This article is about the city in Illinois.
For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation).
|Incorporated (town)||August 12, 1833|
|Incorporated (city)||March 4, 1837|
|Founded by||Jean Baptiste Point du Sable|
|Body||Chicago City Council|
|Mayor||Lori Lightfoot (D)|
|City Clerk||Anna Valencia (D)|
|City Treasurer||Melissa Conyears-Ervin (D)|
|City||234.21 sq mi (606.60 km)|
|Land||227.41 sq mi (588.98 km)|
|Water||6.80 sq mi (17.62 km) 3.0%|
|Urban||2,122 sq mi (5,496 km)|
|Metro||10,874 sq mi (28,160 km)|
|Elevation (mean)||597.18 ft (182.02 m)|
– near Blue Island
|672 ft (205 m)|
– at Lake Michigan
|578 ft (176 m)|
|Density||11,846.55/sq mi (4,573.98/km)|
|CSA||9,901,711 (US: 3rd)|
|Time zone||UTC−06:00 (Central)|
|Summer (DST)||UTC−05:00 (Central)|
|ZIP Code Prefixes||606xx, 607xx, 608xx|
|Area codes||312/872 and 773/872|
|GNIS feature ID|
|Major Airports||O'Hare Airport|
With an estimated population of 2,693,976 in 2019, it is also the most populous city in the Midwestern United States.
Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area, defined as either the U.S. Census Bureau's Metropolitan Statistical Area (9.4 million people) or the larger Combined Statistical Area (almost 10 million residents), often called Chicagoland.
Located on the shores of freshwater Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed and grew rapidly in the mid-19th century.
The construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the following decades, and by 1900, less than 30 years after the great fire, Chicago was the fifth-largest city in the world.
Chicago made noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, including new construction styles (including the Chicago School of architecture), the development of the City Beautiful Movement, and the steel-framed skyscraper.
Chicago is an international hub for finance, culture, commerce, industry, education, technology, telecommunications, and transportation.
It is the site of the creation of the first standardized futures contracts, issued by the Chicago Board of Trade, which today is part of the largest and most diverse derivatives market in the world, generating 20% of all volume in commodities and financial futures alone.
The region also has the largest number of federal highways and is the nation's railroad hub.
The Chicago area has one of the highest gross domestic products (GDP) in the world, generating $689 billion in 2018.
The economy of Chicago is diverse, with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce.
Chicago is home to several Fortune 500 companies, including Allstate, Boeing, Caterpillar, Exelon, Kraft Heinz, McDonald's, Mondelez International, Sears, United Airlines Holdings, US Foods, and Walgreens.
Landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis (Sears) Tower, Grant Park, the Museum of Science and Industry, and Lincoln Park Zoo.
Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, literature, film, theatre, comedy (especially improvisational comedy), food, and music, particularly jazz, blues, soul, hip-hop, gospel, and electronic dance music including house music.
Etymology and nicknames
Main article: List of nicknames for Chicago
The name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the indigenous Miami-Illinois word shikaakwa for a wild relative of the onion; it is known to botanists as Allium tricoccum and known more commonly as "ramps".
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir.
Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the eponymous wild "garlic" grew abundantly in the area.
According to his diary of late September 1687:
The city has had several nicknames throughout its history, such as the Windy City, Chi-Town, Second City, and City of the Big Shoulders.
See also: Timeline of Chicago history
The first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was explorer Jean Baptiste Point du Sable.
Du Sable was of African and French descent and arrived in the 1780s.
He is commonly known as the "Founder of Chicago".
In 1795, following the victory of the new United States in the Northwest Indian War, an area that was to be part of Chicago was turned over to the US for a military post by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville.
This was destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn by the British and their native allies.
It was later rebuilt.
On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200.
Within seven years it grew to more than 6,000 people.
On June 15, 1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as Receiver of Public Monies.
The City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837, and for several decades was the world's fastest-growing city.
As the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States.
A flourishing economy brought residents from rural communities and immigrants from abroad.
Manufacturing and retail and finance sectors became dominant, influencing the American economy.
In the 1850s, Chicago gained national political prominence as the home of Senator Stephen Douglas, the champion of the Kansas–Nebraska Act and the "popular sovereignty" approach to the issue of the spread of slavery.
These issues also helped propel another Illinoisan, Abraham Lincoln, to the national stage.
He defeated Douglas in the general election, and this set the stage for the American Civil War.
To accommodate rapid population growth and demand for better sanitation, the city improved its infrastructure.
In February 1856, Chicago's Common Council approved Chesbrough's plan to build the United States' first comprehensive sewerage system.
The project raised much of central Chicago to a new grade.
While elevating Chicago, and at first improving the city's health, the untreated sewage and industrial waste now flowed into the Chicago River, and subsequently into Lake Michigan, polluting the city's primary freshwater source.
The city responded by tunneling two miles (3.2 km) out into Lake Michigan to newly built water cribs.
In 1900, the problem of sewage contamination was largely resolved when the city completed a major engineering feat.
It reversed the flow of the Chicago River so that the water flowed away from Lake Michigan rather than into it.
This project began with the construction and improvement of the Illinois and Michigan Canal, and was completed with the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal that connects to the Illinois River, which flows into the Mississippi River.
In 1871, the Great Chicago Fire destroyed an area about 4 miles (6.4 km) long and 1-mile (1.6 km) wide, a large section of the city at the time.
Much of the city, including railroads and stockyards, survived intact, and from the ruins of the previous wooden structures arose more modern constructions of steel and stone.
These set a precedent for worldwide construction.
The city has grown significantly in size and population by incorporating many neighboring townships between 1851 and 1920, with the largest annexation happening in 1889, with five townships joining the city, including the Hyde Park Township, which now comprises most of the South Side of Chicago and the far southeast of Chicago, and the Jefferson Township, which now makes up most of Chicago's Northwest Side.
The desire to join the city was driven by municipal services that the city could provide its residents.
Of the total population in 1900, more than 77% were either foreign-born or born in the United States of foreign parentage.
Anarchist and socialist groups played prominent roles in creating very large and highly organized labor actions.
Programs that were developed there became a model for the new field of social work.
During the 1870s and 1880s, Chicago attained national stature as the leader in the movement to improve public health.
These laws became templates for public health reform in other cities and states.
The city established many large, well-landscaped municipal parks, which also included public sanitation facilities.
The chief advocate for improving public health in Chicago was Dr.
John H. Rauch, M.D. Rauch established a plan for Chicago's park system in 1866.
He created Lincoln Park by closing a cemetery filled with shallow graves, and in 1867, in response to an outbreak of cholera he helped establish a new Chicago Board of Health.
Ten years later, he became the secretary and then the president of the first Illinois State Board of Health, which carried out most of its activities in Chicago.
In the 1800s, Chicago became the nation's railroad hub, and by 1910 over 20 railroads operated passenger service out of six different downtown terminals.
In 1883, Chicago's railway managers needed a general time convention, so they developed the standardized system of North American time zones.
This system for telling time spread throughout the continent.
The Exposition drew 27.5 million visitors, and is considered the most influential world's fair in history.
The University of Chicago, formerly at another location, moved to the same South Side location in 1892.
The term "midway" for a fair or carnival referred originally to the Midway Plaisance, a strip of park land that still runs through the University of Chicago campus and connects the Washington and Jackson Parks.
20th and 21st centuries
1900 to 1939
During World War I and the 1920s there was a major expansion in industry.
The availability of jobs attracted African Americans from the Southern United States.
Between 1910 and 1930, the African American population of Chicago increased dramatically, from 44,103 to 233,903.
Continuing racial tensions and violence, such as the Chicago Race Riot of 1919, also occurred.
The ratification of the 18th amendment to the Constitution in 1919 made the production and sale (including exportation) of alcoholic beverages illegal in the United States.
