Chinese art

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Chinese art is visual art that, whether ancient or modern, originated in or is practiced in China or by Chinese artists. Chinese art_sentence_0

The Chinese art in the Republic of China (Taiwan) and that of overseas Chinese can also be considered part of Chinese art where it is based in or draws on Chinese heritage and Chinese culture. Chinese art_sentence_1

Early "Stone Age art" dates back to 10,000 BC, mostly consisting of simple pottery and sculptures. Chinese art_sentence_2

After this early period Chinese art, like Chinese history, is typically classified by the succession of ruling dynasties of Chinese emperors, most of which lasted several hundred years. Chinese art_sentence_3

Chinese art has arguably the oldest continuous tradition in the world, and is marked by an unusual degree of continuity within, and consciousness of, that tradition, lacking an equivalent to the Western collapse and gradual recovery of classical styles. Chinese art_sentence_4

The media that have usually been classified in the West since the Renaissance as the decorative arts are extremely important in Chinese art, and much of the finest work was produced in large workshops or factories by essentially unknown artists, especially in Chinese ceramics. Chinese art_sentence_5

Much of the best work in ceramics, textiles, carved lacquer, and other techniques was produced over a long period by the various Imperial factories or workshops, which as well as being used by the court was distributed internally and abroad on a huge scale to demonstrate the wealth and power of the Emperors. Chinese art_sentence_6

In contrast, the tradition of ink wash painting, practiced mainly by scholar-officials and court painters especially of landscapes, flowers, and birds, developed aesthetic values depending on the individual imagination of and objective observation by the artist that are similar to those of the West, but long pre-dated their development there. Chinese art_sentence_7

After contacts with Western art became increasingly important from the 19th century onwards, in recent decades China has participated with increasing success in worldwide contemporary art. Chinese art_sentence_8

Painting Chinese art_section_0

Main article: Chinese painting Chinese art_sentence_9

Traditional Chinese painting involves essentially the same techniques as Chinese calligraphy and is done with a brush dipped in black or colored ink; oils are not used. Chinese art_sentence_10

As with calligraphy, the most popular materials on which paintings are made of paper and silk. Chinese art_sentence_11

The finished work can be mounted on scrolls, such as hanging scrolls or handscrolls. Chinese art_sentence_12

Traditional painting can also be done on album sheets, walls, lacquerware, folding screens, and other media. Chinese art_sentence_13

The two main techniques in Chinese painting are: Chinese art_sentence_14

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  • Gong-bi (工筆), meaning "meticulous", uses highly detailed brushstrokes that delimits details very precisely. It is often highly coloured and usually depicts figural or narrative subjects. It is often practised by artists working for the royal court or in independent workshops. Bird-and-flower paintings were often in this style.Chinese art_item_0_0
  • Ink and wash painting, in Chinese Shui-mo or (水墨) also loosely termed watercolour or brush painting, and also known as "literati painting", as it was one of the "Four Arts" of the Chinese Scholar-official class. In theory this was an art practised by gentlemen, a distinction that begins to be made in writings on art from the Song dynasty, though in fact the careers of leading exponents could benefit considerably. This style is also referred to as "xie yi" (寫意) or freehand style.Chinese art_item_0_1

Artists from the Han (202 BC) to the Tang (618–906) dynasties mainly painted the human figure. Chinese art_sentence_15

Much of what is known of early Chinese figure painting comes from burial sites, where paintings were preserved on silk banners, lacquered objects, and tomb walls. Chinese art_sentence_16

Many early tomb paintings were meant to protect the dead or help their souls get to paradise. Chinese art_sentence_17

Others illustrated the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius, or showed scenes of daily life. Chinese art_sentence_18

Most Chinese portraits showed a formal full-length frontal view, and were used in the family in ancestor veneration. Chinese art_sentence_19

Imperial portraits were more flexible, but were generally not seen outside the court, and portraiture formed no part of Imperial propaganda, as in other cultures. Chinese art_sentence_20

Many critics consider landscape to be the highest form of Chinese painting. Chinese art_sentence_21

The time from the Five Dynasties period to the Northern Song period (907–1127) is known as the "Great age of Chinese landscape". Chinese art_sentence_22

In the north, artists such as Jing Hao, Li Cheng, Fan Kuan, and Guo Xi painted pictures of towering mountains, using strong black lines, ink wash, and sharp, dotted brushstrokes to suggest rough rocks. Chinese art_sentence_23

In the south, Dong Yuan, Juran, and other artists painted the rolling hills and rivers of their native countryside in peaceful scenes done with softer, rubbed brushwork. Chinese art_sentence_24

These two kinds of scenes and techniques became the classical styles of Chinese landscape painting. Chinese art_sentence_25

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Sculpture Chinese art_section_1

See also: Chinese Buddhist sculpture Chinese art_sentence_26

Chinese ritual bronzes from the Shang and Western Zhou dynasties come from a period of over a thousand years from c. 1500, and have exerted a continuing influence over Chinese art. Chinese art_sentence_27

They are cast with complex patterned and zoomorphic decoration, but avoid the human figure, unlike the huge figures only recently discovered at Sanxingdui. Chinese art_sentence_28

The spectacular Terracotta Army was assembled for the tomb of Qin Shi Huang, the first emperor of a unified China from 221–210 BC, as a grand imperial version of the figures long placed in tombs to enable the deceased to enjoy the same lifestyle in the afterlife as when alive, replacing actual sacrifices of very early periods. Chinese art_sentence_29

Smaller figures in pottery or wood were placed in tombs for many centuries afterwards, reaching a peak of quality in the Tang dynasty. Chinese art_sentence_30

Native Chinese religions do not usually use cult images of deities, or even represent them, and large religious sculpture is nearly all Buddhist, dating mostly from the 4th to the 14th century, and initially using Greco-Buddhist models arriving via the Silk Road. Chinese art_sentence_31

Buddhism is also the context of all large portrait sculpture; in total contrast to some other areas in medieval China even painted images of the emperor were regarded as private. Chinese art_sentence_32

Imperial tombs have spectacular avenues of approach lined with real and mythological animals on a scale matching Egypt, and smaller versions decorate temples and palaces. Chinese art_sentence_33

Small Buddhist figures and groups were produced to a very high quality in a range of media, as was relief decoration of all sorts of objects, especially in metalwork and jade. Chinese art_sentence_34

Sculptors of all sorts were regarded as artisans and very few names are recorded. Chinese art_sentence_35

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Ceramics Chinese art_section_2

Main article: Chinese ceramics Chinese art_sentence_36

See also: Chinese influences on Islamic pottery Chinese art_sentence_37

Chinese ceramic ware shows a continuous development since the pre-dynastic periods, and is one of the most significant forms of Chinese art. Chinese art_sentence_38

China is richly endowed with the raw materials needed for making ceramics. Chinese art_sentence_39

The first types of ceramics were made during the Palaeolithic era, and in later periods range from construction materials such as bricks and tiles, to hand-built pottery vessels fired in bonfires or kilns, to the sophisticated Chinese porcelain wares made for the imperial court. Chinese art_sentence_40

Most later Chinese ceramics, even of the finest quality, were made on an industrial scale, thus very few individual potters or painters are known. Chinese art_sentence_41

Many of the most renowned workshops were owned by or reserved for the Emperor, and large quantities of ceramics were exported as diplomatic gifts or for trade from an early date. Chinese art_sentence_42

