638

Chicago averaged 1.12 cars per household in 2016, compared to a national average of 1.8. Chicago_sentence_639

Expressways Chicago_section_44

Further information: Roads and expressways in Chicago Chicago_sentence_640

Seven mainline and four auxiliary interstate highways (55, 57, 65 (only in Indiana), 80 (also in Indiana), 88, 90 (also in Indiana), 94 (also in Indiana), 190, 290, 294, and 355) run through Chicago and its suburbs. Chicago_sentence_641

Segments that link to the city center are named after influential politicians, with three of them named after former U.S. Presidents (Eisenhower, Kennedy, and Reagan) and one named after two-time Democratic candidate Adlai Stevenson. Chicago_sentence_642

The Kennedy and Dan Ryan Expressways are the busiest state maintained routes in the entire state of Illinois. Chicago_sentence_643

Transit systems Chicago_section_45

The Regional Transportation Authority (RTA) coordinates the operation of the three service boards: CTA, Metra, and Pace. Chicago_sentence_644

Chicago_unordered_list_1

  • The Chicago Transit Authority (CTA) handles public transportation in the City of Chicago and a few adjacent suburbs outside of the Chicago city limits. The CTA operates an extensive network of buses and a rapid transit elevated and subway system known as the 'L' (for "elevated"), with lines designated by colors. These rapid transit lines also serve both Midway and O'Hare Airports. The CTA's rail lines consist of the Red, Blue, Green, Orange, Brown, Purple, Pink, and Yellow lines. Both the Red and Blue lines offer 24‑hour service which makes Chicago one of a handful of cities around the world (and one of two in the United States, the other being New York City) to offer rail service 24 hours a day, every day of the year, within the city's limits.Chicago_item_1_6
  • Metra, the nation's second-most used passenger regional rail network, operates an 11-line commuter rail service in Chicago and throughout the Chicago suburbs. The Metra Electric Line shares its trackage with Northern Indiana Commuter Transportation District's South Shore Line, which provides commuter service between South Bend and Chicago.Chicago_item_1_7
  • Pace provides bus and paratransit service in over 200 surrounding suburbs with some extensions into the city as well. A 2005 study found that one quarter of commuters used public transit.Chicago_item_1_8

Greyhound Lines provides inter-city bus service to and from the city, and Chicago is also the hub for the Midwest network of Megabus (North America). Chicago_sentence_645

Passenger rail Chicago_section_46

Amtrak long distance and commuter rail services originate from Union Station. Chicago_sentence_646

Chicago is one of the largest hubs of passenger rail service in the nation. Chicago_sentence_647

The services terminate in San Francisco, Washington, D.C., New York City, Indianapolis, New Orleans, Portland, Seattle, Milwaukee, Quincy, St. Chicago_sentence_648 Louis, Carbondale, Boston, Grand Rapids, Port Huron, Pontiac, Los Angeles, and San Antonio. Chicago_sentence_649

An attempt was made in the early 20th century to link Chicago with New York City via the Chicago – New York Electric Air Line Railroad. Chicago_sentence_650

Parts of this were built, but it was never completed. Chicago_sentence_651

Bicycle and scooter sharing systems Chicago_section_47

In July 2013, the bicycle-sharing system Divvy was launched with 750 bikes and 75 docking stations It is operated by Lyft for the Chicago Department of Transportation. Chicago_sentence_652

As of July 2019, Divvy operated 5800 bicycles at 608 stations, covering almost all of the city, excluding Pullman, Rosedale, Beverly, Belmont Cragin and Edison Park. Chicago_sentence_653

In May 2019, The City of Chicago announced its Chicago's Electric Shared Scooter Pilot Program, scheduled to run from June 15 to October 15. Chicago_sentence_654

The program started on June 15 with 10 different scooter companies, including scooter sharing market leaders Bird, Jump, Lime and Lyft. Chicago_sentence_655

Each company was allowed to bring 250 electric scooters, although both Bird and Lime claimed that they experienced a higher demand for their scooters. Chicago_sentence_656

The program ended on October 15, with nearly 800,000 rides taken. Chicago_sentence_657

Freight rail Chicago_section_48

Chicago is the largest hub in the railroad industry. Chicago_sentence_658

Six of the seven Class I railroads meet in Chicago, with the exception being the Kansas City Southern Railway. Chicago_sentence_659

As of 2002, severe freight train congestion caused trains to take as long to get through the Chicago region as it took to get there from the West Coast of the country (about 2 days). Chicago_sentence_660

According to U.S. Department of Transportation, the volume of imported and exported goods transported via rail to, from, or through Chicago is forecast to increase nearly 150 percent between 2010 and 2040. Chicago_sentence_661

CREATE, the Chicago Region Environmental and Transportation Efficiency Program, comprises about 70 programs, including crossovers, overpasses and underpasses, that intend to significantly improve the speed of freight movements in the Chicago area. Chicago_sentence_662

Airports Chicago_section_49

Further information: Transportation in Chicago § Airports Chicago_sentence_663

Chicago is served by O'Hare International Airport, the world's busiest airport measured by airline operations, on the far Northwest Side, and Midway International Airport on the Southwest Side. Chicago_sentence_664

In 2005, O'Hare was the world's busiest airport by aircraft movements and the second-busiest by total passenger traffic. Chicago_sentence_665

Both O'Hare and Midway are owned and operated by the City of Chicago. Chicago_sentence_666

Gary/Chicago International Airport and Chicago Rockford International Airport, located in Gary, Indiana and Rockford, Illinois, respectively, can serve as alternative Chicago area airports, however they do not offer as many commercial flights as O'Hare and Midway. Chicago_sentence_667

