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For the Republic of China, see Taiwan. China_sentence_0

For other uses, see China (disambiguation) and PRC (disambiguation). China_sentence_1


People's Republic of ChinaChina_header_cell_0_0_0
CapitalChina_header_cell_0_1_0 BeijingChina_cell_0_1_1
Largest cityChina_header_cell_0_2_0 ShanghaiChina_cell_0_2_1
Official languagesChina_header_cell_0_3_0 Standard ChineseChina_cell_0_3_1
Recognised regional languagesChina_header_cell_0_4_0 China_cell_0_4_1
Official scriptChina_header_cell_0_5_0 Simplified ChineseChina_cell_0_5_1
Ethnic groupsChina_header_cell_0_6_0 China_cell_0_6_1
ReligionChina_header_cell_0_7_0 State atheismChina_cell_0_7_1
Demonym(s)China_header_cell_0_8_0 ChineseChina_cell_0_8_1
GovernmentChina_header_cell_0_9_0 Unitary Marxist–Leninist one-party socialist republicChina_cell_0_9_1
CCP General Secretary, President&

Military ChairmanChina_header_cell_0_10_0

Xi JinpingChina_cell_0_10_1
PremierChina_header_cell_0_11_0 Li KeqiangChina_cell_0_11_1
Congress ChairmanChina_header_cell_0_12_0 Li ZhanshuChina_cell_0_12_1
CPPCC ChairmanChina_header_cell_0_13_0 Wang YangChina_cell_0_13_1
1st Party Secretariat's MemberChina_header_cell_0_14_0 Wang HuningChina_cell_0_14_1
Party Discipline SecretaryChina_header_cell_0_15_0 Zhao LejiChina_cell_0_15_1
1st Vice PremierChina_header_cell_0_16_0 Han ZhengChina_cell_0_16_1
Vice PresidentChina_header_cell_0_17_0 Wang QishanChina_cell_0_17_1
Chief JusticeChina_header_cell_0_18_0 Zhou QiangChina_cell_0_18_1
Prosecutor-GeneralChina_header_cell_0_19_0 Zhang JunChina_cell_0_19_1
Supervisory Commission DirectorChina_header_cell_0_20_0 Yang XiaoduChina_cell_0_20_1
LegislatureChina_header_cell_0_21_0 National People's CongressChina_cell_0_21_1
First pre-imperial dynastyChina_header_cell_0_23_0 c. 2070 BCEChina_cell_0_23_1
First imperial dynastyChina_header_cell_0_24_0 221 BCEChina_cell_0_24_1
Republic establishedChina_header_cell_0_25_0 1 January 1912China_cell_0_25_1
Proclamation of the People's RepublicChina_header_cell_0_26_0 1 October 1949China_cell_0_26_1
First constitutionChina_header_cell_0_27_0 20 September 1954China_cell_0_27_1
Current constitutionChina_header_cell_0_28_0 4 December 1982China_cell_0_28_1
Most recent polity admittedChina_header_cell_0_29_0 20 December 1999China_cell_0_29_1
Area China_header_cell_0_30_0
TotalChina_header_cell_0_31_0 9,596,961 km (3,705,407 sq mi) (3rd/4th)China_cell_0_31_1
Water (%)China_header_cell_0_32_0 2.8China_cell_0_32_1
2019 estimateChina_header_cell_0_34_0 1,400,050,000 (1st)China_cell_0_34_1
2010 censusChina_header_cell_0_35_0 1,340,910,000 (1st)China_cell_0_35_1
DensityChina_header_cell_0_36_0 145/km (375.5/sq mi) (83rd)China_cell_0_36_1
GDP (PPP)China_header_cell_0_37_0 2020 estimateChina_cell_0_37_1
TotalChina_header_cell_0_38_0 $24.2 trillion (1st)China_cell_0_38_1
Per capitaChina_header_cell_0_39_0 $17,206 (73rd)China_cell_0_39_1
GDP (nominal)China_header_cell_0_40_0 2020 estimateChina_cell_0_40_1
TotalChina_header_cell_0_41_0 $14.9 trillion (2nd)China_cell_0_41_1
Per capitaChina_header_cell_0_42_0 $10,839 (59th)China_cell_0_42_1
Gini (2018)China_header_cell_0_43_0 46.7


HDI (2018)China_header_cell_0_44_0 0.758

high · 85thChina_cell_0_44_1

CurrencyChina_header_cell_0_45_0 Renminbi (yuan; ¥) (CNY-Renminbi)

HKD-Hong Kong) MOP-Macau)China_cell_0_45_1

Time zoneChina_header_cell_0_46_0 UTC+8 (China Standard Time)China_cell_0_46_1
Date formatChina_header_cell_0_47_0 China_cell_0_47_1
Driving sideChina_header_cell_0_48_0 right (mainland); Left (Hong Kong and Macau)China_cell_0_48_1
Calling codeChina_header_cell_0_49_0 +86 (mainland); +852 (Hong Kong); +853 (Macau)China_cell_0_49_1
ISO 3166 codeChina_header_cell_0_50_0 CNChina_cell_0_50_1
Internet TLDChina_header_cell_0_51_0 China_cell_0_51_1

China (Chinese: 中国; pinyin: Zhōngguó), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; Chinese: 中华人民共和国; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó), is a country in East Asia. China_sentence_2

It is the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.4 billion in 2019. China_sentence_3

Covering approximately 9.6 million square kilometers (3.7 million mi), it is the world's third or fourth-largest country by area. China_sentence_4

As a one-party state led by the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), the country officially divides itself into 23 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, and Chongqing), and the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. China_sentence_5

China emerged as one of the world's first civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. China_sentence_6

China was one of the world's foremost economic powers for most of the two millennia from the 1st until the 19th century. China_sentence_7

For millennia, China's political system was based on absolute hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. China_sentence_8

Since then, China has expanded, fractured, and re-unified numerous times. China_sentence_9

In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin reunited core China and established the first Chinese empire. China_sentence_10

The succeeding Han dynasty (206 BCE–220 CE) saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements. China_sentence_11

The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty (618–907) and Northern Song (960–1127) completed the Four Great Inventions. China_sentence_12

Tang culture spread widely in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and the Horn of Africa. China_sentence_13

The Qing Empire, China's last dynasty, suffered heavy losses to foreign imperialism. China_sentence_14

The Chinese monarchy collapsed in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution, when the Republic of China (ROC) replaced the Qing dynasty. China_sentence_15

China was invaded by the Empire of Japan during World War II. China_sentence_16

The Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949 when the CCP led by Mao Zedong established the People's Republic of China on mainland China while the Kuomintang-led ROC government retreated to the island of Taiwan. China_sentence_17

The PRC is sometimes referred to as Mainland China or the Mainland to distinguish the ROC from the PRC. China_sentence_18

China is the largest economy in the world by PPP since 2014, the second-largest by nominal GDP since 2010, the world's largest manufacturing economy since 2010, and the second-wealthiest nation in the world. China_sentence_19

Since the introduction of reforms in 1978, the economy of China has produced numerous significant achievements. China_sentence_20

They include the country being the world's fastest-growing major economy (since 1978 China’s GDP growth has averaged almost 10 percent a year), the continuation of the world's fastest rise in GDP per capita recorded from 1960 to 2018, the world's highest amount of exports, the world's fastest-growing consumer market, the world's largest banking sector (with assets of $40 trillion and the world's top four largest banks all being in China), having four of the world's top ten most competitive financial centers (Shanghai, Hong Kong, Beijing and Shenzhen) in the 2020 Global Financial Centres Index (more than any other country), lifting more than 850 million people out of poverty, and having the highest number of people in the top 10% of the wealthiest individuals in the world. China_sentence_21

China is a unitary one-party socialist republic and is one of the few nominally socialist states. China_sentence_22

Political dissidents and human rights groups have denounced the Chinese government for widespread human rights abuses, including political repression, suppression of religious and ethnic minorities, censorship, mass surveillance, and their response to protests, notably the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests. China_sentence_23

The country is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army, the People's Liberation Army, and the second-largest defense budget. China_sentence_24

The PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since replacing the ROC in 1971. China_sentence_25

China has been characterized as an emerging superpower, mainly because of its economy, rapid infrastructural development, and military. China_sentence_26

Etymology China_section_0

Main article: Names of China China_sentence_27

The word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century; however, it was not a word used by the Chinese themselves during this period in time. China_sentence_28

Its origin has been traced through Portuguese, Malay, and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna, used in ancient India. China_sentence_29

"China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. China_sentence_30

Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn (), which was in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna (). China_sentence_31

Cīna was first used in early Hindu scripture, including the Mahābhārata (5th century BCE) and the Laws of Manu (2nd century BCE). China_sentence_32

In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived ultimately from the name of the Qin dynasty (221–206 BCE). China_sentence_33

Although this derivation is still given in various sources, the origin of the Sanskrit word is a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. China_sentence_34

Alternative suggestions include the names for Yelang and the Jing or Chu state. China_sentence_35

The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China" (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ). China_sentence_36

The shorter form is "China" (; ) from zhōng ("central") and guó ("state"), a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. China_sentence_37

It was then applied to the area around Luoyi (present-day Luoyang) during the Eastern Zhou and then to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing. China_sentence_38

It was often used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". China_sentence_39

The name Zhongguo is also translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English. China_sentence_40

The Pro-ROC / anti-PRC camp also refers to the PRC as Mainland China in order to distinguish it from the Republic of China (ROC) government in Taiwan. China_sentence_41

History China_section_1

Main articles: History of China and Timeline of Chinese history China_sentence_42

Prehistory China_section_2

Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China 2.25 million years ago. China_sentence_43

The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; they have been dated to between 680,000 and 780,000 years ago. China_sentence_44

The fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens (dated to 125,000–80,000 years ago) have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Dao County, Hunan. China_sentence_45

Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, Damaidi around 6000 BCE, Dadiwan from 5800 to 5400 BCE, and Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE. China_sentence_46

Some scholars have suggested that the Jiahu symbols (7th millennium BCE) constituted the earliest Chinese writing system. China_sentence_47

Early dynastic rule China_section_3

Further information: Dynasties in Chinese history China_sentence_48

According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE. China_sentence_49

Xia dynasty marked the beginning of China's political system based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, which lasted for a millennium. China_sentence_50

The dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. China_sentence_51

It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period. China_sentence_52

The succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. China_sentence_53

The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE. China_sentence_54

Their oracle bone script (from c. 1500 BCE) represents the oldest form of Chinese writing yet found, and is a direct ancestor of modern Chinese characters. China_sentence_55

The Shang was conquered by the Zhou, who ruled between the 11th and 5th centuries BCE, though centralized authority was slowly eroded by feudal warlords. China_sentence_56

Some principalities eventually emerged from the weakened Zhou, no longer fully obeyed the Zhou king and continually waged war with each other in the 300-year Spring and Autumn period. China_sentence_57

By the time of the Warring States period of the 5th–3rd centuries BCE, there were only seven powerful states left. China_sentence_58