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Decorative arts Chinese art_section_3

As well as porcelain, a wide range of materials that were more valuable were worked and decorated with great skill for a range of uses or just for display. Chinese art_sentence_43

Chinese jade was attributed with magical powers, and was used in the Stone and Bronze Ages for large and impractical versions of everyday weapons and tools, as well as the bi disks and cong vessels. Chinese art_sentence_44

Later a range of objects and small sculptures were carved in jade, a difficult and time-consuming technique. Chinese art_sentence_45

Bronze, gold and silver, rhinoceros horn, Chinese silk, ivory, lacquer and carved lacquer, cloisonne enamel and many other materials had specialist artists working in them. Chinese art_sentence_46

Folding screens (Chinese: 屏風; pinyin: píngfēng) are often decorated with beautiful art; major themes include mythology, scenes of palace life, and nature. Chinese art_sentence_47

Materials such as wood panel, paper and silk are used in making folding screens. Chinese art_sentence_48

They were considered ideal ornaments for many painters to display their paintings and calligraphy. Chinese art_sentence_49

Many artists painted on paper or silk and applied it onto the folding screen. Chinese art_sentence_50

There were two distinct artistic folding screens mentioned in historical literature of the era. Chinese art_sentence_51

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Architecture Chinese art_section_4

Main article: Chinese architecture Chinese art_sentence_52

Chinese architecture refers to a style of architecture that has taken shape in East Asia over many centuries. Chinese art_sentence_53

Especially Japan, Korea, Vietnam and Ryukyu. Chinese art_sentence_54

The structural principles of Chinese architecture have remained largely unchanged, the main changes being only the decorative details. Chinese art_sentence_55

Since the Tang Dynasty, Chinese architecture has had a major influence on the architectural styles of Korea, Vietnam, and Japan. Chinese art_sentence_56

From the Neolithic era Longshan Culture and Bronze Age era Erlitou culture, the earliest rammed earth fortifications exist, with evidence of timber architecture. Chinese art_sentence_57

The subterranean ruins of the palace at Yinxu dates back to the Shang Dynasty (c. 1600 BC–1046 BC). Chinese art_sentence_58

In historic China, architectural emphasis was laid upon the horizontal axis, in particular the construction of a heavy platform and a large roof that floats over this base, with the vertical walls not as well emphasized. Chinese art_sentence_59

This contrasts Western architecture, which tends to grow in height and depth. Chinese art_sentence_60

Chinese architecture stresses the visual impact of the width of the buildings. Chinese art_sentence_61

The deviation from this standard is the tower architecture of the Chinese tradition, which began as a native tradition and was eventually influenced by the Buddhist building for housing religious sutras — the stupa — which came from Nepal. Chinese art_sentence_62

Ancient Chinese tomb model representations of multiple story residential towers and watchtowers date to the Han Dynasty (202 BC–220 AD). Chinese art_sentence_63

However, the earliest extant Buddhist Chinese pagoda is the Songyue Pagoda, a 40 m (131 ft) tall circular-based brick tower built in Henan province in the year 523 AD. Chinese art_sentence_64

From the 6th century onwards, stone-based structures become more common, while the earliest are from stone and brick arches found in Han Dynasty tombs. Chinese art_sentence_65

The Zhaozhou Bridge built from 595 to 605 AD is China's oldest extant stone bridge, as well as the world's oldest fully stone open-spandrel segmental arch bridge. Chinese art_sentence_66

The vocational trade of architect, craftsman, and engineer was not as highly respected in premodern Chinese society as the scholar-bureaucrats who were drafted into the government by the civil service examination system. Chinese art_sentence_67

Much of the knowledge about early Chinese architecture was passed on from one tradesman to his son or associative apprentice. Chinese art_sentence_68

However, there were several early treatises on architecture in China, with encyclopedic information on architecture dating back to the Han Dynasty. Chinese art_sentence_69

The height of the classical Chinese architectural tradition in writing and illustration can be found in the Yingzao Fashi, a building manual written by 1100 and published by Li Jie (1065–1110) in 1103. Chinese art_sentence_70

In it there are numerous and meticulous illustrations and diagrams showing the assembly of halls and building components, as well as classifying structure types and building components. Chinese art_sentence_71

There were certain architectural features that were reserved solely for buildings built for the Emperor of China. Chinese art_sentence_72

One example is the use of yellow roof tiles; yellow having been the Imperial color, yellow roof tiles still adorn most of the buildings within the Forbidden City. Chinese art_sentence_73

The Temple of Heaven, however, uses blue roof tiles to symbolize the sky. Chinese art_sentence_74

The roofs are almost invariably supported by brackets, a feature shared only with the largest of religious buildings. Chinese art_sentence_75

The wooden columns of the buildings, as well as the surface of the walls, tend to be red in colour. Chinese art_sentence_76

Many current Chinese architectural designs follow post-modern and western styles. Chinese art_sentence_77

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Chinoiserie Chinese art_section_5

Main article: Chinoiserie Chinese art_sentence_78

Chinoiserie is the European interpretation and imitation of Chinese and East Asian artistic traditions, especially in the decorative arts, garden design, architecture, literature, theatre, and music. Chinese art_sentence_79

The aesthetic of Chinoiserie has been expressed in different ways depending on the region. Chinese art_sentence_80

Its acknowledgement derives from the current of Orientalism, which studied Far East cultures from a historical, philological, anthropological, philosophical and religious point of view. Chinese art_sentence_81

First appearing in the 17th century, this trend was popularized in the 18th century due to the rise in trade with China and East Asia. Chinese art_sentence_82

As a style, chinoiserie is related to the Rococo style. Chinese art_sentence_83

Both styles are characterized by exuberant decoration, asymmetry, a focus on materials, and stylized nature and subject matter that focuses on leisure and pleasure. Chinese art_sentence_84

Chinoiserie focuses on subjects that were thought by colonial-era Europeans to be typical of Chinese culture. Chinese art_sentence_85

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History and development of Chinese art Chinese art_section_6

Neolithic pottery Chinese art_section_7

Main articles: Yangshao culture and Peiligang culture Chinese art_sentence_86

Early forms of art in China are found in the Neolithic Yangshao culture, which dates back to the 6th millennium BC. Chinese art_sentence_87

Archeological findings such as those at the Banpo have revealed that the Yangshao made pottery; early ceramics were unpainted and most often cord-marked. Chinese art_sentence_88

The first decorations were fish and human faces, but these eventually evolved into symmetrical-geometric abstract designs, some painted. Chinese art_sentence_89

The most distinctive feature of Yangshao culture was the extensive use of painted pottery, especially human facial, animal, and geometric designs. Chinese art_sentence_90

Unlike the later Longshan culture, the Yangshao culture did not use pottery wheels in pottery making. Chinese art_sentence_91

Excavations have found that children were buried in painted pottery jars. Chinese art_sentence_92

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Jade culture Chinese art_section_8

Main article: Liangzhu culture Chinese art_sentence_93

The Liangzhu culture was the last Neolithic Jade culture in the Yangtze River Delta and was spaced over a period of about 1,300 years. Chinese art_sentence_94

The Jade from this culture is characterized by finely worked, large ritual jades such as Cong cylinders, Bi discs, Yue axes and also pendants and decorations in the form of chiseled open-work plaques, plates and representations of small birds, turtles and fish. Chinese art_sentence_95

