For the Republic of China, see Taiwan.
It is the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.4 billion in 2019.
Covering approximately 9.6 million square kilometers (3.7 million mi), it is the world's third or fourth-largest country by area.
As a one-party state led by the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), the country officially divides itself into 23 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, and Chongqing), and the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.
Since then, China has expanded, fractured, and re-unified numerous times.
The Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949 when the CCP led by Mao Zedong established the People's Republic of China on mainland China while the Kuomintang-led ROC government retreated to the island of Taiwan.
The PRC is sometimes referred to as Mainland China or the Mainland to distinguish the ROC from the PRC.
China is the largest economy in the world by PPP since 2014, the second-largest by nominal GDP since 2010, the world's largest manufacturing economy since 2010, and the second-wealthiest nation in the world.
They include the country being the world's fastest-growing major economy (since 1978 China’s GDP growth has averaged almost 10 percent a year), the continuation of the world's fastest rise in GDP per capita recorded from 1960 to 2018, the world's highest amount of exports, the world's fastest-growing consumer market, the world's largest banking sector (with assets of $40 trillion and the world's top four largest banks all being in China), having four of the world's top ten most competitive financial centers (Shanghai, Hong Kong, Beijing and Shenzhen) in the 2020 Global Financial Centres Index (more than any other country), lifting more than 850 million people out of poverty, and having the highest number of people in the top 10% of the wealthiest individuals in the world.
Political dissidents and human rights groups have denounced the Chinese government for widespread human rights abuses, including political repression, suppression of religious and ethnic minorities, censorship, mass surveillance, and their response to protests, notably the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests.
China has been characterized as an emerging superpower, mainly because of its economy, rapid infrastructural development, and military.
Main article: Names of China
The word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century; however, it was not a word used by the Chinese themselves during this period in time.
Although this derivation is still given in various sources, the origin of the Sanskrit word is a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary.
The name Zhongguo is also translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China 2.25 million years ago.
Some scholars have suggested that the Jiahu symbols (7th millennium BCE) constituted the earliest Chinese writing system.
Early dynastic rule
Further information: Dynasties in Chinese history
Xia dynasty marked the beginning of China's political system based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, which lasted for a millennium.
It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period.
The succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records.
The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE.
The Shang was conquered by the Zhou, who ruled between the 11th and 5th centuries BCE, though centralized authority was slowly eroded by feudal warlords.
Some principalities eventually emerged from the weakened Zhou, no longer fully obeyed the Zhou king and continually waged war with each other in the 300-year Spring and Autumn period.
By the time of the Warring States period of the 5th–3rd centuries BCE, there were only seven powerful states left.
The Qin dynasty lasted only fifteen years, falling soon after the First Emperor's death, as his harsh authoritarian policies led to widespread rebellion.
Following a widespread civil war during which the imperial library at Xianyang was burned, the Han dynasty emerged to rule China between 206 BCE and CE 220, creating a cultural identity among its populace still remembered in the ethnonym of the Han Chinese.
Han China gradually became the largest economy of the ancient world.
Despite the Han's initial decentralization and the official abandonment of the Qin philosophy of Legalism in favor of Confucianism, Qin's legalist institutions and policies continued to be employed by the Han government and its successors.
The Xianbei unified them as the Northern Wei, whose Emperor Xiaowen reversed his predecessors' apartheid policies and enforced a drastic sinification on his subjects, largely integrating them into Chinese culture.
The Tang Empire retained control of the Western Regions and the Silk Road, which brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and the Horn of Africa, and made the capital Chang'an a cosmopolitan urban center.
However, it was devastated and weakened by the An Lushan Rebellion in the 8th century.
In 907, the Tang disintegrated completely when the local military governors became ungovernable.
The Song was the first government in world history to issue paper money and the first Chinese polity to establish a permanent standing navy which was supported by the developed shipbuilding industry along with the sea trade.
Between the 10th and 11th centuries, the population of China doubled in size to around 100 million people, mostly because of the expansion of rice cultivation in central and southern China, and the production of abundant food surpluses.
The Song dynasty also saw a revival of Confucianism, in response to the growth of Buddhism during the Tang, and a flourishing of philosophy and the arts, as landscape art and porcelain were brought to new levels of maturity and complexity.
The remnants of the Song retreated to southern China.
The 13th century brought the Mongol conquest of China.
Before the Mongol invasion, the population of Song China was 120 million citizens; this was reduced to 60 million by the time of the census in 1300.
Under the Ming dynasty, China enjoyed another golden age, developing one of the strongest navies in the world and a rich and prosperous economy amid a flourishing of art and culture.
In the early years of the Ming dynasty, China's capital was moved from Nanjing to Beijing.
The scholar-official stratum became a supporting force of industry and commerce in the tax boycott movements, which, together with the famines and defense against Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–1598) and Manchu invasions led to an exhausted treasury.
In 1644, Beijing was captured by a coalition of peasant rebel forces led by Li Zicheng.
The Chongzhen Emperor committed suicide when the city fell.
The Manchu Qing dynasty, then allied with Ming dynasty general Wu Sangui, overthrew Li's short-lived Shun dynasty and subsequently seized control of Beijing, which became the new capital of the Qing dynasty.
The Qing dynasty, which lasted from 1644 until 1912, was the last imperial dynasty of China.
The centralized autocracy was strengthened to crack down on anti-Qing sentiment with the policy of valuing agriculture and restraining commerce, the Haijin ("sea ban"), and ideological control as represented by the literary inquisition, causing social and technological stagnation.
China was forced to pay compensation, open treaty ports, allow extraterritoriality for foreign nationals, and cede Hong Kong to the British under the 1842 Treaty of Nanking, the first of the Unequal Treaties.
The Qing dynasty also began experiencing internal unrest in which tens of millions of people died, especially in the White Lotus Rebellion, the failed Taiping Rebellion that ravaged southern China in the 1850s and 1860s and the Dungan Revolt (1862–77) in the northwest.
The initial success of the Self-Strengthening Movement of the 1860s was frustrated by a series of military defeats in the 1880s and 1890s.
In the 19th century, the great Chinese diaspora began.