In recent years the state of Illinois has been leaning towards building an entirely new airport in the Illinois suburbs of Chicago. Chicago_sentence_668

The City of Chicago is the world headquarters for United Airlines, the world's third-largest airline. Chicago_sentence_669

Port authority Chicago_section_50

Main article: Port of Chicago Chicago_sentence_670

The Port of Chicago consists of several major port facilities within the city of Chicago operated by the Illinois International Port District (formerly known as the Chicago Regional Port District). Chicago_sentence_671

The central element of the Port District, Calumet Harbor, is maintained by the U.S. Chicago_sentence_672 Army Corps of Engineers. Chicago_sentence_673

Chicago_unordered_list_2

  • Iroquois Landing Lakefront Terminal: at the mouth of the Calumet River, it includes 100 acres (0.40 km) of warehouses and facilities on Lake Michigan with over 780,000 square meters (8,400,000 square feet) of storage.Chicago_item_2_9
  • Lake Calumet terminal: located at the union of the Grand Calumet River and Little Calumet River 6 miles (9.7 km) inland from Lake Michigan. Includes three transit sheds totaling over 29,000 square meters (310,000 square feet) adjacent to over 900 linear meters (3,000 linear feet) of ship and barge berthing.Chicago_item_2_10
  • Grain (14 million bushels) and bulk liquid (800,000 barrels) storage facilities along Lake Calumet.Chicago_item_2_11
  • The Illinois International Port district also operates Foreign trade zone No. 22, which extends 60 miles (97 km) from Chicago's city limits.Chicago_item_2_12

Utilities Chicago_section_51

Electricity for most of northern Illinois is provided by Commonwealth Edison, also known as ComEd. Chicago_sentence_674

Their service territory borders Iroquois County to the south, the Wisconsin border to the north, the Iowa border to the west and the Indiana border to the east. Chicago_sentence_675

In northern Illinois, ComEd (a division of Exelon) operates the greatest number of nuclear generating plants in any US state. Chicago_sentence_676

Because of this, ComEd reports indicate that Chicago receives about 75% of its electricity from nuclear power. Chicago_sentence_677

Recently, the city began installing wind turbines on government buildings to promote renewable energy. Chicago_sentence_678

Natural gas is provided by Peoples Gas, a subsidiary of Integrys Energy Group, which is headquartered in Chicago. Chicago_sentence_679

Domestic and industrial waste was once incinerated but it is now landfilled, mainly in the Calumet area. Chicago_sentence_680

From 1995 to 2008, the city had a blue bag program to divert recyclable refuse from landfills. Chicago_sentence_681

Because of low participation in the blue bag programs, the city began a pilot program for blue bin recycling like other cities. Chicago_sentence_682

This proved successful and blue bins were rolled out across the city. Chicago_sentence_683

Health systems Chicago_section_52

The Illinois Medical District is on the Near West Side. Chicago_sentence_684

It includes Rush University Medical Center, ranked as the second best hospital in the Chicago metropolitan area by U.S. News & World Report for 2014–16, the University of Illinois Medical Center at Chicago, Jesse Brown VA Hospital, and John H. Stroger Jr. Hospital of Cook County, one of the busiest trauma centers in the nation. Chicago_sentence_685

Two of the country's premier academic medical centers reside in Chicago, including Northwestern Memorial Hospital and the University of Chicago Medical Center. Chicago_sentence_686

The Chicago campus of Northwestern University includes the Feinberg School of Medicine; Northwestern Memorial Hospital, which is ranked as the best hospital in the Chicago metropolitan area by U.S. News & World Report for 2017–18; the Shirley Ryan AbilityLab (formerly named the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago), which is ranked the best U.S. rehabilitation hospital by U.S. News & World Report; the new Prentice Women's Hospital; and Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago. Chicago_sentence_687

The University of Illinois College of Medicine at UIC is the second largest medical school in the United States (2,600 students including those at campuses in Peoria, Rockford and Urbana–Champaign). Chicago_sentence_688

In addition, the Chicago Medical School and Loyola University Chicago's Stritch School of Medicine are located in the suburbs of North Chicago and Maywood, respectively. Chicago_sentence_689

The Midwestern University Chicago College of Osteopathic Medicine is in Downers Grove. Chicago_sentence_690

The American Medical Association, Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education, American Osteopathic Association, American Dental Association, Academy of General Dentistry, Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, American Association of Nurse Anesthetists, American College of Surgeons, American Society for Clinical Pathology, American College of Healthcare Executives, the American Hospital Association and Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association are all based in Chicago. Chicago_sentence_691

Sister cities Chicago_section_53

See also: List of diplomatic missions and trade organizations in Chicago Chicago_sentence_692

Chicago has 28 sister cities around the world. Chicago_sentence_693

Like Chicago, many of them are or were the second-most populous city or second-most influential city of their country, or they are the main city of a country that has had large numbers of immigrants settle in Chicago. Chicago_sentence_694

These relationships have sought to promote economic, cultural, educational, and other ties. Chicago_sentence_695

To celebrate the sister cities, Chicago hosts a yearly festival in Daley Plaza, which features cultural acts and food tastings from the other cities. Chicago_sentence_696

In addition, the Chicago Sister Cities program hosts a number of delegation and formal exchanges. Chicago_sentence_697

In some cases, these exchanges have led to further informal collaborations, such as the academic relationship between the Buehler Center on Aging, Health & Society at the Feinberg School of Medicine of Northwestern University and the Institute of Gerontology of Ukraine (originally of the Soviet Union), that was originally established as part of the Chicago-Kyiv sister cities program. Chicago_sentence_698

Sister cities Chicago_sentence_699

See also Chicago_section_54

Chicago_unordered_list_3


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chicago.