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This article is about the city in Ohio. Cincinnati_sentence_0

For other uses, see Cincinnati (disambiguation). Cincinnati_sentence_1

"Cincinnati, Ohio" redirects here. Cincinnati_sentence_2

For the song, see Cincinnati, Ohio (song). Cincinnati_sentence_3


Cincinnati, OhioCincinnati_header_cell_0_0_0
CountryCincinnati_header_cell_0_1_0 United StatesCincinnati_cell_0_1_1
StateCincinnati_header_cell_0_2_0 OhioCincinnati_cell_0_2_1
CountyCincinnati_header_cell_0_3_0 HamiltonCincinnati_cell_0_3_1
SettledCincinnati_header_cell_0_4_0 1788Cincinnati_cell_0_4_1
Incorporated (town)Cincinnati_header_cell_0_5_0 January 1, 1802Cincinnati_cell_0_5_1
Incorporated (city)Cincinnati_header_cell_0_6_0 March 1, 1819Cincinnati_cell_0_6_1
Named forCincinnati_header_cell_0_7_0 Society of the CincinnatiCincinnati_cell_0_7_1
TypeCincinnati_header_cell_0_9_0 Mayor–councilCincinnati_cell_0_9_1
MayorCincinnati_header_cell_0_10_0 John Cranley (D)Cincinnati_cell_0_10_1
BodyCincinnati_header_cell_0_11_0 Cincinnati City CouncilCincinnati_cell_0_11_1
CityCincinnati_header_cell_0_13_0 79.56 sq mi (206.07 km)Cincinnati_cell_0_13_1
LandCincinnati_header_cell_0_14_0 77.84 sq mi (201.59 km)Cincinnati_cell_0_14_1
WaterCincinnati_header_cell_0_15_0 1.73 sq mi (4.47 km)Cincinnati_cell_0_15_1
ElevationCincinnati_header_cell_0_16_0 482 ft (147 m)Cincinnati_cell_0_16_1
Highest elevation (Mount Airy)Cincinnati_header_cell_0_17_0 959 ft (293 m)Cincinnati_cell_0_17_1
Population (2010)Cincinnati_header_cell_0_18_0
CityCincinnati_header_cell_0_19_0 296,945Cincinnati_cell_0_19_1
Estimate (2019)Cincinnati_header_cell_0_20_0 303,940Cincinnati_cell_0_20_1
RankCincinnati_header_cell_0_21_0 US: 65thCincinnati_cell_0_21_1
DensityCincinnati_header_cell_0_22_0 3,904.88/sq mi (1,507.68/km)Cincinnati_cell_0_22_1
MetroCincinnati_header_cell_0_23_0 2,137,406 (US: 28th)Cincinnati_cell_0_23_1
DemonymCincinnati_header_cell_0_24_0 CincinnatianCincinnati_cell_0_24_1
Time zoneCincinnati_header_cell_0_25_0 UTC−5 (EST)Cincinnati_cell_0_25_1
Summer (DST)Cincinnati_header_cell_0_26_0 UTC−4 (EDT)Cincinnati_cell_0_26_1
ZIP CodesCincinnati_header_cell_0_27_0 ZIP CodesCincinnati_cell_0_27_1
Area codeCincinnati_header_cell_0_28_0 513,

937, 326Cincinnati_cell_0_28_1

FIPS codeCincinnati_header_cell_0_29_0 39-15000Cincinnati_cell_0_29_1
GNIS feature IDCincinnati_header_cell_0_30_0 1066650Cincinnati_cell_0_30_1
GDPCincinnati_header_cell_0_31_0 $119 billion USDCincinnati_cell_0_31_1
WebsiteCincinnati_header_cell_0_32_0 Cincinnati_cell_0_32_1

Cincinnati (/ˌsɪnsɪˈnæti/ SIN-sin-NAT-ee) is a major city in the U.S. Cincinnati_sentence_4 state of Ohio and the government seat of Hamilton County. Cincinnati_sentence_5

Settled in 1788, the city is located at the northern side of the confluence of the Licking and Ohio rivers, the latter of which marks the state line with Kentucky. Cincinnati_sentence_6

The city is the economic and cultural hub of the Cincinnati metropolitan area, the fastest growing economic power in the Midwestern United States based on increase of economic output, which had a population of 2,190,209 as of the 2018 census estimates. Cincinnati_sentence_7

This makes it Ohio's largest metropolitan area and the nation's 29th-largest. Cincinnati_sentence_8

With a city population estimated at 303,940, Cincinnati is the third-largest city in Ohio and 64th in the United States. Cincinnati_sentence_9

Cincinnati is within a day's drive of 49.70% of the United States populace, ranking it as fourth in the list of metro areas with the largest population base within one day's drive time. Cincinnati_sentence_10

In the 19th century, Cincinnati was an American boomtown in the middle of the country. Cincinnati_sentence_11

Throughout much of the 19th century, it was listed among the top 10 U.S. cities by population, surpassed only by New Orleans and the older, established settlements of the United States eastern seaboard, as well as being the sixth-biggest city for a period spanning 1840 until 1860. Cincinnati_sentence_12

Cincinnati was the first city founded after the American Revolution, as well as the first major inland city in the country. Cincinnati_sentence_13

Cincinnati developed with fewer immigrants and less influence from Europe than East Coast cities in the same period. Cincinnati_sentence_14

However, it received a significant number of German-speaking immigrants, who founded many of the city's cultural institutions. Cincinnati_sentence_15

By the end of the 19th century, with the shift from steamboats to railroads drawing off freight shipping, trade patterns had altered and Cincinnati's growth slowed considerably. Cincinnati_sentence_16

The city was surpassed in population by other inland cities, particularly Chicago, which developed based on strong commodity exploitation, economics, and the railroads, and St. Cincinnati_sentence_17 Louis, which for decades after the Civil War served as the gateway to westward migration. Cincinnati_sentence_18

Cincinnati is home to three major sports teams: the Cincinnati Reds of Major League Baseball; the Cincinnati Bengals of the National Football League; and FC Cincinnati of Major League Soccer. Cincinnati_sentence_19

The city's largest institution of higher education, the University of Cincinnati, was founded in 1819 as a municipal college and is now ranked as one of the 50 largest in the United States. Cincinnati_sentence_20

Cincinnati is home to historic architecture with many structures in the urban core having remained intact for 200 years. Cincinnati_sentence_21

In the late 1800s, Cincinnati was commonly referred to as the "Paris of America", due mainly to such ambitious architectural projects as the Music Hall, Cincinnatian Hotel, and Shillito Department Store. Cincinnati_sentence_22

Cincinnati is the birthplace of William Howard Taft, the 27th President of the United States. Cincinnati_sentence_23

History Cincinnati_section_0

Main article: History of Cincinnati Cincinnati_sentence_24

See also: Timeline of Cincinnati and History of Ohio Cincinnati_sentence_25

Etymology Cincinnati_section_1

Two years after the founding of the settlement, Arthur St. Clair, the governor of the Northwest Territory, changed its name to "Cincinnati", possibly at the suggestion of the surveyor Israel Ludlow, in honor of the Society of the Cincinnati. Cincinnati_sentence_26

St. Clair was at the time president of the Society, made up of Continental Army officers of the Revolutionary War who named their club for Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus, a dictator in the early Roman Republic who saved Rome from a crisis, and then retired to farming because he did not want to remain in power. Cincinnati_sentence_27

Early history Cincinnati_section_2

Cincinnati began in 1788 when Mathias Denman, Colonel Robert Patterson, and Israel Ludlow landed at a spot at the northern bank of the Ohio opposite the mouth of the Licking and decided to settle there. Cincinnati_sentence_28

The original surveyor, John Filson, named it "Losantiville". Cincinnati_sentence_29

On January 4, 1790, St. Cincinnati_sentence_30 Clair changed the name of the settlement to honor the Society of the Cincinnati. Cincinnati_sentence_31

The introduction of steamboats on the Ohio River in 1811 opened up the city's trade to more rapid shipping, and the city established commercial ties with St. Cincinnati_sentence_32 Louis, Missouri, and New Orleans downriver. Cincinnati_sentence_33

Cincinnati was incorporated as a city on March 1, 1819. Cincinnati_sentence_34

Exporting pork products and hay, it became a center of pork processing in the region. Cincinnati_sentence_35

From 1810 to 1830, the city's population nearly tripled, from 9,642 to 24,831. Cincinnati_sentence_36