Losses due to emigration were added to by conflicts and catastrophes such as the Northern Chinese Famine of 1876–79, in which between 9 and 13 million people died.
The ill-fated anti-foreign Boxer Rebellion of 1899–1901 further weakened the dynasty.
Puyi, the last Emperor of China, abdicated in 1912.
Main article: Republic of China (1912–1949)
In the face of popular condemnation and opposition from his own Beiyang Army, he was forced to abdicate and re-establish the republic.
After Yuan Shikai's death in 1916, China was politically fragmented.
Its Beijing-based government was internationally recognized but virtually powerless; regional warlords controlled most of its territory.
In the late 1920s, the Kuomintang, under Chiang Kai-shek, the then Principal of the Republic of China Military Academy, was able to reunify the country under its own control with a series of deft military and political manoeuvrings, known collectively as the Northern Expedition.
The Kuomintang moved the nation's capital to Nanjing and implemented "political tutelage", an intermediate stage of political development outlined in Sun Yat-sen's San-min program for transforming China into a modern democratic state.
This war continued successfully for the Kuomintang, especially after the PLA retreated in the Long March, until Japanese aggression and the 1936 Xi'an Incident forced Chiang to confront Imperial Japan.
Japanese forces committed numerous war atrocities against the civilian population; in all, as many as 20 million Chinese civilians died.
An estimated 40,000 to 300,000 Chinese were massacred in the city of Nanjing alone during the Japanese occupation.
During the war, China, along with the UK, the US, and the Soviet Union, were referred to as "trusteeship of the powerful" and were recognized as the Allied "Big Four" in the Declaration by United Nations.
Along with the other three great powers, China was one of the four major Allies of World War II, and was later considered one of the primary victors in the war.
China emerged victorious but war-ravaged and financially drained.
The continued distrust between the Kuomintang and the Communists led to the resumption of civil war.
Constitutional rule was established in 1947, but because of the ongoing unrest, many provisions of the ROC constitution were never implemented in mainland China.
People's Republic (1949–present)
Main article: History of the People's Republic of China
Major combat in the Chinese Civil War ended in 1949 with the Communist Party in control of most of mainland China, and the Kuomintang retreating offshore, reducing its territory to only Taiwan, Hainan, and their surrounding islands.
On 21 September 1949, Communist Party Chairman Mao Zedong proclaimed the establishment of the People's Republic of China with a speech at the First Plenary Session of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference followed by a public proclamation and celebration in Tiananmen Square.
However, remaining Kuomintang forces continued to wage an insurgency in western China throughout the 1950s.
The regime consolidated its popularity among the peasants through land reform, which included the execution of between 1 and 2 million landlords.
China developed an independent industrial system and its own nuclear weapons.
The Chinese population increased from 550 million in 1950 to 900 million in 1974.
In 1966, Mao and his allies launched the Cultural Revolution, sparking a decade of political recrimination and social upheaval that lasted until Mao's death in 1976.
In October 1971, the PRC replaced the Republic in the United Nations, and took its seat as a permanent member of the Security Council.
After Mao's death, the Gang of Four was quickly arrested and held responsible for the excesses of the Cultural Revolution.
The Party loosened governmental control over citizens' personal lives, and the communes were gradually disbanded in favor of working contracted to households.
This marked China's transition from a planned economy to a mixed economy with an increasingly open-market environment.
China adopted its current constitution on 4 December 1982.
Under their administration, China's economic performance pulled an estimated 150 million peasants out of poverty and sustained an average annual gross domestic product growth rate of 11.2%.
However, the growth also severely impacted the country's resources and environment, and caused major social displacement.
Chinese Communist Party general secretary Xi Jinping has ruled since 2012 and has pursued large-scale efforts to reform China's economy (which has suffered from structural instabilities and slowing growth), and has also reformed the one-child policy and prison system, as well as instituting a vast anti corruption crackdown.
In 2013, China initiated the Belt and Road Initiative, a global infrastructure investment project.
Main article: Geography of China
China connects through the Kazakh border to the Eurasian Steppe which has been an artery of communication between East and West since the Neolithic through the Steppe route – the ancestor of the terrestrial Silk Road(s).
Landscape and climate
The geographical center of China is marked by the Center of the Country Monument at .
China's landscapes vary significantly across its vast territory.
In the east, along the shores of the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea, there are extensive and densely populated alluvial plains, while on the edges of the Inner Mongolian plateau in the north, broad grasslands predominate.
To the west sit major mountain ranges, most notably the Himalayas.
The world's highest point, Mount Everest (8,848 m), lies on the Sino-Nepalese border.
In the winter, northern winds coming from high-latitude areas are cold and dry; in summer, southern winds from coastal areas at lower latitudes are warm and moist.
The climate in China differs from region to region because of the country's highly complex topography.
A major environmental issue in China is the continued expansion of its deserts, particularly the Gobi Desert.
Although barrier tree lines planted since the 1970s have reduced the frequency of sandstorms, prolonged drought and poor agricultural practices have resulted in dust storms plaguing northern China each spring, which then spread to other parts of East Asia, including Japan and Korea.
China's environmental watchdog, SEPA, stated in 2007 that China is losing 4,000 km (1,500 sq mi) per year to desertification.
Much of China has a climate very suitable for agriculture and the country has been the world's largest producer of rice, wheat, tomatoes, eggplant, grapes, watermelon, spinach, and many other crops.
Main article: Wildlife of China
It later produced a National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, with one revision that was received by the convention on 21 September 2010.
China is home to at least 551 species of mammals (the third-highest such number in the world), 1,221 species of birds (eighth), 424 species of reptiles (seventh) and 333 species of amphibians (seventh).
Wildlife in China share habitat with and bear acute pressure from the world's largest population of Homo sapiens.
At least 840 animal species are threatened, vulnerable or in danger of local extinction in China, due mainly to human activity such as habitat destruction, pollution and poaching for food, fur and ingredients for traditional Chinese medicine.
Endangered wildlife is protected by law, and as of 2005, the country has over 2,349 nature reserves, covering a total area of 149.95 million hectares, 15 percent of China's total land area.
The Baiji was confirmed extinct on 12 December 2006.
China has over 32,000 species of vascular plants, and is home to a variety of forest types.