The Liangzhu Jade has a white, milky bone-like aspect due to its Tremolite rock origin and influence of water-based fluids at the burial sites. Chinese art_sentence_96

Bronze casting Chinese art_section_9

Main article: Chinese ritual bronzes Chinese art_sentence_97

Further information: Bianzhong of Marquis Yi of Zeng Chinese art_sentence_98

The Bronze Age in China began with the Xia dynasty. Chinese art_sentence_99

Examples from this period have been recovered from ruins of the Erlitou culture, in Shanxi, and include complex but unadorned utilitarian objects. Chinese art_sentence_100

In the following Shang dynasty more elaborate objects, including many ritual vessels, were crafted. Chinese art_sentence_101

The Shang are remembered for their bronze casting, noted for its clarity of detail. Chinese art_sentence_102

Shang bronzesmiths usually worked in foundries outside the cities to make ritual vessels, and sometimes weapons and chariot fittings as well. Chinese art_sentence_103

The bronze vessels were receptacles for storing or serving various solids and liquids used in the performance of sacred ceremonies. Chinese art_sentence_104

Some forms such as the ku and jue can be very graceful, but the most powerful pieces are the ding, sometimes described as having an "air of ferocious majesty". Chinese art_sentence_105

It is typical of the developed Shang style that all available space is decorated, most often with stylized forms of real and imaginary animals. Chinese art_sentence_106

The most common motif is the taotie, which shows a mythological being presented frontally as though squashed onto a horizontal plane to form a symmetrical design. Chinese art_sentence_107

The early significance of taotie is not clear, but myths about it existed around the late Zhou dynasty. Chinese art_sentence_108

It was considered to be variously a covetous man banished to guard a corner of heaven against evil monsters; or a monster equipped with only a head which tries to devour men but hurts only itself. Chinese art_sentence_109

The function and appearance of bronzes changed gradually from the Shang to the Zhou. Chinese art_sentence_110

They shifted from been used in religious rites to more practical purposes. Chinese art_sentence_111

By the Warring States period, bronze vessels had become objects of aesthetic enjoyment. Chinese art_sentence_112

Some were decorated with social scenes, such as from a banquet or hunt; whilst others displayed abstract patterns inlaid with gold, silver, or precious and semiprecious stones. Chinese art_sentence_113

Bronze artifacts also have significant meaning and roles in Han Dynasty as well. Chinese art_sentence_114

People used them for funerary purposes which reflect the aesthetic and artistic qualities of Han Dynasty. Chinese art_sentence_115

Many bronze vessels excavated from tombs in Jiangsu Province, China have various shapes like Ding, Hu, and Xun which represent traditional Chinese aesthete. Chinese art_sentence_116

These vessels are classical representations of Chinese celestial art forms which play a great role in ancient Chinese's communication with spirits of their ancestors. Chinese art_sentence_117

Other than the vessels, bronze weapons, daily items, and musical instruments are also found in royal Han families' tomb in Jiangsu. Chinese art_sentence_118

Being able to put a full set of Bianzhong in ones tomb signifies his or her status and class in Han Dynasty since this particular type of instrument is only acquired and owned by royal and wealth families. Chinese art_sentence_119

Apparently, Bianzhong and music are also used as a path for the Han rulers to communication with their Gods. Chinese art_sentence_120

The excavation of Bianzhong, a typical and royal instrument found in ancient China, emphasizes the development of complex music systems in Han Dynasty. Chinese art_sentence_121

The set of Bianzhong can vary in many cases; for example, a specific excavation of Bianzhong from Jiangsu Province include different sets of bells, like Niuzhong and Yongzhong bells, and many of them appear in animal forms like the dragon, a traditional Chinese spiritual animal. Chinese art_sentence_122

Shang bronzes became appreciated as works of art from the Song dynasty, when they were collected and prized not only for their shape and design but also for the various green, blue green, and even reddish patinas created by chemical action as they lay buried in the ground. Chinese art_sentence_123

The study of early Chinese bronze casting is a specialized field of art history. Chinese art_sentence_124

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Chu and Southern culture Chinese art_section_10

A rich source of art in early China was the state of Chu, which developed in the Yangtze River valley. Chinese art_sentence_125

Excavations of Chu tombs have found painted wooden sculptures, jade disks, glass beads, musical instruments, and an assortment of lacquerware. Chinese art_sentence_126

Many of the lacquer objects are finely painted, red on black or black on red. Chinese art_sentence_127

A site in Changsha, Hunan province, has revealed some of the oldest paintings on silk discovered to date. Chinese art_sentence_128

Early Imperial China (221 BC–AD 220) Chinese art_section_11

Qin art Chinese art_section_12

During the Qin Dynasty, Chinese font, measurement systems, currency were all standardized in order to bring further unification. Chinese art_sentence_129

The Great Wall of China was expanded as a defensive construction against the northern intruders. Chinese art_sentence_130

The Terracotta Army, inside the Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor, consists of more than 7,000 life-size tomb terra-cotta figures of warriors and horses buried with the self-proclaimed first Emperor of Qin (Qin Shi Huang) in 210–209 BC. Chinese art_sentence_131

The figures were painted before being placed into the vault. Chinese art_sentence_132

The original colors were visible when the pieces were first unearthed. Chinese art_sentence_133

However, exposure to air caused the pigments to fade, so today the unearthed figures appear terracotta in color. Chinese art_sentence_134

The figures are in several poses including standing infantry and kneeling archers, as well as charioteers with horses. Chinese art_sentence_135

Each figure's head appears to be unique, showing a variety of facial features and expressions as well as hair styles. Chinese art_sentence_136

The spectacular realism displayed by the sculptures is an evidence of the advancement of art during the Qin Dynasty. Chinese art_sentence_137

A music instrument called Qin zither was developed during Qin Dynasty. Chinese art_sentence_138

The aesthetic components have always been as important as the functional parts on a musical instrument in Chinese history. Chinese art_sentence_139

The Qin zither has seven strings. Chinese art_sentence_140

Although Qin zither can sometimes remind people of corruptive history times, it is often considered as a delivery of peace and harmony. Chinese art_sentence_141

Han art Chinese art_section_13

The Han dynasty was known for jade burial suits. Chinese art_sentence_142

One of the earliest known depictions of a landscape in Chinese art comes from a pair of hollow-tile door panels from a Western Han dynasty tomb near Zhengzhou, dated 60 BC. Chinese art_sentence_143

A scene of continuous depth recession is conveyed by the zigzag of lines representing roads and garden walls, giving the impression that one is looking down from the top of a hill. Chinese art_sentence_144

This artistic landscape scene was made by the repeated impression of standard stamps on the clay while it was still soft and not yet fired. Chinese art_sentence_145

However, the oldest known landscape art scene tradition in the classical sense of painting is a work by Zhan Ziqian of the Sui dynasty (581–618). Chinese art_sentence_146

Other than jade artifacts, bronze is another favorite medium for artists since it is hard and durable. Chinese art_sentence_147

Bronze mirrors have been mass-produced in Han Dynasty(206 BC-220 AD), and almost every tomb excavated that has been dated as Han Dynasty has mirror in the burial. Chinese art_sentence_148

The reflective side is usually made by a composition of bronze, copper, tin, and lead. Chinese art_sentence_149