Imperial China China_section_4

The Warring States period ended in 221 BCE after the state of Qin conquered the other six kingdoms, reunited China and established the dominant order of autocracy. China_sentence_59

King Zheng of Qin proclaimed himself the First Emperor of the Qin dynasty. China_sentence_60

He enacted Qin's legalist reforms throughout China, notably the forced standardization of Chinese characters, measurements, road widths (i.e., cart axles' length), and currency. China_sentence_61

His dynasty also conquered the Yue tribes in Guangxi, Guangdong, and Vietnam. China_sentence_62

The Qin dynasty lasted only fifteen years, falling soon after the First Emperor's death, as his harsh authoritarian policies led to widespread rebellion. China_sentence_63

Following a widespread civil war during which the imperial library at Xianyang was burned, the Han dynasty emerged to rule China between 206 BCE and CE 220, creating a cultural identity among its populace still remembered in the ethnonym of the Han Chinese. China_sentence_64

The Han expanded the empire's territory considerably, with military campaigns reaching Central Asia, Mongolia, South Korea, and Yunnan, and the recovery of Guangdong and northern Vietnam from Nanyue. China_sentence_65

Han involvement in Central Asia and Sogdia helped establish the land route of the Silk Road, replacing the earlier path over the Himalayas to India. China_sentence_66

Han China gradually became the largest economy of the ancient world. China_sentence_67

Despite the Han's initial decentralization and the official abandonment of the Qin philosophy of Legalism in favor of Confucianism, Qin's legalist institutions and policies continued to be employed by the Han government and its successors. China_sentence_68

After the end of the Han dynasty, a period of strife known as Three Kingdoms followed, whose central figures were later immortalized in one of the Four Classics of Chinese literature. China_sentence_69

At its end, Wei was swiftly overthrown by the Jin dynasty. China_sentence_70

The Jin fell to civil war upon the ascension of a developmentally disabled emperor; the Five Barbarians then invaded and ruled northern China as the Sixteen States. China_sentence_71

The Xianbei unified them as the Northern Wei, whose Emperor Xiaowen reversed his predecessors' apartheid policies and enforced a drastic sinification on his subjects, largely integrating them into Chinese culture. China_sentence_72

In the south, the general Liu Yu secured the abdication of the Jin in favor of the Liu Song. China_sentence_73

The various successors of these states became known as the Northern and Southern dynasties, with the two areas finally reunited by the Sui in 581. China_sentence_74

The Sui restored the Han to power through China, reformed its agriculture, economy and imperial examination system, constructed the Grand Canal, and patronized Buddhism. China_sentence_75

However, they fell quickly when their conscription for public works and a failed war in northern Korea provoked widespread unrest. China_sentence_76

Under the succeeding Tang and Song dynasties, Chinese economy, technology, and culture entered a golden age. China_sentence_77

The Tang Empire retained control of the Western Regions and the Silk Road, which brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and the Horn of Africa, and made the capital Chang'an a cosmopolitan urban center. China_sentence_78

However, it was devastated and weakened by the An Lushan Rebellion in the 8th century. China_sentence_79

In 907, the Tang disintegrated completely when the local military governors became ungovernable. China_sentence_80

The Song dynasty ended the separatist situation in 960, leading to a balance of power between the Song and Khitan Liao. China_sentence_81

The Song was the first government in world history to issue paper money and the first Chinese polity to establish a permanent standing navy which was supported by the developed shipbuilding industry along with the sea trade. China_sentence_82

Between the 10th and 11th centuries, the population of China doubled in size to around 100 million people, mostly because of the expansion of rice cultivation in central and southern China, and the production of abundant food surpluses. China_sentence_83

The Song dynasty also saw a revival of Confucianism, in response to the growth of Buddhism during the Tang, and a flourishing of philosophy and the arts, as landscape art and porcelain were brought to new levels of maturity and complexity. China_sentence_84

However, the military weakness of the Song army was observed by the Jurchen Jin dynasty. China_sentence_85

In 1127, Emperor Huizong of Song and the capital Bianjing were captured during the Jin–Song Wars. China_sentence_86

The remnants of the Song retreated to southern China. China_sentence_87

The 13th century brought the Mongol conquest of China. China_sentence_88

In 1271, the Mongol leader Kublai Khan established the Yuan dynasty; the Yuan conquered the last remnant of the Song dynasty in 1279. China_sentence_89

Before the Mongol invasion, the population of Song China was 120 million citizens; this was reduced to 60 million by the time of the census in 1300. China_sentence_90

A peasant named Zhu Yuanzhang overthrew the Yuan in 1368 and founded the Ming dynasty as the Hongwu Emperor. China_sentence_91

Under the Ming dynasty, China enjoyed another golden age, developing one of the strongest navies in the world and a rich and prosperous economy amid a flourishing of art and culture. China_sentence_92

It was during this period that admiral Zheng He led the Ming treasure voyages throughout the Indian Ocean, reaching as far as East Africa. China_sentence_93

In the early years of the Ming dynasty, China's capital was moved from Nanjing to Beijing. China_sentence_94

With the budding of capitalism, philosophers such as Wang Yangming further critiqued and expanded Neo-Confucianism with concepts of individualism and equality of four occupations. China_sentence_95

The scholar-official stratum became a supporting force of industry and commerce in the tax boycott movements, which, together with the famines and defense against Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–1598) and Manchu invasions led to an exhausted treasury. China_sentence_96

In 1644, Beijing was captured by a coalition of peasant rebel forces led by Li Zicheng. China_sentence_97

The Chongzhen Emperor committed suicide when the city fell. China_sentence_98

The Manchu Qing dynasty, then allied with Ming dynasty general Wu Sangui, overthrew Li's short-lived Shun dynasty and subsequently seized control of Beijing, which became the new capital of the Qing dynasty. China_sentence_99

Late imperial China_section_5

The Qing dynasty, which lasted from 1644 until 1912, was the last imperial dynasty of China. China_sentence_100

Its conquest of the Ming (1618–1683) cost 25 million lives and the economy of China shrank drastically. China_sentence_101

After the Southern Ming ended, the further conquest of the Dzungar Khanate added Mongolia, Tibet and Xinjiang to the empire. China_sentence_102

The centralized autocracy was strengthened to crack down on anti-Qing sentiment with the policy of valuing agriculture and restraining commerce, the Haijin ("sea ban"), and ideological control as represented by the literary inquisition, causing social and technological stagnation. China_sentence_103

In the mid-19th century, the dynasty experienced Western imperialism in the Opium Wars with Britain and France. China_sentence_104

China was forced to pay compensation, open treaty ports, allow extraterritoriality for foreign nationals, and cede Hong Kong to the British under the 1842 Treaty of Nanking, the first of the Unequal Treaties. China_sentence_105

The First Sino-Japanese War (1894–95) resulted in Qing China's loss of influence in the Korean Peninsula, as well as the cession of Taiwan to Japan. China_sentence_106

The Qing dynasty also began experiencing internal unrest in which tens of millions of people died, especially in the White Lotus Rebellion, the failed Taiping Rebellion that ravaged southern China in the 1850s and 1860s and the Dungan Revolt (1862–77) in the northwest. China_sentence_107

The initial success of the Self-Strengthening Movement of the 1860s was frustrated by a series of military defeats in the 1880s and 1890s. China_sentence_108

In the 19th century, the great Chinese diaspora began. China_sentence_109

Losses due to emigration were added to by conflicts and catastrophes such as the Northern Chinese Famine of 1876–79, in which between 9 and 13 million people died. China_sentence_110

The Guangxu Emperor drafted a reform plan in 1898 to establish a modern constitutional monarchy, but these plans were thwarted by the Empress Dowager Cixi. China_sentence_111

The ill-fated anti-foreign Boxer Rebellion of 1899–1901 further weakened the dynasty. China_sentence_112

Although Cixi sponsored a program of reforms, the Xinhai Revolution of 1911–12 brought an end to the Qing dynasty and established the Republic of China. China_sentence_113

Puyi, the last Emperor of China, abdicated in 1912. China_sentence_114

Republic (1912–1949) China_section_6

Main article: Republic of China (1912–1949) China_sentence_115

On 1 January 1912, the Republic of China was established, and Sun Yat-sen of the Kuomintang (the KMT or Nationalist Party) was proclaimed provisional president. China_sentence_116

However, the presidency was later given to Yuan Shikai, a former Qing general who in 1915 proclaimed himself Emperor of China. China_sentence_117

In the face of popular condemnation and opposition from his own Beiyang Army, he was forced to abdicate and re-establish the republic. China_sentence_118

After Yuan Shikai's death in 1916, China was politically fragmented. China_sentence_119

Its Beijing-based government was internationally recognized but virtually powerless; regional warlords controlled most of its territory. China_sentence_120

In the late 1920s, the Kuomintang, under Chiang Kai-shek, the then Principal of the Republic of China Military Academy, was able to reunify the country under its own control with a series of deft military and political manoeuvrings, known collectively as the Northern Expedition. China_sentence_121

The Kuomintang moved the nation's capital to Nanjing and implemented "political tutelage", an intermediate stage of political development outlined in Sun Yat-sen's San-min program for transforming China into a modern democratic state. China_sentence_122

The political division in China made it difficult for Chiang to battle the communist People's Liberation Army (PLA), against whom the Kuomintang had been warring since 1927 in the Chinese Civil War. China_sentence_123

This war continued successfully for the Kuomintang, especially after the PLA retreated in the Long March, until Japanese aggression and the 1936 Xi'an Incident forced Chiang to confront Imperial Japan. China_sentence_124

The Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945), a theater of World War II, forced an uneasy alliance between the Kuomintang and the PLA. China_sentence_125

Japanese forces committed numerous war atrocities against the civilian population; in all, as many as 20 million Chinese civilians died. China_sentence_126

An estimated 40,000 to 300,000 Chinese were massacred in the city of Nanjing alone during the Japanese occupation. China_sentence_127

During the war, China, along with the UK, the US, and the Soviet Union, were referred to as "trusteeship of the powerful" and were recognized as the Allied "Big Four" in the Declaration by United Nations. China_sentence_128

Along with the other three great powers, China was one of the four major Allies of World War II, and was later considered one of the primary victors in the war. China_sentence_129

After the surrender of Japan in 1945, Taiwan, including the Pescadores, was returned to Chinese control. China_sentence_130

China emerged victorious but war-ravaged and financially drained. China_sentence_131

The continued distrust between the Kuomintang and the Communists led to the resumption of civil war. China_sentence_132

Constitutional rule was established in 1947, but because of the ongoing unrest, many provisions of the ROC constitution were never implemented in mainland China. China_sentence_133

People's Republic (1949–present) China_section_7

Main article: History of the People's Republic of China China_sentence_134

Major combat in the Chinese Civil War ended in 1949 with the Communist Party in control of most of mainland China, and the Kuomintang retreating offshore, reducing its territory to only Taiwan, Hainan, and their surrounding islands. China_sentence_135

On 21 September 1949, Communist Party Chairman Mao Zedong proclaimed the establishment of the People's Republic of China with a speech at the First Plenary Session of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference followed by a public proclamation and celebration in Tiananmen Square. China_sentence_136