This ushered in the beginning of what is known as the Gangster Era, a time that roughly spans from 1919 until 1933 when Prohibition was repealed.
Chicago was the location of the infamous St.
Valentine's Day Massacre in 1929, when Al Capone sent men to gun down members of a rival gang, North Side, led by Bugs Moran.
Chicago was the first American city to have a homosexual-rights organization.
The organization, formed in 1924, was called the Society for Human Rights.
It produced the first American publication for homosexuals, Friendship and Freedom.
Police and political pressure caused the organization to disband.
The Great Depression brought unprecedented suffering to Chicago, in no small part due to the city's heavy reliance on heavy industry.
Notably, industrial areas on the south side and neighborhoods lining both branches of the Chicago River were devastated; by 1933 over 50% of industrial jobs in the city had been lost, and unemployment rates amongst blacks and Mexicans in the city were over 40%.
The Republican political machine in Chicago was utterly destroyed by the economic crisis, and every mayor since 1931 has been a Democrat.
From 1928 to 1933, the city witnessed a tax revolt, and the city was unable to meet payroll or provide relief efforts.
Unemployed workers, relief recipients, and unpaid schoolteachers held huge demonstrations during the early years of the Great Depression.
The fiscal crisis was resolved by 1933, and at the same time, federal relief funding began to flow into Chicago and enabled the city to complete construction of Lake Shore Drive, landscape numerous parks, construct 30 new schools, and build a thoroughly modernized State Street Subway.
Chicago was also a hotbed of labor activism, with Unemployed Councils contributing heavily in the early depression to create solidarity for the poor and demand relief, these organizations were created by socialist and communist groups.
By 1935 the Workers Alliance of America begun organizing the poor, workers, the unemployed.
In the spring of 1937 Republic Steel Works witnessed the Memorial Day massacre of 1937 in the neighborhood of East Side.
The theme of the fair was technological innovation over the century since Chicago's founding.
1940 to 1979
When general prosperity returned in 1940, Chicago had an entrenched Democratic machine, a fully solvent city government, and a population that had enthusiastically shared mass culture and mass movements.
Over one-third of the workers in Chicago's manufacturing sector were unionized.
The city's diversified industrial base made it second only to Detroit in the value—$24 billion—of war goods produced.
Over 1,400 companies produced everything from field rations to parachutes to torpedoes, while new aircraft plants employed 100,000 in the construction of engines, aluminum sheeting, bombsights, and other components.
The Great Migration, which had been on pause due to the Depression, resumed at an even faster pace in the second wave, as hundreds of thousands of blacks from the South arrived in the city to work in the steel mills, railroads, and shipping yards.
This led to the creation of the atomic bomb by the United States, which it used in World War II in 1945.
In 1956, the city conducted its last major expansion when it annexed the land under O'Hare airport, including a small portion of DuPage County.
By the 1960s, white residents in several neighborhoods left the city for the suburban areas – in many American cities, a process known as white flight – as Blacks continued to move beyond the Black Belt.
While home loan discriminatory redlining against blacks continued, the real estate industry practiced what became known as blockbusting, completely changing the racial composition of whole neighborhoods.
Structural changes in industry, such as globalization and job outsourcing, caused heavy job losses for lower-skilled workers.
At its peak during the 1960s, some 250,000 workers were employed in the steel industry in Chicago, but the steel crisis of the 1970s and 1980s reduced this number to just 28,000 in 2015.
Two years later, the city hosted the tumultuous 1968 Democratic National Convention, which featured physical confrontations both inside and outside the convention hall, with anti-war protesters, journalists and bystanders being beaten by police.
Major construction projects, including the Sears Tower (now known as the Willis Tower, which in 1974 became the world's tallest building), University of Illinois at Chicago, McCormick Place, and O'Hare International Airport, were undertaken during Richard J. Daley's tenure.
In 1979, Jane Byrne, the city's first female mayor, was elected.
She was notable for temporarily moving into the crime-ridden Cabrini-Green housing project and for leading Chicago's school system out of a financial crisis.
1980 to present
In 1983, Harold Washington became the first black mayor of Chicago.
Washington's first term in office directed attention to poor and previously neglected minority neighborhoods.
He was re‑elected in 1987 but died of a heart attack soon after.
Richard M. Daley, son of Richard J. Daley, was elected in 1989.
After successfully running for re-election five times, and becoming Chicago's longest-serving mayor, Richard M. Daley declined to run for a seventh term.
In 1992, a construction accident near the Kinzie Street Bridge produced a breach connecting the Chicago River to a tunnel below, which was part of an abandoned freight tunnel system extending throughout the downtown Loop district.
The tunnels filled with 250 million US gallons (1,000,000 m) of water, affecting buildings throughout the district and forcing a shutdown of electrical power.
The area was shut down for three days and some buildings did not reopen for weeks; losses were estimated at $1.95 billion.
Emanuel was sworn in as mayor on May 16, 2011, and won re-election in 2015.
Lori Lightfoot, the city's first African American woman mayor and its first openly LGBTQ Mayor, was elected to succeed Emanuel as mayor in 2019.
Main article: Geography of Chicago
Chicago is located in northeastern Illinois on the southwestern shores of freshwater Lake Michigan.
Chicago's history and economy are closely tied to its proximity to Lake Michigan.
The lake also provides another positive effect: moderating Chicago's climate, making waterfront neighborhoods slightly warmer in winter and cooler in summer.
When Chicago was founded in 1837, most of the early building was around the mouth of the Chicago River, as can be seen on a map of the city's original 58 blocks.
The overall grade of the city's central, built-up areas is relatively consistent with the natural flatness of its overall natural geography, generally exhibiting only slight differentiation otherwise.
The average land elevation is 579 ft (176.5 m) above sea level.
While measurements vary somewhat, the lowest points are along the lake shore at 578 ft (176.2 m), while the highest point, at 672 ft (205 m), is the morainal ridge of Blue Island in the city's far south side.
Lake Shore Drive runs adjacent to a large portion of Chicago's waterfront.
There are 24 public beaches across 26 miles (42 km) of the waterfront.
Most of the city's high-rise commercial and residential buildings are close to the waterfront.
An informal name for the entire Chicago metropolitan area is "Chicagoland", which generally means the city and all its suburbs.
The Chicago Tribune, which coined the term, includes the city of Chicago, the rest of Cook County, and eight nearby Illinois counties: Lake, McHenry, DuPage, Kane, Kendall, Grundy, Will and Kankakee, and three counties in Indiana: Lake, Porter and LaPorte.
The Illinois Department of Tourism defines Chicagoland as Cook County without the city of Chicago, and only Lake, DuPage, Kane, and Will counties.
The Chicagoland Chamber of Commerce defines it as all of Cook and DuPage, Kane, Lake, McHenry, and Will counties.
The three sides of the city are represented on the Flag of Chicago by three horizontal white stripes.
The North Side is the most-densely-populated residential section of the city, and many high-rises are located on this side of the city along the lakefront.
The South Side is the largest section of the city, encompassing roughly 60% of the city's land area.
The South Side contains most of the facilities of the Port of Chicago.
Main article: Roads and expressways in Chicago
Chicago's streets were laid out in a street grid that grew from the city's original townsite plot, which was bounded by Lake Michigan on the east, North Avenue on the north, Wood Street on the west, and 22nd Street on the south.
Streets following the Public Land Survey System section lines later became arterial streets in outlying sections.
As new additions to the city were platted, city ordinance required them to be laid out with eight streets to the mile in one direction and sixteen in the other direction (about one street per 200 meters in one direction and one street per 100 meters in the other direction).
The grid's regularity provided an efficient means of developing new real estate property.
A scattering of diagonal streets, many of them originally Native American trails, also cross the city (Elston, Milwaukee, Ogden, Lincoln, etc.).
In 2016, Chicago was ranked the sixth-most walkable large city in the United States.