Construction on the Miami and Erie Canal began on July 21, 1825, when it was called the Miami Canal, related to its origin at the Great Miami River. Cincinnati_sentence_37

The first section of the canal was opened for business in 1827. Cincinnati_sentence_38

In 1827, the canal connected Cincinnati to nearby Middletown; by 1840, it had reached Toledo. Cincinnati_sentence_39

Railroads were the next major form of commercial transportation to come to Cincinnati. Cincinnati_sentence_40

In 1836, the Little Miami Railroad was chartered. Cincinnati_sentence_41

Construction began soon after, to connect Cincinnati with the Mad River and Lake Erie Railroad, and provide access to the ports of the Sandusky Bay on Lake Erie. Cincinnati_sentence_42

During the time, employers struggled to hire enough people to fill positions. Cincinnati_sentence_43

The city had a labor shortage until large waves of immigration by Irish and Germans in the late 1840s. Cincinnati_sentence_44

The city grew rapidly over the next two decades, reaching 115,000 people by 1850. Cincinnati_sentence_45

During this period of rapid expansion and prominence, residents of Cincinnati began referring to the city as the Queen City. Cincinnati_sentence_46

Industrial development and Gilded Age Cincinnati_section_3

Cincinnati's location, on the border between the free state of Ohio and the slave state of Kentucky, made it a prominent location for slaves to escape the slave-owning south. Cincinnati_sentence_47

Many prominent abolitionists also called Cincinnati their home during this period, and made it a popular stop on the Underground Railroad. Cincinnati_sentence_48

In 2004, the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center was completed along Freedom Way in Downtown, honoring the city's involvement in the Underground Railroad. Cincinnati_sentence_49

In 1859, Cincinnati laid out six streetcar lines; the cars were pulled by horses and the lines made it easier for people to get around the city. Cincinnati_sentence_50

By 1872, Cincinnatians could travel on the streetcars within the city and transfer to rail cars for travel to the hill communities. Cincinnati_sentence_51

The Cincinnati Inclined Plane Company began transporting people to the top of Mount Auburn that year. Cincinnati_sentence_52

In 1889, the Cincinnati streetcar system began converting its horse-drawn cars to electric streetcars. Cincinnati_sentence_53

In 1880 the city government completed the Cincinnati Southern Railway to Chattanooga, Tennessee. Cincinnati_sentence_54

It is the only municipally owned interstate railway in the United States. Cincinnati_sentence_55

In 1884 outrage over a manslaughter verdict in what many observers thought was a clear case of murder triggered the Courthouse riots, one of the most destructive riots in American history. Cincinnati_sentence_56

Over the course of three days, 56 people were killed and over 300 were injured. Cincinnati_sentence_57

The riots ended the regime of political bosses John Roll McLean and Thomas C. Campbell in Cincinnati. Cincinnati_sentence_58

During the Great Depression Cincinnati_section_4

An early rejuvenation of downtown began in the 1920s and continued into the next decade with the construction of Union Terminal, the post office, and the large Cincinnati and Suburban Telephone Company Building. Cincinnati_sentence_59

Cincinnati weathered the Great Depression better than most American cities of its size, largely due to a resurgence in river trade, which was less expensive than transporting goods by rail. Cincinnati_sentence_60

The flood in 1937 was one of the worst in the nation's history and destroyed many areas along the Ohio valley. Cincinnati_sentence_61

Afterward the city built protective flood walls. Cincinnati_sentence_62

Nicknames Cincinnati_section_5

Cincinnati has many nicknames, including Cincy, The 'Nati, The Queen City, The Queen of the West, The Blue Chip City, and The City of Seven Hills. Cincinnati_sentence_63

These are more typically associated with professional, academic, and public relations references to the city, including restaurant names such as Blue Chip Cookies, and are not commonly used by locals in casual conversation. Cincinnati_sentence_64

The seven hills are fully described in the June 1853 edition of the West American Review, "Article III--Cincinnati: Its Relations to the West and South". Cincinnati_sentence_65

The hills form a crescent from the east bank of the Ohio River to the west bank: Mount Adams, Walnut Hills, Mount Auburn, Vine Street Hill, College Hill, Fairmount, and Mount Harrison. Cincinnati_sentence_66

The classic nickname "Queen City" is taken from an 1819 newspaper article and further immortalized by the 1854 poem "Catawba Wine". Cincinnati_sentence_67

In it, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow wrote of the city: Cincinnati_sentence_68

For many years, Cincinnati was known as "Porkopolis"; this less desirable nickname came from the city's large pork interests. Cincinnati_sentence_69

Newer nicknames such as "The 'Nati" are emerging and are attempted to be used in different cultural contexts. Cincinnati_sentence_70

For example, a local litter-prevention campaign uses the slogan "Don't Trash the 'Nati." Cincinnati_sentence_71

"The City of Seven Hills" is another name for the city. Cincinnati_sentence_72

When the city was younger and smaller, the June 1853 edition of the West American Review, "Article III—Cincinnati: Its Relations to the West and South" described and named seven specific hills. Cincinnati_sentence_73

The hills form a crescent around the city: Mount Adams, Walnut Hills, Mount Auburn, Vine Street Hill, College Hill, Fairmont (now rendered Fairmount), and Mount Harrison (now known as Price Hill). Cincinnati_sentence_74

The name refers to ancient Rome, reputed to be built on seven hills. Cincinnati_sentence_75

Society Cincinnati_section_6

Main article: Culture of Cincinnati Cincinnati_sentence_76

Like all major cities in the United States, Cincinnati was proliferated by Americans, but also Ulster Scots known as the Scots Irish, frontiersmen, and keelboaters. Cincinnati_sentence_77

Most of Cincinnati's longtime residents have kinships rooted throughout the Ohio-Kentucky-Indiana tristate and deeper. Cincinnati_sentence_78

The first Methodist class came about in 1798, city residents for years already inspired by the Methodist circuit preachers; among Methodist institutes were The Christ Hospital as well as projects of the German Methodist Church. Cincinnati_sentence_79

Cincinnati, being on the heartland plain, depended on trade with the slave states south of the Ohio River at a time when thousands of black people were settling in the free state of Ohio. Cincinnati_sentence_80

Most of them came after the Civil War, and were from Kentucky and Virginia with many of them fugitives who had sought freedom and work in the North. Cincinnati_sentence_81

In the antebellum years, the majority of native-born whites in the city came from northern states, primarily Pennsylvania. Cincinnati_sentence_82

Though 57 percent of whites migrated from free states, 26 percent were from southern states and they retained their cultural support for slavery. Cincinnati_sentence_83

This quickly led to tensions between pro-slavery residents and those in favor of abolitionism and lifting restrictions on free people of color, as codified in the "Black Code" of 1804. Cincinnati_sentence_84

Germans were among the earliest newcomers, migrating from Pennsylvania and the backcountry of Virginia and Tennessee. Cincinnati_sentence_85

General David Ziegler succeeded General St. Clair in command at Fort Washington. Cincinnati_sentence_86

After the conclusion of the Northwest Indian War and removal of Native Americans to the west, he was elected as Cincinnati's first town president (equivalent to a mayor) in 1802. Cincinnati_sentence_87

Cincinnati was influenced by Irishmen, and Prussians and Saxons (northern Germans), seeking to emigrate away from crowding and strife. Cincinnati_sentence_88

In 1830 residents with German roots made up 5% of the population, as many had migrated from Pennsylvania; ten years later this had increased to 30%. Cincinnati_sentence_89

Thousands of Germans entered the city after the Prussian revolution of 1848, and by 1900, more than 60 percent of its population was of Prussian background. Cincinnati_sentence_90

The menial-jobbed, aggravated Irish often organized mobs and the Germans, far away from their Pennsylvania Dutch connections, did the same. Cincinnati_sentence_91

Thus, leaders of the city had to use fortifying measures against the arrivals' clashes. Cincinnati_sentence_92

Volatile social conditions saw riots in 1829, when many blacks lost their homes and property. Cincinnati_sentence_93

As the Irish entered the city in the late 1840s, they competed with blacks at the lower levels of the economy. Cincinnati_sentence_94

White-led riots against blacks occurred in 1836, when an abolitionist press was twice destroyed; and in 1842. Cincinnati_sentence_95

More than 1,000 blacks abandoned the city after the 1829 riots. Cincinnati_sentence_96

Blacks in Philadelphia and other major cities raised money to help the refugees recover from the destruction. Cincinnati_sentence_97

