Civil rights movement

From Wikipedia for FEVERv2
Jump to navigation Jump to search

This article is about the social and political movement against institutionalized racism and segregation in the United States between 1954 and 1968. Civil rights movement_sentence_0

For other uses, see Civil rights movement (disambiguation). Civil rights movement_sentence_1

Civil rights movement_table_infobox_0

Civil rights movementCivil rights movement_header_cell_0_0_0
DateCivil rights movement_header_cell_0_1_0 1954–1968Civil rights movement_cell_0_1_1
LocationCivil rights movement_header_cell_0_2_0 United StatesCivil rights movement_cell_0_2_1
Caused byCivil rights movement_header_cell_0_3_0 Racism, segregation, disenfranchisement, Jim Crow laws, socioeconomic inequalityCivil rights movement_cell_0_3_1
Resulted inCivil rights movement_header_cell_0_4_0 Civil rights movement_cell_0_4_1

The civil rights movement in the United States was a decades-long struggle by African Americans and their like-minded allies to end institutionalized racial discrimination, disenfranchisement and racial segregation in the United States. Civil rights movement_sentence_2

The movement has its origins in the Reconstruction era during the late 19th century, although the movement achieved its largest legislative gains in the mid-1960s after years of direct actions and grassroots protests. Civil rights movement_sentence_3

The social movement's major nonviolent resistance and civil disobedience campaigns eventually secured new protections in federal law for the human rights of all Americans. Civil rights movement_sentence_4

After the American Civil War and the subsequent abolition of slavery in the 1860s, the Reconstruction Amendments to the United States Constitution granted emancipation and constitutional rights of citizenship to all African Americans, most of whom had recently been enslaved. Civil rights movement_sentence_5

For a short period of time, African American men voted and held political office, but they were increasingly deprived of civil rights, often under the so-called Jim Crow laws, and African Americans were subjected to discrimination and sustained violence by white supremacists in the South. Civil rights movement_sentence_6

Over the following century, various efforts were made by African Americans to secure their legal and civil rights. Civil rights movement_sentence_7

In 1954, the separate but equal policy, which aided the enforcement of Jim Crow laws, was substantially weakened and eventually dismantled with the United States Supreme Court's Brown v. Board of Education ruling and other subsequent rulings which followed. Civil rights movement_sentence_8

Between 1955 and 1968, nonviolent mass protests and civil disobedience produced crisis situations and productive dialogues between activists and government authorities. Civil rights movement_sentence_9

Federal, state, and local governments, businesses, and communities often had to immediately respond to these situations, which highlighted the inequities faced by African Americans across the country. Civil rights movement_sentence_10

The lynching of Chicago teenager Emmett Till in Mississippi, and the outrage generated by seeing how he had been abused when his mother decided to have an open-casket funeral, galvanized the African-American community nationwide. Civil rights movement_sentence_11

Forms of protest and/or civil disobedience included boycotts, such as the successful Montgomery bus boycott (1955–56) in Alabama, "sit-ins" such as the Greensboro sit-ins (1960) in North Carolina and successful Nashville sit-ins in Tennessee, mass marches, such as the 1963 Children's Crusade in Birmingham and 1965 Selma to Montgomery marches (1965) in Alabama, and a wide range of other nonviolent activities and resistance. Civil rights movement_sentence_12

At the culmination of a legal strategy pursued by African Americans, the U.S. Supreme Court in 1954 under the leadership of Earl Warren struck down many of the laws that had allowed racial segregation and discrimination to be legal in the United States as unconstitutional. Civil rights movement_sentence_13

The Warren Court made a series of landmark rulings against racist discrimination, such as Brown v. Board of Education (1954), Heart of Atlanta Motel, Inc. v. United States (1964), and Loving v. Virginia (1967) which banned segregation in public schools and public accommodations, and struck down all state laws banning interracial marriage. Civil rights movement_sentence_14

The rulings also played a crucial role in bringing an end to the segregationist Jim Crow laws prevalent in the Southern states. Civil rights movement_sentence_15

In the 1960s, moderates in the movement worked with the United States Congress to achieve the passage of several significant pieces of federal legislation that overturned discriminatory laws and practices and authorized oversight and enforcement by the federal government. Civil rights movement_sentence_16

The Civil Rights Act of 1964, which was upheld by the Supreme Court in Heart of Atlanta Motel, Inc. v. United States (1964), explicitly banned all discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin in employment practices, ended unequal application of voter registration requirements, and prohibited racial segregation in schools, at the workplace, and in public accommodations. Civil rights movement_sentence_17

The Voting Rights Act of 1965 restored and protected voting rights for minorities by authorizing federal oversight of registration and elections in areas with historic under-representation of minorities as voters. Civil rights movement_sentence_18

The Fair Housing Act of 1968 banned discrimination in the sale or rental of housing. Civil rights movement_sentence_19

African Americans re-entered politics in the South, and young people across the country were inspired to take action. Civil rights movement_sentence_20

From 1964 through 1970, a wave of inner-city riots and protests in black communities dampened support from the white middle class, but increased support from private foundations. Civil rights movement_sentence_21

The emergence of the Black Power movement, which lasted from 1965 to 1975, challenged the established black leadership for its cooperative attitude and its constant practice of legalism and non-violence. Civil rights movement_sentence_22

Instead, its leaders demanded that, in addition to the new laws gained through the nonviolent movement, political and economic self-sufficiency had to be developed in the black community. Civil rights movement_sentence_23

Ultimately, the emergence of the Black power movement came from an increasingly disillusioned African American proletariat. Civil rights movement_sentence_24

Many African Americans had seen little material improvement on the opportunities afforded them since the Civil Rights Movement's peak in the mid 1960's. Civil rights movement_sentence_25

The reality for African Americans remained the same: they still faced mass discrimination in jobs, housing, education and politics. Civil rights movement_sentence_26

Even if it was not overtly written into law anymore, African Americans still faced the reality of mass discrimination. Civil rights movement_sentence_27

Many popular representations of the Civil Rights movement are centered on the charismatic leadership and philosophy of Martin Luther King Jr., who won the 1964 Nobel Peace Prize for combating racial inequality through nonviolent resistance. Civil rights movement_sentence_28

However, some scholars note that the movement was too diverse to be credited to any particular person, organization, or strategy. Civil rights movement_sentence_29

Background Civil rights movement_section_0

Civil War and Reconstruction Civil rights movement_section_1

Further information: Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution Civil rights movement_sentence_30

Before the American Civil War, almost four million blacks were enslaved in the South, only white men of property could vote, and the Naturalization Act of 1790 limited U.S. citizenship to whites only. Civil rights movement_sentence_31

Following the Civil War, three constitutional amendments were passed, including the 13th Amendment (1865) that ended slavery; the 14th Amendment (1869) that gave black people citizenship, adding their total population of four million to the official population of southern states for Congressional apportionment; and the 15th Amendment (1870) that gave black males the right to vote (only males could vote in the U.S. at the time). Civil rights movement_sentence_32

From 1865 to 1877, the United States underwent a turbulent Reconstruction Era trying to establish free labor and civil rights of freedmen in the South after the end of slavery. Civil rights movement_sentence_33

Many whites resisted the social changes, leading to insurgent movements such as the Ku Klux Klan, whose members attacked black and white Republicans to maintain white supremacy. Civil rights movement_sentence_34

In 1871, President Ulysses S. Grant, the U.S. Army, and U.S. Attorney General Amos T. Akerman, initiated a campaign to repress the KKK under the Enforcement Acts. Civil rights movement_sentence_35

Some states were reluctant to enforce the federal measures of the act. Civil rights movement_sentence_36

In addition, by the early 1870s, other white supremacist and insurgent paramilitary groups arose that violently opposed African-American legal equality and suffrage, intimidating and suppressing black voters, and assassinating Republican officeholders. Civil rights movement_sentence_37

However, if the states failed to implement the acts, the laws allowed the Federal Government to get involved. Civil rights movement_sentence_38

Many Republican governors were afraid of sending black militia troops to fight the Klan for fear of war. Civil rights movement_sentence_39

Disenfranchisement after Reconstruction Civil rights movement_section_2

Main article: Disenfranchisement after the Reconstruction Era Civil rights movement_sentence_40

Further information: Jim Crow laws, Civil rights movement (1865–1896), and Civil rights movement (1896–1954) Civil rights movement_sentence_41

After the disputed election of 1876, which resulted in the end of Reconstruction and the withdrawal of federal troops, whites in the South regained political control of the region's state legislatures. Civil rights movement_sentence_42

They continued to intimidate and violently attack blacks before and during elections to suppress their voting, but the last African Americans were elected to Congress from the South before disenfranchisement of blacks by states throughout the region, as described below. Civil rights movement_sentence_43

From 1890 to 1908, southern states passed new constitutions and laws to disenfranchise African Americans and many poor whites by creating barriers to voter registration; voting rolls were dramatically reduced as blacks and poor whites were forced out of electoral politics. Civil rights movement_sentence_44

After the landmark Supreme Court case of Smith v. Allwright (1944), which prohibited white primaries, progress was made in increasing black political participation in the Rim South and Acadiana – although almost entirely in urban areas and a few rural localities where most blacks worked outside plantations. Civil rights movement_sentence_45

The status quo ante of excluding African Americans from the political system lasted in the remainder of the South, especially North Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama, until national civil rights legislation was passed in the mid-1960s to provide federal enforcement of constitutional voting rights. Civil rights movement_sentence_46

For more than sixty years, blacks in the South were essentially excluded from politics, unable to elect anyone to represent their interests in Congress or local government. Civil rights movement_sentence_47

Since they could not vote, they could not serve on local juries. Civil rights movement_sentence_48

During this period, the white-dominated Democratic Party maintained political control of the South. Civil rights movement_sentence_49

With whites controlling all the seats representing the total population of the South, they had a powerful voting bloc in Congress. Civil rights movement_sentence_50

The Republican Party—the "party of Lincoln" and the party to which most blacks had belonged—shrank to insignificance except in remote Unionist areas of Appalachia and the Ozarks as black voter registration was suppressed. Civil rights movement_sentence_51