Subtropical forests, which are predominate in central and southern China, support a high density of plant species including numerous rare endemics.
In recent decades, China has suffered from severe environmental deterioration and pollution.
While regulations such as the 1979 Environmental Protection Law are fairly stringent, they are poorly enforced, as they are frequently disregarded by local communities and government officials in favor of rapid economic development.
China is the country with the second highest death toll because of air pollution, after India.
There are approximately 1 million deaths caused by exposure to ambient air pollution.
The country also has significant water pollution problems: 8.2% of China's rivers had been polluted by industrial and agricultural waste in 2019, and were unfit for use.
However, China is the world's leading investor in renewable energy and its commercialization, with $52 billion invested in 2011 alone; it is a major manufacturer of renewable energy technologies and invests heavily in local-scale renewable energy projects.
By 2015, over 24% of China's energy was derived from renewable sources, while most notably from hydroelectric power: a total installed capacity of 197 GW makes China the largest hydroelectric power producer in the world.
Main articles: Borders of China and Territorial changes of the People's Republic of China
China's total area is generally stated as being approximately 9,600,000 km (3,700,000 sq mi).
Specific area figures range from 9,572,900 km (3,696,100 sq mi) according to the Encyclopædia Britannica, to 9,596,961 km (3,705,407 sq mi) according to the UN Demographic Yearbook, and the CIA World Factbook.
China extends across much of East Asia, bordering Vietnam, Laos, and Myanmar (Burma) in Southeast Asia; India, Bhutan, Nepal, Afghanistan, and Pakistan in South Asia; Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan in Central Asia; and Russia, Mongolia, and North Korea in Inner Asia and Northeast Asia.
Main article: Politics of China
The Chinese constitution states that The People's Republic of China "is a socialist state under the people's democratic dictatorship led by the working class and based on the alliance of workers and peasants," and that the state organs "apply the principle of democratic centralism."
The Chinese government has been variously described as communist and socialist, but also as authoritarian and corporatist, with heavy restrictions in many areas, most notably against free access to the Internet, freedom of the press, freedom of assembly, the right to have children, free formation of social organizations and freedom of religion.
Its current political, ideological and economic system has been termed by its leaders as a "consultative democracy" "people's democratic dictatorship", "socialism with Chinese characteristics" (which is Marxism adapted to Chinese circumstances) and the "socialist market economy" respectively.
According to Lutgard Lams, "President Xi is making great attempts to 'Sinicize' Marxist–Leninist Thought 'with Chinese characteristics' in the political sphere."
See also: Chinese Communist Party
The 2018 amendments constitutionalized the de facto one-party state status of China, wherein the General Secretary (party leader) holds ultimate power and authority over state and government and serves as the paramount leader of China.
The current General Secretary is Xi Jinping, who took office on 15 November 2012 and was re-elected on 25 October 2017.
The electoral system is pyramidal.
Local People's Congresses are directly elected, and higher levels of People's Congresses up to the National People's Congress (NPC) are indirectly elected by the People's Congress of the level immediately below.
Main article: Government of China
There have been some moves toward political liberalization, in that open contested elections are now held at the village and town levels.
However, the party retains effective control over government appointments: in the absence of meaningful opposition, the CCP wins by default most of the time.
In 2017, Xi called on the communist party to further tighten its grip on the country, to uphold the unity of the party leadership, and achieve the "Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation".
Political concerns in China include the growing gap between rich and poor and government corruption.
Nonetheless, the level of public support for the government and its management of the nation is high, with 80–95% of Chinese citizens expressing satisfaction with the central government, according to a 2011 survey.
The People's Republic of China is divided into 22 provinces, five autonomous regions (each with a designated minority group), and four municipalities—collectively referred to as "mainland China"—as well as the special administrative regions (SARs) of Hong Kong and Macau.
Conversely, the ROC claims sovereignty over all divisions governed by the PRC.
|Provinces (省)||Claimed Province|
|Autonomous regions (自治区)||Municipalities (直辖市)||Special administrative regions (特别行政区)|
Main article: Foreign relations of China
In 2019, China had the largest diplomatic network in the world.
In 1971, the PRC replaced the Republic of China as the sole representative of China in the United Nations and as one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council.
Under its interpretation of the One-China policy, Beijing has made it a precondition to establishing diplomatic relations that the other country acknowledges its claim to Taiwan and severs official ties with the government of the Republic of China.
Chinese officials have protested on numerous occasions when foreign countries have made diplomatic overtures to Taiwan, especially in the matter of armament sales.
Much of current Chinese foreign policy is reportedly based on Premier Zhou Enlai's Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, and is also driven by the concept of "harmony without uniformity", which encourages diplomatic relations between states despite ideological differences.
China has a close economic and military relationship with Russia, and the two states often vote in unison in the UN Security Council.
China became the world's largest trading nation in 2013, as measured by the sum of imports and exports.
By 2016, China was the largest trading partner of 124 other countries.
China became a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) on 11 December 2001.
In 2004, it proposed an entirely new East Asia Summit (EAS) framework as a forum for regional security issues.
The EAS, which includes ASEAN Plus Three, India, Australia and New Zealand, held its inaugural summit in 2005.
China has had a long and complex trade relationship with the United States.
In 2000, the United States Congress approved "permanent normal trade relations" (PNTR) with China, allowing Chinese exports in at the same low tariffs as goods from most other countries.
China has a significant trade surplus with the United States, its most important export market.
In the early 2010s, US politicians argued that the Chinese yuan was significantly undervalued, giving China an unfair trade advantage.
Since the turn of the century, China has followed a policy of engaging with African nations for trade and bilateral co-operation; in 2012, Sino-African trade totalled over US$160 billion.
According to Madison Condon "China finances more infrastructure projects in Africa than the World Bank and provides billions of dollars in low-interest loans to the continent’s emerging economies."
China maintains healthy and highly diversified trade links with the European Union.
China has furthermore strengthened its ties with major South American economies, becoming the largest trading partner of Brazil and building strategic links with Argentina.
China's Belt and Road Initiative has expanded significantly over the last six years and, as of April 2020, includes 138 countries and 30 international organizations.