The word "mirror" means "to reflect" or "to look into" in Chinese, so bronze mirrors have been used as a trope for reflecting the reality. Chinese art_sentence_150

The ancient Chinese believe that mirror can act as a representation of the reality, which could make them more aware of the current situation; also, mirrors are used as a media to convey or present a reflection of the past events. Chinese art_sentence_151

The bronze mirrors made in Han Dynasty always have complex decorations on their non-reflective side; some of them consist narratives that tell stories. Chinese art_sentence_152

The narratives themselves always reflect the common but essential theories to the Han people's lives. Chinese art_sentence_153

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Period of division (220–581) Chinese art_section_14

Influence of Buddhism Chinese art_section_15

Main article: Buddhist art Chinese art_sentence_154

Buddhism arrived in China around the 1st century AD (although there are some traditions about a monk visiting China during Asoka's reign), and through to the 8th century it became very active and creative in the development of Buddhist art, particularly in the area of statuary. Chinese art_sentence_155

Receiving this distant religion, China soon incorporated strong Chinese traits in its artistic expression. Chinese art_sentence_156

In the fifth to sixth century the Northern dynasties, rather removed from the original sources of inspiration, tended to develop rather symbolic and abstract modes of representation, with schematic lines. Chinese art_sentence_157

Their style is also said to be solemn and majestic. Chinese art_sentence_158

The lack of corporeality of this art, and its distance from the original Buddhist objective of expressing the pure ideal of enlightenment in an accessible, realistic manner, progressively led to a research towards more naturalism and realism, leading to the expression of Tang Buddhist art. Chinese art_sentence_159

Calligraphy Chinese art_section_16

In ancient China, painting and calligraphy were the most highly appreciated arts in court circles and were produced almost exclusively by amateurs, aristocrats and scholar-officials who alone had the leisure to perfect the technique and sensibility necessary for great brushwork. Chinese art_sentence_160

Calligraphy was thought to be the highest and purest form of painting. Chinese art_sentence_161

The implements were the brush, made of animal hair, and black ink made from pine soot and animal glue. Chinese art_sentence_162

Writing as well as painting was done on silk. Chinese art_sentence_163

But after the invention of paper in the 1st century, silk was gradually replaced by the new and cheaper material. Chinese art_sentence_164

Original writings by famous calligraphers have been greatly valued throughout China's history and are mounted on scrolls and hung on walls in the same way that paintings are. Chinese art_sentence_165

Wang Xizhi was a famous Chinese calligrapher who lived in the 4th century AD. Chinese art_sentence_166

His most famous work is the Lanting Xu, the preface to a collection of poems. Chinese art_sentence_167

The script was often celebrated as the high point of the semi-cursive "Running Style" in the history of Chinese calligraphy. Chinese art_sentence_168

Wei Shuo was a well-known calligrapher of the Eastern Jin dynasty who established consequential rules about the Regular Script. Chinese art_sentence_169

Her well-known works include Famous Concubine Inscription (名姬帖 Ming Ji Tie) and The Inscription of Wei-shi He'nan (衛氏和南帖 Wei-shi He'nan Tie). Chinese art_sentence_170

Painting Chinese art_section_17

Gu Kaizhi is a celebrated painter of ancient China born in Wuxi. Chinese art_sentence_171

He wrote three books about painting theory: On Painting (畫論), Introduction of Famous Paintings of Wei and Jin Dynasties (魏晉名畫記) and Painting Yuntai Mountain (畫雲臺山記). Chinese art_sentence_172

He wrote, "In figure paintings the clothes and the appearances were not very important. Chinese art_sentence_173

The eyes were the spirit and the decisive factor." Chinese art_sentence_174

Three of Gu's paintings still survive today: Admonitions of the Instructress to the Court Ladies, Nymph of the Luo River (洛神賦), and Wise and Benevolent Women. Chinese art_sentence_175

There are other examples of Jin dynasty painting from tombs. Chinese art_sentence_176

This includes the Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove, painted on a brick wall of a tomb located near modern Nanjing and now found in the Shaanxi Provincial Museum. Chinese art_sentence_177

Each of the figures are labeled and shown either drinking, writing, or playing a musical instrument. Chinese art_sentence_178

Other tomb paintings also depict scenes of daily life, such as men plowing fields with teams of oxen. Chinese art_sentence_179

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The Sui and Tang dynasties (581–960) Chinese art_section_18

Main article: Tang dynasty art Chinese art_sentence_180

Buddhist architecture and sculpture Chinese art_section_19

Following a transition under the Sui dynasty, Buddhist sculpture of the Tang evolved towards a markedly lifelike expression. Chinese art_sentence_181

As a consequence of the dynasty's openness to foreign trade and influences through the Silk Road, Tang dynasty Buddhist sculpture assumed a rather classical form, inspired by the Greco-Buddhist art of Central Asia. Chinese art_sentence_182

However, foreign influences came to be negatively perceived towards the end of the Tang dynasty. Chinese art_sentence_183

In the year 845, the Tang emperor Wu-Tsung outlawed all "foreign" religions (including Christian Nestorianism, Zoroastrianism and Buddhism) in order to support the indigenous Taoism. Chinese art_sentence_184

He confiscated Buddhist possessions and forced the faith to go underground, therefore affecting the ulterior development of the religion and its arts in China. Chinese art_sentence_185

Glazed or painted earthenware Tang dynasty tomb figures are famous, and well-represented in museums around the world. Chinese art_sentence_186

Most wooden Tang sculptures have not survived, though representations of the Tang international style can still be seen in Nara, Japan. Chinese art_sentence_187

The longevity of stone sculpture has proved much greater. Chinese art_sentence_188

Some of the finest examples can be seen at Longmen, near Luoyang (Henan), Yungang near Datong (Shanxi), and Bingling Temple in Gansu. Chinese art_sentence_189

One of the most famous Buddhist Chinese pagodas is the Giant Wild Goose Pagoda, built in 652 AD. Chinese art_sentence_190

Chinese art_unordered_list_11

  • Chinese art_item_11_88
  • Chinese art_item_11_89

Painting Chinese art_section_20

Beginning in the Tang dynasty (618–907), the primary subject matter of painting was the landscape, known as shanshui (mountain water) painting. Chinese art_sentence_191

In these landscapes, usually monochromatic and sparse, the purpose was not to reproduce exactly the appearance of nature but rather to grasp an emotion or atmosphere so as to catch the "rhythm" of nature. Chinese art_sentence_192

Painting in the traditional style involved essentially the same techniques as calligraphy and was done with a brush dipped in black or colored ink; oils were not used. Chinese art_sentence_193

As with calligraphy, the most popular materials on which paintings were made were paper and silk. Chinese art_sentence_194

The finished works were then mounted on scrolls, which could be hung or rolled up. Chinese art_sentence_195

Traditional painting was also done in albums, on walls, lacquer work, and in other media. Chinese art_sentence_196

Dong Yuan was an active painter in the Southern Tang Kingdom. Chinese art_sentence_197

He was known for both figure and landscape paintings, and exemplified the elegant style which would become the standard for brush painting in China over the next 900 years. Chinese art_sentence_198

As with many artists in China, his profession was as an official where he studied the existing styles of Li Sixun and Wang Wei. Chinese art_sentence_199

However, he added to the number of techniques, including more sophisticated perspective, use of pointillism and crosshatching to build up vivid effect. Chinese art_sentence_200