By 1842 blacks had become better established in the city; they defended themselves and their property in the riot, and worked politically as well. Cincinnati_sentence_98

The emigres, while having been widely discussed, never overtook settlers in population. Cincinnati_sentence_99

Nearby Waynesville hosts the yearly Ohio Sauerkraut Festival, and Cincinnati hosts several big yearly events which commemorate connections to the Old World. Cincinnati_sentence_100

Oktoberfest Zinzinnati, Bockfest, and the Taste of Cincinnati feature local restaurateurs. Cincinnati_sentence_101

Cincinnati's Jewish community was developed by those from England and Germany. Cincinnati_sentence_102

A large segment of the community, led by Isaac M. Wise, developed Reform Judaism in response to the influences of the Enlightenment and making their new lives in the United States. Cincinnati_sentence_103

Rabbi Wise, known as a founding father of the Reform movement, and his contemporaries, bore a great influence on the Jewish faith in Cincinnati, the United States, and worldwide. Cincinnati_sentence_104

The NRHP-listed Potter Stewart United States Courthouse is a federal court, the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit, one of thirteen United States courts of appeals. Cincinnati_sentence_105

Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland Cincinnati Branch is located across the street from the East Fourth Street Historic District. Cincinnati_sentence_106

Economy Cincinnati_section_7

See also: List of companies in Greater Cincinnati Cincinnati_sentence_107

Metropolitan Cincinnati has the twenty-eighth largest economy in the United States and the fifth largest in the Midwest, after Chicago, Minneapolis, Detroit, and St. Cincinnati_sentence_108 Louis. Cincinnati_sentence_109

It currently has the fastest-growing Midwestern economic capital based on percentages. Cincinnati_sentence_110

The gross domestic product for the region was $127 billion as of 2015. Cincinnati_sentence_111

The median home price is $158,200, and the cost of living in Cincinnati is 8% below national average. Cincinnati_sentence_112

The unemployment rate is also below the average at 4.2%. Cincinnati_sentence_113

Several Fortune 500 companies are headquartered in Cincinnati, such as Procter & Gamble, The Kroger Company, and Fifth Third Bank. Cincinnati_sentence_114

General Electric has headquartered their Global Operations Center in Cincinnati. Cincinnati_sentence_115

The Kroger Company employs 21,646 people locally, making it the largest employer in the city, and the University of Cincinnati is the second largest at 16,000. Cincinnati_sentence_116

Food Cincinnati_section_8

Restaurants Cincinnati_section_9

Frisch's Big Boy, Graeter's Ice Cream, Kroger, LaRosa's, Montgomery Inn, Skyline Chili, Gold Star Chili, and United Dairy Farmers (UDF/Trauth) are Cincinnati eateries that sell their brand commodities in grocery markets and gas stations. Cincinnati_sentence_117

Glier's goetta is produced in the Cincinnati area and is a popular local food. Cincinnati_sentence_118

Cincinnati has many gourmet restaurants. Cincinnati_sentence_119

The Maisonette in Cincinnati was Mobil Travel Guide's longest-running five-star restaurant in the United States, holding that distinction for 41 consecutive years until it closed in 2005. Cincinnati_sentence_120

Its former head chef, Jean-Robert de Cavel, has opened four new restaurants in the area since 2001. Cincinnati_sentence_121

One of the United States's oldest and most celebrated bars, Arnold's Bar and Grill in downtown Cincinnati has won awards from Esquire magazine's "Best Bars in America", Thrillist's "Most Iconic Bar in Ohio", The Daily Meal's "150 Best bars in America" and's "The Cincinnati 10". Cincinnati_sentence_122

"If Arnold's were in New York, San Francisco, Chicago, or Boston—somewhere, in short, that people actually visit—it would be world-famous," wrote David Wondrich. Cincinnati_sentence_123

Cincinnati chili Cincinnati_section_10

Main article: Cincinnati chili Cincinnati_sentence_124

Cincinnati chili, a spiced sauce served over noodles, usually topped with cheese and often with diced onions and/or beans, is the area's "best-known regional food." Cincinnati_sentence_125

A variety of recipes are served by respective parlors, including Skyline Chili, Gold Star Chili, and Dixie Chili and Deli, plus independent chili parlors including Camp Washington Chili, Empress Chili and Moonlight Chili. Cincinnati_sentence_126

It was first developed by Macedonian immigrant restaurateurs in the 1920s. Cincinnati_sentence_127

Cincinnati has been called July 2016 the "Chili Capital of America" and "of the World" because it has more chili restaurants per capita than any other city in the United States or in the world. Cincinnati_sentence_128

Goetta Cincinnati_section_11

Main article: Goetta Cincinnati_sentence_129

Goetta is a meat-and-grain sausage or mush of German inspiration. Cincinnati_sentence_130

It is primarily composed of ground meat (pork, or pork and beef), pin-head oats and spices. Cincinnati_sentence_131

Dialect Cincinnati_section_12

The citizens of Cincinnati speak in a General American dialect. Cincinnati_sentence_132

Unlike the rest of the Midwest, Southwest Ohio shares some aspects of its vowel system with northern New Jersey English. Cincinnati_sentence_133

Most of the distinctive local features among speakers float as Midland American. Cincinnati_sentence_134

There is also some influence from the Southern American dialect found in Kentucky. Cincinnati_sentence_135

A touch of northern German is audible in the local vernacular: some residents use the word when asking a speaker to repeat a statement. Cincinnati_sentence_136

This usage is taken from the German practice, when bitte (a shortening of the formal, "Wie bitte?" Cincinnati_sentence_137

or "How please?" Cincinnati_sentence_138

rendered word-for-word from German into English), was used as shorthand for asking someone to repeat. Cincinnati_sentence_139

Demographics Cincinnati_section_13

Main article: Demographics of Cincinnati Cincinnati_sentence_140


Demographic profileCincinnati_header_cell_1_0_0 2010Cincinnati_header_cell_1_0_1 2000Cincinnati_header_cell_1_0_2 1990Cincinnati_header_cell_1_0_3 1970Cincinnati_header_cell_1_0_4 1950Cincinnati_header_cell_1_0_5
WhiteCincinnati_cell_1_1_0 49.3%Cincinnati_cell_1_1_1 53.0%Cincinnati_cell_1_1_2 60.5%Cincinnati_cell_1_1_3 71.9%Cincinnati_cell_1_1_4 84.4%Cincinnati_cell_1_1_5
Non-HispanicCincinnati_cell_1_2_0 48.1%Cincinnati_cell_1_2_1 51.7%Cincinnati_cell_1_2_2 60.2%Cincinnati_cell_1_2_3 71.4%Cincinnati_cell_1_2_4 n/aCincinnati_cell_1_2_5
Black or African AmericanCincinnati_cell_1_3_0 44.8%Cincinnati_cell_1_3_1 42.9%Cincinnati_cell_1_3_2 37.9%Cincinnati_cell_1_3_3 27.6%Cincinnati_cell_1_3_4 15.5%Cincinnati_cell_1_3_5
Hispanic or Latino (of any race)Cincinnati_cell_1_4_0 2.8%Cincinnati_cell_1_4_1 1.3%Cincinnati_cell_1_4_2 0.7%Cincinnati_cell_1_4_3 0.6%Cincinnati_cell_1_4_4 n/aCincinnati_cell_1_4_5
AsianCincinnati_cell_1_5_0 1.8%Cincinnati_cell_1_5_1 1.5%Cincinnati_cell_1_5_2 1.1%Cincinnati_cell_1_5_3 0.2%Cincinnati_cell_1_5_4 0.1%Cincinnati_cell_1_5_5

In 1950 Cincinnati reached its peak population of 504,000 residents; it has lost population in every census-count since that time. Cincinnati_sentence_141

In the late-20th century industrial restructuring caused a loss of jobs. Cincinnati_sentence_142

The Census Bureau's 2006 estimates put the population at 332,252, representing a small increase from 331,310 in 2005. Cincinnati_sentence_143

The city had officially challenged the original census numbers. Cincinnati_sentence_144

Mayor Mark Mallory repeatedly argued that the city's population was 378,259 after a drill-down study was performed by an independent, non-profit group based in Washington, D.C. As of the U.S. Census Bureau's July 2018 estimate, the population stood at 302,601, down nearly 30,000 from 2006. Cincinnati_sentence_145