Many of the city's residential streets have a wide patch of grass and/or trees between the street and the sidewalk itself.
This helps to keep pedestrians on the sidewalk further away from the street traffic.
Chicago's Western Avenue is the longest continuous urban street in the world.
The City Beautiful movement inspired Chicago's boulevards and parkways.
The destruction caused by the Great Chicago Fire led to the largest building boom in the history of the nation.
In 1885, the first steel-framed high-rise building, the Home Insurance Building, rose in the city as Chicago ushered in the skyscraper era, which would then be followed by many other cities around the world.
Today, Chicago's skyline is among the world's tallest and densest.
Some of the United States' tallest towers are located in Chicago; Willis Tower (formerly Sears Tower) is the second tallest building in the Western Hemisphere after One World Trade Center, and Trump International Hotel and Tower is the third tallest in the country.
The Merchandise Mart, once first on the list of largest buildings in the world, currently listed as 44th-largest (as of 9 September 2013), had its own zip code until 2008, and stands near the junction of the North and South branches of the Chicago River.
Presently, the four tallest buildings in the city are Willis Tower (formerly the Sears Tower, also a building with its own zip code), Trump International Hotel and Tower, the Aon Center (previously the Standard Oil Building), and the John Hancock Center.
Multiple kinds and scales of houses, townhouses, condominiums, and apartment buildings can be found throughout Chicago.
Large swaths of the city's residential areas away from the lake are characterized by brick bungalows built from the early 20th century through the end of World War II.
A popular tourist activity is to take an architecture boat tour along the Chicago River.
Monuments and public art
A number of Chicago's public art works are by modern figurative artists.
Among these are Chagall's Four Seasons; the Chicago Picasso; Miro's Chicago; Calder's Flamingo; Oldenburg's Batcolumn; Moore's Large Interior Form, 1953-54, Man Enters the Cosmos and Nuclear Energy; Dubuffet's Monument with Standing Beast, Abakanowicz's Agora; and, Anish Kapoor's Cloud Gate which has become an icon of the city.
More representational and portrait statuary includes a number of works by Lorado Taft (Fountain of Time, The Crusader, Eternal Silence, and the Heald Square Monument completed by Crunelle), French's Statue of the Republic, Edward Kemys's Lions, Saint-Gaudens's Abraham Lincoln: The Man (a.k.a.
Standing Lincoln) and Abraham Lincoln: The Head of State (a.k.a.
Seated Lincoln), Brioschi's Christopher Columbus, Meštrović's The Bowman and The Spearman, Dallin's Signal of Peace, Fairbanks's The Chicago Lincoln, Boyle's The Alarm, Polasek's memorial to Masaryk, memorials along Solidarity Promenade to Kościuszko, Havliček and Copernicus by Chodzinski, Strachovský, and Thorvaldsen, a memorial to General Logan by Saint-Gaudens, and Kearney's Moose (W-02-03).
A number of statues also honor recent local heroes such as Michael Jordan (by Amrany and Rotblatt-Amrany), Stan Mikita, and Bobby Hull outside of the United Center; Harry Caray (by Amrany and Cella) outside Wrigley field, Jack Brickhouse (by McKenna) next to the WGN studios, and Irv Kupcinet at the Wabash Avenue Bridge.
There are preliminary plans to erect a 1:1‑scale replica of Wacław Szymanowski's Art Nouveau statue of Frédéric Chopin found in Warsaw's Royal Baths along Chicago's lakefront in addition to a different sculpture commemorating the artist in Chopin Park for the 200th anniversary of Frédéric Chopin's birth.
Main article: Climate of Chicago
The July daily average temperature is 75.9 °F (24.4 °C), with afternoon temperatures peaking at 85.0 °F (29.4 °C).
In a normal summer, temperatures reach at least 90 °F (32 °C) on as many as 23 days, with lakefront locations staying cooler when winds blow off the lake.
There are many sunny but cold days in winter.
The normal winter high from December through March is about 36 °F (2 °C), with January and February being the coldest months; a polar vortex in January 2019 nearly broke the city's cold record of −27 °F (−33 °C), which was set on January 20, 1985.
Dew point temperatures in the summer range from an average of 55.7 °F (13.2 °C) in June to 61.7 °F (16.5 °C) in July, but can reach nearly 80 °F (27 °C), such as during the July 2019 heat wave.
According to the National Weather Service, Chicago's highest official temperature reading of 105 °F (41 °C) was recorded on July 24, 1934, although Midway Airport reached 109 °F (43 °C) one day prior and recorded a heat index of 125 °F (52 °C) during the 1995 heatwave.
The lowest official temperature of −27 °F (−33 °C) was recorded on January 20, 1985, at O'Hare Airport.
Most of the city's rainfall is brought by thunderstorms, averaging 38 a year.
The region is also prone to severe thunderstorms during the spring and summer which can produce large hail, damaging winds, and occasionally tornadoes.
Like other major cities, Chicago experiences an urban heat island, making the city and its suburbs milder than surrounding rural areas, especially at night and in winter.
The proximity to Lake Michigan tends to keep the Chicago lakefront somewhat cooler in summer and less brutally cold in winter than inland parts of the city and suburbs away from the lake.
|Climate data for Chicago|
|Mean daily daylight hours||10.0||11.0||12.0||13.0||15.0||15.0||15.0||14.0||12.0||11.0||10.0||9.0||12.2|
|Source: Weather Atlas|
As in the rest of the state of Illinois, Chicago forms part of the Central Time Zone.
The border with the Eastern Time Zone is located a short distance to the east, used in Michigan and certain parts of Indiana.
Main article: Demographics of Chicago
During its first hundred years, Chicago was one of the fastest-growing cities in the world.
When founded in 1833, fewer than 200 people had settled on what was then the American frontier.
By the time of its first census, seven years later, the population had reached over 4,000.
In the forty years from 1850 to 1890, the city's population grew from slightly under 30,000 to over 1 million.
At the end of the 19th century, Chicago was the fifth-largest city in the world, and the largest of the cities that did not exist at the dawn of the century.
Within sixty years of the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, the population went from about 300,000 to over 3 million, and reached its highest ever recorded population of 3.6 million for the 1950 census.
From the last two decades of the 19th century, Chicago was the destination of waves of immigrants from Ireland, Southern, Central and Eastern Europe, including Italians, Jews, Poles, Greeks, Lithuanians, Bulgarians, Albanians, Romanians, Turkish, Croatians, Serbs, Bosnians, Montenegrins and Czechs.
To these ethnic groups, the basis of the city's industrial working class, were added an additional influx of African Americans from the American South—with Chicago's black population doubling between 1910 and 1920 and doubling again between 1920 and 1930.
A large number of blacks also settled on the West Side.
By 1930, two-thirds of Chicago's black population lived in sections of the city which were 90% black in racial composition.
Chicago's South Side emerged as United States second-largest urban black concentration, following New York's Harlem.
Today, Chicago's South Side and the adjoining south suburbs constitute the largest black majority region in the entire United States.
Chicago's population declined in the latter half of the 20th century, from over 3.6 million in 1950 down to under 2.7 million by 2010.
By the time of the official census count in 1990, it was overtaken by Los Angeles as the United States' second largest city.
The city has seen a rise in population for the 2000 census and is expected to have an increase for the 2020 census.
Per U.S. Census estimates as of July 2019, Chicago's largest racial or ethnic group is non-Hispanic White at 32.8% of the population, Blacks at 30.1% and the Hispanic population at 29.0% of the population
|Black or African American||32.9%||39.1%||32.7%||8.2%|
|Hispanic or Latino (of any race)||28.9%||19.6%||7.4%||0.5%|
As of the 2010 census, there were 2,695,598 people with 1,045,560 households living in Chicago.
More than half the population of the state of Illinois lives in the Chicago metropolitan area.
Chicago is one of the United States' most densely populated major cities, and the largest city in the Great Lakes Megalopolis.