Zhan Ziqian was a painter during the Sui dynasty. Chinese art_sentence_201

His only painting in existence is Strolling About In Spring arranged mountains perspectively. Chinese art_sentence_202

Because pure landscape paintings are hardly seen in Europe until the 17th century, Strolling About In Spring may well be the world's first landscape painting. Chinese art_sentence_203

The Song and Yuan dynasties (960–1368) Chinese art_section_21

Main article: Culture of the Song Dynasty Chinese art_sentence_204

Song painting Chinese art_section_22

During the Song dynasty (960–1279), landscapes of more subtle expression appeared; immeasurable distances were conveyed through the use of blurred outlines, mountain contours disappearing into the mist, and impressionistic treatment of natural phenomena. Chinese art_sentence_205

Emphasis was placed on the spiritual qualities of the painting and on the ability of the artist to reveal the inner harmony of man and nature, as perceived according to Taoist and Buddhist concepts. Chinese art_sentence_206

Liang Kai was a Chinese painter who lived in the 13th century (Song dynasty). Chinese art_sentence_207

He called himself "Madman Liang", and he spent his life drinking and painting. Chinese art_sentence_208

Eventually, he retired and became a Zen monk. Chinese art_sentence_209

Liang is credited with inventing the Zen school of Chinese art. Chinese art_sentence_210

Wen Tong was a painter who lived in the 11th century. Chinese art_sentence_211

He was famous for ink paintings of bamboo. Chinese art_sentence_212

He could hold two brushes in one hand and paint two different distanced bamboos simultaneously. Chinese art_sentence_213

He did not need to see the bamboo while he painted them because he had seen a lot of them. Chinese art_sentence_214

Zhang Zeduan was a notable painter for his horizontal Along the River During Qingming Festival landscape and cityscape painting. Chinese art_sentence_215

It is considered one of China's most renowned paintings and has had many well-known remakes throughout Chinese history. Chinese art_sentence_216

Other famous paintings include The Night Revels of Han Xizai, originally painted by the Southern Tang artist Gu Hongzhong in the 10th century, while the well-known version of his painting is a 12th-century remake of the Song dynasty. Chinese art_sentence_217

This is a large horizontal handscroll of a domestic scene showing men of the gentry class being entertained by musicians and dancers while enjoying food, beverage, and wash basins provided by maidservants. Chinese art_sentence_218

In 2000, the modern artist Wang Qingsong created a parody of this painting with a long, horizontal photograph of people in modern clothing making similar facial expressions, poses, and hand gestures as the original painting. Chinese art_sentence_219

Chinese art_unordered_list_12

  • Chinese art_item_12_90
  • Chinese art_item_12_91
  • Chinese art_item_12_92

Yuan painting Chinese art_section_23

With the fall of the Song dynasty in 1279, and the subsequent dislocation caused by the establishment of the Yuan dynasty by the Mongol conquerors, many court and literary artists retreated from social life, and returned to nature, through landscape paintings, and by renewing the "blue and green" style of the Tang era. Chinese art_sentence_220

Wang Meng was one such painter, and one of his most famous works is the Forest Grotto. Chinese art_sentence_221

Zhao Mengfu was a Chinese scholar, painter and calligrapher during the Yuan dynasty. Chinese art_sentence_222

His rejection of the refined, gentle brushwork of his era in favor of the cruder style of the 8th century is considered to have brought about a revolution that created the modern Chinese landscape painting. Chinese art_sentence_223

There was also the vivid and detailed works of art by Qian Xuan (1235–1305), who had served the Song court, and out of patriotism refused to serve the Mongols, instead turning to painting. Chinese art_sentence_224

He was also famous for reviving and reproducing a more Tang dynasty style of painting. Chinese art_sentence_225

The later Yuan dynasty is characterized by the work of the so-called "Four Great Masters". Chinese art_sentence_226

The most notable of these was Huang Gongwang (1269–1354) whose cool and restrained landscapes were admired by contemporaries, and by the Chinese literati painters of later centuries. Chinese art_sentence_227

Another of great influence was Ni Zan (1301–1374), who frequently arranged his compositions with a strong and distinct foreground and background, but left the middle-ground as an empty expanse. Chinese art_sentence_228

This scheme was frequently to be adopted by later Ming and Qing dynasty painters. Chinese art_sentence_229

Pottery Chinese art_section_24

Chinese porcelain is made from a hard paste made of the clay kaolin and a feldspar called petuntse, which cements the vessel and seals any . Chinese art_sentence_230

China has become synonymous with high-quality porcelain. Chinese art_sentence_231

Most china pots comes from the city of Jingdezhen in China's Jiangxi province. Chinese art_sentence_232

Jingdezhen porcelain, under a variety of names, has been central to porcelain production in China since at least the Yuan dynasty. Chinese art_sentence_233

Late imperial China (1368–1911) Chinese art_section_25

Ming painting Chinese art_section_26

Main article: Ming dynasty painting Chinese art_sentence_234

Under the Ming dynasty, Chinese culture bloomed. Chinese art_sentence_235

Narrative painting, with a wider color range and a much busier composition than the Song paintings, was immensely popular during the time. Chinese art_sentence_236

Wen Zhengming (1470–1559) developed the style of the Wu school in Suzhou, which dominated Chinese painting during the 16th century. Chinese art_sentence_237

European culture began to make an impact on Chinese art during this period. Chinese art_sentence_238

The Jesuit priest Matteo Ricci visited Nanjing with many Western artworks, which were influential in showing different techniques of perspective and shading. Chinese art_sentence_239

Chinese art_unordered_list_13

  • Chinese art_item_13_93
  • Chinese art_item_13_94

Early Qing painting Chinese art_section_27

The early Qing dynasty developed in two main strands: the Orthodox school, and the Individualist painters, both of which followed the theories of Dong Qichang, but emphasizing very different aspects. Chinese art_sentence_240

The "Four Wangs", including Wang Jian (1598–1677) and Wang Shimin (1592–1680), were particularly renowned in the Orthodox school, and sought inspiration in recreating the past styles, especially the technical skills in brushstrokes and calligraphy of ancient masters. Chinese art_sentence_241

The younger Wang Yuanqi (1642–1715) ritualized the approach of engaging with and drawing inspiration from a work of an ancient master. Chinese art_sentence_242

His own works were often annotated with his theories of how his painting relates to the master's model. Chinese art_sentence_243

The Individualist painters included Bada Shanren (1626–1705) and Shitao (1641–1707). Chinese art_sentence_244

They drew more from the revolutionary ideas of transcending the tradition to achieve an original individualistic styles; in this way they were more faithfully following the way of Dong Qichang than the Orthodox school (who were his official direct followers.) Chinese art_sentence_245

Painters outside of the literati-scholar and aristocratic traditions also gained renown, with some artists creating paintings to sell for money. Chinese art_sentence_246

These included Ma Quan (late 17th–18th century), who depicted common flowers, birds, and insects that were not typical subject matter among scholars. Chinese art_sentence_247

Such painters were, however, not separated from formal schools of painting, but were usually well-versed in artistic styles and techniques. Chinese art_sentence_248

Ma Quan, for example, modelled her brushwork on Song dynasty examples. Chinese art_sentence_249

Simultaneously, the boneless technique (Chinese: 沒骨畫), thought to have originated as a preparatory step when painting gold-line images during the Tang, was continued by painters like Yun Shouping (1633–1690) and his descendant Yun Bing. Chinese art_sentence_250