As of the 2010 census, the racial demographics for the city of Cincinnati were: 49.3% white (48.1% non-Hispanic white), 44.8% black or African-American, 0.3% American Indian or Alaskan Native, 1.8% Asian, 0.1% Hawaiian or Pacific Islander, 2.5% two or more races, and 2.8% Hispanic (of any race). Cincinnati_sentence_146

As of the 2000 census, the Cincinnati-MiddletownWilmington Metropolitan Statistical Area had a population of 2,155,137 people, making it the 24th-largest metropolitan statistical area in the country. Cincinnati_sentence_147

It includes the Ohio counties of Hamilton, Butler, Warren, Clermont, Clinton and Brown, as well as the Kentucky counties of Boone, Bracken, Campbell, Gallatin, Grant, Kenton, and Pendleton, and the Indiana counties of Dearborn, Franklin, and Ohio. Cincinnati_sentence_148

Cityscape and climate Cincinnati_section_14

Main article: Cityscape of Cincinnati Cincinnati_sentence_149

The city is undergoing significant changes due to new development and private investment. Cincinnati_sentence_150

This includes buildings of the long-stalled Banks project that includes apartments, retail, restaurants, and offices, which will stretch from Great American Ball Park to Paul Brown Stadium. Cincinnati_sentence_151

Phase 1A is already complete and 100 percent occupied as of early 2013. Cincinnati_sentence_152

Smale Riverfront Park is being developed along with The Banks, and is Cincinnati's newest park. Cincinnati_sentence_153

Nearly $3.5 billion have been invested in the urban core of Cincinnati (including Northern Kentucky). Cincinnati_sentence_154

Much of this development has been undertaken by 3CDC. Cincinnati_sentence_155

The Cincinnati Bell Connector began in September 2016. Cincinnati_sentence_156

Cincinnati is midway by river between the cities of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and Cairo, Illinois. Cincinnati_sentence_157

The downtown lies near the mouth of the Licking, a confluence where the first settlement occurred. Cincinnati_sentence_158

Greater Cincinnati spans southern Ohio and Indiana, and northern Kentucky; the census bureau has measured the city proper at 79.54 square miles (206.01 km), of which 77.94 square miles (201.86 km) are land and 1.60 square miles (4.14 km) are water. Cincinnati_sentence_159

The city spreads over a number of hills, bluffs, and low ridges overlooking the Ohio in the Bluegrass region of the country. Cincinnati_sentence_160

The tristate is geographically located within the Midwest and is on the far northern of the Upland South. Cincinnati_sentence_161

Three municipalities are enveloped by the city: Norwood, Elmwood Place, and Saint Bernard. Cincinnati_sentence_162

Norwood is a business and industrial city, while Elmwood Place and Saint Bernard are small, primarily residential, villages. Cincinnati_sentence_163

Cincinnati does not have an exclave, but the city government does own several properties outside the corporation limits: French Park in Amberley Village, the disused runway at the former Blue Ash Airport in Blue Ash, and the 337-mile-long (542 km) Cincinnati Southern Railway, which runs between Cincinnati and Chattanooga, Tennessee. Cincinnati_sentence_164

Landscape Cincinnati_section_15

See also: List of tallest buildings in Cincinnati Cincinnati_sentence_165

Cincinnati is home to numerous embankments that are noteworthy due to their architectural characteristics or historic associations, as well as the Carew Tower, the Scripps Center, the Ingalls Building, Cincinnati Union Terminal, and the Isaac M. Wise Temple. Cincinnati_sentence_166

Notable historic public parks and landscapes include the 19th-century Spring Grove Cemetery and Arboretum, Eden Park, and Mount Storm Park, all designed by Prussian émigré landscape architect Adolph Strauch. Cincinnati_sentence_167

Queen City Square opened in January 2011. Cincinnati_sentence_168

The building is the tallest in Cincinnati (surpassing the Carew Tower), and is the third tallest in Ohio, reaching a height of 665 feet. Cincinnati_sentence_169

The mile-long Cincinnati Skywalk, completed in 1997, was shortened to bring more commerce, yet remains the viable way to walk downtown during poor weather. Cincinnati_sentence_170

The Cincinnati Zoo & Botanical Garden in Avondale is the second oldest zoo in the United States. Cincinnati_sentence_171


  • Cincinnati_item_0_0
  • Cincinnati_item_0_1

Waterscape Cincinnati_section_16

Downtown Cincinnati towers about Fountain Square, the public square and event locale. Cincinnati_sentence_172

Fountain Square was renovated in 2006. Cincinnati_sentence_173

Cincinnati rests along 22 miles (35 km) of riverfront about northern banks of the Ohio, stretching from California to Sayler Park, giving the mighty Ohio and its movements a prominent place in the life of the city. Cincinnati_sentence_174

Frequent flooding has hampered the growth of Cincinnati's municipal airport at Lunken Field and the Coney Island amusement park. Cincinnati_sentence_175

Downtown Cincinnati is protected from flooding by the Serpentine Wall at Yeatman's Cove and another flood wall built into Fort Washington Way. Cincinnati_sentence_176

Parts of Cincinnati also experience flooding from the Little Miami River and Mill Creek. Cincinnati_sentence_177

Since April 1, 1922, the Ohio flood stage at Cincinnati has officially been set at 52 feet (16 m), as measured from the John A. Roebling Suspension Bridge. Cincinnati_sentence_178

At this depth, the pumping station at the mouth of Mill Creek is activated. Cincinnati_sentence_179

From 1873 to 1898, the flood stage was 45 feet (14 m). Cincinnati_sentence_180

From 1899 to March 31, 1922, it was 50 feet (15 m). Cincinnati_sentence_181

The Ohio reached its lowest level, less than 2 feet (0.61 m), in 1881; conversely, its all-time high water mark is 79 feet 11 ⁄8 inches (24.381 m), having crested January 26, 1937. Cincinnati_sentence_182

Various parts of Cincinnati flood at different points: Riverbend Music Center in the California neighborhood floods at 42 feet (13 m), while Sayler Park floods at 71 feet (22 m) and the Freeman Avenue flood gate closes at 75 feet (23 m). Cincinnati_sentence_183

Climate Cincinnati_section_17

Cincinnati is at the southern limit (considering the 0 °C or 32 °F isotherm) of the humid continental climate zone (Köppen: Dfa), bordering the humid subtropical climate zone (Cfa). Cincinnati_sentence_184

Summers are hot and humid, with significant rainfall in each month and highs reaching 90 °F (32 °C) or above on 21 days per year, often with high dew points and humidity. Cincinnati_sentence_185

July is the warmest month, with a daily average temperature of 75.9 °F (24.4 °C). Cincinnati_sentence_186

Winters tend to be cold and snowy, with January, the coldest month, averaging at 30.8 °F (−0.7 °C). Cincinnati_sentence_187

Lows reach 0 °F (−18 °C) on an average 2.6 nights yearly. Cincinnati_sentence_188

An average winter will see around 22.1 inches (56 cm) of snowfall, contributing to the yearly 42.5 inches (1,080 mm) of precipitation, with rainfall peaking in spring. Cincinnati_sentence_189

Extremes range from −25 °F (−32 °C) on January 18, 1977 up to 108 °F (42 °C) on July 21 and 22, 1934. Cincinnati_sentence_190

Severe thunderstorms are common in the warmer months, and tornadoes, while infrequent, are not unknown, with such events striking the Greater Cincinnati area most recently in 1974, 1999, 2012, and 2017. Cincinnati_sentence_191

Sports Cincinnati_section_18

Main article: Sports in Cincinnati Cincinnati_sentence_192

Cincinnati has three major league teams, seven minor league teams, five college institutions with sports teams, and seven major sports venues. Cincinnati_sentence_193

Cincinnati's three major league teams are Major League Baseball's Reds, who were named for America's first professional baseball team, the Cincinnati Red Stockings; the Bengals of the National Football League; and FC Cincinnati, promoted to Major League Soccer in 2019. Cincinnati_sentence_194

On Major League Baseball Opening Day, Cincinnati has the distinction of holding the "traditional opener" in baseball each year, due to its baseball history. Cincinnati_sentence_195

Children have been known to skip school on Opening Day, and it is commonly thought of as a holiday. Cincinnati_sentence_196

The Flying Pig Marathon is a yearly event attracting many runners and so is the Cincinnati Masters Western & Southern tennis tournament. Cincinnati_sentence_197

The Cincinnati Reds have won five World Series titles and had one of the most successful baseball teams of all time in the mid-1970s, known as The Big Red Machine. Cincinnati_sentence_198