The racial composition of the city was:
- 44.9% White (31.7% non-Hispanic whites);
- 32.9% Black or African American;
- 13.4% from some other race;
- 5.5% Asian (1.6% Chinese, 1.1% Indian, 1.1% Filipino, 0.4% Korean, 0.3% Pakistani, 0.3% Vietnamese, 0.2% Japanese, 0.1% Thai);
- 2.7% from two or more races;
- 0.5% American Indian.
Chicago has a Hispanic or Latino population of 28.9%.
(Its members may belong to any race; 21.4% Mexican, 3.8% Puerto Rican, 0.7% Guatemalan, 0.6% Ecuadorian, 0.3% Cuban, 0.3% Colombian, 0.2% Honduran, 0.2% Salvadoran, 0.2% Peruvian).
Chicago has the third-largest LGBT population in the United States.
In 2015, roughly 4% of the population identified as LGBT.
According to the U.S. Census Bureau's American Community Survey data estimates for 2008–2012, the median income for a household in the city was $47,408, and the median income for a family was $54,188.
Male full-time workers had a median income of $47,074 versus $42,063 for females.
About 18.3% of families and 22.1% of the population lived below the poverty line.
In 2018, Chicago ranked 7th globally for the highest number of ultra-high-net-worth residents with roughly 3,300 residents worth more than $30 million.
According to the 2008–2012 American Community Survey, the ancestral groups having 10,000 or more persons in Chicago were:
Persons identifying themselves as "Other groups" were classified at 1.72 million, and unclassified or not reported were approximately 153,000.
Chicago also has a sizable non-Christian population.
It is the seat of several dioceses.
since the 20th century Chicago has also been the headquarters of the Assyrian Church of the East.
Non-Christian faiths accounted for 7% of the religious population in 2014.
Judaism has 261,000 adherents which is 3% of the population being the second largest religion.
The first two Parliament of the World's Religions in 1893 and 1993 were held in Chicago.
Main article: Economy of Chicago
Chicago has the third-largest gross metropolitan product in the United States—about $670.5 billion according to September 2017 estimates.
The city has also been rated as having the most balanced economy in the United States, due to its high level of diversification.
In 2007, Chicago was named the fourth-most important business center in the world in the MasterCard Worldwide Centers of Commerce Index.
Additionally, the Chicago metropolitan area recorded the greatest number of new or expanded corporate facilities in the United States for calendar year 2014.
The Chicago metropolitan area has the third-largest science and engineering work force of any metropolitan area in the nation.
In 2009 Chicago placed ninth on the UBS list of the world's richest cities.
Chicago was the base of commercial operations for industrialists John Crerar, John Whitfield Bunn, Richard Teller Crane, Marshall Field, John Farwell, Julius Rosenwald and many other commercial visionaries who laid the foundation for Midwestern and global industry.
Chicago is a major world financial center, with the second-largest central business district in the United States.
The city is the seat of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, the Bank's Seventh District.
The city has major financial and futures exchanges, including the Chicago Stock Exchange, the Chicago Board Options Exchange (CBOE), and the Chicago Mercantile Exchange (the "Merc"), which is owned, along with the Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT) by Chicago's CME Group.
In 2017, Chicago exchanges traded 4.7 billion derivatives with a face value of over one quadrillion dollars.
The city and its surrounding metropolitan area contain the third-largest labor pool in the United States with about 4.63 million workers.
Illinois is home to 66 Fortune 1000 companies, including those in Chicago.
The city of Chicago also hosts 12 Fortune Global 500 companies and 17 Financial Times 500 companies.
For six consecutive years since 2013, Chicago was ranked the nation's top metropolitan area for corporate relocations.
Manufacturing, printing, publishing and food processing also play major roles in the city's economy.
In addition to Boeing, which located its headquarters in Chicago in 2001, and United Airlines in 2011, GE Transportation moved its offices to the city in 2013 and GE Healthcare moved its HQ to the city in 2016, as did ThyssenKrupp North America, and agriculture giant Archer Daniels Midland.
Moreover, the construction of the Illinois and Michigan Canal, which helped move goods from the Great Lakes south on the Mississippi River, and of the railroads in the 19th century made the city a major transportation center in the United States.
In the 1840s, Chicago became a major grain port, and in the 1850s and 1860s Chicago's pork and beef industry expanded.
As the major meat companies grew in Chicago many, such as Armour and Company, created global enterprises.
Although the meatpacking industry currently plays a lesser role in the city's economy, Chicago continues to be a major transportation and distribution center.
Lured by a combination of large business customers, federal research dollars, and a large hiring pool fed by the area's universities, Chicago is also the site of a growing number of web startup companies like CareerBuilder, Orbitz, Basecamp, Groupon, Feedburner, Grubhub and NowSecure.
Late in the 19th century, Chicago was part of the bicycle craze, with the Western Wheel Company, which introduced stamping to the production process and significantly reduced costs, while early in the 20th century, the city was part of the automobile revolution, hosting the Brass Era car builder Bugmobile, which was founded there in 1907.
Chicago was also the site of the Schwinn Bicycle Company.
Chicago is a major world convention destination.
The city's main convention center is McCormick Place.
With its four interconnected buildings, it is the largest convention center in the nation and third-largest in the world.
Chicago's minimum wage for non-tipped employees is one of the highest in the nation at $14 per hour and will reach $15 by 2021.
Culture and contemporary life
Further information: Culture of Chicago, List of people from Chicago, and List of museums and cultural institutions in Chicago
The city's waterfront location and nightlife has attracted residents and tourists alike.
The city has many upscale dining establishments as well as many ethnic restaurant districts.
These districts include the Mexican American neighborhoods, such as Pilsen along 18th street, and La Villita along 26th Street; the Puerto Rican enclave of Paseo Boricua in the Humboldt Park neighborhood; Greektown, along South Halsted Street, immediately west of downtown; Little Italy, along Taylor Street; Chinatown in Armour Square; Polish Patches in West Town; Little Seoul in Albany Park around Lawrence Avenue; Little Vietnam near Broadway in Uptown; and the Desi area, along Devon Avenue in West Ridge.
Downtown is the center of Chicago's financial, cultural, governmental and commercial institutions and the site of Grant Park and many of the city's skyscrapers.
Many of the city's financial institutions, such as the CBOT and the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, are located within a section of downtown called "The Loop", which is an eight-block by five-block area of city streets that is encircled by elevated rail tracks.
The term "The Loop" is largely used by locals to refer to the entire downtown area as well.
The River North Gallery District features the nation's largest concentration of contemporary art galleries outside of New York City.
The Chicago Pride Parade, held the last Sunday in June, is one of the world's largest with over a million people in attendance.
North Halsted Street is the main thoroughfare of Boystown.
The 6-mile (9.7 km) long Burnham Park stretches along the waterfront of the South Side.
Two of the city's largest parks are also located on this side of the city: Jackson Park, bordering the waterfront, hosted the World's Columbian Exposition in 1893, and is the site of the aforementioned museum; and slightly west sits Washington Park.
The two parks themselves are connected by a wide strip of parkland called the Midway Plaisance, running adjacent to the University of Chicago.
The West Side holds the Garfield Park Conservatory, one of the largest collections of tropical plants in any U.S. city.
Prominent Latino cultural attractions found here include Humboldt Park's Institute of Puerto Rican Arts and Culture and the annual Puerto Rican People's Parade, as well as the National Museum of Mexican Art and St.
The city's distinctive accent, made famous by its use in classic films like The Blues Brothers and television programs like the Saturday Night Live skit "Bill Swerski's Superfans", is an advanced form of Inland Northern American English.
This dialect can also be found in other cities bordering the Great Lakes such as Cleveland, Milwaukee, Detroit, and Rochester, New York, and most prominently features a rearrangement of certain vowel sounds, such as the short 'a' sound as in "cat", which can sound more like "kyet" to outsiders.