As the techniques of color printing were perfected, illustrated manuals on the art of painting began to be published. Chinese art_sentence_251

Jieziyuan Huazhuan (Manual of the Mustard Seed Garden), a five-volume work first published in 1679, has been in use as a technical textbook for artists and students ever since. Chinese art_sentence_252

Chinese art_unordered_list_14

  • Chinese art_item_14_95
  • Chinese art_item_14_96
  • Chinese art_item_14_97

Late Qing Art Chinese art_section_28

Nianhua were a form of colored woodblock prints in China, depicting images for decoration during the Chinese New Year. Chinese art_sentence_253

In the 19th century Nianhua were used as news mediums. Chinese art_sentence_254

Shanghai School Chinese art_section_29

The Shanghai School is a very important Chinese school of traditional arts during the Qing dynasty and the 20th century. Chinese art_sentence_255

Under efforts of masters from this school, traditional Chinese art reached another climax and continued to the present in forms of "Chinese painting" (中國畫), or guohua (國畫) for short. Chinese art_sentence_256

The Shanghai School challenged and broke the literati tradition of Chinese art, while also paying technical homage to the ancient masters and improving on existing traditional techniques. Chinese art_sentence_257

Members of this school were themselves educated literati who had come to question their very status and the purpose of art, and had anticipated the impending modernization of Chinese society. Chinese art_sentence_258

In an era of rapid social change, works from the Shanghai School were widely innovative and diverse, and often contained thoughtful yet subtle social commentary. Chinese art_sentence_259

The best known figures from this school are Ren Xiong, Ren Bonian, Zhao Zhiqian, Wu Changshuo, Sha Menghai, Pan Tianshou, Fu Baoshi, He Tianjian, and Xie Zhiliu. Chinese art_sentence_260

Other well-known painters include Wang Zhen, XuGu, Zhang Xiong, Hu Yuan, and Yang Borun. Chinese art_sentence_261

New China art (1912–1949) Chinese art_section_30

Modern Art Movement[37][38] Chinese art_section_31

The movement to modernize Chinese art started toward the end of the Qing Dynasty. Chinese art_sentence_262

The traditional art form started to lose its appeal as the feudalistic structure of the society was dissolving. Chinese art_sentence_263

The modern view of the world had to be expressed in a different form. Chinese art_sentence_264

The explorations went on two main paths: one was to draw from the past to enrich the present ( 汲古潤今)*, the other was to "learn the new methods" (學習新法). Chinese art_sentence_265

  • Chinese art_sentence_266

I Draw from the Past: Chinese art_sentence_267

The literati art for the social elite was not appealing to the bourgeois patrons. Chinese art_sentence_268

Wu Changshuo 吳昌碩 (1844–1927) was among the Shanghai-based artists responsible for flowers and plants as the subject matter. Chinese art_sentence_269

His paintings used bold colors and energetic brush strokes, making them more accessible to the general public. Chinese art_sentence_270

Qi Baishi 齊白石 (1864–1957) painted images like crabs and shrimps that were even more approachable to the common people. Chinese art_sentence_271

Huang Binhong 黄宾虹 (1865–1955) denounced the literati paintings of the Qing dynasty and created his own style of landscape paintings by extensive investigations in Chinese art history. Chinese art_sentence_272

Zhang Daqian 張大千 (1899–1983) used wall paintings in Dunhuang 敦煌 caves to help him move beyond the literati tradition. Chinese art_sentence_273

II Learn New Methods Chinese art_sentence_274

The Lingnan School 岭南画派 made some borrowings from the language of Western art in their ink paintings. Chinese art_sentence_275

Gao Jianfu 高剑父(1879–1951), one of the founders of Lingnan School, was an active participant in the revolutionary movement of Sun Yat-sen 孫中山 (1866–1925). Chinese art_sentence_276

He was innovative in that he intended to use his paintings to highlight national issues, a medium for positive change in society. Chinese art_sentence_277

Chinese art_unordered_list_15

  • Chinese art_item_15_98
  • Chinese art_item_15_99

A more radical style change started with Kang Youwei 康有為(1858–1927), a reformer who admired the more reality-based art of the Song dynasty. Chinese art_sentence_278

He believed that Chinese art could be rejuvenated by employing the reality-oriented art techniques of Europe. Chinese art_sentence_279

Xu Beihong徐悲鴻 (1895–1953) took this idea to heart and went to Paris to acquire the necessary skills. Chinese art_sentence_280

Liu Haisu刘海粟(1896–1994), on the other hand, went to Japan to learn western techniques. Chinese art_sentence_281

Both Xu, and Liu became presidents of prestigious art schools, instilling new concepts and skills in the next generation of artists. Chinese art_sentence_282

Cai Yuanpei 蔡元培 (1868–1940) was one of the leaders in the "New Culture Movement" 新文化运动. Chinese art_sentence_283

Those involved believed that intellectual activities should benefit all, not just the elites. Chinese art_sentence_284

Cai's belief that art could play a public, socially reformist role was adopted by Lin Fengmian林風眠(1900–1991). Chinese art_sentence_285

Together with Yan Wenliang 顏文樑(1893–1988), Xu, Liu, and Lin were considered the "Four Great Academy Presidents" 四大校長, who spearheaded the national modern art movement. Chinese art_sentence_286

However the subsequent upheaval caused by the Sino-Japanese war and the civil war did not allow this movement to grow. Chinese art_sentence_287

The Chinese modern art movement after the war developed differently in the four the regions: the Mainland, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and overseas. Chinese art_sentence_288

Postwar Chinese Art (1949–1976) Chinese art_section_32

The postwar era is roughly from 1949, the end of Chinese civil war, to 1976, the opening of mainland China to the outside world.. Chinese art_sentence_289

The Mainland Chinese art_section_33

The postwar era in mainland China could be divided into two periods: 1949 to 1966 is generally called "The 17 Years"; 1966 to 1976 is the period of the "Cultural Revolution". Chinese art_sentence_290

The 17 Years Chinese art_section_34

Chinese artists adopted social realism as a form of expression; it was a combination of revolutionary realism and revolutionary romanticism. Chinese art_sentence_291

Artwork was not valued on its own terms but was subservient to a political purpose. Chinese art_sentence_292

According to Mao Zedong, art should be a "powerful weapon for uniting and educating the people, fighting and destroying the enemy". Chinese art_sentence_293

Praising political leaders and celebrating the achievements of socialism became the theme of all artwork. Chinese art_sentence_294

Western art forms, including Cubism, Fauvism, Abstraction, and Expressionism were deemed superficial and were categorized as formalism. Chinese art_sentence_295

The biggest blow to art was the Anti-Rightist Campaign of 1957. Chinese art_sentence_296

Artists who were labeled as rightists were stripped of their right to create and even their jobs, and worse, the social standing of the artists and their families was placed at the lowest level, causing great mental suffering. Chinese art_sentence_297

Some influential paintings from this period are: Chinese art_sentence_298

Chinese art_unordered_list_16

  • Chinese art_item_16_100

Chinese art_unordered_list_17

  • Chinese art_item_17_101

Chinese art_unordered_list_18

  • Dong Xiwen, The Founding of the People's Republic of China () had gone through several revisions, due to the changing political situation. Gao Gang was taken out when he went out of favor, Liu Shaoqi was replaced by Dong Biwu for a while, then the prototype was restored.Chinese art_item_18_102
The Cultural Revolution Chinese art_section_35