In 1950, the People's Liberation Army captured Hainan from the ROC and incorporated Tibet. China_sentence_137

However, remaining Kuomintang forces continued to wage an insurgency in western China throughout the 1950s. China_sentence_138

The regime consolidated its popularity among the peasants through land reform, which included the execution of between 1 and 2 million landlords. China_sentence_139

China developed an independent industrial system and its own nuclear weapons. China_sentence_140

The Chinese population increased from 550 million in 1950 to 900 million in 1974. China_sentence_141

However, the Great Leap Forward, an idealistic massive reform project, resulted in an estimated 15 to 35 million deaths between 1958 and 1961, mostly from starvation. China_sentence_142

In 1966, Mao and his allies launched the Cultural Revolution, sparking a decade of political recrimination and social upheaval that lasted until Mao's death in 1976. China_sentence_143

In October 1971, the PRC replaced the Republic in the United Nations, and took its seat as a permanent member of the Security Council. China_sentence_144

After Mao's death, the Gang of Four was quickly arrested and held responsible for the excesses of the Cultural Revolution. China_sentence_145

Deng Xiaoping took power in 1978, and instituted significant economic reforms. China_sentence_146

The Party loosened governmental control over citizens' personal lives, and the communes were gradually disbanded in favor of working contracted to households. China_sentence_147

This marked China's transition from a planned economy to a mixed economy with an increasingly open-market environment. China_sentence_148

China adopted its current constitution on 4 December 1982. China_sentence_149

In 1989, the suppression of student protests in Tiananmen Square brought condemnations and sanctions against the Chinese government from various foreign countries. China_sentence_150

Jiang Zemin, Li Peng and Zhu Rongji led the nation in the 1990s. China_sentence_151

Under their administration, China's economic performance pulled an estimated 150 million peasants out of poverty and sustained an average annual gross domestic product growth rate of 11.2%. China_sentence_152

The country joined the World Trade Organization in 2001, and maintained its high rate of economic growth under Hu Jintao and Wen Jiabao's leadership in the 2000s. China_sentence_153

However, the growth also severely impacted the country's resources and environment, and caused major social displacement. China_sentence_154

Chinese Communist Party general secretary Xi Jinping has ruled since 2012 and has pursued large-scale efforts to reform China's economy (which has suffered from structural instabilities and slowing growth), and has also reformed the one-child policy and prison system, as well as instituting a vast anti corruption crackdown. China_sentence_155

In 2013, China initiated the Belt and Road Initiative, a global infrastructure investment project. China_sentence_156

Geography China_section_8

Main article: Geography of China China_sentence_157

China's landscape is vast and diverse, ranging from the Gobi and Taklamakan Deserts in the arid north to the subtropical forests in the wetter south. China_sentence_158

The Himalaya, Karakoram, Pamir and Tian Shan mountain ranges separate China from much of South and Central Asia. China_sentence_159

The Yangtze and Yellow Rivers, the third- and sixth-longest in the world, respectively, run from the Tibetan Plateau to the densely populated eastern seaboard. China_sentence_160

China's coastline along the Pacific Ocean is 14,500 kilometers (9,000 mi) long and is bounded by the Bohai, Yellow, East China and South China seas. China_sentence_161

China connects through the Kazakh border to the Eurasian Steppe which has been an artery of communication between East and West since the Neolithic through the Steppe route – the ancestor of the terrestrial Silk Road(s). China_sentence_162

Landscape and climate China_section_9

The territory of China lies between latitudes 18° and 54° N, and longitudes 73° and 135° E. China_sentence_163

The geographical center of China is marked by the Center of the Country Monument at . China_sentence_164

China's landscapes vary significantly across its vast territory. China_sentence_165

In the east, along the shores of the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea, there are extensive and densely populated alluvial plains, while on the edges of the Inner Mongolian plateau in the north, broad grasslands predominate. China_sentence_166

Southern China is dominated by hills and low mountain ranges, while the central-east hosts the deltas of China's two major rivers, the Yellow River and the Yangtze River. China_sentence_167

Other major rivers include the Xi, Mekong, Brahmaputra and Amur. China_sentence_168

To the west sit major mountain ranges, most notably the Himalayas. China_sentence_169

High plateaus feature among the more arid landscapes of the north, such as the Taklamakan and the Gobi Desert. China_sentence_170

The world's highest point, Mount Everest (8,848 m), lies on the Sino-Nepalese border. China_sentence_171

The country's lowest point, and the world's third-lowest, is the dried lake bed of Ayding Lake (−154m) in the Turpan Depression. China_sentence_172

China's climate is mainly dominated by dry seasons and wet monsoons, which lead to pronounced temperature differences between winter and summer. China_sentence_173

In the winter, northern winds coming from high-latitude areas are cold and dry; in summer, southern winds from coastal areas at lower latitudes are warm and moist. China_sentence_174

The climate in China differs from region to region because of the country's highly complex topography. China_sentence_175

A major environmental issue in China is the continued expansion of its deserts, particularly the Gobi Desert. China_sentence_176

Although barrier tree lines planted since the 1970s have reduced the frequency of sandstorms, prolonged drought and poor agricultural practices have resulted in dust storms plaguing northern China each spring, which then spread to other parts of East Asia, including Japan and Korea. China_sentence_177

China's environmental watchdog, SEPA, stated in 2007 that China is losing 4,000 km (1,500 sq mi) per year to desertification. China_sentence_178

Water quality, erosion, and pollution control have become important issues in China's relations with other countries. China_sentence_179

Melting glaciers in the Himalayas could potentially lead to water shortages for hundreds of millions of people. China_sentence_180

Much of China has a climate very suitable for agriculture and the country has been the world's largest producer of rice, wheat, tomatoes, eggplant, grapes, watermelon, spinach, and many other crops. China_sentence_181

Biodiversity China_section_10

Main article: Wildlife of China China_sentence_182

China is one of 17 megadiverse countries, lying in two of the world's major biogeographic realms: the Palearctic and the Indomalayan. China_sentence_183

By one measure, China has over 34,687 species of animals and vascular plants, making it the third-most biodiverse country in the world, after Brazil and Colombia. China_sentence_184

The country signed the Rio de Janeiro Convention on Biological Diversity on 11 June 1992, and became a party to the convention on 5 January 1993. China_sentence_185

It later produced a National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, with one revision that was received by the convention on 21 September 2010. China_sentence_186

China is home to at least 551 species of mammals (the third-highest such number in the world), 1,221 species of birds (eighth), 424 species of reptiles (seventh) and 333 species of amphibians (seventh). China_sentence_187

Wildlife in China share habitat with and bear acute pressure from the world's largest population of Homo sapiens. China_sentence_188

At least 840 animal species are threatened, vulnerable or in danger of local extinction in China, due mainly to human activity such as habitat destruction, pollution and poaching for food, fur and ingredients for traditional Chinese medicine. China_sentence_189

Endangered wildlife is protected by law, and as of 2005, the country has over 2,349 nature reserves, covering a total area of 149.95 million hectares, 15 percent of China's total land area. China_sentence_190

The Baiji was confirmed extinct on 12 December 2006. China_sentence_191

China has over 32,000 species of vascular plants, and is home to a variety of forest types. China_sentence_192

Cold coniferous forests predominate in the north of the country, supporting animal species such as moose and Asian black bear, along with over 120 bird species. China_sentence_193

The understorey of moist conifer forests may contain thickets of bamboo. China_sentence_194

In higher montane stands of juniper and yew, the bamboo is replaced by rhododendrons. China_sentence_195

Subtropical forests, which are predominate in central and southern China, support a high density of plant species including numerous rare endemics. China_sentence_196

Tropical and seasonal rainforests, though confined to Yunnan and Hainan Island, contain a quarter of all the animal and plant species found in China. China_sentence_197

China has over 10,000 recorded species of fungi, and of them, nearly 6,000 are higher fungi. China_sentence_198

Environment China_section_11

Main articles: Environment of China and Environmental issues in China China_sentence_199

See also: Water resources of China, Energy policy of China, and Climate change in China China_sentence_200

In recent decades, China has suffered from severe environmental deterioration and pollution. China_sentence_201

While regulations such as the 1979 Environmental Protection Law are fairly stringent, they are poorly enforced, as they are frequently disregarded by local communities and government officials in favor of rapid economic development. China_sentence_202

China is the country with the second highest death toll because of air pollution, after India. China_sentence_203

There are approximately 1 million deaths caused by exposure to ambient air pollution. China_sentence_204

China is the world's largest carbon dioxide emitter, and has been ranked as the 13th largest in emissions per capita. China_sentence_205

The country also has significant water pollution problems: 8.2% of China's rivers had been polluted by industrial and agricultural waste in 2019, and were unfit for use. China_sentence_206

However, China is the world's leading investor in renewable energy and its commercialization, with $52 billion invested in 2011 alone; it is a major manufacturer of renewable energy technologies and invests heavily in local-scale renewable energy projects. China_sentence_207

By 2015, over 24% of China's energy was derived from renewable sources, while most notably from hydroelectric power: a total installed capacity of 197 GW makes China the largest hydroelectric power producer in the world. China_sentence_208

China also has the largest power capacity of installed solar photovoltaics system and wind power system in the world. China_sentence_209

Greenhouse gas emissions by China are the world's largest, as is renewable energy in China. China_sentence_210

Political geography China_section_12

Main articles: Borders of China and Territorial changes of the People's Republic of China China_sentence_211

The People's Republic of China is the second-largest country in the world by land area after Russia, and is the third largest by total area, after Russia and Canada. China_sentence_212

China's total area is generally stated as being approximately 9,600,000 km (3,700,000 sq mi). China_sentence_213

Specific area figures range from 9,572,900 km (3,696,100 sq mi) according to the Encyclopædia Britannica, to 9,596,961 km (3,705,407 sq mi) according to the UN Demographic Yearbook, and the CIA World Factbook. China_sentence_214

China has the longest combined land border in the world, measuring 22,117 km (13,743 mi) from the mouth of the Yalu River (Amnok River) to the Gulf of Tonkin. China_sentence_215

China borders 14 nations, more than any other country except Russia, which also borders 14. China_sentence_216

China extends across much of East Asia, bordering Vietnam, Laos, and Myanmar (Burma) in Southeast Asia; India, Bhutan, Nepal, Afghanistan, and Pakistan in South Asia; Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan in Central Asia; and Russia, Mongolia, and North Korea in Inner Asia and Northeast Asia. China_sentence_217

Additionally, China shares maritime boundaries with South Korea, Japan, Vietnam, and the Philippines. China_sentence_218

Politics China_section_13

Main article: Politics of China China_sentence_219

See also: List of current Chinese provincial leaders China_sentence_220

The Chinese constitution states that The People's Republic of China "is a socialist state under the people's democratic dictatorship led by the working class and based on the alliance of workers and peasants," and that the state organs "apply the principle of democratic centralism." China_sentence_221