The accent remains well associated with the city.
Entertainment and the arts
Renowned Chicago theater companies include the Goodman Theatre in the Loop; the Steppenwolf Theatre Company and Victory Gardens Theater in Lincoln Park; and the Chicago Shakespeare Theater at Navy Pier.
Broadway In Chicago offers Broadway-style entertainment at five theaters: the Nederlander Theatre, CIBC Theatre, Cadillac Palace Theatre, Auditorium Building of Roosevelt University, and Broadway Playhouse at Water Tower Place.
Since 1968, the Joseph Jefferson Awards are given annually to acknowledge excellence in theater in the Chicago area.
Ravinia Festival, located 25 miles (40 km) north of Chicago, is the summer home of the CSO, and is a favorite destination for many Chicagoans.
The city has been a center for rave culture, since the 1980s.
A flourishing independent rock music culture brought forth Chicago indie.
A 2007 report on the Chicago music industry by the University of Chicago Cultural Policy Center ranked Chicago third among metropolitan U.S. areas in "size of music industry" and fourth among all U.S. cities in "number of concerts and performances".
Chicago has a distinctive fine art tradition.
Chicago contains a number of large, outdoor works by well-known artists.
These include the Chicago Picasso, Miró's Chicago, Flamingo and Flying Dragon by Alexander Calder, Agora by Magdalena Abakanowicz, Monument with Standing Beast by Jean Dubuffet, Batcolumn by Claes Oldenburg, Cloud Gate by Anish Kapoor, Crown Fountain by Jaume Plensa, and the Four Seasons mosaic by Marc Chagall.
Chicago also has a nationally televised Thanksgiving parade that occurs annually.
The McDonald's Thanksgiving Parade is seen across the nation on WGN-TV and WGN America, featuring a variety of diverse acts from the community, marching bands from across the country, and is the only parade in the city to feature inflatable balloons every year.
Main article: Tourism in Chicago
In 2014, Chicago attracted 50.17 million domestic leisure travelers, 11.09 million domestic business travelers and 1.308 million overseas visitors.
These visitors contributed more than US$13.7 billion to Chicago's economy.
The city is the United States' third-largest convention destination.
A 2017 study by Walk Score ranked Chicago the sixth-most walkable of fifty largest cities in the United States.
The ceiling of its Preston Bradley Hall includes a 38-foot (12 m) Tiffany glass dome.
The park also hosts the annual Taste of Chicago festival.
Also, an outdoor restaurant transforms into an ice rink in the winter season.
Two tall glass sculptures make up the Crown Fountain.
The fountain's two towers display visual effects from LED images of Chicagoans' faces, along with water spouting from their lips.
In the summer of 2016, Navy Pier constructed a DW60 Ferris wheel.
Dutch Wheels, a world renowned company that manufactures ferris wheels, was selected to design the new wheel.
It features 42 navy blue gondolas that can hold up to eight adults and two kids.
It also has entertainment systems inside the gondolas as well as a climate controlled environment.
The DW60 stands at approximately 196 ft (60 m), which is 46 ft taller than the previous wheel.
The new DW60 is the first in the United States and is the sixth tallest in the U.S. Chicago was the first city in the world to ever erect a ferris wheel.
On June 4, 1998, the city officially opened the Museum Campus, a 10-acre (4.0 ha) lakefront park, surrounding three of the city's main museums, each of which is of national importance: the Adler Planetarium & Astronomy Museum, the Field Museum of Natural History, and the Shedd Aquarium.
Buckingham Fountain anchors the downtown park along the lakefront.
Other museums and galleries in Chicago include the Chicago History Museum, the Driehaus Museum, the DuSable Museum of African American History, the Museum of Contemporary Art, the Peggy Notebaert Nature Museum, the Polish Museum of America, the Museum of Broadcast Communications, the Pritzker Military Library, the Chicago Architecture Foundation, and the Museum of Science and Industry.
With an estimated completion date of 2020, the Barack Obama Presidential Center will be housed at the University of Chicago in Hyde Park and include both the Obama presidential library and offices of the Obama Foundation.
The Willis Tower (formerly named Sears Tower) is a popular destination for tourists.
The Willis Tower has an observation deck open to tourists year round with high up views overlooking Chicago and Lake Michigan.
The observation deck includes an enclosed glass balcony that extends 10 feet out on the side of the building.
Tourists are able to look straight down.
In 2013, Chicago was chosen as one of the "Top Ten Cities in the United States" to visit for its restaurants, skyscrapers, museums, and waterfront, by the readers of Condé Nast Traveler, and in 2020 for the fourth year in a row, Chicago was named the top U.S. city tourism destination.
Chicago lays claim to a large number of regional specialties that reflect the city's ethnic and working-class roots.
The Chicago-style thin crust is also popular in the city.
The Chicago-style hot dog, typically an all-beef hot dog, is loaded with an array of toppings that often includes pickle relish, yellow mustard, pickled sport peppers, tomato wedges, dill pickle spear and topped off with celery salt on a poppy seed bun.
A popular modification is the Combo—an Italian beef sandwich with the addition of an Italian sausage.
Chicken Vesuvio is roasted bone-in chicken cooked in oil and garlic next to garlicky oven-roasted potato wedges and a sprinkling of green peas.
In 2003, Robb Report named Chicago the country's "most exceptional dining destination".
Further information: Chicago literature
Chicago literature finds its roots in the city's tradition of lucid, direct journalism, lending to a strong tradition of social realism.
The challenge for early writers was that Chicago was a frontier outpost that transformed into a global metropolis in the span of two generations.
Narrative fiction of that time, much of it in the style of "high-flown romance" and "genteel realism", needed a new approach to describe the urban social, political, and economic conditions of Chicago.
Nonetheless, Chicagoans worked hard to create a literary tradition that would stand the test of time, and create a "city of feeling" out of concrete, steel, vast lake, and open prairie.
Much notable Chicago fiction focuses on the city itself, with social criticism keeping exultation in check.
These include from the time of the Great Chicago Fire to about 1900, what became known as the Chicago Literary Renaissance in the 1910s and early 1920s, and the period of the Great Depression through the 1940s.
From the 1950s through 1970s, American poetry continued to evolve in Chicago.
In the 1980s, a modern form of poetry performance began in Chicago, the Poetry Slam.
Main article: Sports in Chicago
Sporting News named Chicago the "Best Sports City" in the United States in 1993, 2006, and 2010.
Along with Boston, Chicago is the only city to continuously host major professional sports since 1871, having only taken 1872 and 1873 off due to the Great Chicago Fire.
Additionally, Chicago is one of the eight cities in the United States to have won championships in the four major professional leagues and, along with Los Angeles, New York, Philadelphia and Washington, is one of five cities to have won soccer championships as well.
All of its major franchises have won championships within recent years – the Bears (1985), the Bulls (1991, 1992, 1993, 1996, 1997, and 1998), the White Sox (2005), the Cubs (2016), the Blackhawks (2010, 2013, 2015), and the Fire (1998).
Chicago has the third most franchises in the four major North American sports leagues with five, behind the New York and Los Angeles Metropolitan Areas, and have six top-level professional sports clubs when including Chicago Fire FC of Major League Soccer (MLS).
The city has two Major League Baseball (MLB) teams: the Chicago Cubs of the National League play in Wrigley Field on the North Side; and the Chicago White Sox of the American League play in Guaranteed Rate Field on the South Side.
Chicago is the only city that has had more than one MLB franchise every year since the AL began in 1901 (New York hosted only one between 1958 and early 1962).
The two teams have faced each other in a World Series only once: in 1906, when the White Sox, known as the "Hitless Wonders," defeated the Cubs, 4–2.
The Cubs are the oldest Major League Baseball team to have never changed their city; they have played in Chicago since 1871, and continuously so since 1874 due to the Great Chicago Fire.