These ten years could also be called the "Ten Years of Calamity" (十年浩劫). Chinese art_sentence_299

In order to destroy everything that supported the old social order, countless temples, historic sites, artworks, and books, were ravaged and burnt. Chinese art_sentence_300

During this period the portrait of Mao and propaganda posters of revolution were everywhere. Chinese art_sentence_301

Anything that was remotely suspected of being out of line was destroyed, and the person behind it was prosecuted. Chinese art_sentence_302

For example, Owl by Huang Youyu had one eye open and one eye closed; it was deemed an expression of dissatisfaction with current events. Chinese art_sentence_303

Zong Qixiang's painting, which shows three tigers, was deemed critical of the leader Lin Biao, whose name contained a character that had three tigers in it. Chinese art_sentence_304

Residual Lotus by Li Kuchan had eight lotus flowers; it was deemed to be critical of the eight communist approved movies (样板戏). Chinese art_sentence_305

Many prominent artists were persecuted during this time. Chinese art_sentence_306

For example, Yan, Xu, Liu, and Lin, the "Four Great Academy Presidents" (except for Xu who died before the Cultural Revolution), were all prosecuted and jailed, and all their work was destroyed during this time. Chinese art_sentence_307

However, despite the difficult environment, some noteworthy paintings were created. Chinese art_sentence_308

The following are some examples: Chinese art_sentence_309

Chinese art_unordered_list_19

  • Chinese art_item_19_103

Chinese art_unordered_list_20

  • Chinese art_item_20_104

Taiwan Chinese art_section_36

Because of its history, traditional Chinese art does not have strong roots in Taiwan. Chinese art_sentence_310

The art forms in Taiwan were generally decorative, until there were youths growing up under the Japanese occupation received formal art education in Japan. Chinese art_sentence_311

Not burdened with traditional art form, their exploration generally followed the path of "learning the new methods" (學習新法). Chinese art_sentence_312

When the Nationalists arrived in Taiwan, a group of ambitious youths, who came with the Nationalists, continued the modern art movement. Chinese art_sentence_313

The most notable were the Fifth Moon Group and the Ton-Fan Art Group東方畫會. Chinese art_sentence_314

Fifth Moon Group五月畫會 Chinese art_section_37

The original members of the group were alumni with the art majors from the Academic Teachers College師範大學 (the only university with an art major at the time). Chinese art_sentence_315

Their first intention was to show that the effort to create new art was worthwhile in itself, even if it did not directly enhance art pedagogy. Chinese art_sentence_316

(The faculty member that provided the most support was 廖繼春, a Taiwanese native who received training abroad in Japan.) Chinese art_sentence_317

Later, it became a movement to modernize Chinese art. Chinese art_sentence_318

The members of the Fifth Moon Group studied western art movements, and concluded that the abstract art form was the best medium for modern Chinese art. Chinese art_sentence_319

They felt the best the Chinese paintings were ones that de-emphasized realistic representation, and emphasized atmosphere and "vividness" 氣韻生動, which comes from the brush strokes and the natural interaction between ink and paper. Chinese art_sentence_320

To further that idea, one does not need representation of objects in painting, or strictly use ink and paper. Chinese art_sentence_321

The beauty of a painting can be appreciated directly from the forms, textures, and colors on the canvas without their relation to real objects. Chinese art_sentence_322

The group was active from 1957 to 1972. Chinese art_sentence_323

The main members are Liu Guosong , 莊喆, , , and Han Hsiang-ning . Chinese art_sentence_324

The following are a sample of their paintings from that period: Chinese art_sentence_325

Chinese art_unordered_list_21

  • Chinese art_item_21_105

Chinese art_unordered_list_22

  • Chinese art_item_22_106
Ton-Fan Art Group東方畫會 Chinese art_section_38

The members of this group were students who attended private art classes offered by 李仲生, a mainland-born artist who had been one of the active participants in the modern art movement. Chinese art_sentence_326

He and a number of mainland artists who painted in a western style continued the modern art movement by publishing magazines and writing articles to introduce modern art to Taiwan. Chinese art_sentence_327

李仲生 teaching style was unconventional and socratic in nature. Chinese art_sentence_328

The original intention of the group was to introduce modern art to the public. Chinese art_sentence_329

They believed there should be no restriction on the form or style of a modern Chinese painting, as long as the painting expressed meaning that was Chinese in nature. Chinese art_sentence_330

The group was active from 1957 to 1971. Chinese art_sentence_331

The main members were: , 李元佳Li Yuan-chia, , , 夏陽Hsia Yan, , , . Chinese art_sentence_332

The following are a sample of their paintings from that period: Chinese art_sentence_333

Chinese art_unordered_list_23

  • Chinese art_item_23_107

Chinese art_unordered_list_24

  • Chinese art_item_24_108

Chinese art_unordered_list_25

  • Chinese art_item_25_109

Hong Kong[39] Chinese art_section_39

Hong Kong was a British colony from 1842 to 1997. Chinese art_sentence_334

The local art organizations were mostly run by Westerners who outnumbered Chinese painters until a large migration of Chinese from Southern China during Sino-Japanese War. Chinese art_sentence_335

Innovative art colleges were established after the war. Chinese art_sentence_336

The shows organized by local artists started in the early 1960s. Chinese art_sentence_337

After a reaction against the traditional Western artistic practices of the 1940s and the 1950s, some experimental works that combined both western and eastern techniques were made. Chinese art_sentence_338

Then came the call for a return to Chinese traditional art and the creation of forms of art that Hong Kong could call its own. Chinese art_sentence_339

The trend was led by Lui Shou Kwan 呂壽琨. Chinese art_sentence_340

Some western concepts were incorporated into his Chinese ink paintings. Chinese art_sentence_341

Chinese art_unordered_list_26

  • Chinese art_item_26_110

Overseas[40] Chinese art_section_40

Paris[41] Chinese art_section_41

Many Chinese artists went to study western art in Paris in the early 1900s, for example: Fang Ganmin , , Ong Schan Tchow , Lin Fengmian 林風眠, Yan Wenliang , , . Chinese art_sentence_342

All except Zao completed their education before 1949 and returned to become leaders in the modern art movement. Chinese art_sentence_343

(Zao happened to be in Paris in 1949 and did not return.) Chinese art_sentence_344

Some Chinese artists went to stay there because of the rich international art environment, for example: 常玉, Pang Yuliang 潘張玉良, . Chinese art_sentence_345

Zao, Sanyu, Pang, and Chu all had shows in Paris and the Republic. Chinese art_sentence_346

All their paintings had varying degrees of Chinese elements in them. Chinese art_sentence_347

These artists not only had a profound influence in Chinese modern art, but they also continued to engage Parisians with modern art from the East. Chinese art_sentence_348

Chinese art_unordered_list_27

  • Chinese art_item_27_111
United States Chinese art_section_42

Li Tiefu 李鐵夫 (1869–1952) was an accomplished oil painter educated in Canada and the United States. Chinese art_sentence_349

He was an active participant in the revolutionary movement of Sun Yat-sen 孫中山 (1866–1925). Chinese art_sentence_350