The PRC is one of the world's only socialist states explicitly aiming to build communism. China_sentence_222

The Chinese government has been variously described as communist and socialist, but also as authoritarian and corporatist, with heavy restrictions in many areas, most notably against free access to the Internet, freedom of the press, freedom of assembly, the right to have children, free formation of social organizations and freedom of religion. China_sentence_223

Its current political, ideological and economic system has been termed by its leaders as a "consultative democracy" "people's democratic dictatorship", "socialism with Chinese characteristics" (which is Marxism adapted to Chinese circumstances) and the "socialist market economy" respectively. China_sentence_224

According to Lutgard Lams, "President Xi is making great attempts to 'Sinicize' Marxist–Leninist Thought 'with Chinese characteristics' in the political sphere." China_sentence_225

Communist Party China_section_14

See also: Chinese Communist Party China_sentence_226

Since 2018, the main body of the Chinese constitution declares that "the defining feature of socialism with Chinese characteristics is the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP)." China_sentence_227

The 2018 amendments constitutionalized the de facto one-party state status of China, wherein the General Secretary (party leader) holds ultimate power and authority over state and government and serves as the paramount leader of China. China_sentence_228

The current General Secretary is Xi Jinping, who took office on 15 November 2012 and was re-elected on 25 October 2017. China_sentence_229

The electoral system is pyramidal. China_sentence_230

Local People's Congresses are directly elected, and higher levels of People's Congresses up to the National People's Congress (NPC) are indirectly elected by the People's Congress of the level immediately below. China_sentence_231

Government China_section_15

Main article: Government of China China_sentence_232

The President is the titular head of state, elected by the National People's Congress. China_sentence_233

The Premier is the head of government, presiding over the State Council composed of four vice premiers and the heads of ministries and commissions. China_sentence_234

The incumbent president is Xi Jinping, who is also the General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party and the Chairman of the Central Military Commission, making him China's paramount leader. China_sentence_235

The incumbent premier is Li Keqiang, who is also a senior member of the CPC Politburo Standing Committee, China's de facto top decision-making body. China_sentence_236

There have been some moves toward political liberalization, in that open contested elections are now held at the village and town levels. China_sentence_237

However, the party retains effective control over government appointments: in the absence of meaningful opposition, the CCP wins by default most of the time. China_sentence_238

In 2017, Xi called on the communist party to further tighten its grip on the country, to uphold the unity of the party leadership, and achieve the "Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation". China_sentence_239

Political concerns in China include the growing gap between rich and poor and government corruption. China_sentence_240

Nonetheless, the level of public support for the government and its management of the nation is high, with 80–95% of Chinese citizens expressing satisfaction with the central government, according to a 2011 survey. China_sentence_241

Administrative divisions China_section_16

Main articles: Administrative divisions of China, Districts of Hong Kong, and Municipalities of Macau China_sentence_242

The People's Republic of China is divided into 22 provinces, five autonomous regions (each with a designated minority group), and four municipalities—collectively referred to as "mainland China"—as well as the special administrative regions (SARs) of Hong Kong and Macau. China_sentence_243

Geographically, all 31 provincial divisions of mainland China can be grouped into six regions: North China, Northeast China, East China, South Central China, Southwest China, and Northwest China. China_sentence_244

China considers Taiwan to be its 23rd province, although Taiwan is governed by the Republic of China (ROC), which rejects the PRC's claim. China_sentence_245

Conversely, the ROC claims sovereignty over all divisions governed by the PRC. China_sentence_246


Provinces (省)China_header_cell_1_0_0 Claimed ProvinceChina_header_cell_1_0_5
China_cell_1_1_0 China_cell_1_1_1 China_cell_1_1_2 China_cell_1_1_3 China_cell_1_1_4 China_cell_1_1_5
Autonomous regions (自治区)China_header_cell_1_2_0 Municipalities (直辖市)China_header_cell_1_2_2 Special administrative regions (特别行政区)China_header_cell_1_2_4
China_cell_1_3_0 China_cell_1_3_2 China_cell_1_3_4

Foreign relations China_section_17

Main article: Foreign relations of China China_sentence_247

The PRC has diplomatic relations with 175 countries and maintains embassies in 162. China_sentence_248

In 2019, China had the largest diplomatic network in the world. China_sentence_249

Its legitimacy is disputed by the Republic of China and a few other countries; it is thus the largest and most populous state with limited recognition. China_sentence_250

In 1971, the PRC replaced the Republic of China as the sole representative of China in the United Nations and as one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council. China_sentence_251

China was also a former member and leader of the Non-Aligned Movement, and still considers itself an advocate for developing countries. China_sentence_252

Along with Brazil, Russia, India and South Africa, China is a member of the BRICS group of emerging major economies and hosted the group's third official summit at Sanya, Hainan in April 2011. China_sentence_253

Under its interpretation of the One-China policy, Beijing has made it a precondition to establishing diplomatic relations that the other country acknowledges its claim to Taiwan and severs official ties with the government of the Republic of China. China_sentence_254

Chinese officials have protested on numerous occasions when foreign countries have made diplomatic overtures to Taiwan, especially in the matter of armament sales. China_sentence_255

Much of current Chinese foreign policy is reportedly based on Premier Zhou Enlai's Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, and is also driven by the concept of "harmony without uniformity", which encourages diplomatic relations between states despite ideological differences. China_sentence_256

This policy may have led China to support states that are regarded as dangerous or repressive by Western nations, such as Zimbabwe, North Korea and Iran. China_sentence_257

China has a close economic and military relationship with Russia, and the two states often vote in unison in the UN Security Council. China_sentence_258

Trade relations China_section_18

China became the world's largest trading nation in 2013, as measured by the sum of imports and exports. China_sentence_259

By 2016, China was the largest trading partner of 124 other countries. China_sentence_260

China became a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) on 11 December 2001. China_sentence_261

In 2004, it proposed an entirely new East Asia Summit (EAS) framework as a forum for regional security issues. China_sentence_262

The EAS, which includes ASEAN Plus Three, India, Australia and New Zealand, held its inaugural summit in 2005. China_sentence_263

China has had a long and complex trade relationship with the United States. China_sentence_264

In 2000, the United States Congress approved "permanent normal trade relations" (PNTR) with China, allowing Chinese exports in at the same low tariffs as goods from most other countries. China_sentence_265

China has a significant trade surplus with the United States, its most important export market. China_sentence_266

In the early 2010s, US politicians argued that the Chinese yuan was significantly undervalued, giving China an unfair trade advantage. China_sentence_267

Since the turn of the century, China has followed a policy of engaging with African nations for trade and bilateral co-operation; in 2012, Sino-African trade totalled over US$160 billion. China_sentence_268

According to Madison Condon "China finances more infrastructure projects in Africa than the World Bank and provides billions of dollars in low-interest loans to the continent’s emerging economies." China_sentence_269

China maintains healthy and highly diversified trade links with the European Union. China_sentence_270

China has furthermore strengthened its ties with major South American economies, becoming the largest trading partner of Brazil and building strategic links with Argentina. China_sentence_271

China's Belt and Road Initiative has expanded significantly over the last six years and, as of April 2020, includes 138 countries and 30 international organizations. China_sentence_272

However many of these loans made under the Belt and Road program are unsustainable and China has faced a number of calls for debt relief from debtor nations. China_sentence_273

Territorial disputes China_section_19

Main article: Foreign relations of China § International territorial disputes China_sentence_274

See also: List of wars involving the People's Republic of China and Cross-Strait relations China_sentence_275

Taiwan China_section_20

Ever since its establishment after the Chinese Civil War, the PRC has claimed the territories governed by the Republic of China (ROC), a separate political entity today commonly known as Taiwan, as a part of its territory. China_sentence_276

It regards the island of Taiwan as its Taiwan Province, Kinmen and Matsu as a part of Fujian Province and islands the ROC controls in the South China Sea as a part of Hainan Province and Guangdong Province. China_sentence_277

These claims are controversial because of the complicated Cross-Strait relations, with the PRC treating the One-China policy as one of its most important diplomatic principles. China_sentence_278

Land border disputes China_section_21

China has resolved its land borders with 12 out of 14 neighboring countries, having pursued substantial compromises in most of them. China_sentence_279

As of 2020, China currently has a disputed land border with only India and Bhutan. China_sentence_280

Maritime border disputes China_section_22

China is additionally involved in maritime disputes with multiple countries over the ownership of several small islands in the East and South China Seas, such as the Senkaku Islands and the Scarborough Shoal. China_sentence_281

Sociopolitical issues and human rights China_section_23

See also: Human rights in China, Hukou system, Social welfare in China, Elections in China, Censorship in China, Uyghur genocide, and Sex trafficking in China China_sentence_282

The Chinese democracy movement, social activists, and some members of the Chinese Communist Party believe in the need for social and political reform. China_sentence_283

While economic and social controls have been significantly relaxed in China since the 1970s, political freedom is still tightly restricted. China_sentence_284

The Constitution of the People's Republic of China states that the "fundamental rights" of citizens include freedom of speech, freedom of the press, the right to a fair trial, freedom of religion, universal suffrage, and property rights. China_sentence_285

However, in practice, these provisions do not afford significant protection against criminal prosecution by the state. China_sentence_286

Although some criticisms of government policies and the ruling Communist Party are tolerated, censorship of political speech and information, most notably on the Internet, are routinely used to prevent collective action. China_sentence_287

By 2020, China plans to give all its citizens a personal "Social Credit" score based on how they behave. China_sentence_288

The Social Credit System, now being piloted in a number of Chinese cities, is considered a form of mass surveillance which uses big data analysis technology. China_sentence_289

A number of foreign governments, foreign press agencies, and NGOs have criticized China's human rights record, alleging widespread civil rights violations such as detention without trial, forced abortions, forced confessions, torture, restrictions of fundamental rights, and excessive use of the death penalty. China_sentence_290

The government suppresses popular protests and demonstrations that it considers a potential threat to "social stability", as was the case with the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. China_sentence_291

The Chinese state is regularly accused of large-scale repression and human rights abuses in Tibet and Xinjiang, including violent police crackdowns and religious suppression throughout the Chinese nation. China_sentence_292

Many Western countries alleged that at least one million members of China's Muslim Uyghur minority have been detained in mass detention camps, termed "Vocational Education and Training Centers", aimed at changing the political thinking of detainees, their identities, and their religious beliefs. China_sentence_293

According to the U.S. China_sentence_294

Department of State, actions including political indoctrination, torture, physical and psychological abuse, forced sterilization, sexual abuse, and forced labor are common in these facilities. China_sentence_295

In January 2019, the United Nations asked for direct access to the detention camps after a human rights panel vice-chair said there were "credible reports" that 1.1 million Uygur, Kazakhs, Hui and other ethnic minorities had been detained in these camps. China_sentence_296

The state has also sought to control offshore reporting of tensions in Xinjiang, intimidating foreign-based reporters by detaining their family members. China_sentence_297

According to a 2020 report, China's treatment of Uyghurs meets UN definition of genocide, and several groups called for a UN investigation. China_sentence_298