The Bengals have made two Super Bowl appearances since its founding, in 1981 and 1988, but have yet to win a championship. Cincinnati_sentence_199

As of 2016, the Bengals have the longest active playoff win drought (26 years) despite making five straight playoff appearances from 2011 to 2015. Cincinnati_sentence_200

Whenever the Bengals and Carolina Panthers play against each other (an interconference matchup that occurs every four years), their games are dubbed the "Queen City Bowl", as Charlotte, North Carolina, the home city of the Panthers, is also known as the Queen City. Cincinnati_sentence_201

The Bengals enjoy strong rivalries with the Cleveland Browns and Pittsburgh Steelers (both of whom are also members of the AFC North). Cincinnati_sentence_202

Cincinnati is also home to two men's college basketball teams: The Cincinnati Bearcats and Xavier Musketeers. Cincinnati_sentence_203

These two teams face off as one of college basketball's rivalries known as the Crosstown Shootout. Cincinnati_sentence_204

In 2011, the rivalry game erupted in an on-court brawl at the end of the game that saw multiple suspensions follow. Cincinnati_sentence_205

The Musketeers have made 10 of the last 11 NCAA tournaments while the Bearcats have made six consecutive appearances. Cincinnati_sentence_206

Previously, the Cincinnati Royals competed in the National Basketball Association from 1957 to 1972; they are now known as the Sacramento Kings. Cincinnati_sentence_207

FC Cincinnati is a soccer team that plays in the MLS. Cincinnati_sentence_208

FC Cincinnati made its home debut in the USL on April 9, 2016, before a crowd of more than 14,000 fans. Cincinnati_sentence_209

On their next home game vs Louisville City FC, FC Cincinnati broke the all-time USL attendance record with a crowd of 20,497; on May 14, 2016, it broke its own record, bringing in an audience of 23,375 on its 1–0 victory against the Pittsburgh Riverhounds. Cincinnati_sentence_210

FC Cincinnati has since broken the USL attendance record on several additional occasions, and moved to Major League Soccer (MLS) for the 2019 season. Cincinnati_sentence_211

FC Cincinnati was awarded an MLS bid on May 29, 2018, and plans to open a new stadium in the West End neighborhood just northwest of downtown by 2021. Cincinnati_sentence_212

The table below shows sports teams in the Cincinnati area that average more than 5,000 fans per game: Cincinnati_sentence_213


Cincinnati Teams (yearly attendance > 5,000)Cincinnati_table_caption_2
ClubCincinnati_header_cell_2_0_0 SportCincinnati_header_cell_2_0_1 FoundedCincinnati_header_cell_2_0_2 LeagueCincinnati_header_cell_2_0_3 VenueCincinnati_header_cell_2_0_4 Avg attendCincinnati_header_cell_2_0_5 RefCincinnati_header_cell_2_0_6
Cincinnati RedsCincinnati_cell_2_1_0 BaseballCincinnati_cell_2_1_1 1882Cincinnati_cell_2_1_2 Major League BaseballCincinnati_cell_2_1_3 Great American Ball ParkCincinnati_cell_2_1_4 23,383Cincinnati_cell_2_1_5 Cincinnati_cell_2_1_6
Cincinnati BearcatsCincinnati_cell_2_2_0 FootballCincinnati_cell_2_2_1 1885Cincinnati_cell_2_2_2 NCAA Division ICincinnati_cell_2_2_3 Nippert StadiumCincinnati_cell_2_2_4 33,871Cincinnati_cell_2_2_5 Cincinnati_cell_2_2_6
Cincinnati BearcatsCincinnati_cell_2_3_0 BasketballCincinnati_cell_2_3_1 1901Cincinnati_cell_2_3_2 NCAA Division ICincinnati_cell_2_3_3 Fifth Third ArenaCincinnati_cell_2_3_4 9,415Cincinnati_cell_2_3_5 Cincinnati_cell_2_3_6
Xavier MusketeersCincinnati_cell_2_4_0 BasketballCincinnati_cell_2_4_1 1920Cincinnati_cell_2_4_2 NCAA Division ICincinnati_cell_2_4_3 Cintas CenterCincinnati_cell_2_4_4 10,281Cincinnati_cell_2_4_5 Cincinnati_cell_2_4_6
Cincinnati BengalsCincinnati_cell_2_5_0 FootballCincinnati_cell_2_5_1 1968Cincinnati_cell_2_5_2 National Football LeagueCincinnati_cell_2_5_3 Paul Brown StadiumCincinnati_cell_2_5_4 60,511Cincinnati_cell_2_5_5 Cincinnati_cell_2_5_6
FC CincinnatiCincinnati_cell_2_6_0 SoccerCincinnati_cell_2_6_1 2015Cincinnati_cell_2_6_2 Major League SoccerCincinnati_cell_2_6_3 Nippert StadiumCincinnati_cell_2_6_4 21,199Cincinnati_cell_2_6_5 Cincinnati_cell_2_6_6

The Cincinnati Masters, an historic international men's and women's tennis tournament that is part of the ATP Tour Masters 1000 Series and the WTA Tour Premier 5, was established in the city in 1899, and has been held in suburban Mason since 1979. Cincinnati_sentence_214

The Cincinnati Sizzle is a women's minor professional tackle football team that plays in the Women's Football Alliance. Cincinnati_sentence_215

The team was established in 2003, by former Cincinnati Bengals running back Ickey Woods. Cincinnati_sentence_216

In 2016 the team claimed their first National Championship Title in the United States Women's Football League. Cincinnati_sentence_217

The Cincinnati Cyclones are a minor league AA-level professional hockey team playing in the ECHL. Cincinnati_sentence_218

Founded in 1990, the team play at U.S. Cincinnati_sentence_219 Bank Arena. Cincinnati_sentence_220

They won the 2010 Kelly Cup Finals, their 2nd championship in three seasons. Cincinnati_sentence_221

Cincinnati is also home to the first American based Australian rules football team, The Cincinnati Dockers, established in 1996. Cincinnati_sentence_222

Police and fire services Cincinnati_section_19

See also: Crime in Cincinnati Cincinnati_sentence_223

The city of Cincinnati's emergency services for fire, rescue, EMS, hazardous materials and explosive ordnance disposal is handled by the Cincinnati Fire Department. Cincinnati_sentence_224

On April 1, 1853, the Cincinnati Fire Department became the first paid professional fire department in United States. Cincinnati_sentence_225

The Cincinnati Fire Department operates out of 26 fire stations, located throughout the city in 4 districts, each commanded by a district chief. Cincinnati_sentence_226

The Cincinnati Fire Department is organized into 4 bureaus: Operations, Personnel and Training, Administrative Services, and Fire Prevention. Cincinnati_sentence_227

Each bureau is commanded by an assistant chief, who in turn reports to the chief of department. Cincinnati_sentence_228

The Cincinnati Police Department has more than 1,000 sworn officers. Cincinnati_sentence_229

Before the riots of 2001, Cincinnati's overall crime rate had been dropping steadily and by 1995 had reached its lowest point since 1992 but with more murders and rapes. Cincinnati_sentence_230

After the riot, violent crime increased, but crime has been on the decline since. Cincinnati_sentence_231

In 2015, there were 71 homicides. Cincinnati_sentence_232

The Cincinnati Police Department was featured on TLC's Police Women of Cincinnati and on A&E's reality show The First 48. Cincinnati_sentence_233

Politics Cincinnati_section_20

The city proper operates with a nine-member city council, whose members are elected at-large. Cincinnati_sentence_234

Prior to 1924, City council members were elected through a system of wards. Cincinnati_sentence_235

The ward system was subject to corruption due to partisan rule. Cincinnati_sentence_236

From the 1880s to the 1920s, the Republican Party dominated city politics, with the political machine of George B. Cincinnati_sentence_237

"Boss" Cox exerting control. Cincinnati_sentence_238

A reform movement arose in 1923, led by another Republican, Murray Seasongood. Cincinnati_sentence_239

Seasongood founded the Charter Committee, which used ballot initiatives in 1924 to replace the ward system with the current at-large system. Cincinnati_sentence_240

They gained approval by voters for a council–manager government form of government, in which the smaller council (compared to the number of previous ward representatives) hires a professional manager to operate daily affairs of the city. Cincinnati_sentence_241

From 1924 to 1957, the council was elected by proportional representation and single transfer voting (STV). Cincinnati_sentence_242

Starting with Ashtabula in 1915, several major cities in Ohio adopted this electoral system, which had the practical effect of reducing ward boss and political party power. Cincinnati_sentence_243