However many of these loans made under the Belt and Road program are unsustainable and China has faced a number of calls for debt relief from debtor nations.
Ever since its establishment after the Chinese Civil War, the PRC has claimed the territories governed by the Republic of China (ROC), a separate political entity today commonly known as Taiwan, as a part of its territory.
It regards the island of Taiwan as its Taiwan Province, Kinmen and Matsu as a part of Fujian Province and islands the ROC controls in the South China Sea as a part of Hainan Province and Guangdong Province.
Land border disputes
China has resolved its land borders with 12 out of 14 neighboring countries, having pursued substantial compromises in most of them.
Maritime border disputes
China is additionally involved in maritime disputes with multiple countries over the ownership of several small islands in the East and South China Seas, such as the Senkaku Islands and the Scarborough Shoal.
Sociopolitical issues and human rights
The Chinese democracy movement, social activists, and some members of the Chinese Communist Party believe in the need for social and political reform.
While economic and social controls have been significantly relaxed in China since the 1970s, political freedom is still tightly restricted.
The Constitution of the People's Republic of China states that the "fundamental rights" of citizens include freedom of speech, freedom of the press, the right to a fair trial, freedom of religion, universal suffrage, and property rights.
However, in practice, these provisions do not afford significant protection against criminal prosecution by the state.
Although some criticisms of government policies and the ruling Communist Party are tolerated, censorship of political speech and information, most notably on the Internet, are routinely used to prevent collective action.
By 2020, China plans to give all its citizens a personal "Social Credit" score based on how they behave.
A number of foreign governments, foreign press agencies, and NGOs have criticized China's human rights record, alleging widespread civil rights violations such as detention without trial, forced abortions, forced confessions, torture, restrictions of fundamental rights, and excessive use of the death penalty.
The government suppresses popular protests and demonstrations that it considers a potential threat to "social stability", as was the case with the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989.
The Chinese state is regularly accused of large-scale repression and human rights abuses in Tibet and Xinjiang, including violent police crackdowns and religious suppression throughout the Chinese nation.
Many Western countries alleged that at least one million members of China's Muslim Uyghur minority have been detained in mass detention camps, termed "Vocational Education and Training Centers", aimed at changing the political thinking of detainees, their identities, and their religious beliefs.
According to the U.S.
In January 2019, the United Nations asked for direct access to the detention camps after a human rights panel vice-chair said there were "credible reports" that 1.1 million Uygur, Kazakhs, Hui and other ethnic minorities had been detained in these camps.
The state has also sought to control offshore reporting of tensions in Xinjiang, intimidating foreign-based reporters by detaining their family members.
According to a 2020 report, China's treatment of Uyghurs meets UN definition of genocide, and several groups called for a UN investigation.
As of August 2020, US government is investigating formally labelling China's treatment as genocide.
Global studies from Pew Research Center in 2014 and 2017 ranked the Chinese government's restrictions on religion as among the highest in the world, despite low to moderate rankings for religious-related social hostilities in the country.
The Global Slavery Index estimated that in 2016 more than 3.8 million people were living in "conditions of modern slavery", or 0.25% of the population, including victims of human trafficking, forced labor, forced marriage, child labor, and state-imposed forced labor.
The state-imposed forced system was formally abolished in 2013 but it is not clear the extent to which its various practices have stopped.
The Chinese penal system includes labor prison factories, detention centers, and re-education camps, which fall under the heading Laogai ("reform through labor").
The Laogai Research Foundation in the United States estimated that there were over a thousand slave labour prisons and camps, known collectively as the Laogai.
In 2019 a study called for the mass retraction of more than 400 scientific papers on organ transplantation, because of fears the organs were obtained unethically from Chinese prisoners.
While the government says 10,000 transplants occur each year, hospital data shows between 60,000 and 100,000 organs are transplanted each year.
The report provided evidence that this gap is being made up by executed prisoners of conscience.
Main article: People's Liberation Army
China has the second-biggest military reserve force, only behind North Korea.
According to the Chinese government, China's military budget for 2017 totalled US$151.5 billion, constituting the world's second-largest military budget, although the military expenditures-GDP ratio with 1.3% of GDP is below world average.
However, many authorities – including SIPRI and the U.S. Office of the Secretary of Defense – argue that China does not report its real level of military spending, which is allegedly much higher than the official budget.
Since 2010, China had the world's second-largest economy in terms of nominal GDP, totaling approximately US$13.5 trillion (90 trillion Yuan) as of 2018.
In terms of purchasing power parity (PPP GDP), China's economy has been the largest in the world since 2014, according to the World Bank.
According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $13.6 trillion by 2018.
China's economic growth has been consistently above 6 percent since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978.
Between 2010 and 2019, China's contribution to global GDP growth has been 25% to 39%.
Since economic reforms began in 1978, China has developed into a highly diversified economy and one of the most consequential players in international trade.
Major sectors of competitive strength include manufacturing, retail, mining, steel, textiles, automobiles, energy generation, green energy, banking, electronics, telecommunications, real estate, e-commerce, and tourism.
China has been the world's No.
1 manufacturer since 2010, after overtaking the US, which had been No.
1 for the previous hundred years.
China has also been No.
2 in high-tech manufacturing since 2012, according to US National Science Foundation.
China is the second largest retail market in the world, next to the United States.
China leads the world in e-commerce, accounting for 40% of the global market share in 2016 and more than 50% of the global market share in 2019.
China is the world's leader in electric vehicles, manufacturing and buying half of all the plug-in electric cars (BEV and PHEV) in the world in 2018.
China had 174 GW of installed solar capacity by the end of 2018, which amounts to more than 40% of the global solar capacity.
Wealth in China
As of 2018, China was first in the world in total number of billionaires and second in millionaires—there were 658 Chinese billionaires and 3.5 million millionaires.
In 2019, China overtook the US as the home to the highest number of rich people in the world, according to the global wealth report by Credit Suisse.
In other words, as of 2019, 100 million Chinese are in the top 10% of the wealthiest individuals in the world—those who have a net personal wealth of at least $110,000.
As of October 2020, China has the world's highest number of billionaires with nearly 878, increasing at the rate of roughly five per week.