As of August 2020, US government is investigating formally labelling China's treatment as genocide. China_sentence_299

Global studies from Pew Research Center in 2014 and 2017 ranked the Chinese government's restrictions on religion as among the highest in the world, despite low to moderate rankings for religious-related social hostilities in the country. China_sentence_300

The Global Slavery Index estimated that in 2016 more than 3.8 million people were living in "conditions of modern slavery", or 0.25% of the population, including victims of human trafficking, forced labor, forced marriage, child labor, and state-imposed forced labor. China_sentence_301

The state-imposed forced system was formally abolished in 2013 but it is not clear the extent to which its various practices have stopped. China_sentence_302

The Chinese penal system includes labor prison factories, detention centers, and re-education camps, which fall under the heading Laogai ("reform through labor"). China_sentence_303

The Laogai Research Foundation in the United States estimated that there were over a thousand slave labour prisons and camps, known collectively as the Laogai. China_sentence_304

In 2019 a study called for the mass retraction of more than 400 scientific papers on organ transplantation, because of fears the organs were obtained unethically from Chinese prisoners. China_sentence_305

While the government says 10,000 transplants occur each year, hospital data shows between 60,000 and 100,000 organs are transplanted each year. China_sentence_306

The report provided evidence that this gap is being made up by executed prisoners of conscience. China_sentence_307

Military China_section_24

Main article: People's Liberation Army China_sentence_308

With 2.3 million active troops, the People's Liberation Army (PLA) is the largest standing military force in the world, commanded by the Central Military Commission (CMC). China_sentence_309

China has the second-biggest military reserve force, only behind North Korea. China_sentence_310

The PLA consists of the Ground Force (PLAGF), the Navy (PLAN), the Air Force (PLAAF), and the People's Liberation Army Rocket Force (PLARF). China_sentence_311

According to the Chinese government, China's military budget for 2017 totalled US$151.5 billion, constituting the world's second-largest military budget, although the military expenditures-GDP ratio with 1.3% of GDP is below world average. China_sentence_312

However, many authorities – including SIPRI and the U.S. Office of the Secretary of Defense – argue that China does not report its real level of military spending, which is allegedly much higher than the official budget. China_sentence_313

Economy China_section_25

Main articles: Economy of China, Agriculture in China, and List of Chinese administrative divisions by GDP China_sentence_314

Since 2010, China had the world's second-largest economy in terms of nominal GDP, totaling approximately US$13.5 trillion (90 trillion Yuan) as of 2018. China_sentence_315

In terms of purchasing power parity (PPP GDP), China's economy has been the largest in the world since 2014, according to the World Bank. China_sentence_316

According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $13.6 trillion by 2018. China_sentence_317

China's economic growth has been consistently above 6 percent since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978. China_sentence_318

China is also the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China_sentence_319

Between 2010 and 2019, China's contribution to global GDP growth has been 25% to 39%. China_sentence_320

China had the largest economy in the world for most of the past two thousand years, during which it has seen cycles of prosperity and decline. China_sentence_321

Since economic reforms began in 1978, China has developed into a highly diversified economy and one of the most consequential players in international trade. China_sentence_322

Major sectors of competitive strength include manufacturing, retail, mining, steel, textiles, automobiles, energy generation, green energy, banking, electronics, telecommunications, real estate, e-commerce, and tourism. China_sentence_323

China has three out of the ten largest stock exchanges in the world—Shanghai, Hong Kong and Shenzhen—that together have a market capitalization of over $15.9 trillion, as of October 2020. China_sentence_324

China has four (Shanghai, Hong Kong, Beijing, and Shenzhen) out of the world's top ten most competitive financial centers, which is more than any country in the 2020 Global Financial Centres Index. China_sentence_325

By 2035, China's four cities (Shanghai, Beijing, Guangzhou and Shenzhen) are projected to be among the global top ten largest cities by nominal GDP according to a report by Oxford Economics. China_sentence_326

China has been the world's No. China_sentence_327

1 manufacturer since 2010, after overtaking the US, which had been No. China_sentence_328

1 for the previous hundred years. China_sentence_329

China has also been No. China_sentence_330

2 in high-tech manufacturing since 2012, according to US National Science Foundation. China_sentence_331

China is the second largest retail market in the world, next to the United States. China_sentence_332

China leads the world in e-commerce, accounting for 40% of the global market share in 2016 and more than 50% of the global market share in 2019. China_sentence_333

China is the world's leader in electric vehicles, manufacturing and buying half of all the plug-in electric cars (BEV and PHEV) in the world in 2018. China_sentence_334

China had 174 GW of installed solar capacity by the end of 2018, which amounts to more than 40% of the global solar capacity. China_sentence_335

Wealth in China China_section_26

As of 2018, China was first in the world in total number of billionaires and second in millionaires—there were 658 Chinese billionaires and 3.5 million millionaires. China_sentence_336

In 2019, China overtook the US as the home to the highest number of rich people in the world, according to the global wealth report by Credit Suisse. China_sentence_337

In other words, as of 2019, 100 million Chinese are in the top 10% of the wealthiest individuals in the world—those who have a net personal wealth of at least $110,000. China_sentence_338

As of October 2020, China has the world's highest number of billionaires with nearly 878, increasing at the rate of roughly five per week. China_sentence_339

According to the Hurun Global Rich List 2020, China is home to five of the world’s top ten cities (Beijing, Shanghai, Hong Kong, Shenzhen, and Guangzhou in the 1st, 3rd, 4th, 5th, and 10th spots, respectively) by the highest number of billionaires, which is more than any country. China_sentence_340

However, it ranks behind over 60 countries (out of around 180) in per capita economic output, making it an upper-middle income country. China_sentence_341

Additionally, its development is highly uneven. China_sentence_342

Its major cities and coastal areas are far more prosperous compared to rural and interior regions. China_sentence_343

China brought more people out of extreme poverty than any other country in history—between 1978 and 2018, China reduced extreme poverty by 800 million. China_sentence_344

China reduced the extreme poverty rate—per international standard, it refers to an income of less than $1.90/day—from 88% in 1981 to 1.85% by 2013. China_sentence_345

According to the World Bank, the number of Chinese in extreme poverty fell from 756 million to 25 million between 1990 and 2013. China_sentence_346

China's own national poverty standards are higher and thus the national poverty rates were 3.1% in 2017 and 1% in 2018. China_sentence_347

Economic growth China_section_27

For Economic history of China, see Economic history of China before 1912, Economic history of China (1912–1949), and Economic history of China (1949–present). China_sentence_348

From its founding in 1949 until late 1978, the People's Republic of China was a Soviet-style centrally planned economy. China_sentence_349

Following Mao's death in 1976 and the consequent end of the Cultural Revolution, Deng Xiaoping and the new Chinese leadership began to reform the economy and move towards a more market-oriented mixed economy under one-party rule. China_sentence_350

Agricultural collectivization was dismantled and farmlands privatized, while foreign trade became a major new focus, leading to the creation of Special Economic Zones (SEZs). China_sentence_351

Inefficient state-owned enterprises (SOEs) were restructured and unprofitable ones were closed outright, resulting in massive job losses. China_sentence_352

Modern-day China is mainly characterized as having a market economy based on private property ownership, and is one of the leading examples of state capitalism. China_sentence_353

The state still dominates in strategic "pillar" sectors such as energy production and heavy industries, but private enterprise has expanded enormously, with around 30 million private businesses recorded in 2008. China_sentence_354

In 2018, private enterprises in China accounted for 60% of GDP, 80% of urban employment and 90% of new jobs. China_sentence_355

In the early 2010s, China's economic growth rate began to slow amid domestic credit troubles, weakening international demand for Chinese exports and fragility in the global economy. China_sentence_356

China's GDP was slightly larger than Germany's in 2007; however, by 2017, China's $12.2 trillion-economy became larger than those of Germany, UK, France and Italy combined. China_sentence_357

In 2018, the IMF reiterated its forecast that China will overtake the US in terms of nominal GDP by the year 2030. China_sentence_358

Economists also expect China's middle class to expand to 600 million people by 2025. China_sentence_359

China in the global economy China_section_28


Share of world GDP (PPP)China_header_cell_2_0_0
YearChina_header_cell_2_1_0 ShareChina_header_cell_2_1_1
1980China_cell_2_2_0 2.32%China_cell_2_2_1
1990China_cell_2_3_0 4.11%China_cell_2_3_1
2000China_cell_2_4_0 7.40%China_cell_2_4_1
2010China_cell_2_5_0 13.89%China_cell_2_5_1
2018China_cell_2_6_0 18.72%China_cell_2_6_1

China is a member of the WTO and is the world's largest trading power, with a total international trade value of US$4.62 trillion in 2018. China_sentence_360

Its foreign exchange reserves reached US$3.1 trillion as of 2019, making its reserves by far the world's largest. China_sentence_361

In 2012, China was the world's largest recipient of inward foreign direct investment (FDI), attracting $253 billion. China_sentence_362

In 2014, China's foreign exchange remittances were $US64 billion making it the second largest recipient of remittances in the world. China_sentence_363

China also invests abroad, with a total outward FDI of $62.4 billion in 2012, and a number of major takeovers of foreign firms by Chinese companies. China_sentence_364

China is a major owner of US public debt, holding trillions of dollars worth of U.S. Treasury bonds. China_sentence_365

China's undervalued exchange rate has caused friction with other major economies, and it has also been widely criticized for manufacturing large quantities of counterfeit goods. China_sentence_366

Following the 2007–08 financial crisis, Chinese authorities sought to actively wean off of its dependence on the U.S. Dollar as a result of perceived weaknesses of the international monetary system. China_sentence_367

To achieve those ends, China took a series of actions to further the internationalization of the Renminbi. China_sentence_368

In 2008, China established dim sum bond market and expanded the Cross-Border Trade RMB Settlement Pilot Project, which helps establish pools of offshore RMB liquidity. China_sentence_369

This was followed with bilateral agreements to settle trades directly in renminbi with Russia, Japan, Australia, Singapore, the United Kingdom, and Canada. China_sentence_370

As a result of the rapid internationalization of the renminbi, it became the eighth-most-traded currency in the world, an emerging international reserve currency, and a component of the IMF's special drawing rights; however, partly due to capital controls that make the renminbi fall short of being a fully convertible currency, it remains far behind the Euro, Dollar and Japanese Yen in international trade volumes. China_sentence_371

Class and income inequality China_section_29

See also: Income inequality in China China_sentence_372

China has had the world's largest middle class population since 2015, and the middle class grew to a size of 400 million by 2018. China_sentence_373

In 2020, a recent study by the Brookings Institution forecasted that China's middle-class will reach 1.2 billion by 2027 (almost 4 times the entire U.S. population today), making up one fourth of the world total. China_sentence_374

Wages in China have grown exponentially in the last 40 years—real (inflation-adjusted) wages grew seven-fold from 1978 to 2007. China_sentence_375

By 2018, median wages in Chinese cities such as Shanghai were about the same as or higher than the wages in Eastern European countries. China_sentence_376