They have played more games and have more wins than any other team in Major League baseball since 1876.
They have won three World Series titles, including the 2016 World Series, but had the dubious honor of having the two longest droughts in American professional sports: They had not won their sport's title since 1908, and had not participated in a World Series since 1945, both records, until they beat the Cleveland Indians in the 2016 World Series.
The White Sox have played on the South Side continuously since 1901, with all three of their home fields throughout the years being within blocks of one another.
They have won three World Series titles (1906, 1917, 2005) and six American League pennants, including the first in 1901.
The Sox are fifth in the American League in all-time wins, and sixth in pennants.
The Bears have won more games in the history of the NFL than any other team, and only the Green Bay Packers, their longtime rivals, have won more championships.
The Bears play their home games at Soldier Field.
Soldier Field re-opened in 2003 after an extensive renovation.
During the 1990s, with Michael Jordan leading them, the Bulls won six NBA championships in eight seasons.
Both the Bulls and the Blackhawks play at the United Center.
|Chicago Bears||NFL||Football||Soldier Field||61,142||1919||9 Championships (1 Super Bowl)|
|Chicago Cubs||MLB||Baseball||Wrigley Field||41,649||1870||3 World Series|
|Chicago White Sox||MLB||Baseball||Guaranteed Rate Field||40,615||1900||3 World Series|
|Chicago Blackhawks||NHL||Ice hockey||United Center||21,653||1926||6 Stanley Cups|
|Chicago Bulls||NBA||Basketball||20,776||1966||6 NBA Championships|
|Chicago Fire FC||MLS||Soccer||Soldier Field||17,383||1997||1 MLS Cup, 1 Supporters Shield|
|Chicago Sky||WNBA||Basketball||Wintrust Arena||10,387||2006||0 WNBA Championships|
|Chicago Red Stars||NWSL||Soccer||SeatGeek Stadium||3,198||2006||1 National Women's Cup|
In 2019, the team announced a move back to Soldier Field.
The Fire have won one league title and four U.S. , since their founding in 1997. Open Cups
They play home games at the Wintrust Arena.
The team was founded before the 2006 WNBA season began.
The Chicago Marathon has been held each year since 1977 except for 1987, when a half marathon was run in its place.
The Chicago Marathon is one of six World Marathon Majors.
Five area colleges play in Division I conferences: two from major conferences—the DePaul Blue Demons (Big East Conference) and the Northwestern Wildcats (Big Ten Conference)—and three from other D1 conferences—the Chicago State Cougars (Western Athletic Conference); the Loyola Ramblers (Missouri Valley Conference); and the UIC Flames (Horizon League).
Parks and greenspace
When Chicago was incorporated in 1837, it chose the motto Urbs in Horto, a Latin phrase which means "City in a Garden".
There are 31 sand beaches, a plethora of museums, two world-class conservatories, and 50 nature areas.
Lincoln Park, the largest of the city's parks, covers 1,200 acres (490 ha) and has over 20 million visitors each year, making it third in the number of visitors after Central Park in New York City, and the National Mall and Memorial Parks in Washington, D.C.
The boulevards and the parks were authorized by the Illinois legislature in 1869.
A number of Chicago neighborhoods emerged along these roadways in the 19th century.
The building of the boulevard system continued intermittently until 1942.
It includes nineteen boulevards, eight parks, and six squares, along twenty-six miles of interconnected streets.
The Chicago Park Boulevard System Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2018.
With berths for more than 6,000 boats, the Chicago Park District operates the nation's largest municipal harbor system.
In addition to ongoing beautification and renewal projects for the existing parks, a number of new parks have been added in recent years, such as the Ping Tom Memorial Park in Chinatown, DuSable Park on the Near North Side, and most notably, Millennium Park, which is in the northwestern corner of one of Chicago's oldest parks, Grant Park in the Chicago Loop.
The wealth of greenspace afforded by Chicago's parks is further augmented by the Cook County Forest Preserves, a network of open spaces containing forest, prairie, wetland, streams, and lakes that are set aside as natural areas which lie along the city's outskirts, including both the Chicago Botanic Garden in Glencoe and the Brookfield Zoo in Brookfield.
Washington Park is also one of the city's biggest parks; covering nearly 400 acres (160 ha).
The park is listed on the National Register of Historic Places listings in South Side Chicago.
Law and government
Main article: Government of Chicago
The government of the City of Chicago is divided into executive and legislative branches.
The Mayor of Chicago is the chief executive, elected by general election for a term of four years, with no term limits.
The current mayor is Lori Lightfoot.
The mayor appoints commissioners and other officials who oversee the various departments.
As well as the mayor, Chicago's clerk and treasurer are also elected citywide.
The council takes official action through the passage of ordinances and resolutions and approves the city budget.
Main article: Political history of Chicago
During much of the last half of the 19th century, Chicago's politics were dominated by a growing Democratic Party organization.
For much of the 20th century, Chicago has been among the largest and most reliable Democratic strongholds in the United States; with Chicago's Democratic vote the state of Illinois has been "solid blue" in presidential elections since 1992.
Even before then, it was not unheard of for Republican presidential candidates to win handily in downstate Illinois, only to lose statewide due to large Democratic margins in Chicago.
The strength of the party in the city is partly a consequence of Illinois state politics, where the Republicans have come to represent rural and farm concerns while the Democrats support urban issues such as Chicago's public school funding.
All eight of the city's representatives are Democrats; only two Republicans have represented a significant portion of the city since 1973, for one term each: Robert P. Hanrahan from 1973 to 1975, and Michael Patrick Flanagan from 1995 to 1997.
Machine politics persisted in Chicago after the decline of similar machines in other large U.S. cities.
During much of that time, the city administration found opposition mainly from a liberal "independent" faction of the Democratic Party.
The independents finally gained control of city government in 1983 with the election of Harold Washington (in office 1983–1987).
From 1989 until May 16, 2011, Chicago was under the leadership of its longest-serving mayor, Richard M. Daley, the son of Richard J. Daley.
Because of the dominance of the Democratic Party in Chicago, the Democratic primary vote held in the spring is generally more significant than the general elections in November for U.S. House and Illinois State seats.
The aldermanic, mayoral, and other city offices are filled through nonpartisan elections with runoffs as needed.
The Obamas' residence is located near the University of Chicago in Kenwood on the city's south side.
Chicago had a murder rate of 18.5 per 100,000 residents in 2012, ranking 16th among US cities with 100,000 people or more.
This was higher than in New York City and Los Angeles, the two largest cities in the United States, which have lower murder rates and lower total homicides.
The 2015 year-end crime statistics showed there were 468 murders in Chicago in 2015 compared with 416 the year before, a 12.5% increase, as well as 2,900 shootings—13% more than the year prior, and up 29% since 2013.
Chicago had more homicides than any other city in 2015 in total but not on per capita basis, according to the Chicago Tribune.
In its annual crime statistics for 2016, the Chicago Police Department reported that the city experienced a dramatic rise in gun violence, with 4,331 shooting victims.
The department also reported 762 murders in Chicago for the year 2016, a total that marked a 62.79% increase in homicides from 2015.
In June 2017, the Chicago Police Department and the Federal ATF announced a new task force, similar to past task forces, to address the flow of illegal guns and repeat offenses with guns.
According to reports in 2013, "most of Chicago's violent crime comes from gangs trying to maintain control of drug-selling territories", and is specifically related to the activities of the Sinaloa Cartel, which is active in several American cities.
By 2006, the cartel sought to control most illicit drug sales.
Violent crime rates vary significantly by area of the city, with more economically developed areas having low rates, but other sections have much higher rates of crime.
In 2013, the violent crime rate was 910 per 100,000 people; the murder rate was 10.4 – while high crime districts saw 38.9, low crime districts saw 2.5 murders per 100,000.