For that reason, such groups opposed it. Cincinnati_sentence_244

In an effort to overturn the charter that provided for proportional representation, opponents in 1957 fanned fears of black political power, at a time of increasing civil rights activism. Cincinnati_sentence_245

The PR/STV system had enabled minorities to enter local politics and gain seats on the city council more than they had before, in proportion to their share of the population. Cincinnati_sentence_246

This made the government more representative of the residents of the city. Cincinnati_sentence_247

Overturning that charter, in 1957, all candidates had to run in a single race for the nine city council positions. Cincinnati_sentence_248

The top nine vote-getters were elected (the "9-X system"), which favored candidates who could appeal to the entire geographic area of the city and reach its residents with campaign materials. Cincinnati_sentence_249

The mayor was elected by the council. Cincinnati_sentence_250

In 1977, 33-year-old Jerry Springer, later a notable television talk show host, was chosen to serve one year as mayor. Cincinnati_sentence_251

Residents continued to work to improve their system. Cincinnati_sentence_252

To have their votes count more, starting in 1987, the top vote-getter in the city council election was automatically selected as mayor. Cincinnati_sentence_253

Starting in 1999, the mayor was elected separately in a general at-large election for the first time. Cincinnati_sentence_254

The city manager's role in government was reduced. Cincinnati_sentence_255

These reforms were referred to as the "strong mayor" reforms, to make the publicate accountable to voters. Cincinnati_sentence_256

Cincinnati politics include the participation of the Charter Party, the political party with the third-longest history of winning in local elections. Cincinnati_sentence_257

On October 5, 2011, the Council became the first local government in the United States to adopt a resolution recognizing freedom from domestic violence as a fundamental human right. Cincinnati_sentence_258

On January 30, 2017, Cincinnati's mayor declared the city a sanctuary city. Cincinnati_sentence_259

Race relations Cincinnati_section_21

Main article: Race relations of Cincinnati Cincinnati_sentence_260

Due to its location on the Ohio River, Cincinnati was a border town in a free state, across from Kentucky, which was a slave state. Cincinnati_sentence_261

Residents of Cincinnati played a major role in abolitionism. Cincinnati_sentence_262

Many fugitive slaves used the Ohio at Cincinnati to escape to the North. Cincinnati_sentence_263

Cincinnati had numerous stations on the Underground Railroad, but there were also runaway slave catchers active in the city, who put escaping slaves at risk of recapture. Cincinnati_sentence_264

Given its southern Ohio location, Cincinnati had also attracted settlers from the Upper South, who traveled along the Ohio River into the territory. Cincinnati_sentence_265

Tensions between abolitionists and slavery supporters broke out in repeated violence, with whites attacking blacks in 1829. Cincinnati_sentence_266

Anti-abolitionists attacked blacks in the city in a wave of destruction that resulted in 1,200 blacks leaving the city and the country; they resettled in Canada. Cincinnati_sentence_267

The riot and its refugees were topics of discussion throughout the country, and blacks organized the first Negro Convention in 1830 in Philadelphia to discuss these events. Cincinnati_sentence_268

White riots against blacks took place again in Cincinnati in 1836 and 1842. Cincinnati_sentence_269

In 1836 a mob of 700 pro-slavery men attacked black neighborhoods, as well as a press run by James M. Birney, publisher of the anti-slavery weekly The Philanthropist. Cincinnati_sentence_270

Tensions increased after congressional passage in 1850 of the Fugitive Slave Act, which required cooperation by citizens in free states and increased penalties for failing to try to recapture escaped slaves. Cincinnati_sentence_271

Levi Coffin made the Cincinnati area the center of his anti-slavery efforts in 1847. Cincinnati_sentence_272

Harriet Beecher Stowe lived in Cincinnati for a time, met escaped slaves, and used their stories as a basis for her novel Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852). Cincinnati_sentence_273

The National Underground Railroad Freedom Center, which opened in 2004 on the Cincinnati riverfront in the middle of "The Banks" area between Great American Ballpark and Paul Brown Stadium, commemorates the volunteers who aided refugee slaves and their drive for freedom, as well as others who have been leaders for social justice. Cincinnati_sentence_274

Located in a free state and attracting many European immigrants, Cincinnati has historically had a predominantly white population. Cincinnati_sentence_275

By 1940, the Census Bureau reported the city's population as 87.8 percent white and 12.2 percent black. Cincinnati_sentence_276

In the second half of the 20th century, Cincinnati, along with other rust belt cities, underwent a vast demographic transformation. Cincinnati_sentence_277

By the early 21st century, the city's population was 40% black. Cincinnati_sentence_278

Predominantly white, working-class families who constituted the urban core during the European immigration boom in the 19th and early 20th centuries, moved to newly constructed suburbs before and after World War II. Cincinnati_sentence_279

Blacks, fleeing the oppression of the Jim Crow South in hopes of better socioeconomic opportunity, had moved to these older city neighborhoods in their Great Migration to the industrial North. Cincinnati_sentence_280

The downturn in industry in the late 20th century caused a loss of many jobs, leaving many people in poverty. Cincinnati_sentence_281

In 1968 passage of national civil rights legislation had raised hopes for positive change, but the assassination of national leader Martin Luther King, Jr. resulted in riots in many black neighborhoods in Cincinnati; unrest occurred in black communities in nearly every major U.S. city after King's murder. Cincinnati_sentence_282

More than three decades later, in April 2001, racially charged riots occurred after police fatally shot a young unarmed black man, Timothy Thomas, during a foot pursuit to arrest him, mostly for outstanding traffic warrants. Cincinnati_sentence_283

After the 2001 riots, the ACLU, Cincinnati Black United Front, the city and its police union agreed upon a community-oriented policing strategy. Cincinnati_sentence_284

The agreement has been used as a model across the country for building relationships between police and local communities. Cincinnati_sentence_285

On July 19, 2015, Samuel DuBose, an unarmed black motorist, was fatally shot by white University of Cincinnati Police Officer Ray Tensing after a routine traffic stop for a missing front license plate. Cincinnati_sentence_286

The resulting legal proceedings in late 2016 have been a recurring focus of national news media. Cincinnati_sentence_287

Several protests involving the Black Lives Matter movement have been carried out. Cincinnati_sentence_288

Tensing was indicted on charges of murder and voluntary manslaughter, but a November 2016 trial ended in mistrial after the jury became deadlocked. Cincinnati_sentence_289

A retrial began in May 2017, which also ended in mistrial after deadlock. Cincinnati_sentence_290

The prosecution then announced they did not plan to try Tensing a third time. Cincinnati_sentence_291

The University of Cincinnati has settled with the DuBose family for $4.8 million and free tuition for each of the 12 children. Cincinnati_sentence_292

Present officeholders Cincinnati_section_22

The present Mayor of Cincinnati is John Cranley. Cincinnati_sentence_293

The nine-member city council is composed of Vice Mayor Christopher Smitherman and Councilmembers Jan-Michele Lemon Kearney, David Mann, Amy Murray, Chris Seelbach, P.G. Cincinnati_sentence_294 Sittenfeld, Greg Landsman, Jeff Pastor, and Wendell Young. Cincinnati_sentence_295

The city manager is Patrick Duhaney, and the manager maintains three assistant city managers. Cincinnati_sentence_296

Schools Cincinnati_section_23

Main article: Education in Cincinnati Cincinnati_sentence_297

The city has an extensive library system, both the city's public one and university facilities. Cincinnati_sentence_298

The Public Library of Cincinnati and Hamilton County was the third-largest public library nationally in 1998. Cincinnati_sentence_299

The University of Cincinnati, called Cincinnati or nicknamed UC, is a public university. Cincinnati_sentence_300

The University is renowned in architecture and engineering, liberal arts, music, nursing, and social science. Cincinnati_sentence_301

The Art Academy of Cincinnati, nicknamed AAC was founded as the McMicken School of Design in 1869. Cincinnati_sentence_302

The University of Cincinnati Medical Center is the leading institute for community health in Ohio. Cincinnati_sentence_303

The College Conservatory of Music taught Kathleen Battle, Al Hirt and Faith Prince. Cincinnati_sentence_304

The Cincinnati Public Schools (CPS) include sixteen high schools all with citywide acceptance. Cincinnati_sentence_305

CPS, third-largest school cluster by student population, was the biggest one to have an overall 'effective' rating from the State. Cincinnati_sentence_306