China has the world's highest number of billionaires, with nearly 878 as of October 2020, increasing at the rate of roughly five per week. China_sentence_377

China has a high level of economic inequality, which has increased in the past few decades. China_sentence_378

In 2018 China's GINI index was 0.467, according to the World Bank. China_sentence_379

Science and technology China_section_30

Main articles: Science and technology in China, Chinese space program, List of Chinese discoveries, List of Chinese inventions, and History of science and technology in China China_sentence_380

Historical China_section_31

China was once a world leader in science and technology up until the Ming dynasty. China_sentence_381

Ancient Chinese discoveries and inventions, such as papermaking, printing, the compass, and gunpowder (the Four Great Inventions), became widespread across East Asia, the Middle East and later to Europe. China_sentence_382

Chinese mathematicians were the first to use negative numbers. China_sentence_383

By the 17th century, Europe and the Western world surpassed China in scientific and technological advancement. China_sentence_384

The causes of this early modern Great Divergence continue to be debated by scholars to this day. China_sentence_385

After repeated military defeats by the European colonial powers and Japan in the 19th century, Chinese reformers began promoting modern science and technology as part of the Self-Strengthening Movement. China_sentence_386

After the Communists came to power in 1949, efforts were made to organize science and technology based on the model of the Soviet Union, in which scientific research was part of central planning. China_sentence_387

After Mao's death in 1976, science and technology was established as one of the Four Modernizations, and the Soviet-inspired academic system was gradually reformed. China_sentence_388

Modern era China_section_32

Since the end of the Cultural Revolution, China has made significant investments in scientific research and is quickly catching up with the US in R&D spending. China_sentence_389

In 2017, China spent $279 billion on scientific research and development. China_sentence_390

According to the OECD, China spent 2.11% of its GDP on research and development (R&D) in 2016. China_sentence_391

Science and technology are seen as vital for achieving China's economic and political goals, and are held as a source of national pride to a degree sometimes described as "techno-nationalism". China_sentence_392

According to the World Intellectual Property Indicators, China received 1.54 million patent applications in 2018, representing nearly half of patent applications worldwide, more than double the US. China_sentence_393

In 2019, China was No. China_sentence_394

1 in international patents application. China_sentence_395

Chinese tech companies Huawei and ZTE were the top 2 filers of international patents in 2017. China_sentence_396

Chinese-born scientists have won the Nobel Prize in Physics four times, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry and Physiology or Medicine once respectively, though most of these scientists conducted their Nobel-winning research in western nations. China_sentence_397

China is developing its education system with an emphasis on science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM); in 2009, China graduated over 10,000 PhD engineers, and as many as 500,000 BSc graduates, more than any other country. China_sentence_398

China also became the world's largest publisher of scientific papers in 2016. China_sentence_399

Chinese technology companies such as Huawei and Lenovo have become world leaders in telecommunications and personal computing, and Chinese supercomputers are consistently ranked among the world's most powerful. China_sentence_400

China has been the world's largest market for industrial robots since 2013 and will account for 45% of newly installed robots from 2019 to 2021. China_sentence_401

China ranks 14th on the Global Innovation Index and is the only middle-income economy, the only emerging country, and the only newly industrialized country in the top 30. China_sentence_402

China ranks first globally in the important indicators, including patents, utility models, trademarks, industrial designs, and creative goods exports and also has 2 (Shenzhen-Hong Kong-Guangzhou and Beijing in the 2nd and 4th spots respectively) of the global top 5 science and technology clusters, which is more than any country. China_sentence_403

The Chinese space program is one of the world's most active. China_sentence_404

In 1970, China launched its first satellite, Dong Fang Hong I, becoming the fifth country to do so independently. China_sentence_405

In 2003, China became the third country to independently send humans into space, with Yang Liwei's spaceflight aboard Shenzhou 5; as of 2015, ten Chinese nationals have journeyed into space, including two women. China_sentence_406

In 2011, China's first space station module, Tiangong-1, was launched, marking the first step in a project to assemble a large crewed station by the early 2020s. China_sentence_407

In 2013, China successfully landed the Chang'e 3 lander and Yutu rover onto the lunar surface. China_sentence_408

In 2019, China became the first country to land a probe—Chang'e 4—on the far side of the moon. China_sentence_409

Infrastructure China_section_33

After a decades-long infrastructural boom, China has produced numerous world-leading infrastructural projects: China has the world's largest bullet train network, the most supertall skyscrapers in the world, the world's largest power plant and the largest energy generation capacity in the world, a global satellite navigation system with the largest number of satellites in the world, and has initiated the Belt and Road Initiative, a large global infrastructure building initiative with funding on the order of $50-100 billion per year. China_sentence_410

The Belt and Road Initiative could be one of the largest development plans in modern history. China_sentence_411

Telecommunications China_section_34

Main article: Telecommunications in China China_sentence_412

China is the largest telecom market in the world and currently has the largest number of active cellphones of any country in the world, with over 1.5 billion subscribers, as of 2018. China_sentence_413

It also has the world's largest number of internet and broadband users, with over 800 million Internet users as of 2018—equivalent to around 60% of its population—and almost all of them being mobile as well. China_sentence_414

By 2018, China had more than 1 billion 4G users, accounting for 40% of world's total. China_sentence_415

China is making rapid advances in 5G—by late 2018, China had started large-scale and commercial 5G trials. China_sentence_416

China Mobile, China Unicom and China Telecom, are the three large providers of mobile and internet in China. China_sentence_417

China Telecom alone served more than 145 million broadband subscribers and 300 million mobile users; China Unicom had about 300 million subscribers; and China Mobile, the biggest of them all, had 925 million users, as of 2018. China_sentence_418

Combined, the three operators had over 3.4 million 4G base-stations in China. China_sentence_419

Several Chinese telecommunications companies, most notably Huawei and ZTE, have been accused of spying for the Chinese military. China_sentence_420

China has developed its own satellite navigation system, dubbed Beidou, which began offering commercial navigation services across Asia in 2012 as well as global services by the end of 2018. China_sentence_421

The 35th and final satellite of Beidou constellation was launched into orbit on 23 June 2020, thus becoming the 3rd completed global navigation satellite system in service after GPS and GLONASS. China_sentence_422

Transport China_section_35

Main article: Transport in China China_sentence_423

Since the late 1990s, China's national road network has been significantly expanded through the creation of a network of national highways and expressways. China_sentence_424

In 2018, China's highways had reached a total length of 142,500 km (88,500 mi), making it the longest highway system in the world. China_sentence_425

China has the world's largest market for automobiles, having surpassed the United States in both auto sales and production. China_sentence_426

A side-effect of the rapid growth of China's road network has been a significant rise in traffic accidents, though the number of fatalities in traffic accidents fell by 20% from 2007 to 2017. China_sentence_427

In urban areas, bicycles remain a common mode of transport, despite the increasing prevalence of automobiles – as of 2012, there are approximately 470 million bicycles in China. China_sentence_428

China's railways, which are state-owned, are among the busiest in the world, handling a quarter of the world's rail traffic volume on only 6 percent of the world's tracks in 2006. China_sentence_429

As of 2017, the country had 127,000 km (78,914 mi) of railways, the second longest network in the world. China_sentence_430

The railways strain to meet enormous demand particularly during the Chinese New Year holiday, when the world's largest annual human migration takes place. China_sentence_431

China's high-speed rail (HSR) system started construction in the early 2000s. China_sentence_432

By the end of 2019, high speed rail in China had over 35,000 kilometers (21,748 miles) of dedicated lines alone, making it the longest HSR network in the world. China_sentence_433

With an annual ridership of over 1.1 billion passengers in 2015 it is the world's busiest. China_sentence_434

The network includes the Beijing–Guangzhou–Shenzhen High-Speed Railway, the single longest HSR line in the world, and the Beijing–Shanghai High-Speed Railway, which has three of longest railroad bridges in the world. China_sentence_435

The Shanghai Maglev Train, which reaches 431 km/h (268 mph), is the fastest commercial train service in the world. China_sentence_436

Since 2000, the growth of rapid transit systems in Chinese cities has accelerated. China_sentence_437

As of January 2016, 26 Chinese cities have urban mass transit systems in operation and 39 more have metro systems approved with a dozen more to join them by 2020. China_sentence_438

There were approximately 229 airports in 2017, with around 240 planned by 2020. China_sentence_439

China has over 2,000 river and seaports, about 130 of which are open to foreign shipping. China_sentence_440

In 2017, the Ports of Shanghai, Hong Kong, Shenzhen, Ningbo-Zhoushan, Guangzhou, Qingdao and Tianjin ranked in the Top 10 in the world in container traffic and cargo tonnage. China_sentence_441

Water supply and sanitation China_section_36

Main article: Water supply and sanitation in China China_sentence_442

Water supply and sanitation infrastructure in China is facing challenges such as rapid urbanization, as well as water scarcity, contamination, and pollution. China_sentence_443

According to data presented by the Joint Monitoring Program for Water Supply and Sanitation of WHO and UNICEF in 2015, about 36% of the rural population in China still did not have access to improved sanitation. China_sentence_444

The ongoing South–North Water Transfer Project intends to abate water shortage in the north. China_sentence_445

Demographics China_section_37

Main article: Demographics of China China_sentence_446

The national census of 2010 recorded the population of the People's Republic of China as approximately 1,370,536,875. China_sentence_447

About 16.60% of the population were 14 years old or younger, 70.14% were between 15 and 59 years old, and 13.26% were over 60 years old. China_sentence_448

The population growth rate for 2013 is estimated to be 0.46%. China_sentence_449

China used to make up much of the world's poor; now it makes up much of the world's middle class. China_sentence_450

Although a middle-income country by Western standards, China's rapid growth has pulled hundreds of millions—800 million, to be more precise—of its people out of poverty since 1978. China_sentence_451

By 2013, less than 2% of the Chinese population lived below the international poverty line of US$1.9 per day, down from 88% in 1981. China_sentence_452

China's own standards for poverty are higher and still the country is on its way to eradicate national poverty completely by 2019. China_sentence_453

From 2009 to 2018, the unemployment rate in China has averaged about 4%. China_sentence_454

Given concerns about population growth, China implemented a two-child limit during the 1970s, and, in 1979, began to advocate for an even stricter limit of one child per family. China_sentence_455

Beginning in the mid 1980s, however, given the unpopularity of the strict limits, China began to allow some major exemptions, particularly in rural areas, resulting in what was actually a "1.5"-child policy from the mid-1980s to 2015 (ethnic minorities were also exempt from one child limits). China_sentence_456

The next major loosening of the policy was enacted in December 2013, allowing families to have two children if one parent is an only child. China_sentence_457

In 2016, the one-child policy was replaced in favor of a two-child policy. China_sentence_458

Data from the 2010 census implies that the total fertility rate may be around 1.4, although due to underreporting of births it may be closer to 1.5–1.6. China_sentence_459

According to one group of scholars, one-child limits had little effect on population growth or the size of the total population. China_sentence_460