The Republican lily-white movement also gained strength by excluding blacks. Civil rights movement_sentence_52

Until 1965, the “Solid South” was a one-party system under the white Democrats. Civil rights movement_sentence_53

Excepting the previously noted historic Unionist strongholds the Democratic Party nomination was tantamount to election for state and local office. Civil rights movement_sentence_54

In 1901, President Theodore Roosevelt invited Booker T. Washington, president of the Tuskegee Institute, to dine at the White House, making him the first African American to attend an official dinner there. Civil rights movement_sentence_55

"The invitation was roundly criticized by southern politicians and newspapers." Civil rights movement_sentence_56

Washington persuaded the president to appoint more blacks to federal posts in the South and to try to boost African-American leadership in state Republican organizations. Civil rights movement_sentence_57

However, these actions were resisted by both white Democrats and white Republicans as an unwanted federal intrusion into state politics. Civil rights movement_sentence_58

During the same time as African Americans were being disenfranchised, white southerners imposed racial segregation by law. Civil rights movement_sentence_59

Violence against blacks increased, with numerous lynchings through the turn of the century. Civil rights movement_sentence_60

The system of de jure state-sanctioned racial discrimination and oppression that emerged from the post-Reconstruction South became known as the "Jim Crow" system. Civil rights movement_sentence_61

The United States Supreme Court, made up almost entirely of Northerners, upheld the constitutionality of those state laws that required racial segregation in public facilities in its 1896 decision Plessy v. Ferguson, legitimizing them through the "separate but equal" doctrine. Civil rights movement_sentence_62

Segregation, which began with slavery, continued with Jim Crow laws, with signs used to show blacks where they could legally walk, talk, drink, rest, or eat. Civil rights movement_sentence_63

For those places that were racially mixed, non-whites had to wait until all white customers were served first. Civil rights movement_sentence_64

Elected in 1912, President Woodrow Wilson gave in to demands by Southern members of his cabinet and ordered segregation of workplaces throughout the federal government. Civil rights movement_sentence_65

The early 20th century is a period often referred to as the "nadir of American race relations", when the number of lynchings was highest. Civil rights movement_sentence_66

While tensions and civil rights violations were most intense in the South, social discrimination affected African Americans in other regions as well. Civil rights movement_sentence_67

At the national level, the Southern bloc controlled important committees in Congress, defeated passage of federal laws against lynching, and exercised considerable power beyond the number of whites in the South. Civil rights movement_sentence_68

Characteristics of the post-Reconstruction period: Civil rights movement_sentence_69

Civil rights movement_unordered_list_0

  • Racial segregation. By law, public facilities and government services such as education were divided into separate "white" and "colored" domains. Characteristically, those for colored were underfunded and of inferior quality.Civil rights movement_item_0_0
  • Disenfranchisement. When white Democrats regained power, they passed laws that made voter registration more restrictive, essentially forcing black voters off the voting rolls. The number of African-American voters dropped dramatically, and they were no longer able to elect representatives. From 1890 to 1908, Southern states of the former Confederacy created constitutions with provisions that disfranchised tens of thousands of African Americans, and U.S. states such as Alabama disenfranchised poor whites as well.Civil rights movement_item_0_1
  • Exploitation. Increased economic oppression of blacks through the convict lease system, Latinos, and Asians, denial of economic opportunities, and widespread employment discrimination.Civil rights movement_item_0_2
  • Violence. Individual, police, paramilitary, organizational, and mob racial violence against blacks (and Latinos in the Southwest and Asians in the West Coast).Civil rights movement_item_0_3

African Americans and other ethnic minorities rejected this regime. Civil rights movement_sentence_70

They resisted it in numerous ways and sought better opportunities through lawsuits, new organizations, political redress, and labor organizing (see the Civil rights movement (1896–1954)). Civil rights movement_sentence_71

The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) was founded in 1909. Civil rights movement_sentence_72

It fought to end race discrimination through litigation, education, and lobbying efforts. Civil rights movement_sentence_73

Its crowning achievement was its legal victory in the Supreme Court decision Brown v. Board of Education (1954), when the Warren Court ruled that segregation of public schools in the US was unconstitutional and, by implication, overturned the "separate but equal" doctrine established in Plessy v. Ferguson of 1896. Civil rights movement_sentence_74

Following the unanimous Supreme Court ruling, many states began to gradually integrate their schools, but some areas of the South resisted by closing public schools altogether. Civil rights movement_sentence_75

The integration of Southern public libraries followed demonstrations and protests that used techniques seen in other elements of the larger civil rights movement. Civil rights movement_sentence_76

This included sit-ins, beatings, and white resistance. Civil rights movement_sentence_77

For example, in 1963 in the city of Anniston, Alabama, two black ministers were brutally beaten for attempting to integrate the public library. Civil rights movement_sentence_78

Though there was resistance and violence, the integration of libraries was generally quicker than the integration of other public institutions. Civil rights movement_sentence_79

National issues Civil rights movement_section_3

The situation for blacks outside the South was somewhat better (in most states they could vote and have their children educated, though they still faced discrimination in housing and jobs). Civil rights movement_sentence_80

In 1900 Reverend Matthew Anderson, speaking at the annual Hampton Negro Conference in Virginia, said that "...the lines along most of the avenues of wage earning are more rigidly drawn in the North than in the South. Civil rights movement_sentence_81

There seems to be an apparent effort throughout the North, especially in the cities to debar the colored worker from all the avenues of higher remunerative labor, which makes it more difficult to improve his economic condition even than in the South." Civil rights movement_sentence_82

From 1910 to 1970, blacks sought better lives by migrating north and west out of the South. Civil rights movement_sentence_83

A total of nearly seven million blacks left the South in what was known as the Great Migration, most during and after World War II. Civil rights movement_sentence_84

So many people migrated that the demographics of some previously black-majority states changed to a white majority (in combination with other developments). Civil rights movement_sentence_85

The rapid influx of blacks altered the demographics of Northern and Western cities; happening at a period of expanded European, Hispanic, and Asian immigration, it added to social competition and tensions, with the new migrants and immigrants battling for a place in jobs and housing. Civil rights movement_sentence_86

Reflecting social tensions after World War I, as veterans struggled to return to the workforce and labor unions were organizing, the Red Summer of 1919 was marked by hundreds of deaths and higher casualties across the U.S. as a result of white race riots against blacks that took place in more than three dozen cities, such as the Chicago race riot of 1919 and the Omaha race riot of 1919. Civil rights movement_sentence_87

Urban problems such as crime and disease were blamed on the large influx of Southern blacks to cities in the north and west, based on stereotypes of rural southern African-Americans. Civil rights movement_sentence_88

Overall, blacks in Northern and Western cities experienced systemic discrimination in a plethora of aspects of life. Civil rights movement_sentence_89

Within employment, economic opportunities for blacks were routed to the lowest-status and restrictive in potential mobility. Civil rights movement_sentence_90

Within the housing market, stronger discriminatory measures were used in correlation to the influx, resulting in a mix of "targeted violence, restrictive covenants, redlining and racial steering". Civil rights movement_sentence_91

The Great Migration resulted in many African Americans becoming urbanized, and they began to realign from the Republican to the Democratic Party, especially because of opportunities under the New Deal of the Franklin D. Roosevelt administration during the Great Depression in the 1930s. Civil rights movement_sentence_92

Substantially under pressure from African-American supporters who began the March on Washington Movement, President Roosevelt issued the first federal order banning discrimination and created the Fair Employment Practice Committee. Civil rights movement_sentence_93

Black veterans of the military after both World Wars pressed for full civil rights and often led activist movements. Civil rights movement_sentence_94

In 1948, President Harry Truman issued Executive Order 9981, which ended segregation in the military. Civil rights movement_sentence_95

Housing segregation was a nationwide problem, widespread outside the South. Civil rights movement_sentence_96

Although the federal government had become increasingly involved in mortgage lending and development in the 1930s and 1940s, it did not reject the use of race-restrictive covenants until 1950, in part because of provisions by the Solid South Democrats in Congress. Civil rights movement_sentence_97

Suburbanization became connected with white flight by this time, because whites were better established economically to move to newer housing. Civil rights movement_sentence_98

The situation was perpetuated by real estate agents' continuing racial discrimination. Civil rights movement_sentence_99

In particular, from the 1930s to the 1960s, the National Association of Real Estate Boards (NAREB) issued guidelines that specified that a realtor "should never be instrumental in introducing to a neighborhood a character or property or occupancy, members of any race or nationality, or any individual whose presence will be clearly detrimental to property values in a neighborhood." Civil rights movement_sentence_100

The result was the development of all-black ghettos in the North and West, where much housing was older, as well as South. Civil rights movement_sentence_101

Invigorated by the victory of Brown and frustrated by the lack of immediate practical effect, private citizens increasingly rejected gradualist, legalistic approaches as the primary tool to bring about desegregation. Civil rights movement_sentence_102

They were faced with "massive resistance" in the South by proponents of racial segregation and voter suppression. Civil rights movement_sentence_103

In defiance, African-American activists adopted a combined strategy of direct action, nonviolence, nonviolent resistance, and many events described as civil disobedience, giving rise to the civil rights movement of 1954 to 1968. Civil rights movement_sentence_104

Protest beginnings Civil rights movement_section_4

The strategy of public education, legislative lobbying, and litigation that had typified the civil rights movement during the first half of the 20th century broadened after Brown to a strategy that emphasized "direct action": boycotts, sit-ins, Freedom Rides, marches or walks, and similar tactics that relied on mass mobilization, nonviolent resistance, standing in line, and, at times, civil disobedience. Civil rights movement_sentence_105

Churches, local grassroots organizations, fraternal societies, and black-owned businesses mobilized volunteers to participate in broad-based actions. Civil rights movement_sentence_106

This was a more direct and potentially more rapid means of creating change than the traditional approach of mounting court challenges used by the NAACP and others. Civil rights movement_sentence_107

In 1952, the Regional Council of Negro Leadership (RCNL), led by T. Civil rights movement_sentence_108 R. M. Howard, a black surgeon, entrepreneur, and planter organized a successful boycott of gas stations in Mississippi that refused to provide restrooms for blacks. Civil rights movement_sentence_109

