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A cinematographer or director of photography (sometimes shortened to DP or DOP) is the chief over the camera and light crews working on a film, television production or other live action piece and is responsible for making artistic and technical decisions related to the image. Cinematographer_sentence_0

The study and practice of this field is referred to as cinematography. Cinematographer_sentence_1

The cinematographer selects the camera, film stock, lenses, filters, etc., to realize the scene in accordance with the intentions of the director. Cinematographer_sentence_2

Relations between the cinematographer and director vary; in some instances, the director will allow the cinematographer complete independence; in others, the director allows little to none, even going so far as to specify exact camera placement and lens selection. Cinematographer_sentence_3

Such a level of involvement is not common once the director and cinematographer have become comfortable with each other; the director will typically convey to the cinematographer what is wanted from a scene visually and allow the cinematographer latitude in achieving that effect. Cinematographer_sentence_4

Several American cinematographers have become directors, including Reed Morano who lensed Frozen River and Beyonce's Lemonade before winning an Emmy for directing The Handmaid's Tale. Cinematographer_sentence_5

Barry Sonnenfeld, originally the Coen brothers' DP; Jan de Bont, cinematographer on films such as Die Hard and Basic Instinct, directed Speed and Twister. Cinematographer_sentence_6

Nicolas Roeg, cinematographer on films such as The Caretaker (1963) and The Masque of the Red Death (1964), directed Don't Look Now (1973) and The Man Who Fell to Earth (1976). Cinematographer_sentence_7

Ellen Kuras, ASC photographed Eternal Sunshine of The Spotless Mind as well as a number of Spike Lee films such as Summer of Sam and He Got Game before directing episodes of Legion and Ozark. Cinematographer_sentence_8

In 2014, Wally Pfister, cinematographer on Christopher Nolan's three Batman films, made his directorial debut with Transcendence, whilst British cinematographers Jack Cardiff and Freddie Francis regularly moved between the two positions. Cinematographer_sentence_9

History Cinematographer_section_0

In the infancy of motion pictures, the cinematographer was usually also the director and the person physically handling the camera. Cinematographer_sentence_10

As the art form and technology evolved, a separation between director and camera operator emerged. Cinematographer_sentence_11

With the advent of artificial lighting and faster (more light-sensitive) film stocks, in addition to technological advancements in optics, the technical aspects of cinematography necessitated a specialist in that area. Cinematographer_sentence_12

Cinematography was key during the silent movie era; with no sound apart from background music and no dialogue, the films depended on lighting, acting, and set. Cinematographer_sentence_13

In 1919 Hollywood, the then-new motion picture capital of the world, one of the first (and still existing) trade societies was formed: the American Society of Cinematographers (ASC), which stood to recognize the cinematographer's contribution to the art and science of motion picture making. Cinematographer_sentence_14

Similar trade associations have been established in other countries too. Cinematographer_sentence_15

is known for working to encourage and support the advancement of underrepresented cinematographers, their crews and other filmmakers, and to inspire us all to enact positive changes through hiring talent that reflects society at large. Cinematographer_sentence_16

However, the Soviet filmmaker, Dziga Vertov, writing in Kino-fot No.1 (August 1922) rejected the role of Cinematographer in the "We: Variant of a Manifesto": Cinematographer_sentence_17

Societies and trade organizations Cinematographer_section_1

There are a number of national associations of cinematographers that represent members (irrespective of their official titles) and are dedicated to the advancement of cinematography. Cinematographer_sentence_18

These include: Cinematographer_sentence_19


The A.S.C. Cinematographer_sentence_20

defines cinematography as: Cinematographer_sentence_21

Noted cinematographers Cinematographer_section_2

Further information: :Category:Cinematographers and Academy Award for Best Cinematography Cinematographer_sentence_22

See also Cinematographer_section_3


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