However, these scholars have been challenged. China_sentence_461

Their own counterfactual model of fertility decline without such restrictions implies that China averted more than 500 million births between 1970 and 2015, a number which may reach one billion by 2060 given all the lost descendants of births averted during the era of fertility restrictions, with one-child restrictions accounting for the great bulk of that reduction. China_sentence_462

The policy, along with traditional preference for boys, may have contributed to an imbalance in the sex ratio at birth. China_sentence_463

According to the 2010 census, the sex ratio at birth was 118.06 boys for every 100 girls, which is beyond the normal range of around 105 boys for every 100 girls. China_sentence_464

The 2010 census found that males accounted for 51.27 percent of the total population. China_sentence_465

However, China's sex ratio is more balanced than it was in 1953, when males accounted for 51.82 percent of the total population. China_sentence_466

Ethnic groups China_section_38

Main articles: List of ethnic groups in China, Ethnic minorities in China, and Ethnic groups in Chinese history China_sentence_467

China legally recognizes 56 distinct ethnic groups, who altogether comprise the Zhonghua Minzu. China_sentence_468

The largest of these nationalities are the ethnic Chinese or "Han", who constitute more than 90% of the total population. China_sentence_469

The Han Chinese – the world's largest single ethnic group – outnumber other ethnic groups in every provincial-level division except Tibet and Xinjiang. China_sentence_470

Ethnic minorities account for about less than 25% of the population of China, according to the 2010 census. China_sentence_471

Compared with the 2000 population census, the Han population increased by 66,537,177 persons, or 5.74%, while the population of the 55 national minorities combined increased by 7,362,627 persons, or 6.92%. China_sentence_472

The 2010 census recorded a total of 593,832 foreign nationals living in China. China_sentence_473

The largest such groups were from South Korea (120,750), the United States (71,493) and Japan (66,159). China_sentence_474

Languages China_section_39

Main articles: Languages of China and List of endangered languages in China China_sentence_475

There are as many as 292 living languages in China. China_sentence_476

The languages most commonly spoken belong to the Sinitic branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family, which contains Mandarin (spoken by 70% of the population), and other varieties of Chinese language: Yue (including Cantonese and Taishanese), Wu (including Shanghainese and Suzhounese), Min (including Fuzhounese, Hokkien and Teochew), Xiang, Gan and Hakka. China_sentence_477

Languages of the Tibeto-Burman branch, including Tibetan, Qiang, Naxi and Yi, are spoken across the Tibetan and Yunnan–Guizhou Plateau. China_sentence_478

Other ethnic minority languages in southwest China include Zhuang, Thai, Dong and Sui of the Tai-Kadai family, Miao and Yao of the Hmong–Mien family, and Wa of the Austroasiatic family. China_sentence_479

Across northeastern and northwestern China, local ethnic groups speak Altaic languages including Manchu, Mongolian and several Turkic languages: Uyghur, Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Salar and Western Yugur. China_sentence_480

Korean is spoken natively along the border with North Korea. China_sentence_481

Sarikoli, the language of Tajiks in western Xinjiang, is an Indo-European language. China_sentence_482

Taiwanese aborigines, including a small population on the mainland, speak Austronesian languages. China_sentence_483

Standard Mandarin, a variety of Mandarin based on the Beijing dialect, is the official national language of China and is used as a lingua franca in the country between people of different linguistic backgrounds. China_sentence_484

Mongolian, Uyghur, Tibetan, Zhuang and various other languages are also regionally recognized throughout the country. China_sentence_485

Chinese characters have been used as the written script for the Sinitic languages for thousands of years. China_sentence_486

They allow speakers of mutually unintelligible Chinese varieties to communicate with each other through writing. China_sentence_487

In 1956, the government introduced simplified characters, which have supplanted the older traditional characters in mainland China. China_sentence_488

Chinese characters are romanized using the Pinyin system. China_sentence_489

Tibetan uses an alphabet based on an Indic script. China_sentence_490

Uyghur is most commonly written in Persian alphabet-based Uyghur Arabic alphabet. China_sentence_491

The Mongolian script used in China and the Manchu script are both derived from the Old Uyghur alphabet. China_sentence_492

Zhuang uses both an official Latin alphabet script and a traditional Chinese character script. China_sentence_493

Urbanization China_section_40

See also: List of cities in China, List of cities in China by population, and Megalopolises in China China_sentence_494

China has urbanized significantly in recent decades. China_sentence_495

The percent of the country's population living in urban areas increased from 20% in 1980 to over 60% in 2019. China_sentence_496

It is estimated that China's urban population will reach one billion by 2030, potentially equivalent to one-eighth of the world population. China_sentence_497

China has over 160 cities with a population of over one million, including the 10 megacities(cities with a population of over 10 million) of Chongqing, Shanghai, Beijing, Chengdu, Harbin, Guangzhou, Tianjin, Shenzhen, Wuhan, Shijiazhuang and Suzhou. China_sentence_498

Shanghai is China's most populous urban area while Chongqing is its largest city proper. China_sentence_499

By 2025, it is estimated that the country will be home to 221 cities with over a million inhabitants. China_sentence_500

The figures in the table below are from the 2017 census, and are only estimates of the urban populations within administrative city limits; a different ranking exists when considering the total municipal populations (which includes suburban and rural populations). China_sentence_501

The large "floating populations" of migrant workers make conducting censuses in urban areas difficult; the figures below include only long-term residents. China_sentence_502

Education China_section_41

Main articles: Education in China, Higher education in China, and List of universities in China China_sentence_503

Since 1986, compulsory education in China comprises primary and junior secondary school, which together last for nine years. China_sentence_504

In 2010, about 82.5 percent of students continued their education at a three-year senior secondary school. China_sentence_505

The Gaokao, China's national university entrance exam, is a prerequisite for entrance into most higher education institutions. China_sentence_506

In 2010, 27 percent of secondary school graduates are enrolled in higher education. China_sentence_507

This number increased significantly over the last years, reaching a tertiary school enrollment of 50 percent in 2018. China_sentence_508

Vocational education is available to students at the secondary and tertiary level. China_sentence_509

In February 2006, the government pledged to provide completely free nine-year education, including textbooks and fees. China_sentence_510

Annual education investment went from less than US$50 billion in 2003 to more than US$250 billion in 2011. China_sentence_511

However, there remains an inequality in education spending. China_sentence_512

In 2010, the annual education expenditure per secondary school student in Beijing totalled ¥20,023, while in Guizhou, one of the poorest provinces in China, only totalled ¥3,204. China_sentence_513

Free compulsory education in China consists of primary school and junior secondary school between the ages of 6 and 15. China_sentence_514

In 2011, around 81.4% of Chinese have received secondary education. China_sentence_515

As of 2018, 96% of the population over age 15 are literate. China_sentence_516

In 1949, only 20% of the population could read, compared to 65.5% thirty years later. China_sentence_517

In 2009, Chinese students from Shanghai achieved the world's best results in mathematics, science and literacy, as tested by the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), a worldwide evaluation of 15-year-old school pupils' scholastic performance. China_sentence_518

Despite the high results, Chinese education has also faced both native and international criticism for its emphasis on rote memorization and its gap in quality from rural to urban areas. China_sentence_519

As of 2020, China had the world's second-highest number of top universities. China_sentence_520

Currently, China trails only the United States in terms of representation on lists of top 200 universities according to the Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU). China_sentence_521

China is home to the two best universities (Tsinghua University and Peking University) in the whole Asia and the Pacific and emerging countries by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings. China_sentence_522

Health China_section_42

Main article: Health in China China_sentence_523

See also: Pharmaceutical industry in China China_sentence_524

The National Health and Family Planning Commission, together with its counterparts in the local commissions, oversees the health needs of the Chinese population. China_sentence_525

An emphasis on public health and preventive medicine has characterized Chinese health policy since the early 1950s. China_sentence_526

At that time, the Communist Party started the Patriotic Health Campaign, which was aimed at improving sanitation and hygiene, as well as treating and preventing several diseases. China_sentence_527

Diseases such as cholera, typhoid and scarlet fever, which were previously rife in China, were nearly eradicated by the campaign. China_sentence_528

After Deng Xiaoping began instituting economic reforms in 1978, the health of the Chinese public improved rapidly because of better nutrition, although many of the free public health services provided in the countryside disappeared along with the People's Communes. China_sentence_529

Healthcare in China became mostly privatized, and experienced a significant rise in quality. China_sentence_530

In 2009, the government began a 3-year large-scale healthcare provision initiative worth US$124 billion. China_sentence_531

By 2011, the campaign resulted in 95% of China's population having basic health insurance coverage. China_sentence_532

In 2011, China was estimated to be the world's third-largest supplier of pharmaceuticals, but its population has suffered from the development and distribution of counterfeit medications. China_sentence_533

As of 2017, the average life expectancy at birth in China is 76 years, and the infant mortality rate is 7 per thousand. China_sentence_534

Both have improved significantly since the 1950s. China_sentence_535

Rates of stunting, a condition caused by malnutrition, have declined from 33.1% in 1990 to 9.9% in 2010. China_sentence_536

Despite significant improvements in health and the construction of advanced medical facilities, China has several emerging public health problems, such as respiratory illnesses caused by widespread air pollution, hundreds of millions of cigarette smokers, and an increase in obesity among urban youths. China_sentence_537

China's large population and densely populated cities have led to serious disease outbreaks in recent years, such as the 2003 outbreak of SARS, although this has since been largely contained. China_sentence_538

In 2010, air pollution caused 1.2 million premature deaths in China. China_sentence_539

The COVID-19 pandemic was first identified in Wuhan in December 2019. China_sentence_540

Although COVID-19 pandemic was first identified in Wuhan, there is no convincing scientific evidence on the virus's origin, and further studies are being carried out around the world on a possible origin for the virus. China_sentence_541

The Chinese government has been criticized for its handling of the epidemic and accused of concealing the extent of the outbreak before it became an international pandemic. China_sentence_542

Religion China_section_43

Main article: Religion in China China_sentence_543

The government of the People's Republic of China officially espouses state atheism, and has conducted antireligious campaigns to this end. China_sentence_544

Religious affairs and issues in the country are overseen by the State Administration for Religious Affairs. China_sentence_545

Freedom of religion is guaranteed by China's constitution, although religious organizations that lack official approval can be subject to state persecution. China_sentence_546

Over the millennia, Chinese civilization has been influenced by various religious movements. China_sentence_547

The "three teachings", including Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism (Chinese Buddhism), historically have a significant role in shaping Chinese culture, enriching a theological and spiritual framework which harkens back to the early Shang and Zhou dynasty. China_sentence_548

Chinese popular or folk religion, which is framed by the three teachings and other traditions, consists in allegiance to the shen (), a character that signifies the "energies of generation", who can be deities of the environment or ancestral principles of human groups, concepts of civility, culture heroes, many of whom feature in Chinese mythology and history. China_sentence_549

Among the most popular cults are those of Mazu (goddess of the seas), Huangdi (one of the two divine patriarchs of the Chinese race), Guandi (god of war and business), Caishen (god of prosperity and richness), Pangu and many others. China_sentence_550