Through the RCNL, Howard led campaigns to expose brutality by the Mississippi state highway patrol and to encourage blacks to make deposits in the black-owned Tri-State Bank of Nashville which, in turn, gave loans to civil rights activists who were victims of a "credit squeeze" by the White Citizens' Councils. Civil rights movement_sentence_110

After Claudette Colvin was arrested for not giving up her seat on a Montgomery, Alabama bus in March 1955, a bus boycott was considered and rejected. Civil rights movement_sentence_111

But when Rosa Parks was arrested in December, Jo Ann Gibson Robinson of the Montgomery Women's Political Council put the bus boycott protest in motion. Civil rights movement_sentence_112

Late that night, she, John Cannon (chairman of the Business Department at Alabama State University) and others mimeographed and distributed thousands of leaflets calling for a boycott. Civil rights movement_sentence_113

The eventual success of the boycott made its spokesman Martin Luther King Jr., a nationally known figure. Civil rights movement_sentence_114

It also inspired other bus boycotts, such as the successful Tallahassee, Florida boycott of 1956–57. Civil rights movement_sentence_115

In 1957, King and Ralph Abernathy, the leaders of the Montgomery Improvement Association, joined with other church leaders who had led similar boycott efforts, such as C. Civil rights movement_sentence_116 K. Steele of Tallahassee and T. Civil rights movement_sentence_117 J. Jemison of Baton Rouge, and other activists such as Fred Shuttlesworth, Ella Baker, A. Civil rights movement_sentence_118 Philip Randolph, Bayard Rustin and Stanley Levison, to form the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). Civil rights movement_sentence_119

The SCLC, with its headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia, did not attempt to create a network of chapters as the NAACP did. Civil rights movement_sentence_120

It offered training and leadership assistance for local efforts to fight segregation. Civil rights movement_sentence_121

The headquarters organization raised funds, mostly from Northern sources, to support such campaigns. Civil rights movement_sentence_122

It made nonviolence both its central tenet and its primary method of confronting racism. Civil rights movement_sentence_123

In 1959, Septima Clarke, Bernice Robinson, and Esau Jenkins, with the help of Myles Horton's Highlander Folk School in Tennessee, began the first Citizenship Schools in South Carolina's Sea Islands. Civil rights movement_sentence_124

They taught literacy to enable blacks to pass voting tests. Civil rights movement_sentence_125

The program was an enormous success and tripled the number of black voters on Johns Island. Civil rights movement_sentence_126

SCLC took over the program and duplicated its results elsewhere. Civil rights movement_sentence_127

History Civil rights movement_section_5

Main article: Timeline of the civil rights movement Civil rights movement_sentence_128

Further information: Civil rights movement (1865–1896) and Civil rights movement (1896–1954) Civil rights movement_sentence_129

Brown v. Board of Education, 1954 Civil rights movement_section_6

Main article: Brown v. Board of Education Civil rights movement_sentence_130

In the spring of 1951, black students in Virginia protested their unequal status in the state's segregated educational system. Civil rights movement_sentence_131

Students at Moton High School protested the overcrowded conditions and failing facility. Civil rights movement_sentence_132

Some local leaders of the NAACP had tried to persuade the students to back down from their protest against the Jim Crow laws of school segregation. Civil rights movement_sentence_133

When the students did not budge, the NAACP joined their battle against school segregation. Civil rights movement_sentence_134

The NAACP proceeded with five cases challenging the school systems; these were later combined under what is known today as Brown v. Board of Education. Civil rights movement_sentence_135

Under the leadership of Walter Reuther, the United Auto Workers donated $75,000 to help pay for the NAACP's efforts at the Supreme Court. Civil rights movement_sentence_136

On May 17, 1954, the U.S. Civil rights movement_sentence_137 Supreme Court under Chief Justice Earl Warren ruled unanimously in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, that mandating, or even permitting, public schools to be segregated by race was unconstitutional. Civil rights movement_sentence_138

Chief Justice Warren wrote in the court majority opinion that Civil rights movement_sentence_139

The lawyers from the NAACP had to gather plausible evidence in order to win the case of Brown vs. Board of Education. Civil rights movement_sentence_140

Their method of addressing the issue of school segregation was to enumerate several arguments. Civil rights movement_sentence_141

One pertained to having exposure to interracial contact in a school environment. Civil rights movement_sentence_142

It was argued that interracial contact would, in turn, help prepare children to live with the pressures that society exerts in regards to race and thereby afford them a better chance of living in a democracy. Civil rights movement_sentence_143

In addition, another argument emphasized how "'education' comprehends the entire process of developing and training the mental, physical and moral powers and capabilities of human beings". Civil rights movement_sentence_144

Risa Goluboff wrote that the NAACP's intention was to show the Courts that African American children were the victims of school segregation and their futures were at risk. Civil rights movement_sentence_145

The Court ruled that both Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), which had established the "separate but equal" standard in general, and Cumming v. Richmond County Board of Education (1899), which had applied that standard to schools, were unconstitutional. Civil rights movement_sentence_146

The federal government filed a friend of the court brief in the case urging the justices to consider the effect that segregation had on America's image in the Cold War. Civil rights movement_sentence_147

Secretary of State Dean Acheson was quoted in the brief stating that "The United States is under constant attack in the foreign press, over the foreign radio, and in such international bodies as the United Nations because of various practices of discrimination in this country." Civil rights movement_sentence_148

The following year, in the case known as Brown II, the Court ordered segregation to be phased out over time, "with all deliberate speed". Civil rights movement_sentence_149

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (1954) did not overturn Plessy v. Ferguson (1896). Civil rights movement_sentence_150

Plessy v. Ferguson was segregation in transportation modes. Civil rights movement_sentence_151

Brown v. Board of Education dealt with segregation in education. Civil rights movement_sentence_152

Brown v. Board of Education did set in motion the future overturning of 'separate but equal'. Civil rights movement_sentence_153

On May 18, 1954, Greensboro, North Carolina, became the first city in the South to publicly announce that it would abide by the Supreme Court's Brown v. Board of Education ruling. Civil rights movement_sentence_154

"It is unthinkable,' remarked School Board Superintendent Benjamin Smith, 'that we will try to [override] the laws of the United States." Civil rights movement_sentence_155

This positive reception for Brown, together with the appointment of African American David Jones to the school board in 1953, convinced numerous white and black citizens that Greensboro was heading in a progressive direction. Civil rights movement_sentence_156

Integration in Greensboro occurred rather peacefully compared to the process in Southern states such as Alabama, Arkansas, and Virginia where "massive resistance" was practiced by top officials and throughout the states. Civil rights movement_sentence_157

In Virginia, some counties closed their public schools rather than integrate, and many white Christian private schools were founded to accommodate students who used to go to public schools. Civil rights movement_sentence_158

Even in Greensboro, much local resistance to desegregation continued, and in 1969, the federal government found the city was not in compliance with the 1964 Civil Rights Act. Civil rights movement_sentence_159

Transition to a fully integrated school system did not begin until 1971. Civil rights movement_sentence_160

Many Northern cities also had de facto segregation policies, which resulted in a vast gulf in educational resources between black and white communities. Civil rights movement_sentence_161

In Harlem, New York, for example, neither a single new school was built since the turn of the century, nor did a single nursery school exist – even as the Second Great Migration was causing overcrowding. Civil rights movement_sentence_162

Existing schools tended to be dilapidated and staffed with inexperienced teachers. Civil rights movement_sentence_163

Brown helped stimulate activism among New York City parents like Mae Mallory who, with the support of the NAACP, initiated a successful lawsuit against the city and state on Brown's principles. Civil rights movement_sentence_164

Mallory and thousands of other parents bolstered the pressure of the lawsuit with a school boycott in 1959. Civil rights movement_sentence_165

During the boycott, some of the first freedom schools of the period were established. Civil rights movement_sentence_166

The city responded to the campaign by permitting more open transfers to high-quality, historically-white schools. Civil rights movement_sentence_167

(New York's African-American community, and Northern desegregation activists generally, now found themselves contending with the problem of white flight, however.) Civil rights movement_sentence_168

Emmett Till's murder, 1955 Civil rights movement_section_7

Main article: Emmett Till Civil rights movement_sentence_169

Emmett Till, a 14-year old African American from Chicago, visited his relatives in Money, Mississippi, for the summer. Civil rights movement_sentence_170

He allegedly had an interaction with a white woman, Carolyn Bryant, in a small grocery store that violated the norms of Mississippi culture, and Bryant's husband Roy and his half-brother J. W. Milam brutally murdered young Emmett Till. Civil rights movement_sentence_171

They beat and mutilated him before shooting him in the head and sinking his body in the Tallahatchie River. Civil rights movement_sentence_172

Three days later, Till's body was discovered and retrieved from the river. Civil rights movement_sentence_173

After Emmett's mother, Mamie Till, came to identify the remains of her son, she decided she wanted to "let the people see what I have seen". Civil rights movement_sentence_174

Till's mother then had his body taken back to Chicago where she had it displayed in an open casket during the funeral services where many thousands of visitors arrived to show their respects. Civil rights movement_sentence_175

A later publication of an image at the funeral in Jet is credited as a crucial moment in the civil rights era for displaying in vivid detail the violent racism that was being directed at black people in America. Civil rights movement_sentence_176

In a column for The Atlantic, Vann R. Newkirk wrote: "The trial of his killers became a pageant illuminating the tyranny of white supremacy". Civil rights movement_sentence_177

The state of Mississippi tried two defendants, but they were speedily acquitted by an all-white jury. Civil rights movement_sentence_178

"Emmett's murder," historian Tim Tyson writes, "would never have become a watershed historical moment without Mamie finding the strength to make her private grief a public matter." Civil rights movement_sentence_179

The visceral response to his mother's decision to have an open-casket funeral mobilized the black community throughout the U.S. Civil rights movement_sentence_180

The murder and resulting trial ended up markedly impacting the views of several young black activists. Civil rights movement_sentence_181

Joyce Ladner referred to such activists as the "Emmett Till generation." Civil rights movement_sentence_182