The number of murders in Chicago peaked at 970 in 1974, when the city's population was over 3 million people (a murder rate of about 29 per 100,000), and it reached 943 murders in 1992, (a murder rate of 34 per 100,000).
However, Chicago, like other major U.S. cities, experienced a significant reduction in violent crime rates through the 1990s, falling to 448 homicides in 2004, its lowest total since 1965 and only 15.65 murders per 100,000.
Chicago's homicide tally remained low during 2005 (449), 2006 (452), and 2007 (435) but rose to 510 in 2008, breaking 500 for the first time since 2003.
In 2009, the murder count fell to 458 (10% down).
and in 2010 Chicago's murder rate fell to 435 (16.14 per 100,000), a 5% decrease from 2009 and lowest levels since 1965.
In 2011, Chicago's murders fell another 1.2% to 431 (a rate of 15.94 per 100,000).
but shot up to 506 in 2012.
In 2012, Chicago ranked 21st in the United States in numbers of homicides per person, and in the first half of 2013 there was a significant drop per-person, in all categories of violent crime, including homicide (down 26%).
Chicago ended 2013 with 415 murders, the lowest number of murders since 1965, and overall crime rates dropped by 16 percent.
In 2013, the city's murder rate was only slightly higher than the national average as a whole.
Jens Ludwig, director of the University of Chicago Crime Lab, estimated that shootings cost the city of Chicago $2.5 billion in 2012.
In September 2016, an Illinois state appellate court found that cities do not have an obligation under the Illinois Constitution to pay certain benefits if those benefits had included an expiration date under whichever negotiated agreement they were covered.
The Illinois Constitution prohibits governments from doing anything that could cause retirement benefits for government workers to be "diminished or impaired."
In this particular case, the fact that the workers' agreements had expiration dates let the city of Chicago set an expiration date of 2013 for contribution to health benefits for workers who retired after 1989.
Main article: Chicago Public Schools
Schools and libraries
There are eleven selective enrollment high schools in the Chicago Public Schools, designed to meet the needs of Chicago's most academically advanced students.
These schools offer a rigorous curriculum with mainly honors and Advanced Placement (AP) courses.
Walter Payton College Prep High School is ranked number one in the city of Chicago and the state of Illinois.
Northside College Preparatory High School is ranked second, Jones College Prep is third, and the oldest magnet school in the city, Whitney M. Young Magnet High School, which was opened in 1975, is ranked fourth.
The magnet school with the largest enrollment is Lane Technical College Prep High School.
Lane is one of the oldest schools in Chicago and in 2012 was designated a National Blue Ribbon School by the U.S. Department of Education.
Chicago high school rankings are determined by the average test scores on state achievement tests.
The district, with an enrollment exceeding 400,545 students (2013–2014 20th Day Enrollment), is the third-largest in the U.S. On September 10, 2012, teachers for the Chicago Teachers Union went on strike for the first time since 1987 over pay, resources and other issues.
According to data compiled in 2014, Chicago's "choice system", where students who test or apply and may attend one of a number of public high schools (there are about 130), sorts students of different achievement levels into different schools (high performing, middle performing, and low performing schools).
Several private schools are completely secular, such as the Latin School of Chicago in the Near North Side neighborhood, the University of Chicago Laboratory Schools in Hyde Park, the British School of Chicago and the Francis W. Parker School in Lincoln Park, the Lycée Français de Chicago in Uptown, the Feltre School in River North and the Morgan Park Academy.
There are also the private Chicago Academy for the Arts, a high school focused on six different categories of the arts and the public Chicago High School for the Arts, a high school focused on five categories (visual arts, theatre, musical theatre, dance, and music) of the arts.
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Chicago operates Catholic schools, that include Jesuit preparatory schools and others including St. , Rita of Cascia High SchoolDe La Salle Institute, Josephinum Academy, DePaul College Prep, Cristo Rey Jesuit High School, Brother Rice High School, St. , Ignatius College Preparatory SchoolMount Carmel High School, Queen of Peace High School, Mother McAuley Liberal Arts High School, Marist High School, St. Patrick High School and Resurrection High School.
The Chicago Public Library system operates 79 public libraries, including the central library, two regional libraries, and numerous branches distributed throughout the city.
Colleges and universities
For a more comprehensive list, see List of colleges and universities in Chicago.
Since the 1850s, Chicago has been a world center of higher education and research with several universities.
These institutions consistently rank among the top "National Universities" in the United States, as determined by U.S. . News & World Report
Highly regarded universities in Chicago are: the University of Chicago; Illinois Institute of Technology; Loyola University Chicago; DePaul University; Columbia College Chicago and University of Illinois at Chicago.
Other notable schools include: Chicago State University; the School of the Art Institute of Chicago, the Illinois Institute of Art – Chicago; East–West University; National Louis University; North Park University; Northeastern Illinois University; Robert Morris University Illinois; Roosevelt University; Saint Xavier University; Rush University; and Shimer College.
William Rainey Harper, the first president of the University of Chicago, was instrumental in the creation of the junior college concept, establishing nearby Joliet Junior College as the first in the nation in 1901.
His legacy continues with the multiple community colleges in the Chicago proper, including the seven City Colleges of Chicago: Richard J. Daley College, Kennedy–King College, Malcolm X College, Olive–Harvey College, Truman College, Harold Washington College and Wilbur Wright College, in addition to the privately held MacCormac College.
Chicago also has a high concentration of post-baccalaureate institutions, graduate schools, seminaries, and theological schools, such as the Adler School of Professional Psychology, The Chicago School of Professional Psychology, the Erikson Institute, The Institute for Clinical Social Work, the Lutheran School of Theology at Chicago, the Catholic Theological Union, the Moody Bible Institute, the John Marshall Law School and the University of Chicago Divinity School.
The Chicago metropolitan area is the third-largest media market in North America, after New York City and Los Angeles and a major media hub.
Chicago has also been the home of several prominent talk shows, including The Oprah Winfrey Show, Steve Harvey Show, The Rosie Show, The Jerry Springer Show, The Phil Donahue Show, The Jenny Jones Show, and more.
The city also has one PBS member station (its second: WYCC 20, removed its affiliation with PBS in 2017): WTTW 11, producer of shows such as Sneak Previews, The Frugal Gourmet, Lamb Chop's Play-Along and The McLaughlin Group.
Beginning in January 2019, Newsy began producing 12 of its 14 hours of live news programming per day from its new facility in Chicago.
There are also several regional and special-interest newspapers and magazines, such as Chicago, the Dziennik Związkowy (Polish Daily News), Draugas (the Lithuanian daily newspaper), the Chicago Reader, the SouthtownStar, the Chicago Defender, the Daily Herald, Newcity, StreetWise and the Windy City Times.
Movies and filming
Since the 1980s, many motion pictures have been filmed and/or set in the city such as The Untouchables, The Blues Brothers, The Matrix, Brewster's Millions, Ferris Bueller's Day Off, Sixteen Candles, Home Alone, The Fugitive, I, Robot, Mean Girls, Wanted, Batman Begins, The Dark Knight, Dhoom 3, Transformers: Dark of the Moon, Transformers: Age of Extinction, Transformers: The Last Knight, Divergent, Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice, Sinister 2, Suicide Squad.
Chicago has also been the setting of a number of television shows, including the situation comedies Perfect Strangers and its spinoff Family Matters, Married... with Children, Punky Brewster, Kenan & Kel, Still Standing, The League, The Bob Newhart Show, and Shake It Up.
and Chicago Med.
All three Chicago franchise shows are filmed locally throughout Chicago.
The city was particularly important for the development of the harsh and electronic based music genre known as industrial.
later establishing itself as America's home for the genre.
Richard Giraldi of the Chicago Sun-Times remarked on the significance of the label and wrote, "As important as Chess Records was to blues and soul music, Chicago's Wax Trax imprint was just as significant to the punk rock, new wave and industrial genres."