China is home to many of the world's tallest religious statues, including the tallest of all, the Spring Temple Buddha in Henan. China_sentence_551

Clear data on religious affiliation in China is difficult to gather due to varying definitions of "religion" and the unorganized, diffusive nature of Chinese religious traditions. China_sentence_552

Scholars note that in China there is no clear boundary between three teachings religions and local folk religious practice. China_sentence_553

A 2015 poll conducted by Gallup International found that 61% of Chinese people self-identified as "convinced atheist", though it is worthwhile to note that Chinese religions or some of their strands are definable as non-theistic and humanistic religions, since they do not believe that divine creativity is completely transcendent, but it is inherent in the world and in particular in the human being. China_sentence_554

According to a 2014 study, approximately 74% are either non-religious or practise Chinese folk belief, 16% are Buddhists, 2% are Christians, 1% are Muslims, and 8% adhere to other religions including Taoists and folk salvationism. China_sentence_555

In addition to Han people's local religious practices, there are also various ethnic minority groups in China who maintain their traditional autochthone religions. China_sentence_556

The various folk religions today comprise 2–3% of the population, while Confucianism as a religious self-identification is common within the intellectual class. China_sentence_557

Significant faiths specifically connected to certain ethnic groups include Tibetan Buddhism and the Islamic religion of the Hui, Uyghur, Kazakh, Kyrgyz and other peoples in Northwest China. China_sentence_558

Culture China_section_44

Main articles: Chinese culture and Culture of the People's Republic of China China_sentence_559

Since ancient times, Chinese culture has been heavily influenced by Confucianism. China_sentence_560

For much of the country's dynastic era, opportunities for social advancement could be provided by high performance in the prestigious imperial examinations, which have their origins in the Han dynasty. China_sentence_561

The literary emphasis of the exams affected the general perception of cultural refinement in China, such as the belief that calligraphy, poetry and painting were higher forms of art than dancing or drama. China_sentence_562

Chinese culture has long emphasized a sense of deep history and a largely inward-looking national perspective. China_sentence_563

Examinations and a culture of merit remain greatly valued in China today. China_sentence_564

The first leaders of the People's Republic of China were born into the traditional imperial order, but were influenced by the May Fourth Movement and reformist ideals. China_sentence_565

They sought to change some traditional aspects of Chinese culture, such as rural land tenure, sexism, and the Confucian system of education, while preserving others, such as the family structure and culture of obedience to the state. China_sentence_566

Some observers see the period following the establishment of the PRC in 1949 as a continuation of traditional Chinese dynastic history, while others claim that the Communist Party's rule has damaged the foundations of Chinese culture, especially through political movements such as the Cultural Revolution of the 1960s, where many aspects of traditional culture were destroyed, having been denounced as "regressive and harmful" or "vestiges of feudalism". China_sentence_567

Many important aspects of traditional Chinese morals and culture, such as Confucianism, art, literature, and performing arts like Peking opera, were altered to conform to government policies and propaganda at the time. China_sentence_568

Access to foreign media remains heavily restricted. China_sentence_569

Today, the Chinese government has accepted numerous elements of traditional Chinese culture as being integral to Chinese society. China_sentence_570

With the rise of Chinese nationalism and the end of the Cultural Revolution, various forms of traditional Chinese art, literature, music, film, fashion and architecture have seen a vigorous revival, and folk and variety art in particular have sparked interest nationally and even worldwide. China_sentence_571

Tourism in China China_section_45

Main articles: Tourism in China and List of World Heritage Sites in China China_sentence_572

China is now the third-most-visited country in the world, with 55.7 million inbound international visitors in 2010. China_sentence_573

It also experiences an enormous volume of domestic tourism; an estimated 740 million Chinese holidaymakers travelled within the country in October 2012. China_sentence_574

China hosts the world's largest number of World Heritage Sites (55), and is one of the most popular tourist destinations in the world (first in Asia). China_sentence_575

It is forecast by Euromonitor International that China will become the world's most popular destination for tourists by 2030. China_sentence_576

Literature China_section_46

Main article: Chinese literature China_sentence_577

Chinese literature is based on the literature of the Zhou dynasty. China_sentence_578

Concepts covered within the Chinese classic texts present a wide range of thoughts and subjects including calendar, military, astrology, herbology, geography and many others. China_sentence_579

Some of the most important early texts include the I Ching and the Shujing within the Four Books and Five Classics which served as the Confucian authoritative books for the state-sponsored curriculum in dynastic era. China_sentence_580

Inherited from the Classic of Poetry, classical Chinese poetry developed to its floruit during the Tang dynasty. China_sentence_581

Li Bai and Du Fu opened the forking ways for the poetic circles through romanticism and realism respectively. China_sentence_582

Chinese historiography began with the Shiji, the overall scope of the historiographical tradition in China is termed the Twenty-Four Histories, which set a vast stage for Chinese fictions along with Chinese mythology and folklore. China_sentence_583

Pushed by a burgeoning citizen class in the Ming dynasty, Chinese classical fiction rose to a boom of the historical, town and gods and demons fictions as represented by the Four Great Classical Novels which include Water Margin, Romance of the Three Kingdoms, Journey to the West and Dream of the Red Chamber. China_sentence_584

Along with the wuxia fictions of Jin Yong and Liang Yusheng, it remains an enduring source of popular culture in the East Asian cultural sphere. China_sentence_585

In the wake of the New Culture Movement after the end of the Qing dynasty, Chinese literature embarked on a new era with written vernacular Chinese for ordinary citizens. China_sentence_586

Hu Shih and Lu Xun were pioneers in modern literature. China_sentence_587

Various literary genres, such as misty poetry, scar literature, young adult fiction and the xungen literature, which is influenced by magic realism, emerged following the Cultural Revolution. China_sentence_588

Mo Yan, a xungen literature author, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 2012. China_sentence_589

Cuisine China_section_47

Main article: Chinese cuisine China_sentence_590

Chinese cuisine is highly diverse, drawing on several millennia of culinary history and geographical variety, in which the most influential are known as the "Eight Major Cuisines", including Sichuan, Cantonese, Jiangsu, Shandong, Fujian, Hunan, Anhui, and Zhejiang cuisines. China_sentence_591

All of them are featured by the precise skills of shaping, heating, colorway and flavoring. China_sentence_592

Chinese cuisine is also known for its width of cooking methods and ingredients, as well as food therapy that is emphasized by traditional Chinese medicine. China_sentence_593

Generally, China's staple food is rice in the south, wheat-based breads and noodles in the north. China_sentence_594

The diet of the common people in pre-modern times was largely grain and simple vegetables, with meat reserved for special occasions. China_sentence_595

And the bean products, such as tofu and soy milk, remain as a popular source of protein. China_sentence_596

Pork is now the most popular meat in China, accounting for about three-fourths of the country's total meat consumption. China_sentence_597

While pork dominates the meat market, there is also the vegetarian Buddhist cuisine and the pork-free Chinese Islamic cuisine. China_sentence_598

Southern cuisine, due to the area's proximity to the ocean and milder climate, has a wide variety of seafood and vegetables; it differs in many respects from the wheat-based diets across dry northern China. China_sentence_599

Numerous offshoots of Chinese food, such as Hong Kong cuisine and American Chinese food, have emerged in the nations that play host to the Chinese diaspora. China_sentence_600

Music China_section_48

Main articles: Music of China, C-pop, and Chinese opera China_sentence_601

Chinese music covers a highly diverse range of music from the traditional music to the modern music. China_sentence_602

Chinese music dates back before the pre-imperial times. China_sentence_603

Traditional Chinese musical instruments were traditionally grouped into eight categories known as bayin (八音). China_sentence_604

Traditional Chinese opera is a form of musical theatre in China originating thousands of years and has regional style forms such as Beijing opera and Cantonese opera. China_sentence_605

Chinese pop (C-Pop) includes mandopop and cantopop. China_sentence_606

Chinese rap, Chinese hip hop and Hong Kong hip hop have become popular in contemporary times. China_sentence_607

Cinema China_section_49

Main article: Cinema of China China_sentence_608

Cinema was first introduced to China in 1896 and the first Chinese film, Dingjun Mountain, was released in 1905. China_sentence_609

China has the largest number of movie screens in the world since 2016, China became the largest cinema market in the world in 2020. China_sentence_610

The top 3 highest-grossing films in China currently are Wolf Warrior 2 (2017), Ne Zha (2019), and The Wandering Earth (2019). China_sentence_611

Fashion China_section_50

Main articles: Fashion in China and Hanfu China_sentence_612

Hanfu is the historical clothing of the Han people in China. China_sentence_613

The qipao or cheongsam is a popular Chinese female dress. China_sentence_614

The hanfu movement has been popular in contemporary times and seeks to revitalize Hanfu clothing. China_sentence_615

Sports China_section_51

Main articles: Sport in China and China at the Olympics China_sentence_616

China has one of the oldest sporting cultures in the world. China_sentence_617

There is evidence that archery (shèjiàn) was practiced during the Western Zhou dynasty. China_sentence_618

Swordplay (jiànshù) and cuju, a sport loosely related to association football date back to China's early dynasties as well. China_sentence_619

Physical fitness is widely emphasized in Chinese culture, with morning exercises such as qigong and t'ai chi ch'uan widely practiced, and commercial gyms and private fitness clubs are gaining popularity across the country. China_sentence_620

Basketball is currently the most popular spectator sport in China. China_sentence_621

The Chinese Basketball Association and the American National Basketball Association have a huge following among the people, with native or ethnic Chinese players such as Yao Ming and Yi Jianlian held in high esteem. China_sentence_622

China's professional football league, now known as Chinese Super League, was established in 1994, it is the largest football market in Asia. China_sentence_623

Other popular sports in the country include martial arts, table tennis, badminton, swimming and snooker. China_sentence_624

Board games such as go (known as wéiqí in Chinese), xiangqi, mahjong, and more recently chess, are also played at a professional level. China_sentence_625

In addition, China is home to a huge number of cyclists, with an estimated 470 million bicycles as of 2012. China_sentence_626

Many more traditional sports, such as dragon boat racing, Mongolian-style wrestling and horse racing are also popular. China_sentence_627

China has participated in the Olympic Games since 1932, although it has only participated as the PRC since 1952. China_sentence_628

China hosted the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, where its athletes received 51 gold medals – the highest number of gold medals of any participating nation that year. China_sentence_629

China also won the most medals of any nation at the 2012 Summer Paralympics, with 231 overall, including 95 gold medals. China_sentence_630

In 2011, Shenzhen in Guangdong, China hosted the 2011 Summer Universiade. China_sentence_631

China hosted the 2013 East Asian Games in Tianjin and the 2014 Summer Youth Olympics in Nanjing; the first country to host both regular and Youth Olympics. China_sentence_632

Beijing and its nearby city Zhangjiakou of Hebei province will also collaboratively host the 2022 Olympic Winter Games, which will make Beijing the first city in the world to hold both the Summer Olympics and the Winter Olympics. China_sentence_633

See also China_section_52


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