According to the Hurun Global Rich List 2020, China is home to five of the world’s top ten cities (Beijing, Shanghai, Hong Kong, Shenzhen, and Guangzhou in the 1st, 3rd, 4th, 5th, and 10th spots, respectively) by the highest number of billionaires, which is more than any country.
However, it ranks behind over 60 countries (out of around 180) in per capita economic output, making it an upper-middle income country.
Additionally, its development is highly uneven.
Its major cities and coastal areas are far more prosperous compared to rural and interior regions.
China brought more people out of extreme poverty than any other country in history—between 1978 and 2018, China reduced extreme poverty by 800 million.
China reduced the extreme poverty rate—per international standard, it refers to an income of less than $1.90/day—from 88% in 1981 to 1.85% by 2013.
According to the World Bank, the number of Chinese in extreme poverty fell from 756 million to 25 million between 1990 and 2013.
China's own national poverty standards are higher and thus the national poverty rates were 3.1% in 2017 and 1% in 2018.
From its founding in 1949 until late 1978, the People's Republic of China was a Soviet-style centrally planned economy.
Following Mao's death in 1976 and the consequent end of the Cultural Revolution, Deng Xiaoping and the new Chinese leadership began to reform the economy and move towards a more market-oriented mixed economy under one-party rule.
Inefficient state-owned enterprises (SOEs) were restructured and unprofitable ones were closed outright, resulting in massive job losses.
Modern-day China is mainly characterized as having a market economy based on private property ownership, and is one of the leading examples of state capitalism.
The state still dominates in strategic "pillar" sectors such as energy production and heavy industries, but private enterprise has expanded enormously, with around 30 million private businesses recorded in 2008.
In 2018, private enterprises in China accounted for 60% of GDP, 80% of urban employment and 90% of new jobs.
In the early 2010s, China's economic growth rate began to slow amid domestic credit troubles, weakening international demand for Chinese exports and fragility in the global economy.
China's GDP was slightly larger than Germany's in 2007; however, by 2017, China's $12.2 trillion-economy became larger than those of Germany, UK, France and Italy combined.
In 2018, the IMF reiterated its forecast that China will overtake the US in terms of nominal GDP by the year 2030.
Economists also expect China's middle class to expand to 600 million people by 2025.
China in the global economy
|Share of world GDP (PPP)|
China is a member of the WTO and is the world's largest trading power, with a total international trade value of US$4.62 trillion in 2018.
Its foreign exchange reserves reached US$3.1 trillion as of 2019, making its reserves by far the world's largest.
In 2012, China was the world's largest recipient of inward foreign direct investment (FDI), attracting $253 billion.
In 2014, China's foreign exchange remittances were $US64 billion making it the second largest recipient of remittances in the world.
China also invests abroad, with a total outward FDI of $62.4 billion in 2012, and a number of major takeovers of foreign firms by Chinese companies.
China's undervalued exchange rate has caused friction with other major economies, and it has also been widely criticized for manufacturing large quantities of counterfeit goods.
Following the 2007–08 financial crisis, Chinese authorities sought to actively wean off of its dependence on the U.S. Dollar as a result of perceived weaknesses of the international monetary system.
To achieve those ends, China took a series of actions to further the internationalization of the Renminbi.
In 2008, China established dim sum bond market and expanded the Cross-Border Trade RMB Settlement Pilot Project, which helps establish pools of offshore RMB liquidity.
As a result of the rapid internationalization of the renminbi, it became the eighth-most-traded currency in the world, an emerging international reserve currency, and a component of the IMF's special drawing rights; however, partly due to capital controls that make the renminbi fall short of being a fully convertible currency, it remains far behind the Euro, Dollar and Japanese Yen in international trade volumes.
Class and income inequality
See also: Income inequality in China
China has had the world's largest middle class population since 2015, and the middle class grew to a size of 400 million by 2018.
In 2020, a recent study by the Brookings Institution forecasted that China's middle-class will reach 1.2 billion by 2027 (almost 4 times the entire U.S. population today), making up one fourth of the world total.
Wages in China have grown exponentially in the last 40 years—real (inflation-adjusted) wages grew seven-fold from 1978 to 2007.
By 2018, median wages in Chinese cities such as Shanghai were about the same as or higher than the wages in Eastern European countries.
China has the world's highest number of billionaires, with nearly 878 as of October 2020, increasing at the rate of roughly five per week.
China has a high level of economic inequality, which has increased in the past few decades.
In 2018 China's GINI index was 0.467, according to the World Bank.
Science and technology
China was once a world leader in science and technology up until the Ming dynasty.
Ancient Chinese discoveries and inventions, such as papermaking, printing, the compass, and gunpowder (the Four Great Inventions), became widespread across East Asia, the Middle East and later to Europe.
Chinese mathematicians were the first to use negative numbers.
By the 17th century, Europe and the Western world surpassed China in scientific and technological advancement.
The causes of this early modern Great Divergence continue to be debated by scholars to this day.
After repeated military defeats by the European colonial powers and Japan in the 19th century, Chinese reformers began promoting modern science and technology as part of the Self-Strengthening Movement.
After the Communists came to power in 1949, efforts were made to organize science and technology based on the model of the Soviet Union, in which scientific research was part of central planning.
After Mao's death in 1976, science and technology was established as one of the Four Modernizations, and the Soviet-inspired academic system was gradually reformed.
Since the end of the Cultural Revolution, China has made significant investments in scientific research and is quickly catching up with the US in R&D spending.
In 2017, China spent $279 billion on scientific research and development.
According to the OECD, China spent 2.11% of its GDP on research and development (R&D) in 2016.
Science and technology are seen as vital for achieving China's economic and political goals, and are held as a source of national pride to a degree sometimes described as "techno-nationalism".
According to the World Intellectual Property Indicators, China received 1.54 million patent applications in 2018, representing nearly half of patent applications worldwide, more than double the US.
In 2019, China was No.
1 in international patents application.
Chinese-born scientists have won the Nobel Prize in Physics four times, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry and Physiology or Medicine once respectively, though most of these scientists conducted their Nobel-winning research in western nations.
China is developing its education system with an emphasis on science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM); in 2009, China graduated over 10,000 PhD engineers, and as many as 500,000 BSc graduates, more than any other country.