One hundred days after Emmett Till's murder, Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on the bus in Montgomery, Alabama. Civil rights movement_sentence_183

Parks later informed Till's mother that her decision to stay in her seat was guided by the image she still vividly recalled of Till's brutalized remains. Civil rights movement_sentence_184

The glass topped casket that was used for Till's Chicago funeral was found in a cemetery garage in 2009. Civil rights movement_sentence_185

Till had been reburied in a different casket after being exhumed in 2005. Civil rights movement_sentence_186

Till's family decided to donate the original casket to the Smithsonian's National Museum of African American Culture and History, where it is now on display. Civil rights movement_sentence_187

In 2007, Bryant said that she had fabricated the most sensational part of her story in 1955. Civil rights movement_sentence_188

Rosa Parks and the Montgomery bus boycott, 1955–1956 Civil rights movement_section_8

Main articles: Rosa Parks and Montgomery bus boycott Civil rights movement_sentence_189

On December 1, 1955, nine months after a 15-year-old high school student, Claudette Colvin, refused to give up her seat to a white passenger on a public bus in Montgomery, Alabama, and was arrested, Rosa Parks did the same thing. Civil rights movement_sentence_190

Parks soon became the symbol of the resulting Montgomery bus boycott and received national publicity. Civil rights movement_sentence_191

She was later hailed as the "mother of the civil rights movement". Civil rights movement_sentence_192

Parks was secretary of the Montgomery NAACP chapter and had recently returned from a meeting at the Highlander Folk School in Tennessee where nonviolence as a strategy was taught by Myles Horton and others. Civil rights movement_sentence_193

After Parks' arrest, African Americans gathered and organized the Montgomery bus boycott to demand a bus system in which passengers would be treated equally. Civil rights movement_sentence_194

The organization was led by Jo Ann Robinson, a member of the Women's Political Council who had been waiting for the opportunity to boycott the bus system. Civil rights movement_sentence_195

Following Rosa Parks’ arrest, Jo Ann Robinson mimeographed 52,500 leaflets calling for a boycott. Civil rights movement_sentence_196

They were distributed around the city and helped gather the attention of civil rights leaders. Civil rights movement_sentence_197

After the city rejected many of their suggested reforms, the NAACP, led by E. Civil rights movement_sentence_198 D. Nixon, pushed for full desegregation of public buses. Civil rights movement_sentence_199

With the support of most of Montgomery's 50,000 African Americans, the boycott lasted for 381 days, until the local ordinance segregating African Americans and whites on public buses was repealed. Civil rights movement_sentence_200

Ninety percent of African Americans in Montgomery partook in the boycotts, which reduced bus revenue significantly, as they comprised the majority of the riders. Civil rights movement_sentence_201

In November 1956, the United States Supreme Court upheld a district court ruling in the case of Browder v. Gayle and ordered Montgomery's buses desegregated, ending the boycott. Civil rights movement_sentence_202

Local leaders established the Montgomery Improvement Association to focus their efforts. Civil rights movement_sentence_203

Martin Luther King Jr. was elected President of this organization. Civil rights movement_sentence_204

The lengthy protest attracted national attention for him and the city. Civil rights movement_sentence_205

His eloquent appeals to Christian brotherhood and American idealism created a positive impression on people both inside and outside the South. Civil rights movement_sentence_206

Little Rock Crisis, 1957 Civil rights movement_section_9

Main article: Little Rock Nine Civil rights movement_sentence_207

A crisis erupted in Little Rock, Arkansas, when Governor of Arkansas Orval Faubus called out the National Guard on September 4 to prevent entry to the nine African-American students who had sued for the right to attend an integrated school, Little Rock Central High School. Civil rights movement_sentence_208

Under the guidance of Daisy Bates, the nine students had been chosen to attend Central High because of their excellent grades. Civil rights movement_sentence_209

On the first day of school, 15-year-old Elizabeth Eckford was the only one of the nine students who showed up because she did not receive the phone call about the danger of going to school. Civil rights movement_sentence_210

A photo was taken of Eckford being harassed by white protesters outside the school, and the police had to take her away in a patrol car for her protection. Civil rights movement_sentence_211

Afterwards, the nine students had to carpool to school and be escorted by military personnel in jeeps. Civil rights movement_sentence_212

Faubus was not a proclaimed segregationist. Civil rights movement_sentence_213

The Arkansas Democratic Party, which then controlled politics in the state, put significant pressure on Faubus after he had indicated he would investigate bringing Arkansas into compliance with the Brown decision. Civil rights movement_sentence_214

Faubus then took his stand against integration and against the Federal court ruling. Civil rights movement_sentence_215

Faubus' resistance received the attention of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, who was determined to enforce the orders of the Federal courts. Civil rights movement_sentence_216

Critics had charged he was lukewarm, at best, on the goal of desegregation of public schools. Civil rights movement_sentence_217

But, Eisenhower federalized the National Guard in Arkansas and ordered them to return to their barracks. Civil rights movement_sentence_218

Eisenhower deployed elements of the 101st Airborne Division to Little Rock to protect the students. Civil rights movement_sentence_219

The students attended high school under harsh conditions. Civil rights movement_sentence_220

They had to pass through a gauntlet of spitting, jeering whites to arrive at school on their first day, and to put up with harassment from other students for the rest of the year. Civil rights movement_sentence_221

Although federal troops escorted the students between classes, the students were teased and even attacked by white students when the soldiers were not around. Civil rights movement_sentence_222

One of the Little Rock Nine, Minnijean Brown, was suspended for spilling a bowl of chili on the head of a white student who was harassing her in the school lunch line. Civil rights movement_sentence_223

Later, she was expelled for verbally abusing a white female student. Civil rights movement_sentence_224

Only Ernest Green of the Little Rock Nine graduated from Central High School. Civil rights movement_sentence_225

After the 1957–58 school year was over, Little Rock closed its public school system completely rather than continue to integrate. Civil rights movement_sentence_226

Other school systems across the South followed suit. Civil rights movement_sentence_227

The method of nonviolence and nonviolence training Civil rights movement_section_10

During the time period considered to be the "African-American civil rights" era, the predominant use of protest was nonviolent, or peaceful. Civil rights movement_sentence_228

Often referred to as pacifism, the method of nonviolence is considered to be an attempt to impact society positively. Civil rights movement_sentence_229

Although acts of racial discrimination have occurred historically throughout the United States, perhaps the most violent regions have been in the former Confederate states. Civil rights movement_sentence_230

During the 1950s and 1960s, the nonviolent protesting of the civil rights movement caused definite tension, which gained national attention. Civil rights movement_sentence_231

In order to prepare for protests physically and psychologically, demonstrators received training in nonviolence. Civil rights movement_sentence_232

According to former civil rights activist Bruce Hartford, there are two main branches of nonviolence training. Civil rights movement_sentence_233

There is the philosophical method, which involves understanding the method of nonviolence and why it is considered useful, and there is the tactical method, which ultimately teaches demonstrators "how to be a protestor—how to sit-in, how to picket, how to defend yourself against attack, giving training on how to remain cool when people are screaming racist insults into your face and pouring stuff on you and hitting you" (Civil Rights Movement Archive). Civil rights movement_sentence_234

The philosophical method of nonviolence, in the American civil rights movement, was largely inspired by Mahatma Gandhi's "non-cooperation" with the British colonists in India, which was intended to gain attention so that the public would either "intervene in advance," or "provide public pressure in support of the action to be taken" (Erikson, 415). Civil rights movement_sentence_235

As Hartford explains it, philosophical nonviolence training aims to "shape the individual person's attitude and mental response to crises and violence" (Civil Rights Movement Archive). Civil rights movement_sentence_236

Hartford and activists like him, who trained in tactical nonviolence, considered it necessary in order to ensure physical safety, instill discipline, teach demonstrators how to demonstrate, and form mutual confidence among demonstrators (Civil Rights Movement Archive). Civil rights movement_sentence_237

For many, the concept of nonviolent protest was a way of life, a culture. Civil rights movement_sentence_238

However, not everyone agreed with this notion. Civil rights movement_sentence_239

James Forman, former SNCC (and later Black Panther) member, and nonviolence trainer, was among those who did not. Civil rights movement_sentence_240

In his autobiography, The Making of Black Revolutionaries, Forman revealed his perspective on the method of nonviolence as "strictly a tactic, not a way of life without limitations." Civil rights movement_sentence_241

Similarly, Bob Moses, who was also an active member of SNCC, felt that the method of nonviolence was practical. Civil rights movement_sentence_242

When interviewed by author Robert Penn Warren, Moses said "There's no question that he (Martin Luther King Jr.) had a great deal of influence with the masses. Civil rights movement_sentence_243

But I don't think it's in the direction of love. Civil rights movement_sentence_244

It's in a practical direction . Civil rights movement_sentence_245

. Civil rights movement_sentence_246

." Civil rights movement_sentence_247

(Who Speaks for the Negro? Civil rights movement_sentence_248

Warren). Civil rights movement_sentence_249

According to a 2020 study in the American Political Science Review, nonviolent civil rights protests boosted vote shares for the Democratic party in presidential elections in nearby counties, but violent protests substantially boosted white support for Republicans in counties near to the violent protests. Civil rights movement_sentence_250

Robert F. Williams and the debate on nonviolence, 1959–1964 Civil rights movement_section_11

The Jim Crow system employed "terror as a means of social control," with the most organized manifestations being the Ku Klux Klan and their collaborators in local police departments. Civil rights movement_sentence_251

This violence played a key role in blocking the progress of the civil rights movement in the late 1950s. Civil rights movement_sentence_252

Some black organizations in the South began practicing armed self-defense. Civil rights movement_sentence_253

The first to do so openly was the Monroe, North Carolina, chapter of the NAACP led by Robert F. Williams. Civil rights movement_sentence_254

Williams had rebuilt the chapter after its membership was terrorized out of public life by the Klan. Civil rights movement_sentence_255

He did so by encouraging a new, more working-class membership to arm itself thoroughly and defend against attack. Civil rights movement_sentence_256