Further information: Transportation in Chicago
Chicago is a major transportation hub in the United States.
The city of Chicago has a higher than average percentage of households without a car.
In 2015, 26.5 percent of Chicago households were without a car, and increased slightly to 27.5 percent in 2016.
The national average was 8.7 percent in 2016.
Chicago averaged 1.12 cars per household in 2016, compared to a national average of 1.8.
Further information: Roads and expressways in Chicago
Seven mainline and four auxiliary interstate highways (55, 57, 65 (only in Indiana), 80 (also in Indiana), 88, 90 (also in Indiana), 94 (also in Indiana), 190, 290, 294, and 355) run through Chicago and its suburbs.
Segments that link to the city center are named after influential politicians, with three of them named after former U.S. Presidents (Eisenhower, Kennedy, and Reagan) and one named after two-time Democratic candidate Adlai Stevenson.
The Regional Transportation Authority (RTA) coordinates the operation of the three service boards: CTA, Metra, and Pace.
- The Chicago Transit Authority (CTA) handles public transportation in the City of Chicago and a few adjacent suburbs outside of the Chicago city limits. The CTA operates an extensive network of buses and a rapid transit elevated and subway system known as the 'L' (for "elevated"), with lines designated by colors. These rapid transit lines also serve both Midway and O'Hare Airports. The CTA's rail lines consist of the Red, Blue, Green, Orange, Brown, Purple, Pink, and Yellow lines. Both the Red and Blue lines offer 24‑hour service which makes Chicago one of a handful of cities around the world (and one of two in the United States, the other being New York City) to offer rail service 24 hours a day, every day of the year, within the city's limits.
- Metra, the nation's second-most used passenger regional rail network, operates an 11-line commuter rail service in Chicago and throughout the Chicago suburbs. The Metra Electric Line shares its trackage with Northern Indiana Commuter Transportation District's South Shore Line, which provides commuter service between South Bend and Chicago.
- Pace provides bus and paratransit service in over 200 surrounding suburbs with some extensions into the city as well. A 2005 study found that one quarter of commuters used public transit.
Chicago is one of the largest hubs of passenger rail service in the nation.
The services terminate in San Francisco, Washington, D.C., New York City, Indianapolis, New Orleans, Portland, Seattle, Milwaukee, Quincy, St. , LouisCarbondale, Boston, Grand Rapids, Port Huron, Pontiac, Los Angeles, and San Antonio.
An attempt was made in the early 20th century to link Chicago with New York City via the Chicago – New York Electric Air Line Railroad.
Parts of this were built, but it was never completed.
Bicycle and scooter sharing systems
In May 2019, The City of Chicago announced its Chicago's Electric Shared Scooter Pilot Program, scheduled to run from June 15 to October 15.
Each company was allowed to bring 250 electric scooters, although both Bird and Lime claimed that they experienced a higher demand for their scooters.
The program ended on October 15, with nearly 800,000 rides taken.
Chicago is the largest hub in the railroad industry.
As of 2002, severe freight train congestion caused trains to take as long to get through the Chicago region as it took to get there from the West Coast of the country (about 2 days).
According to U.S. Department of Transportation, the volume of imported and exported goods transported via rail to, from, or through Chicago is forecast to increase nearly 150 percent between 2010 and 2040.
CREATE, the Chicago Region Environmental and Transportation Efficiency Program, comprises about 70 programs, including crossovers, overpasses and underpasses, that intend to significantly improve the speed of freight movements in the Chicago area.
Further information: Transportation in Chicago § Airports
In 2005, O'Hare was the world's busiest airport by aircraft movements and the second-busiest by total passenger traffic.
Both O'Hare and Midway are owned and operated by the City of Chicago.
Gary/Chicago International Airport and Chicago Rockford International Airport, located in Gary, Indiana and Rockford, Illinois, respectively, can serve as alternative Chicago area airports, however they do not offer as many commercial flights as O'Hare and Midway.
In recent years the state of Illinois has been leaning towards building an entirely new airport in the Illinois suburbs of Chicago.
The City of Chicago is the world headquarters for United Airlines, the world's third-largest airline.
Main article: Port of Chicago
The Port of Chicago consists of several major port facilities within the city of Chicago operated by the Illinois International Port District (formerly known as the Chicago Regional Port District).
The central element of the Port District, Calumet Harbor, is maintained by the U.S. . Army Corps of Engineers
- Iroquois Landing Lakefront Terminal: at the mouth of the Calumet River, it includes 100 acres (0.40 km) of warehouses and facilities on Lake Michigan with over 780,000 square meters (8,400,000 square feet) of storage.
- Lake Calumet terminal: located at the union of the Grand Calumet River and Little Calumet River 6 miles (9.7 km) inland from Lake Michigan. Includes three transit sheds totaling over 29,000 square meters (310,000 square feet) adjacent to over 900 linear meters (3,000 linear feet) of ship and barge berthing.
- Grain (14 million bushels) and bulk liquid (800,000 barrels) storage facilities along Lake Calumet.
- The Illinois International Port district also operates Foreign trade zone No. 22, which extends 60 miles (97 km) from Chicago's city limits.
In northern Illinois, ComEd (a division of Exelon) operates the greatest number of nuclear generating plants in any US state.
Because of this, ComEd reports indicate that Chicago receives about 75% of its electricity from nuclear power.
Recently, the city began installing wind turbines on government buildings to promote renewable energy.
Natural gas is provided by Peoples Gas, a subsidiary of Integrys Energy Group, which is headquartered in Chicago.
From 1995 to 2008, the city had a blue bag program to divert recyclable refuse from landfills.
Because of low participation in the blue bag programs, the city began a pilot program for blue bin recycling like other cities.
This proved successful and blue bins were rolled out across the city.
The Illinois Medical District is on the Near West Side.
It includes Rush University Medical Center, ranked as the second best hospital in the Chicago metropolitan area by U.S. News & World Report for 2014–16, the University of Illinois Medical Center at Chicago, Jesse Brown VA Hospital, and John H. Stroger Jr. Hospital of Cook County, one of the busiest trauma centers in the nation.
The Chicago campus of Northwestern University includes the Feinberg School of Medicine; Northwestern Memorial Hospital, which is ranked as the best hospital in the Chicago metropolitan area by U.S. News & World Report for 2017–18; the Shirley Ryan AbilityLab (formerly named the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago), which is ranked the best U.S. rehabilitation hospital by U.S. News & World Report; the new Prentice Women's Hospital; and Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago.
The American Medical Association, Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education, American Osteopathic Association, American Dental Association, Academy of General Dentistry, Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, American Association of Nurse Anesthetists, American College of Surgeons, American Society for Clinical Pathology, American College of Healthcare Executives, the American Hospital Association and Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association are all based in Chicago.
Chicago has 28 sister cities around the world.
Like Chicago, many of them are or were the second-most populous city or second-most influential city of their country, or they are the main city of a country that has had large numbers of immigrants settle in Chicago.
These relationships have sought to promote economic, cultural, educational, and other ties.
To celebrate the sister cities, Chicago hosts a yearly festival in Daley Plaza, which features cultural acts and food tastings from the other cities.
In addition, the Chicago Sister Cities program hosts a number of delegation and formal exchanges.
In some cases, these exchanges have led to further informal collaborations, such as the academic relationship between the Buehler Center on Aging, Health & Society at the Feinberg School of Medicine of Northwestern University and the Institute of Gerontology of Ukraine (originally of the Soviet Union), that was originally established as part of the Chicago-Kyiv sister cities program.
- Chicago area water quality
- Chicago Wilderness
- Gentrification of Chicago
- List of cities with the most skyscrapers
- List of people from Chicago
- List of fiction set in Chicago
- National Register of Historic Places listings in Central Chicago
- National Register of Historic Places listings in North Side Chicago
- National Register of Historic Places listings in West Side Chicago
Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chicago.