China also became the world's largest publisher of scientific papers in 2016.
Chinese technology companies such as Huawei and Lenovo have become world leaders in telecommunications and personal computing, and Chinese supercomputers are consistently ranked among the world's most powerful.
China has been the world's largest market for industrial robots since 2013 and will account for 45% of newly installed robots from 2019 to 2021.
China ranks first globally in the important indicators, including patents, utility models, trademarks, industrial designs, and creative goods exports and also has 2 (Shenzhen-Hong Kong-Guangzhou and Beijing in the 2nd and 4th spots respectively) of the global top 5 science and technology clusters, which is more than any country.
The Chinese space program is one of the world's most active.
In 1970, China launched its first satellite, Dong Fang Hong I, becoming the fifth country to do so independently.
In 2003, China became the third country to independently send humans into space, with Yang Liwei's spaceflight aboard Shenzhou 5; as of 2015, ten Chinese nationals have journeyed into space, including two women.
In 2019, China became the first country to land a probe—Chang'e 4—on the far side of the moon.
After a decades-long infrastructural boom, China has produced numerous world-leading infrastructural projects: China has the world's largest bullet train network, the most supertall skyscrapers in the world, the world's largest power plant and the largest energy generation capacity in the world, a global satellite navigation system with the largest number of satellites in the world, and has initiated the Belt and Road Initiative, a large global infrastructure building initiative with funding on the order of $50-100 billion per year.
The Belt and Road Initiative could be one of the largest development plans in modern history.
Main article: Telecommunications in China
China is the largest telecom market in the world and currently has the largest number of active cellphones of any country in the world, with over 1.5 billion subscribers, as of 2018.
It also has the world's largest number of internet and broadband users, with over 800 million Internet users as of 2018—equivalent to around 60% of its population—and almost all of them being mobile as well.
By 2018, China had more than 1 billion 4G users, accounting for 40% of world's total.
China is making rapid advances in 5G—by late 2018, China had started large-scale and commercial 5G trials.
China Telecom alone served more than 145 million broadband subscribers and 300 million mobile users; China Unicom had about 300 million subscribers; and China Mobile, the biggest of them all, had 925 million users, as of 2018.
Combined, the three operators had over 3.4 million 4G base-stations in China.
Main article: Transport in China
China has the world's largest market for automobiles, having surpassed the United States in both auto sales and production.
A side-effect of the rapid growth of China's road network has been a significant rise in traffic accidents, though the number of fatalities in traffic accidents fell by 20% from 2007 to 2017.
In urban areas, bicycles remain a common mode of transport, despite the increasing prevalence of automobiles – as of 2012, there are approximately 470 million bicycles in China.
As of 2017, the country had 127,000 km (78,914 mi) of railways, the second longest network in the world.
China's high-speed rail (HSR) system started construction in the early 2000s.
With an annual ridership of over 1.1 billion passengers in 2015 it is the world's busiest.
The network includes the Beijing–Guangzhou–Shenzhen High-Speed Railway, the single longest HSR line in the world, and the Beijing–Shanghai High-Speed Railway, which has three of longest railroad bridges in the world.
The Shanghai Maglev Train, which reaches 431 km/h (268 mph), is the fastest commercial train service in the world.
Since 2000, the growth of rapid transit systems in Chinese cities has accelerated.
As of January 2016, 26 Chinese cities have urban mass transit systems in operation and 39 more have metro systems approved with a dozen more to join them by 2020.
There were approximately 229 airports in 2017, with around 240 planned by 2020.
China has over 2,000 river and seaports, about 130 of which are open to foreign shipping.
Water supply and sanitation
Main article: Water supply and sanitation in China
Water supply and sanitation infrastructure in China is facing challenges such as rapid urbanization, as well as water scarcity, contamination, and pollution.
According to data presented by the Joint Monitoring Program for Water Supply and Sanitation of WHO and UNICEF in 2015, about 36% of the rural population in China still did not have access to improved sanitation.
The ongoing South–North Water Transfer Project intends to abate water shortage in the north.
Main article: Demographics of China
About 16.60% of the population were 14 years old or younger, 70.14% were between 15 and 59 years old, and 13.26% were over 60 years old.
The population growth rate for 2013 is estimated to be 0.46%.
China used to make up much of the world's poor; now it makes up much of the world's middle class.
Although a middle-income country by Western standards, China's rapid growth has pulled hundreds of millions—800 million, to be more precise—of its people out of poverty since 1978.
By 2013, less than 2% of the Chinese population lived below the international poverty line of US$1.9 per day, down from 88% in 1981.
China's own standards for poverty are higher and still the country is on its way to eradicate national poverty completely by 2019.
From 2009 to 2018, the unemployment rate in China has averaged about 4%.
Given concerns about population growth, China implemented a two-child limit during the 1970s, and, in 1979, began to advocate for an even stricter limit of one child per family.
Beginning in the mid 1980s, however, given the unpopularity of the strict limits, China began to allow some major exemptions, particularly in rural areas, resulting in what was actually a "1.5"-child policy from the mid-1980s to 2015 (ethnic minorities were also exempt from one child limits).
The next major loosening of the policy was enacted in December 2013, allowing families to have two children if one parent is an only child.
In 2016, the one-child policy was replaced in favor of a two-child policy.
Data from the 2010 census implies that the total fertility rate may be around 1.4, although due to underreporting of births it may be closer to 1.5–1.6.
According to one group of scholars, one-child limits had little effect on population growth or the size of the total population.
However, these scholars have been challenged.
Their own counterfactual model of fertility decline without such restrictions implies that China averted more than 500 million births between 1970 and 2015, a number which may reach one billion by 2060 given all the lost descendants of births averted during the era of fertility restrictions, with one-child restrictions accounting for the great bulk of that reduction.
The policy, along with traditional preference for boys, may have contributed to an imbalance in the sex ratio at birth.
According to the 2010 census, the sex ratio at birth was 118.06 boys for every 100 girls, which is beyond the normal range of around 105 boys for every 100 girls.
The 2010 census found that males accounted for 51.27 percent of the total population.
However, China's sex ratio is more balanced than it was in 1953, when males accounted for 51.82 percent of the total population.