The district currently includes public Montessori schools, including the first public Montessori high school established in the United States, Clark Montessori. Cincinnati_sentence_307

Cincinnati Public Schools' top-rated school is Walnut Hills High School, ranked 34th on the national list of best public schools by Newsweek. Cincinnati_sentence_308

Walnut Hills offers 28 Advanced Placement courses. Cincinnati_sentence_309

Cincinnati is also home to the first Kindergarten – 12th grade Arts School in the country, the School for Creative and Performing Arts. Cincinnati_sentence_310

Cincinnati State is a small college that includes the Midwest Culinary School. Cincinnati_sentence_311

Also located in Cincinnati is Cincinnati Christian University. Cincinnati_sentence_312

Five hundred years since the Reformation Cincinnati provided a global distinguished lecture marking the layout of books and research for stirred city goers and the Cincinnati Art Museum staff built Albrecht Durer: The Age of Reformation and Renaissance, with more crafting by the University design, art, and architecture program given for the city. Cincinnati_sentence_313

Most of the work explores social ontology of the birth of mainline beliefs and propriety, woven with scripture and pamphlets which launched a widespread European grooming. Cincinnati_sentence_314

The Jewish community has several schools, including the all-girl RITSS (Regional Institute for Torah and Secular Studies) high school, and the all-boy Yeshivas Lubavitch High School. Cincinnati_sentence_315

Hebrew Union College- Jewish Institute of Religion (HUC-JIR), founded by Isaac Mayer Wise, is a seminary for training of Reform rabbis and others religious. Cincinnati_sentence_316

Xavier University, one of three Roman Catholic colleges along with Chatfield College and Mount St. Joseph University, was at one time affiliated with The Athenaeum of Ohio, the seminary of the Cincinnati Archdiocese. Cincinnati_sentence_317

The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cincinnati operates 16 high schools in Cincinnati, ten of which are single-sex. Cincinnati_sentence_318

There are six all-female high schools and four all-male high schools in the city, with additional schools in the metro areas. Cincinnati_sentence_319

Antonelli College, a career training school, is based in Cincinnati with several satellite campuses in Ohio and Mississippi. Cincinnati_sentence_320

Theater and music Cincinnati_section_24

Professional theatre has operated in Cincinnati since at least as early as the 1800s. Cincinnati_sentence_321

Among the professional companies based in the city are Ensemble Theatre Cincinnati, Cincinnati Shakespeare Company, the Know Theatre of Cincinnati, Stage First Cincinnati, Cincinnati Public Theatre, Cincinnati Opera, The Performance Gallery and Clear Stage Cincinnati. Cincinnati_sentence_322

The city is also home to Cincinnati Playhouse in the Park, which hosts regional premieres, and the Aronoff Center, which hosts touring Broadway shows each year via Broadway Across America. Cincinnati_sentence_323

The city has community theatres, such as the Cincinnati Young People's Theatre, the Showboat Majestic (which is the last surviving showboat in the United States and possibly the world), and the Mariemont Players. Cincinnati_sentence_324

Since 2011, Cincinnati Opera and the University of Cincinnati College-Conservatory of Music have partnered to sponsor the Opera Fusion: New Works project. Cincinnati_sentence_325

The Opera Fusion: New Works project acts as a program for composers or librettists to workshop an opera in a 10-day residency. Cincinnati_sentence_326

This program is headed by the Director of Artistic Operations at Cincinnati Opera, Marcus Küchle, and the Head of Opera at CCM, Robin Guarino. Cincinnati_sentence_327

Music-related events include the Cincinnati May Festival, Bunbury Music Festival, and Cincinnati Bell/WEBN Riverfest. Cincinnati_sentence_328

Cincinnati has hosted the World Choir Games with the catchy mantra "Cincinnati, the City that Sings!" Cincinnati_sentence_329

In 2015, Cincinnati held the USITT 2015 Conference and Stage Expo at the Duke Energy Convention Center, bringing 5,000+ students, university educators, theatrical designers and performers, and other personnel to the city. Cincinnati_sentence_330

The USITT Conference is considered the main conference for Theatre, Opera, and Dance in the United States. Cincinnati_sentence_331

A Rage in Harlem was filmed entirely in the Cincinnati neighborhood of Over the Rhine because of its similarity to 1950s Harlem. Cincinnati_sentence_332

Movies that were filmed in part in Cincinnati include The Best Years of Our Lives (aerial footage early in the film), Ides of March, Fresh Horses, The Asphalt Jungle (the opening is shot from the Public Landing and takes place in Cincinnati although only Boone County, Kentucky is mentioned), Rain Man, Miles Ahead, Airborne, Grimm Reality, Little Man Tate, City of Hope, An Innocent Man, Tango & Cash, A Mom for Christmas, Lost in Yonkers, Summer Catch, Artworks, Dreamer, Elizabethtown, Jimmy and Judy, Eight Men Out, Milk Money, Traffic, The Pride of Jesse Hallam, The Great Buck Howard, In Too Deep, Seven Below, Carol, Public Eye, The Last Late Night, and The Mighty. Cincinnati_sentence_333

In addition, Wild Hogs is set, though not filmed, in Cincinnati. Cincinnati_sentence_334

The Cincinnati skyline was prominently featured in the opening and closing sequences of the CBS/ABC daytime drama The Edge of Night from its start in 1956 until 1980, when it was replaced by the Los Angeles skyline; the cityscape was the stand-in for the show's setting, Monticello. Cincinnati_sentence_335

Procter & Gamble, the show's producer, is based in Cincinnati. Cincinnati_sentence_336

The sitcom WKRP in Cincinnati and its sequel/spin-off The New WKRP in Cincinnati featured the city's skyline and other exterior shots in its credits, although was not filmed in Cincinnati. Cincinnati_sentence_337

The city's skyline has also appeared in an April Fool's episode of The Drew Carey Show, which was set in Carey's hometown of Cleveland. Cincinnati_sentence_338

3 Doors Down's music video "It's Not My Time" was filmed in Cincinnati, and features the skyline and Fountain Square. Cincinnati_sentence_339

Also, Harry's Law, the NBC legal dramedy created by David E. Kelley and starring Kathy Bates, was set in Cincinnati. Cincinnati_sentence_340

Cincinnati has given rise or been home to popular musicians and singers, Lonnie Mack, Doris Day, Odd Nosdam, Dinah Shore, Fats Waller, Rosemary Clooney, Bootsy Collins, The Isley Brothers, Merle Travis, Hank Ballard, Otis Williams, Mood, Midnight Star, Calloway, The Afghan Whigs, Over the Rhine, Blessid Union of Souls, Freddie Meyer, 98 Degrees, The Greenhornes, The Deele, Enduser, Heartless Bastards, The Dopamines, Adrian Belew, The National, Foxy Shazam, Why? Cincinnati_sentence_341 , Wussy, H-Bomb Ferguson and Walk the Moon, and alternative hip hop producer Hi-Tek calls the Greater Cincinnati region home. Cincinnati_sentence_342

Andy Biersack, the lead vocalist for the rock band Black Veil Brides, was born in Cincinnati. Cincinnati_sentence_343

The Cincinnati May Festival Chorus is an amateur choir that has been in existence since 1880. Cincinnati_sentence_344

The city is home to the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra, Cincinnati Opera, Cincinnati Boychoir and Cincinnati Ballet. Cincinnati_sentence_345

The Greater Cincinnati area is also home to several regional orchestras and youth orchestras, including the Starling Chamber Orchestra and the Cincinnati Symphony Youth Orchestra. Cincinnati_sentence_346

Music Director James Conlon and Chorus Director Robert Porco lead the Chorus through an extensive repertoire of classical music. Cincinnati_sentence_347

The May Festival Chorus is the mainstay of the oldest continuous choral festival in the Western Hemisphere. Cincinnati_sentence_348

Cincinnati Music Hall was built to house the May Festival. Cincinnati_sentence_349

The Hollows series of books by Kim Harrison is an urban fantasy that takes place in Cincinnati. Cincinnati_sentence_350

American Girl's Kit Kittredge sub-series also took place in the city, although the film based on it was shot in Toronto. Cincinnati_sentence_351

Cincinnati also has its own chapter (or "Tent") of The Sons of the Desert (The Laurel and Hardy Appreciation Society), which meets several times per year. Cincinnati_sentence_352

Cincinnati is the subject of a Connie Smith song written by Bill Anderson, called Cincinnati, Ohio. Cincinnati_sentence_353