When Klan nightriders attacked the home of NAACP member Albert Perry in October 1957, Williams' militia exchanged gunfire with the stunned Klansmen, who quickly retreated. Civil rights movement_sentence_257

The following day, the city council held an emergency session and passed an ordinance banning KKK motorcades. Civil rights movement_sentence_258

One year later, Lumbee Indians in North Carolina would have a similarly successful armed stand-off with the Klan (known as the Battle of Hayes Pond) which resulted in KKK leader James W. "Catfish" Cole being convicted of incitement to riot. Civil rights movement_sentence_259

After the acquittal of several white men charged with sexually assaulting black women in Monroe, Williams announced to United Press International reporters that he would "meet violence with violence" as a policy. Civil rights movement_sentence_260

Williams' declaration was quoted on the front page of The New York Times, and The Carolina Times considered it "the biggest civil rights story of 1959". Civil rights movement_sentence_261

NAACP National chairman Roy Wilkins immediately suspended Williams from his position, but the Monroe organizer won support from numerous NAACP chapters across the country. Civil rights movement_sentence_262

Ultimately, Wilkins resorted to bribing influential organizer Daisy Bates to campaign against Williams at the NAACP national convention and the suspension was upheld. Civil rights movement_sentence_263

The convention nonetheless passed a resolution which stated: "We do not deny, but reaffirm the right of individual and collective self-defense against unlawful assaults." Civil rights movement_sentence_264

Martin Luther King Jr. argued for Williams' removal, but Ella Baker and WEB Dubois both publicly praised the Monroe leader's position. Civil rights movement_sentence_265

Williams—along with his wife, Mabel Williams—continued to play a leadership role in the Monroe movement, and to some degree, in the national movement. Civil rights movement_sentence_266

The Williamses published The Crusader, a nationally circulated newsletter, beginning in 1960, and the influential book Negroes With Guns in 1962. Civil rights movement_sentence_267

Williams did not call for full militarization in this period, but "flexibility in the freedom struggle." Civil rights movement_sentence_268

Williams was well-versed in legal tactics and publicity, which he had used successfully in the internationally known "Kissing Case" of 1958, as well as nonviolent methods, which he used at lunch counter sit-ins in Monroe—all with armed self-defense as a complementary tactic. Civil rights movement_sentence_269

Williams led the Monroe movement in another armed stand-off with white supremacists during an August 1961 Freedom Ride; he had been invited to participate in the campaign by Ella Baker and James Forman of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). Civil rights movement_sentence_270

The incident (along with his campaigns for peace with Cuba) resulted in him being targeted by the FBI and prosecuted for kidnapping; he was cleared of all charges in 1976. Civil rights movement_sentence_271

Meanwhile, armed self-defense continued discreetly in the Southern movement with such figures as SNCC's Amzie Moore, Hartman Turnbow, and Fannie Lou Hamer all willing to use arms to defend their lives from nightrides. Civil rights movement_sentence_272

Taking refuge from the FBI in Cuba, the Willamses broadcast the radio show Radio Free Dixie throughout the eastern United States via Radio Progresso beginning in 1962. Civil rights movement_sentence_273

In this period, Williams advocated guerilla warfare against racist institutions and saw the large ghetto riots of the era as a manifestation of his strategy. Civil rights movement_sentence_274

University of North Carolina historian Walter Rucker has written that "the emergence of Robert F Williams contributed to the marked decline in anti-black racial violence in the U.S....After centuries of anti-black violence, African Americans across the country began to defend their communities aggressively—employing overt force when necessary. Civil rights movement_sentence_275

This in turn evoked in whites real fear of black vengeance..." This opened up space for African Americans to use nonviolent demonstration with less fear of deadly reprisal. Civil rights movement_sentence_276

Of the many civil rights activists who share this view, the most prominent was Rosa Parks. Civil rights movement_sentence_277

Parks gave the eulogy at Williams' funeral in 1996, praising him for "his courage and for his commitment to freedom," and concluding that "The sacrifices he made, and what he did, should go down in history and never be forgotten." Civil rights movement_sentence_278

Sit-ins, 1958–1960 Civil rights movement_section_12

See also: Greensboro sit-ins, Nashville sit-ins, and Sit-in movement Civil rights movement_sentence_279

In July 1958, the NAACP Youth Council sponsored sit-ins at the lunch counter of a Dockum Drug Store in downtown Wichita, Kansas. Civil rights movement_sentence_280

After three weeks, the movement successfully got the store to change its policy of segregated seating, and soon afterwards all Dockum stores in Kansas were desegregated. Civil rights movement_sentence_281

This movement was quickly followed in the same year by a student sit-in at a Katz Drug Store in Oklahoma City led by Clara Luper, which also was successful. Civil rights movement_sentence_282

Mostly black students from area colleges led a sit-in at a Woolworth's store in Greensboro, North Carolina. Civil rights movement_sentence_283

On February 1, 1960, four students, Ezell A. Blair Jr., David Richmond, Joseph McNeil, and Franklin McCain from North Carolina Agricultural & Technical College, an all-black college, sat down at the segregated lunch counter to protest Woolworth's policy of excluding African Americans from being served food there. Civil rights movement_sentence_284

The four students purchased small items in other parts of the store and kept their receipts, then sat down at the lunch counter and asked to be served. Civil rights movement_sentence_285

After being denied service, they produced their receipts and asked why their money was good everywhere else at the store, but not at the lunch counter. Civil rights movement_sentence_286

The protesters had been encouraged to dress professionally, to sit quietly, and to occupy every other stool so that potential white sympathizers could join in. Civil rights movement_sentence_287

The Greensboro sit-in was quickly followed by other sit-ins in Richmond, Virginia; Nashville, Tennessee; and Atlanta, Georgia. Civil rights movement_sentence_288

The most immediately effective of these was in Nashville, where hundreds of well organized and highly disciplined college students conducted sit-ins in coordination with a boycott campaign. Civil rights movement_sentence_289

As students across the south began to "sit-in" at the lunch counters of local stores, police and other officials sometimes used brutal force to physically escort the demonstrators from the lunch facilities. Civil rights movement_sentence_290

The "sit-in" technique was not new—as far back as 1939, African-American attorney Samuel Wilbert Tucker organized a sit-in at the then-segregated Alexandria, Virginia, library. Civil rights movement_sentence_291

In 1960 the technique succeeded in bringing national attention to the movement. Civil rights movement_sentence_292

On March 9, 1960, an Atlanta University Center group of students released An Appeal for Human Rights as a full page advertisement in newspapers, including the Atlanta Constitution, Atlanta Journal, and Atlanta Daily World. Civil rights movement_sentence_293

Known as the Committee on Appeal for Human Rights (COAHR), the group initiated the Atlanta Student Movement and began to lead sit-ins starting on March 15, 1960. Civil rights movement_sentence_294

By the end of 1960, the process of sit-ins had spread to every southern and border state, and even to facilities in Nevada, Illinois, and Ohio that discriminated against blacks. Civil rights movement_sentence_295

Demonstrators focused not only on lunch counters but also on parks, beaches, libraries, theaters, museums, and other public facilities. Civil rights movement_sentence_296

In April 1960 activists who had led these sit-ins were invited by SCLC activist Ella Baker to hold a conference at Shaw University, a historically black university in Raleigh, North Carolina. Civil rights movement_sentence_297

This conference led to the formation of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). Civil rights movement_sentence_298

SNCC took these tactics of nonviolent confrontation further, and organized the freedom rides. Civil rights movement_sentence_299

As the constitution protected interstate commerce, they decided to challenge segregation on interstate buses and in public bus facilities by putting interracial teams on them, to travel from the North through the segregated South. Civil rights movement_sentence_300

Freedom Rides, 1961 Civil rights movement_section_13

Main article: Freedom Rider Civil rights movement_sentence_301

Freedom Rides were journeys by civil rights activists on interstate buses into the segregated southern United States to test the United States Supreme Court decision Boynton v. Virginia (1960), which ruled that segregation was unconstitutional for passengers engaged in interstate travel. Civil rights movement_sentence_302

Organized by CORE, the first Freedom Ride of the 1960s left Washington D.C. on May 4, 1961, and was scheduled to arrive in New Orleans on May 17. Civil rights movement_sentence_303

During the first and subsequent Freedom Rides, activists traveled through the Deep South to integrate seating patterns on buses and desegregate bus terminals, including restrooms and water fountains. Civil rights movement_sentence_304

That proved to be a dangerous mission. Civil rights movement_sentence_305

In Anniston, Alabama, one bus was firebombed, forcing its passengers to flee for their lives. Civil rights movement_sentence_306

In Birmingham, Alabama, an FBI informant reported that Public Safety Commissioner Eugene "Bull" Connor gave Ku Klux Klan members fifteen minutes to attack an incoming group of freedom riders before having police "protect" them. Civil rights movement_sentence_307

The riders were severely beaten "until it looked like a bulldog had got a hold of them." Civil rights movement_sentence_308

James Peck, a white activist, was beaten so badly that he required fifty stitches to his head. Civil rights movement_sentence_309

In a similar occurrence in Montgomery, Alabama, the Freedom Riders followed in the footsteps of Rosa Parks and rode an integrated Greyhound bus from Birmingham. Civil rights movement_sentence_310

Although they were protesting interstate bus segregation in peace, they were met with violence in Montgomery as a large, white mob attacked them for their activism. Civil rights movement_sentence_311

They caused an enormous, 2-hour long riot which resulted in 22 injuries, five of whom were hospitalized. Civil rights movement_sentence_312

Mob violence in Anniston and Birmingham temporarily halted the rides. Civil rights movement_sentence_313

SNCC activists from Nashville brought in new riders to continue the journey from Birmingham to New Orleans. Civil rights movement_sentence_314

In Montgomery, Alabama, at the Greyhound Bus Station, a mob charged another busload of riders, knocking John Lewis unconscious with a crate and smashing Life photographer Don Urbrock in the face with his own camera. Civil rights movement_sentence_315

A dozen men surrounded James Zwerg, a white student from Fisk University, and beat him in the face with a suitcase, knocking out his teeth. Civil rights movement_sentence_316