China legally recognizes 56 distinct ethnic groups, who altogether comprise the Zhonghua Minzu.
The largest of these nationalities are the ethnic Chinese or "Han", who constitute more than 90% of the total population.
Ethnic minorities account for about less than 25% of the population of China, according to the 2010 census.
Compared with the 2000 population census, the Han population increased by 66,537,177 persons, or 5.74%, while the population of the 55 national minorities combined increased by 7,362,627 persons, or 6.92%.
The 2010 census recorded a total of 593,832 foreign nationals living in China.
The largest such groups were from South Korea (120,750), the United States (71,493) and Japan (66,159).
There are as many as 292 living languages in China.
The languages most commonly spoken belong to the Sinitic branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family, which contains Mandarin (spoken by 70% of the population), and other varieties of Chinese language: Yue (including Cantonese and Taishanese), Wu (including Shanghainese and Suzhounese), Min (including Fuzhounese, Hokkien and Teochew), Xiang, Gan and Hakka.
Standard Mandarin, a variety of Mandarin based on the Beijing dialect, is the official national language of China and is used as a lingua franca in the country between people of different linguistic backgrounds.
Mongolian, Uyghur, Tibetan, Zhuang and various other languages are also regionally recognized throughout the country.
They allow speakers of mutually unintelligible Chinese varieties to communicate with each other through writing.
China has urbanized significantly in recent decades.
The percent of the country's population living in urban areas increased from 20% in 1980 to over 60% in 2019.
It is estimated that China's urban population will reach one billion by 2030, potentially equivalent to one-eighth of the world population.
China has over 160 cities with a population of over one million, including the 10 megacities(cities with a population of over 10 million) of Chongqing, Shanghai, Beijing, Chengdu, Harbin, Guangzhou, Tianjin, Shenzhen, Wuhan, Shijiazhuang and Suzhou.
By 2025, it is estimated that the country will be home to 221 cities with over a million inhabitants.
The figures in the table below are from the 2017 census, and are only estimates of the urban populations within administrative city limits; a different ranking exists when considering the total municipal populations (which includes suburban and rural populations).
The large "floating populations" of migrant workers make conducting censuses in urban areas difficult; the figures below include only long-term residents.
In 2010, about 82.5 percent of students continued their education at a three-year senior secondary school.
The Gaokao, China's national university entrance exam, is a prerequisite for entrance into most higher education institutions.
In 2010, 27 percent of secondary school graduates are enrolled in higher education.
This number increased significantly over the last years, reaching a tertiary school enrollment of 50 percent in 2018.
Vocational education is available to students at the secondary and tertiary level.
In February 2006, the government pledged to provide completely free nine-year education, including textbooks and fees.
Annual education investment went from less than US$50 billion in 2003 to more than US$250 billion in 2011.
However, there remains an inequality in education spending.
Free compulsory education in China consists of primary school and junior secondary school between the ages of 6 and 15.
In 2011, around 81.4% of Chinese have received secondary education.
As of 2018, 96% of the population over age 15 are literate.
In 1949, only 20% of the population could read, compared to 65.5% thirty years later.
In 2009, Chinese students from Shanghai achieved the world's best results in mathematics, science and literacy, as tested by the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), a worldwide evaluation of 15-year-old school pupils' scholastic performance.
Despite the high results, Chinese education has also faced both native and international criticism for its emphasis on rote memorization and its gap in quality from rural to urban areas.
As of 2020, China had the world's second-highest number of top universities.
Currently, China trails only the United States in terms of representation on lists of top 200 universities according to the Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU).
China is home to the two best universities (Tsinghua University and Peking University) in the whole Asia and the Pacific and emerging countries by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings.
Main article: Health in China
See also: Pharmaceutical industry in China
The National Health and Family Planning Commission, together with its counterparts in the local commissions, oversees the health needs of the Chinese population.
An emphasis on public health and preventive medicine has characterized Chinese health policy since the early 1950s.
At that time, the Communist Party started the Patriotic Health Campaign, which was aimed at improving sanitation and hygiene, as well as treating and preventing several diseases.
After Deng Xiaoping began instituting economic reforms in 1978, the health of the Chinese public improved rapidly because of better nutrition, although many of the free public health services provided in the countryside disappeared along with the People's Communes.
Healthcare in China became mostly privatized, and experienced a significant rise in quality.
In 2009, the government began a 3-year large-scale healthcare provision initiative worth US$124 billion.
By 2011, the campaign resulted in 95% of China's population having basic health insurance coverage.
As of 2017, the average life expectancy at birth in China is 76 years, and the infant mortality rate is 7 per thousand.
Both have improved significantly since the 1950s.
Despite significant improvements in health and the construction of advanced medical facilities, China has several emerging public health problems, such as respiratory illnesses caused by widespread air pollution, hundreds of millions of cigarette smokers, and an increase in obesity among urban youths.
China's large population and densely populated cities have led to serious disease outbreaks in recent years, such as the 2003 outbreak of SARS, although this has since been largely contained.
In 2010, air pollution caused 1.2 million premature deaths in China.
Although COVID-19 pandemic was first identified in Wuhan, there is no convincing scientific evidence on the virus's origin, and further studies are being carried out around the world on a possible origin for the virus.
The Chinese government has been criticized for its handling of the epidemic and accused of concealing the extent of the outbreak before it became an international pandemic.
Main article: Religion in China
Religious affairs and issues in the country are overseen by the State Administration for Religious Affairs.
Freedom of religion is guaranteed by China's constitution, although religious organizations that lack official approval can be subject to state persecution.
Over the millennia, Chinese civilization has been influenced by various religious movements.
The "three teachings", including Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism (Chinese Buddhism), historically have a significant role in shaping Chinese culture, enriching a theological and spiritual framework which harkens back to the early Shang and Zhou dynasty.
Chinese popular or folk religion, which is framed by the three teachings and other traditions, consists in allegiance to the shen (), a character that signifies the "energies of generation", who can be deities of the environment or ancestral principles of human groups, concepts of civility, culture heroes, many of whom feature in Chinese mythology and history.