Cincinnati is the main scenario for the international music production of Italian artist and songwriter Veronica Vitale called "Inside the Outsider". Cincinnati_sentence_354

She embedded the sounds of the trains at Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Downtown Cincinnati, filmed her music single "Mi Sono innamorato di Te" at the American Sign Museum and recorded her heartbeat sound at Cincinnati Children's Hospital replacing it to the drums for her song "The Pulse of Light" during the broadcasting at Ryan Seacrest's studio. Cincinnati_sentence_355

Furthermore, she released the music single "Nobody is Perfect" featuring legendary Cincinnati's bass player Bootsy Collins. Cincinnati_sentence_356

Cincinnati was a major early music recording center, and was home to King Records, which helped launch the career of James Brown, who often recorded there, as well as Jewel Records, which helped launch Lonnie Mack's career, and Fraternity Records. Cincinnati_sentence_357

Cincinnati had a vibrant jazz scene from the 1920s to today. Cincinnati_sentence_358

Louis Armstrong's first recordings were done in the Cincinnati area, at Gennett Records, as were Jelly Roll Morton's, Hoagy Carmichael's, and Bix Beiderbecke, who took up residency in Cincinnati for a time. Cincinnati_sentence_359

Fats Waller was on staff at WLW in the 1930s. Cincinnati_sentence_360

Media Cincinnati_section_25

Main article: Media in Cincinnati Cincinnati_sentence_361

Newspapers Cincinnati_section_26

Cincinnati's daily newspaper is The Cincinnati Enquirer, which was established in 1841. Cincinnati_sentence_362

The city is home to several alternative, weekly, and monthly publications, among which are free weekly print magazine publications including CityBeat and La Jornada Latina. Cincinnati_sentence_363

Television Cincinnati_section_27

According to Nielsen Media Research, Cincinnati is the 36th largest television market in the United States as of the 2016–2017 television season. Cincinnati_sentence_364

Twelve television stations broadcast from Cincinnati. Cincinnati_sentence_365

Major commercial stations in the area include WLWT 5 (NBC), WCPO-TV 9 (ABC), WKRC-TV 12 (CBS, with CW on DT2), WXIX-TV 19 (Fox), and WSTR-TV 64 (MyNetworkTV). Cincinnati_sentence_366

In addition, locally owned Block Broadcasting owns one low-power station, WBQC-LD 25. Cincinnati_sentence_367

WCET channel 48, now known as CET, is the United States' oldest licensed public television station (License #1, issued in 1951). Cincinnati_sentence_368

It is now co-owned with WPTO 14, a satellite of WPTD in nearby Dayton. Cincinnati_sentence_369

Radio Cincinnati_section_28

Further information: :Category:Radio stations in Cincinnati Cincinnati_sentence_370

As of December 2017, Cincinnati is the 30th largest radio market in the United States, with an estimated 1.8 million listeners aged 12 and above. Cincinnati_sentence_371

Major radio station operators include iHeartMedia and Cumulus Media. Cincinnati_sentence_372

WLW and WCKY, both owned by iHeartMedia, are both clear-channel stations that broadcast at 50,000 watts, covering most of the eastern United States at night. Cincinnati_sentence_373

Online Cincinnati_section_29 is the city's comprehensive guide to live concerts, local bands, and hyper-local music-related news. Cincinnati_sentence_374

Transportation Cincinnati_section_30

Main article: Transportation in Cincinnati Cincinnati_sentence_375

The city of Cincinnati has a higher than average percentage of households without a car. Cincinnati_sentence_376

In 2015, 19.3 percent of Cincinnati households lacked a car, and increased slightly to 21.2 percent in 2016. Cincinnati_sentence_377

The national average was 8.7 percent in 2016. Cincinnati_sentence_378

Cincinnati averaged 1.3 cars per household in 2016, compared to a national average of 1.8. Cincinnati_sentence_379

The development of a light rail system has long been a goal for Cincinnati, with several proposals emerging over many decades. Cincinnati_sentence_380

The city grew rapidly during its streetcar era of the late 19th century and early 1900s. Cincinnati_sentence_381

Public transit ridership has been in decline for several decades and bicycles and walking has accounted for a relatively small portion of all trips in the past. Cincinnati_sentence_382

Like many other midwestern cities, however, bicycle use is growing fairly rapidly in the 2000s and 2010s. Cincinnati_sentence_383

In 1916 the Mayor and citizens voted to spend $6 million to build the Cincinnati Subway. Cincinnati_sentence_384

The subway was planned to be a 16-mile loop from Downtown to Norwood to Oakley and back to the east side of Downtown. Cincinnati_sentence_385

World War I delayed the construction in 1920 and inflation raised the costs causing the Oakley portion never to be built. Cincinnati_sentence_386

Mayor Seasongood who took office later on argued it would cost too much money to finish the system. Cincinnati_sentence_387

Public transportation Cincinnati_section_31

A century later, the Cincinnati Bell Connector streetcar line, which opened for service on September 9, 2016, crosses directly above the unfinished subway on Central Parkway downtown. Cincinnati_sentence_388

Cincinnati is served by Amtrak's Cardinal, an intercity passenger train which makes three weekly trips in each direction between Chicago and New York City through Cincinnati Union Terminal. Cincinnati_sentence_389

Cincinnati is served by the Southwest Ohio Regional Transit Authority (SORTA), the Transit Authority of Northern Kentucky (TANK) and the Clermont Transportation Connection. Cincinnati_sentence_390

SORTA and TANK primarily operate 40-foot diesel buses, though some lines are served by longer articulated or hybrid-engine buses. Cincinnati_sentence_391

In 2012–16, Cincinnati constructed a streetcar line in Downtown and Over-the-Rhine. Cincinnati_sentence_392

This modern version of the streetcar opened in September 2016. Cincinnati_sentence_393

The Cincinnati Streetcar project experienced railcar-manufacturing delays and initial funding issues, but was completed on-time and within its budget in mid-2016. Cincinnati_sentence_394

A system of public staircases known as the Steps of Cincinnati guides pedestrians up and down the city's many hills. Cincinnati_sentence_395

In addition to practical use linking hillside neighborhoods, the 400 stairways provide visitors scenic views of the Cincinnati area. Cincinnati_sentence_396

Air Cincinnati_section_32

The city is served by Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport (IATA: CVG) which is actually located in Hebron, Kentucky. Cincinnati_sentence_397

The airport is a focus city for Delta Air Lines as well as low-cost carriers Allegiant Air and Frontier Airlines. Cincinnati_sentence_398

In addition, the airport is the largest global hub for both Amazon Air and DHL Aviation. Cincinnati_sentence_399

In addition to that Delta offers daily nonstop flights to Paris, France. Cincinnati_sentence_400

Cincinnati Municipal Lunken Airport (IATA: LUK), has daily service on commercial charter flights, and is located in Ohio. Cincinnati_sentence_401

The airport serves as hub for Ultimate Air Shuttle and Flamingo Air. Cincinnati_sentence_402

Streets and Highways Cincinnati_section_33

Bus traffic is heavy in Cincinnati. Cincinnati_sentence_403

Megabus and Greyhound, as well as several smaller motor coach companies, operate out of Cincinnati, making trips within the Midwest and beyond. Cincinnati_sentence_404

The city has an outer-belt, Interstate 275 (which is the longest circle highway in the country, at 85 miles) and a spur, Interstate 471, to Kentucky. Cincinnati_sentence_405

It is also served by Interstate 71, Interstate 74, Interstate 75 and numerous U.S. highways: US 22, US 25, US 27, US 42, US 50, US 52, and US 127. Cincinnati_sentence_406

The Riverfront Transit Center, built underneath 2nd Street, is about the size of eight football fields. Cincinnati_sentence_407

It is only used for sporting events and school field trips. Cincinnati_sentence_408

At its construction, it was designed for public transit buses, charter buses, school buses, city coach buses, light rail, and possibly commuter rail. Cincinnati_sentence_409

When not in use for sporting events, it is closed off and rented to a private parking vendor. Cincinnati_sentence_410

Notable people Cincinnati_section_34

Main article: List of people from Cincinnati Cincinnati_sentence_411

International relations Cincinnati_section_35

Cincinnati has nine sister cities: Cincinnati_sentence_412

Cincinnati also has a partnership with Italy Rome, Italy. Cincinnati_sentence_413

Rome is famously only paired with Paris, France, but has other international relationships with cities across the world, including Cincinnati. Cincinnati_sentence_414

See also Cincinnati_section_36


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