On May 24, 1961, the freedom riders continued their rides into Jackson, Mississippi, where they were arrested for "breaching the peace" by using "white only" facilities. Civil rights movement_sentence_317

New Freedom Rides were organized by many different organizations and continued to flow into the South. Civil rights movement_sentence_318

As riders arrived in Jackson, they were arrested. Civil rights movement_sentence_319

By the end of summer, more than 300 had been jailed in Mississippi. Civil rights movement_sentence_320

The jailed freedom riders were treated harshly, crammed into tiny, filthy cells and sporadically beaten. Civil rights movement_sentence_321

In Jackson, some male prisoners were forced to do hard labor in 100 °F heat. Civil rights movement_sentence_322

Others were transferred to the Mississippi State Penitentiary at Parchman, where they were treated to harsh conditions. Civil rights movement_sentence_323

Sometimes the men were suspended by "wrist breakers" from the walls. Civil rights movement_sentence_324

Typically, the windows of their cells were shut tight on hot days, making it hard for them to breathe. Civil rights movement_sentence_325

Public sympathy and support for the freedom riders led John F. Kennedy's administration to order the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) to issue a new desegregation order. Civil rights movement_sentence_326

When the new ICC rule took effect on November 1, 1961, passengers were permitted to sit wherever they chose on the bus; "white" and "colored" signs came down in the terminals; separate drinking fountains, toilets, and waiting rooms were consolidated; and lunch counters began serving people regardless of skin color. Civil rights movement_sentence_327

The student movement involved such celebrated figures as John Lewis, a single-minded activist; James Lawson, the revered "guru" of nonviolent theory and tactics; Diane Nash, an articulate and intrepid public champion of justice; Bob Moses, pioneer of voting registration in Mississippi; and James Bevel, a fiery preacher and charismatic organizer, strategist, and facilitator. Civil rights movement_sentence_328

Other prominent student activists included Dion Diamond, Charles McDew, Bernard Lafayette, Charles Jones, Lonnie King, Julian Bond, Hosea Williams, and Stokely Carmichael. Civil rights movement_sentence_329

Voter registration organizing Civil rights movement_section_14

After the Freedom Rides, local black leaders in Mississippi such as Amzie Moore, Aaron Henry, Medgar Evers, and others asked SNCC to help register black voters and to build community organizations that could win a share of political power in the state. Civil rights movement_sentence_330

Since Mississippi ratified its new constitution in 1890 with provisions such as poll taxes, residency requirements, and literacy tests, it made registration more complicated and stripped blacks from voter rolls and voting. Civil rights movement_sentence_331

Also, violence at the time of elections had earlier suppressed black voting. Civil rights movement_sentence_332

By the mid-20th century, preventing blacks from voting had become an essential part of the culture of white supremacy. Civil rights movement_sentence_333

In June and July 1959, members of the black community in Fayette County, TN formed the Fayette County Civic and Welfare League to spur voting. Civil rights movement_sentence_334

At the time, there were 16,927 blacks in the county, yet only 17 of them had voted in the previous seven years. Civil rights movement_sentence_335

Within a year, some 1,400 blacks had registered, and the white community responded with harsh economic reprisals. Civil rights movement_sentence_336

Using registration rolls, the White Citizens Council circulated a blacklist of all registered black voters, allowing banks, local stores, and gas stations to conspire to deny registered black voters essential services. Civil rights movement_sentence_337

What's more, sharecropping blacks who registered to vote were getting evicted from their homes. Civil rights movement_sentence_338

All in all, the number of evictions came to 257 families, many of whom were forced to live in a makeshift Tent City for well over a year. Civil rights movement_sentence_339

Finally, in December 1960, the Justice Department invoked its powers authorized by the Civil Rights Act of 1957 to file a suit against seventy parties accused of violating the civil rights of black Fayette County citizens. Civil rights movement_sentence_340

In the following year the first voter registration project in McComb and the surrounding counties in the Southwest corner of the state. Civil rights movement_sentence_341

Their efforts were met with violent repression from state and local lawmen, the White Citizens' Council, and the Ku Klux Klan. Civil rights movement_sentence_342

Activists were beaten, there were hundreds of arrests of local citizens, and the voting activist Herbert Lee was murdered. Civil rights movement_sentence_343

White opposition to black voter registration was so intense in Mississippi that Freedom Movement activists concluded that all of the state's civil rights organizations had to unite in a coordinated effort to have any chance of success. Civil rights movement_sentence_344

In February 1962, representatives of SNCC, CORE, and the NAACP formed the Council of Federated Organizations (COFO). Civil rights movement_sentence_345

At a subsequent meeting in August, SCLC became part of COFO. Civil rights movement_sentence_346

In the Spring of 1962, with funds from the Voter Education Project, SNCC/COFO began voter registration organizing in the Mississippi Delta area around Greenwood, and the areas surrounding Hattiesburg, Laurel, and Holly Springs. Civil rights movement_sentence_347

As in McComb, their efforts were met with fierce opposition—arrests, beatings, shootings, arson, and murder. Civil rights movement_sentence_348

Registrars used the literacy test to keep blacks off the voting rolls by creating standards that even highly educated people could not meet. Civil rights movement_sentence_349

In addition, employers fired blacks who tried to register, and landlords evicted them from their rental homes. Civil rights movement_sentence_350

Despite these actions, over the following years, the black voter registration campaign spread across the state. Civil rights movement_sentence_351

Similar voter registration campaigns—with similar responses—were begun by SNCC, CORE, and SCLC in Louisiana, Alabama, southwest Georgia, and South Carolina. Civil rights movement_sentence_352

By 1963, voter registration campaigns in the South were as integral to the Freedom Movement as desegregation efforts. Civil rights movement_sentence_353

After the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, protecting and facilitating voter registration despite state barriers became the main effort of the movement. Civil rights movement_sentence_354

It resulted in the passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which had provisions to enforce the constitutional right to vote for all citizens. Civil rights movement_sentence_355

Integration of Mississippi universities, 1956–1965 Civil rights movement_section_15

Beginning in 1956, Clyde Kennard, a black Korean War-veteran, wanted to enroll at Mississippi Southern College (now the University of Southern Mississippi) at Hattiesburg under the G.I. Civil rights movement_sentence_356 Bill. Civil rights movement_sentence_357

William David McCain, the college president, used the Mississippi State Sovereignty Commission, in order to prevent his enrollment by appealing to local black leaders and the segregationist state political establishment. Civil rights movement_sentence_358

The state-funded organization tried to counter the civil rights movement by positively portraying segregationist policies. Civil rights movement_sentence_359

More significantly, it collected data on activists, harassed them legally, and used economic boycotts against them by threatening their jobs (or causing them to lose their jobs) to try to suppress their work. Civil rights movement_sentence_360

Kennard was twice arrested on trumped-up charges, and eventually convicted and sentenced to seven years in the state prison. Civil rights movement_sentence_361

After three years at hard labor, Kennard was paroled by Mississippi Governor Ross Barnett. Civil rights movement_sentence_362

Journalists had investigated his case and publicized the state's mistreatment of his colon cancer. Civil rights movement_sentence_363

McCain's role in Kennard's arrests and convictions is unknown. Civil rights movement_sentence_364

While trying to prevent Kennard's enrollment, McCain made a speech in Chicago, with his travel sponsored by the Mississippi State Sovereignty Commission. Civil rights movement_sentence_365

He described the blacks' seeking to desegregate Southern schools as "imports" from the North. Civil rights movement_sentence_366

(Kennard was a native and resident of Hattiesburg.) Civil rights movement_sentence_367

McCain said: Civil rights movement_sentence_368

Note: Mississippi had passed a new constitution in 1890 that effectively disfranchised most blacks by changing electoral and voter registration requirements; although it deprived them of constitutional rights authorized under post-Civil War amendments, it survived U.S. Civil rights movement_sentence_369 Supreme Court challenges at the time. Civil rights movement_sentence_370

It was not until after passage of the 1965 Voting Rights Act that most blacks in Mississippi and other southern states gained federal protection to enforce the constitutional right of citizens to vote. Civil rights movement_sentence_371

In September 1962, James Meredith won a lawsuit to secure admission to the previously segregated University of Mississippi. Civil rights movement_sentence_372

He attempted to enter campus on September 20, on September 25, and again on September 26. Civil rights movement_sentence_373

He was blocked by Mississippi Governor Ross Barnett, who said, "[N]o school will be integrated in Mississippi while I am your Governor." Civil rights movement_sentence_374

The Fifth U.S. Civil rights movement_sentence_375 Circuit Court of Appeals held Barnett and Lieutenant Governor Paul B. Johnson Jr. in contempt, ordering them arrested and fined more than $10,000 for each day they refused to allow Meredith to enroll. Civil rights movement_sentence_376

Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy sent in a force of U.S. Civil rights movement_sentence_377 Marshals and deputized U.S. Civil rights movement_sentence_378 Border Patrol agents and Federal Bureau of Prisons officers. Civil rights movement_sentence_379

On September 30, 1962, Meredith entered the campus under their escort. Civil rights movement_sentence_380

Students and other whites began rioting that evening, throwing rocks and firing on the federal agents guarding Meredith at Lyceum Hall. Civil rights movement_sentence_381

Rioters ended up killing two civilians, including a French journalist; 28 federal agents suffered gunshot wounds, and 160 others were injured. Civil rights movement_sentence_382

President John F. Kennedy sent U.S. Civil rights movement_sentence_383 Army and federalized Mississippi National Guard forces to the campus to quell the riot. Civil rights movement_sentence_384

Meredith began classes the day after the troops arrived. Civil rights movement_sentence_385

Kennard and other activists continued to work on public university desegregation. Civil rights movement_sentence_386

In 1965 Raylawni Branch and Gwendolyn Elaine Armstrong became the first African-American students to attend the University of Southern Mississippi. Civil rights movement_sentence_387

By that time, McCain helped ensure they had a peaceful entry. Civil rights movement_sentence_388

In 2006, Judge Robert Helfrich ruled that Kennard was factually innocent of all charges for which he had been convicted in the 1950s. Civil rights movement_sentence_389