Among the most popular cults are those of Mazu (goddess of the seas), Huangdi (one of the two divine patriarchs of the Chinese race), Guandi (god of war and business), Caishen (god of prosperity and richness), Pangu and many others.
Clear data on religious affiliation in China is difficult to gather due to varying definitions of "religion" and the unorganized, diffusive nature of Chinese religious traditions.
Scholars note that in China there is no clear boundary between three teachings religions and local folk religious practice.
A 2015 poll conducted by Gallup International found that 61% of Chinese people self-identified as "convinced atheist", though it is worthwhile to note that Chinese religions or some of their strands are definable as non-theistic and humanistic religions, since they do not believe that divine creativity is completely transcendent, but it is inherent in the world and in particular in the human being.
According to a 2014 study, approximately 74% are either non-religious or practise Chinese folk belief, 16% are Buddhists, 2% are Christians, 1% are Muslims, and 8% adhere to other religions including Taoists and folk salvationism.
The various folk religions today comprise 2–3% of the population, while Confucianism as a religious self-identification is common within the intellectual class.
Since ancient times, Chinese culture has been heavily influenced by Confucianism.
For much of the country's dynastic era, opportunities for social advancement could be provided by high performance in the prestigious imperial examinations, which have their origins in the Han dynasty.
The literary emphasis of the exams affected the general perception of cultural refinement in China, such as the belief that calligraphy, poetry and painting were higher forms of art than dancing or drama.
Chinese culture has long emphasized a sense of deep history and a largely inward-looking national perspective.
Examinations and a culture of merit remain greatly valued in China today.
The first leaders of the People's Republic of China were born into the traditional imperial order, but were influenced by the May Fourth Movement and reformist ideals.
They sought to change some traditional aspects of Chinese culture, such as rural land tenure, sexism, and the Confucian system of education, while preserving others, such as the family structure and culture of obedience to the state.
Some observers see the period following the establishment of the PRC in 1949 as a continuation of traditional Chinese dynastic history, while others claim that the Communist Party's rule has damaged the foundations of Chinese culture, especially through political movements such as the Cultural Revolution of the 1960s, where many aspects of traditional culture were destroyed, having been denounced as "regressive and harmful" or "vestiges of feudalism".
Many important aspects of traditional Chinese morals and culture, such as Confucianism, art, literature, and performing arts like Peking opera, were altered to conform to government policies and propaganda at the time.
Access to foreign media remains heavily restricted.
Today, the Chinese government has accepted numerous elements of traditional Chinese culture as being integral to Chinese society.
With the rise of Chinese nationalism and the end of the Cultural Revolution, various forms of traditional Chinese art, literature, music, film, fashion and architecture have seen a vigorous revival, and folk and variety art in particular have sparked interest nationally and even worldwide.
Tourism in China
China is now the third-most-visited country in the world, with 55.7 million inbound international visitors in 2010.
It also experiences an enormous volume of domestic tourism; an estimated 740 million Chinese holidaymakers travelled within the country in October 2012.
It is forecast by Euromonitor International that China will become the world's most popular destination for tourists by 2030.
Main article: Chinese literature
Chinese literature is based on the literature of the Zhou dynasty.
Some of the most important early texts include the I Ching and the Shujing within the Four Books and Five Classics which served as the Confucian authoritative books for the state-sponsored curriculum in dynastic era.
Chinese historiography began with the Shiji, the overall scope of the historiographical tradition in China is termed the Twenty-Four Histories, which set a vast stage for Chinese fictions along with Chinese mythology and folklore.
Pushed by a burgeoning citizen class in the Ming dynasty, Chinese classical fiction rose to a boom of the historical, town and gods and demons fictions as represented by the Four Great Classical Novels which include Water Margin, Romance of the Three Kingdoms, Journey to the West and Dream of the Red Chamber.
Mo Yan, a xungen literature author, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 2012.
Main article: Chinese cuisine
Chinese cuisine is highly diverse, drawing on several millennia of culinary history and geographical variety, in which the most influential are known as the "Eight Major Cuisines", including Sichuan, Cantonese, Jiangsu, Shandong, Fujian, Hunan, Anhui, and Zhejiang cuisines.
All of them are featured by the precise skills of shaping, heating, colorway and flavoring.
Generally, China's staple food is rice in the south, wheat-based breads and noodles in the north.
The diet of the common people in pre-modern times was largely grain and simple vegetables, with meat reserved for special occasions.
Pork is now the most popular meat in China, accounting for about three-fourths of the country's total meat consumption.
Southern cuisine, due to the area's proximity to the ocean and milder climate, has a wide variety of seafood and vegetables; it differs in many respects from the wheat-based diets across dry northern China.
Chinese music covers a highly diverse range of music from the traditional music to the modern music.
Chinese music dates back before the pre-imperial times.
Traditional Chinese musical instruments were traditionally grouped into eight categories known as bayin (八音).
Main article: Cinema of China
Cinema was first introduced to China in 1896 and the first Chinese film, Dingjun Mountain, was released in 1905.
China has the largest number of movie screens in the world since 2016, China became the largest cinema market in the world in 2020.
Hanfu is the historical clothing of the Han people in China.
The qipao or cheongsam is a popular Chinese female dress.
The hanfu movement has been popular in contemporary times and seeks to revitalize Hanfu clothing.
China has one of the oldest sporting cultures in the world.
Physical fitness is widely emphasized in Chinese culture, with morning exercises such as qigong and t'ai chi ch'uan widely practiced, and commercial gyms and private fitness clubs are gaining popularity across the country.
Basketball is currently the most popular spectator sport in China.
The Chinese Basketball Association and the American National Basketball Association have a huge following among the people, with native or ethnic Chinese players such as Yao Ming and Yi Jianlian held in high esteem.
China's professional football league, now known as Chinese Super League, was established in 1994, it is the largest football market in Asia.
In addition, China is home to a huge number of cyclists, with an estimated 470 million bicycles as of 2012.
China also won the most medals of any nation at the 2012 Summer Paralympics, with 231 overall, including 95 gold medals.
Beijing and its nearby city Zhangjiakou of Hebei province will also collaboratively host the 2022 Olympic Winter Games, which will make Beijing the first city in the world to hold both the Summer Olympics and the Winter Olympics.
Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/China.