曾佑和 (1925–2017) was born in Beijing. Chinese art_sentence_351

She started receiving international recognition in 1946, when Michael Sullivan began praising and writing about her work. Chinese art_sentence_352

Zeng moved to Honolulu in 1949 and visited Hong Kong and Taiwan in 1960. Chinese art_sentence_353

Like those of the Fifth Moon Group 五月畫會, her paintings were abstract; but the flavor of traditional Chinese ink paintings were not as pronounced. Chinese art_sentence_354

Chinese art_unordered_list_28

  • Chinese art_item_28_112

Redevelopment (mid-1980s – 1990s) Chinese art_section_43

Contemporary art Chinese art_section_44

See also: The Stars Art Group Chinese art_sentence_355

Contemporary Chinese art (中國當代藝術, Zhongguo Dangdai Yishu) often referred to as Chinese avant-garde art, continued to develop since the 1980s as an outgrowth of modern art developments post-Cultural Revolution. Chinese art_sentence_356

Contemporary Chinese art fully incorporates painting, film, video, photography, and performance. Chinese art_sentence_357

Until recently, art exhibitions deemed controversial have been routinely shut down by police, and performance artists in particular faced the threat of arrest in the early 1990s. Chinese art_sentence_358

More recently there has been greater tolerance by the Chinese government, though many internationally acclaimed artists are still restricted from media exposure at home or have exhibitions ordered closed. Chinese art_sentence_359

Leading contemporary visual artists include Ai Weiwei, Cai Guoqiang, Cai Jin, Chan Shengyao, Concept 21, Ding Yi, Fang Lijun, Fu Wenjun, He Xiangyu, Huang Yan, Huang Yong Ping, Han Yajuan, Kong Bai Ji, Li Hongbo, Li Hui, Liu Bolin, Lu Shengzhong, Ma Liuming, Qiu Deshu, Qiu Shihua, Shen Fan, Shen Shaomin, Shi Jinsong, Song Dong, Li Wei, Wang Guangyi, Wenda Gu, Xu Bing, Yang Zhichao, Zhan Wang, Zheng Lianjie, Zhang Dali, Zhang Xiaogang, Zhang Huan, Zhu Yu, Wu Shaoxiang, Ma Kelu, Ding Fang, Shang Yang, Gao Minglu and Guo Jian. Chinese art_sentence_360

Visual art Chinese art_section_45

Beginning in the late 1980s there was unprecedented exposure for younger Chinese visual artists in the west to some degree through the agency of curators based outside the country such as Hou Hanru. Chinese art_sentence_361

Local curators within the country such as Gao Minglu and critics such as Li Xianting (栗憲庭) reinforced this promotion of particular brands of painting that had recently emerged, while also spreading the idea of art as a strong social force within Chinese culture. Chinese art_sentence_362

There was some controversy as critics identified these imprecise representations of contemporary Chinese art as having been constructed out of personal preferences, a kind of programmatized artist-curator relationship that only further alienated the majority of the avant-garde from Chinese officialdom and western art market patronage. Chinese art_sentence_363

Art market Chinese art_section_46

Today, the market for Chinese art, both antique and contemporary, is widely reported to be among the hottest and fastest-growing in the world, attracting buyers all over the world. Chinese art_sentence_364

The Voice of America reported in 2006 that modern Chinese art is raking in record prices both internationally and in domestic markets, some experts even fearing the market might be overheating. Chinese art_sentence_365

The Economist reported that Chinese art has become the latest darling in the world market according to the record sales from Sotheby's and Christie's, the biggest fine-art auction houses. Chinese art_sentence_366

Contemporary Chinese art saw record sales throughout the 2000s. Chinese art_sentence_367

In 2007, it was estimated that 5 of the world's 10 best selling living artists at art auction were from China, with artists such as Zhang Xiaogang whose works were sold for a total of $56.8 million at auction in 2007. Chinese art_sentence_368

In terms of buying-market, China overtook France in the late 2000s as the world's third-largest art market, after the United States and the United Kingdom, due to the growing middle-class in the country. Chinese art_sentence_369

Sotheby's noted that contemporary Chinese art has rapidly changed the contemporary Asian art world into one of the most dynamic sectors on the international art market. Chinese art_sentence_370

During the global economic crisis, the contemporary Asian art market and the contemporary Chinese art market experienced a slow down in late 2008. Chinese art_sentence_371

The market for Contemporary Chinese and Asian art saw a major revival in late 2009 with record level sales at Christie's. Chinese art_sentence_372

For centuries largely made-up of European and American buyers, the international buying market for Chinese art has also begun to be dominated by Chinese dealers and collectors in recent years. Chinese art_sentence_373

It was reported in 2011, China has become the world's second biggest market for art and antiques, accounting for 23 percent of the world's total art market, behind the United States (which accounts for 34 percent of the world's art market). Chinese art_sentence_374

Another transformation driving the growth of the Chinese art market is the rise of a clientele no longer mostly European or American. Chinese art_sentence_375

New fortunes from countries once thought of as poor often prefer non-Western art; a large gallerist in the field has offices in both New York and Beijing, but clients mainly hailing from Latin America, Asia and the Middle East. Chinese art_sentence_376

One of the areas that has revived art concentration and also commercialized the industry is the 798 Art District in Dashanzi of Beijing. Chinese art_sentence_377

The artist Zhang Xiaogang sold a 1993 painting for US$2.3 million in 2006, which included blank faced Chinese families from the Cultural Revolution era, while Yue Minjun's work Execution in 2007 was sold for a then record of nearly $6 million at Sotheby's. Chinese art_sentence_378

Collectors including Stanley Ho, the owner of the Macau Casinos, investment manager Christopher Tsai, and casino developer Steve Wynn, would capitalize on the art trends. Chinese art_sentence_379

Items such as Ming dynasty vases and assorted Imperial pieces were auctioned off. Chinese art_sentence_380

Other art works were sold in places such as Christie's including a Chinese porcelain piece with the mark of the Qianlong Emperor sold for HKD $ $151.3 million. Chinese art_sentence_381

Sotheby's and Christie's act as major market platforms for classical Chinese porcelain art pieces to be sold, including Ming dynasty, Xuande mark and period (1426–35) Blue and White jar (Five-Clawed Dragon Print), which was auctioned for Approx. Chinese art_sentence_382

USD 19,224,491.2, through Christie's in Spring 2016 The International Herald Tribune reported that Chinese porcelains were fought over in the art market as "if there was no tomorrow". Chinese art_sentence_383

A 1964 painting by Li Keran "All the Mountains Blanketed in Red" was sold for HKD $35 million. Chinese art_sentence_384

Auctions were also held at Sotheby's where Xu Beihong's 1939 masterpiece "Put Down Your Whip" sold for HKD $72 million. Chinese art_sentence_385

The industry is not limited to fine arts, as many other types of contemporary pieces were also sold. Chinese art_sentence_386

In 2000, a number of Chinese artists were included in Documenta and the Venice Biennale of 2003. Chinese art_sentence_387

China now has its own major contemporary art showcase with the Venice Biennale. Chinese art_sentence_388

Fuck Off was a notorious art exhibition which ran alongside the Shanghai Biennial Festival in 2000 and was curated by independent curator Feng Boyi and contemporary artist Ai Weiwei. Chinese art_sentence_389

Museums Chinese art_section_47

Chinese art_unordered_list_29

See also Chinese art_section_48

Chinese art_unordered_list_30

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: art.