Albany Movement, 1961–62 Civil rights movement_section_16

Main article: Albany Movement Civil rights movement_sentence_390

The SCLC, which had been criticized by some student activists for its failure to participate more fully in the freedom rides, committed much of its prestige and resources to a desegregation campaign in Albany, Georgia, in November 1961. Civil rights movement_sentence_391

King, who had been criticized personally by some SNCC activists for his distance from the dangers that local organizers faced—and given the derisive nickname "De Lawd" as a result—intervened personally to assist the campaign led by both SNCC organizers and local leaders. Civil rights movement_sentence_392

The campaign was a failure because of the canny tactics of Laurie Pritchett, the local police chief, and divisions within the black community. Civil rights movement_sentence_393

The goals may not have been specific enough. Civil rights movement_sentence_394

Pritchett contained the marchers without violent attacks on demonstrators that inflamed national opinion. Civil rights movement_sentence_395

He also arranged for arrested demonstrators to be taken to jails in surrounding communities, allowing plenty of room to remain in his jail. Civil rights movement_sentence_396

Pritchett also foresaw King's presence as a danger and forced his release to avoid King's rallying the black community. Civil rights movement_sentence_397

King left in 1962 without having achieved any dramatic victories. Civil rights movement_sentence_398

The local movement, however, continued the struggle, and it obtained significant gains in the next few years. Civil rights movement_sentence_399

Birmingham campaign, 1963 Civil rights movement_section_17

Main article: Birmingham campaign Civil rights movement_sentence_400

The Albany movement was shown to be an important education for the SCLC, however, when it undertook the Birmingham campaign in 1963. Civil rights movement_sentence_401

Executive Director Wyatt Tee Walker carefully planned the early strategy and tactics for the campaign. Civil rights movement_sentence_402

It focused on one goal—the desegregation of Birmingham's downtown merchants, rather than total desegregation, as in Albany. Civil rights movement_sentence_403

The movement's efforts were helped by the brutal response of local authorities, in particular Eugene "Bull" Connor, the Commissioner of Public Safety. Civil rights movement_sentence_404

He had long held much political power but had lost a recent election for mayor to a less rabidly segregationist candidate. Civil rights movement_sentence_405

Refusing to accept the new mayor's authority, Connor intended to stay in office. Civil rights movement_sentence_406

The campaign used a variety of nonviolent methods of confrontation, including sit-ins, kneel-ins at local churches, and a march to the county building to mark the beginning of a drive to register voters. Civil rights movement_sentence_407

The city, however, obtained an injunction barring all such protests. Civil rights movement_sentence_408

Convinced that the order was unconstitutional, the campaign defied it and prepared for mass arrests of its supporters. Civil rights movement_sentence_409

King elected to be among those arrested on April 12, 1963. Civil rights movement_sentence_410

While in jail, King wrote his famous "Letter from Birmingham Jail" on the margins of a newspaper, since he had not been allowed any writing paper while held in solitary confinement. Civil rights movement_sentence_411

Supporters appealed to the Kennedy administration, which intervened to obtain King's release. Civil rights movement_sentence_412

Walter Reuther, president of the United Auto Workers, arranged for $160,000 to bail out King and his fellow protestors. Civil rights movement_sentence_413

King was allowed to call his wife, who was recuperating at home after the birth of their fourth child and was released early on April 19. Civil rights movement_sentence_414

The campaign, however, faltered as it ran out of demonstrators willing to risk arrest. Civil rights movement_sentence_415

James Bevel, SCLC's Director of Direct Action and Director of Nonviolent Education, then came up with a bold and controversial alternative: to train high school students to take part in the demonstrations. Civil rights movement_sentence_416

As a result, in what would be called the Children's Crusade, more than one thousand students skipped school on May 2 to meet at the 16th Street Baptist Church to join the demonstrations. Civil rights movement_sentence_417

More than six hundred marched out of the church fifty at a time in an attempt to walk to City Hall to speak to Birmingham's mayor about segregation. Civil rights movement_sentence_418

They were arrested and put into jail. Civil rights movement_sentence_419

In this first encounter, the police acted with restraint. Civil rights movement_sentence_420

On the next day, however, another one thousand students gathered at the church. Civil rights movement_sentence_421

When Bevel started them marching fifty at a time, Bull Connor finally unleashed police dogs on them and then turned the city's fire hoses water streams on the children. Civil rights movement_sentence_422

National television networks broadcast the scenes of the dogs attacking demonstrators and the water from the fire hoses knocking down the schoolchildren. Civil rights movement_sentence_423

Widespread public outrage led the Kennedy administration to intervene more forcefully in negotiations between the white business community and the SCLC. Civil rights movement_sentence_424

On May 10, the parties announced an agreement to desegregate the lunch counters and other public accommodations downtown, to create a committee to eliminate discriminatory hiring practices, to arrange for the release of jailed protesters, and to establish regular means of communication between black and white leaders. Civil rights movement_sentence_425

Not everyone in the black community approved of the agreement—Fred Shuttlesworth was particularly critical, since he was skeptical about the good faith of Birmingham's power structure from his experience in dealing with them. Civil rights movement_sentence_426

Parts of the white community reacted violently. Civil rights movement_sentence_427

They bombed the Gaston Motel, which housed the SCLC's unofficial headquarters, and the home of King's brother, the Reverend A. D. King. Civil rights movement_sentence_428

In response, thousands of blacks rioted, burning numerous buildings and one of them stabbed and wounded a police officer. Civil rights movement_sentence_429

Kennedy prepared to federalize the Alabama National Guard if the need arose. Civil rights movement_sentence_430

Four months later, on September 15, a conspiracy of Ku Klux Klan members bombed the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, killing four young girls. Civil rights movement_sentence_431

"Rising tide of discontent" and Kennedy's response, 1963 Civil rights movement_section_18

Main articles: Gloria Richardson, Stand in the Schoolhouse Door, and Civil Rights Address Civil rights movement_sentence_432

Birmingham was only one of over a hundred cities rocked by the chaotic protest that spring and summer, some of them in the North but mainly in the South. Civil rights movement_sentence_433

During the March on Washington, Martin Luther King Jr. would refer to such protests as "the whirlwinds of revolt." Civil rights movement_sentence_434

In Chicago, blacks rioted through the South Side in late May after a white police officer shot a fourteen-year-old black boy who was fleeing the scene of a robbery. Civil rights movement_sentence_435

Violent clashes between black activists and white workers took place in both Philadelphia and Harlem in successful efforts to integrate state construction projects. Civil rights movement_sentence_436

On June 6, over a thousand whites attacked a sit-in in Lexington, North Carolina; blacks fought back and one white man was killed. Civil rights movement_sentence_437

Edwin C. Berry of the National Urban League warned of a complete breakdown in race relations: "My message from the beer gardens and the barbershops all indicate the fact that the Negro is ready for war." Civil rights movement_sentence_438

In Cambridge, Maryland, a working‐class city on the Eastern Shore, Gloria Richardson of SNCC led a movement that pressed for desegregation but also demanded low‐rent public housing, job‐training, public and private jobs, and an end to police brutality. Civil rights movement_sentence_439

On June 11, struggles between blacks and whites escalated into violent rioting, leading Maryland Governor J. Civil rights movement_sentence_440 Millard Tawes to declare martial law. Civil rights movement_sentence_441

When negotiations between Richardson and Maryland officials faltered, Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy directly intervened to negotiate a desegregation agreement. Civil rights movement_sentence_442

Richardson felt that the increasing participation of poor and working-class blacks was expanding both the power and parameters of the movement, asserting that "the people as a whole really do have more intelligence than a few of their leaders.ʺ Civil rights movement_sentence_443

In their deliberations during this wave of protests, the Kennedy administration privately felt that militant demonstrations were ʺbad for the countryʺ and that "Negroes are going to push this thing too far." Civil rights movement_sentence_444

On May 24, Robert Kennedy had a meeting with prominent black intellectuals to discuss the racial situation. Civil rights movement_sentence_445

The blacks criticized Kennedy harshly for vacillating on civil rights and said that the African-American community's thoughts were increasingly turning to violence. Civil rights movement_sentence_446

The meeting ended with ill will on all sides. Civil rights movement_sentence_447

Nonetheless, the Kennedys ultimately decided that new legislation for equal public accommodations was essential to drive activists "into the courts and out of the streets." Civil rights movement_sentence_448

On June 11, 1963, George Wallace, Governor of Alabama, tried to block the integration of the University of Alabama. Civil rights movement_sentence_449

President John F. Kennedy sent a military force to make Governor Wallace step aside, allowing the enrollment of Vivian Malone Jones and James Hood. Civil rights movement_sentence_450

That evening, President Kennedy addressed the nation on TV and radio with his historic civil rights speech, where he lamented "a rising tide of discontent that threatens the public safety." Civil rights movement_sentence_451

He called on Congress to pass new civil rights legislation, and urged the country to embrace civil rights as "a moral issue...in our daily lives." Civil rights movement_sentence_452

In the early hours of June 12, Medgar Evers, field secretary of the Mississippi NAACP, was assassinated by a member of the Klan. Civil rights movement_sentence_453

The next week, as promised, on June 19, 1963, President Kennedy submitted his Civil Rights bill to Congress. Civil rights movement_sentence_454

March on Washington, 1963 Civil rights movement_section_19

Main article: March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom Civil rights movement_sentence_455

A. Philip Randolph had planned a march on Washington, D.C., in 1941 to support demands for elimination of employment discrimination in defense industries; he called off the march when the Roosevelt administration met the demand by issuing Executive Order 8802 barring racial discrimination and creating an agency to oversee compliance with the order. Civil rights movement_sentence_456

Randolph and Bayard Rustin were the chief planners of the second march, which they proposed in 1962. Civil rights movement_sentence_457

In 1963, the Kennedy administration initially opposed the march out of concern it would negatively impact the drive for passage of civil rights legislation. Civil rights movement_sentence_458

However, Randolph and King were firm that the march would proceed. Civil rights movement_sentence_459

With the march going forward, the Kennedys decided it was important to work to ensure its success. Civil rights movement_sentence_460

Concerned about the turnout, President Kennedy enlisted the aid of white church leaders and Walter Reuther, president of the UAW, to help mobilize white supporters for the march. Civil rights movement_sentence_461

The march was held on August 28, 1963. Civil rights movement_sentence_462

Unlike the planned 1941 march, for which Randolph included only black-led organizations in the planning, the 1963 march was a collaborative effort of all of the major civil rights organizations, the more progressive wing of the labor movement, and other liberal organizations. Civil rights movement_sentence_463

The march had six official goals: Civil rights movement_sentence_464

Civil rights movement_unordered_list_1

  • meaningful civil rights lawsCivil rights movement_item_1_4
  • a massive federal works programCivil rights movement_item_1_5
  • full and fair employmentCivil rights movement_item_1_6
  • decent housingCivil rights movement_item_1_7
  • the right to voteCivil rights movement_item_1_8
  • adequate integrated education.Civil rights movement_item_1_9

Of these, the march's major focus was on passage of the civil rights law that the Kennedy administration had proposed after the upheavals in Birmingham. Civil rights movement_sentence_465

National media attention also greatly contributed to the march's national exposure and probable impact. Civil rights movement_sentence_466

In the essay "The March on Washington and Television News," historian William Thomas notes: "Over five hundred cameramen, technicians, and correspondents from the major networks were set to cover the event. Civil rights movement_sentence_467

More cameras would be set up than had filmed the last presidential inauguration. Civil rights movement_sentence_468

One camera was positioned high in the Washington Monument, to give dramatic vistas of the marchers". Civil rights movement_sentence_469

By carrying the organizers' speeches and offering their own commentary, television stations framed the way their local audiences saw and understood the event. Civil rights movement_sentence_470

The march was a success, although not without controversy. Civil rights movement_sentence_471

An estimated 200,000 to 300,000 demonstrators gathered in front of the Lincoln Memorial, where King delivered his famous "I Have a Dream" speech. Civil rights movement_sentence_472

While many speakers applauded the Kennedy administration for the efforts it had made toward obtaining new, more effective civil rights legislation protecting the right to vote and outlawing segregation, John Lewis of SNCC took the administration to task for not doing more to protect southern blacks and civil rights workers under attack in the Deep South. Civil rights movement_sentence_473

After the march, King and other civil rights leaders met with President Kennedy at the White House. Civil rights movement_sentence_474

While the Kennedy administration appeared sincerely committed to passing the bill, it was not clear that it had enough votes in Congress to do so. Civil rights movement_sentence_475

However, when President Kennedy was assassinated on November 22, 1963, the new President Lyndon Johnson decided to use his influence in Congress to bring about much of Kennedy's legislative agenda. Civil rights movement_sentence_476

Malcolm X joins the movement, 1964–1965 Civil rights movement_section_20

Main articles: Malcolm X, Black Nationalism, and The Ballot or the Bullet Civil rights movement_sentence_477

In March 1964, Malcolm X (el-Hajj Malik el-Shabazz), national representative of the Nation of Islam, formally broke with that organization, and made a public offer to collaborate with any civil rights organization that accepted the right to self-defense and the philosophy of Black nationalism (which Malcolm said no longer required Black separatism). Civil rights movement_sentence_478

Gloria Richardson, head of the Cambridge, Maryland, chapter of SNCC, and leader of the Cambridge rebellion, an honored guest at The March on Washington, immediately embraced Malcolm's offer. Civil rights movement_sentence_479

Mrs. Richardson, "the nation's most prominent woman [civil rights] leader," told The Baltimore Afro-American that "Malcolm is being very practical...The federal government has moved into conflict situations only when matters approach the level of insurrection. Civil rights movement_sentence_480

Self-defense may force Washington to intervene sooner." Civil rights movement_sentence_481

Earlier, in May 1963, writer and activist James Baldwin had stated publicly that "the Black Muslim movement is the only one in the country we can call grassroots, I hate to say it...Malcolm articulates for Negroes, their suffering...he corroborates their reality..." On the local level, Malcolm and the NOI had been allied with the Harlem chapter of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) since at least 1962. Civil rights movement_sentence_482

On March 26, 1964, as the Civil Rights Act was facing stiff opposition in Congress, Malcolm had a public meeting with Martin Luther King Jr. at the Capitol. Civil rights movement_sentence_483

Malcolm had tried to begin a dialog with King as early as 1957, but King had rebuffed him. Civil rights movement_sentence_484

Malcolm had responded by calling King an "Uncle Tom", saying he had turned his back on black militancy in order to appease the white power structure. Civil rights movement_sentence_485

But the two men were on good terms at their face-to-face meeting. Civil rights movement_sentence_486

There is evidence that King was preparing to support Malcolm's plan to formally bring the U.S. government before the United Nations on charges of human rights violations against African Americans. Civil rights movement_sentence_487

Malcolm now encouraged Black nationalists to get involved in voter registration drives and other forms of community organizing to redefine and expand the movement. Civil rights movement_sentence_488

Civil rights activists became increasingly combative in the 1963 to 1964 period, seeking to defy such events as the thwarting of the Albany campaign, police repression and Ku Klux Klan terrorism in Birmingham, and the assassination of Medgar Evers. Civil rights movement_sentence_489

The latter's brother Charles Evers, who took over as Mississippi NAACP Field Director, told a public NAACP conference on February 15, 1964, that "non-violence won't work in Mississippi...we made up our minds...that if a white man shoots at a Negro in Mississippi, we will shoot back." Civil rights movement_sentence_490

The repression of sit-ins in Jacksonville, Florida, provoked a riot in which black youth threw Molotov cocktails at police on March 24, 1964. Civil rights movement_sentence_491

Malcolm X gave numerous speeches in this period warning that such militant activity would escalate further if African Americans' rights were not fully recognized. Civil rights movement_sentence_492

In his landmark April 1964 speech "The Ballot or the Bullet", Malcolm presented an ultimatum to white America: "There's new strategy coming in. Civil rights movement_sentence_493

It'll be Molotov cocktails this month, hand grenades next month, and something else next month. Civil rights movement_sentence_494

It'll be ballots, or it'll be bullets." Civil rights movement_sentence_495

As noted in the PBS documentary Eyes on the Prize, "Malcolm X had a far-reaching effect on the civil rights movement. Civil rights movement_sentence_496

In the South, there had been a long tradition of self-reliance. Civil rights movement_sentence_497

Malcolm X's ideas now touched that tradition". Civil rights movement_sentence_498

Self-reliance was becoming paramount in light of the 1964 Democratic National Convention's decision to refuse seating to the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP) and instead to seat the regular state delegation, which had been elected in violation of the party's own rules, and by Jim Crow law instead. Civil rights movement_sentence_499

SNCC moved in an increasingly militant direction and worked with Malcolm X on two Harlem MFDP fundraisers in December 1964. Civil rights movement_sentence_500

When Fannie Lou Hamer spoke to Harlemites about the Jim Crow violence that she'd suffered in Mississippi, she linked it directly to the Northern police brutality against blacks that Malcolm protested against; When Malcolm asserted that African Americans should emulate the Mau Mau army of Kenya in efforts to gain their independence, many in SNCC applauded. Civil rights movement_sentence_501

During the Selma campaign for voting rights in 1965, Malcolm made it known that he'd heard reports of increased threats of lynching around Selma. Civil rights movement_sentence_502

In late January he sent an open telegram to George Lincoln Rockwell, the head of the American Nazi Party, stating: Civil rights movement_sentence_503

The following month, the Selma chapter of SNCC invited Malcolm to speak to a mass meeting there. Civil rights movement_sentence_504

On the day of Malcolm's appearance, President Johnson made his first public statement in support of the Selma campaign. Civil rights movement_sentence_505

Paul Ryan Haygood, a co-director of the NAACP Legal Defense Fund, credits Malcolm with a role in gaining support by the federal government. Civil rights movement_sentence_506

Haygood noted that "shortly after Malcolm's visit to Selma, a federal judge, responding to a suit brought by the Department of Justice, required Dallas County, Alabama, registrars to process at least 100 Black applications each day their offices were open." Civil rights movement_sentence_507

St. Augustine, Florida, 1963–64 Civil rights movement_section_21

Main article: St. Civil rights movement_sentence_508 Augustine movement Civil rights movement_sentence_509

Further information: 1964 Monson Motor Lodge protest Civil rights movement_sentence_510

St. Civil rights movement_sentence_511 Augustine was famous as the "Nation's Oldest City", founded by the Spanish in 1565. Civil rights movement_sentence_512

It became the stage for a great drama leading up to the passage of the landmark Civil Rights Act of 1964. Civil rights movement_sentence_513

A local movement, led by Robert B. Hayling, a black dentist and Air Force veteran affiliated with the NAACP, had been picketing segregated local institutions since 1963. Civil rights movement_sentence_514

In the fall of 1964, Hayling and three companions were brutally beaten at a Ku Klux Klan rally. Civil rights movement_sentence_515

Nightriders shot into black homes, and teenagers Audrey Nell Edwards, JoeAnn Anderson, Samuel White, and Willie Carl Singleton (who came to be known as "The St. Augustine Four") sat in at a local Woolworth's lunch counter, seeking to get served. Civil rights movement_sentence_516

They were arrested and convicted of trespassing, and sentenced to six months in jail and reform school. Civil rights movement_sentence_517

It took a special act of the governor and cabinet of Florida to release them after national protests by the Pittsburgh Courier, Jackie Robinson, and others. Civil rights movement_sentence_518

In response to the repression, the St. Augustine movement practiced armed self-defense in addition to nonviolent direct action. Civil rights movement_sentence_519

In June 1963, Hayling publicly stated that "I and the others have armed. Civil rights movement_sentence_520

We will shoot first and answer questions later. Civil rights movement_sentence_521

We are not going to die like Medgar Evers." Civil rights movement_sentence_522

The comment made national headlines. Civil rights movement_sentence_523

When Klan nightriders terrorized black neighborhoods in St. Augustine, Hayling's NAACP members often drove them off with gunfire. Civil rights movement_sentence_524

In October 1963, a Klansman was killed. Civil rights movement_sentence_525

In 1964, Hayling and other activists urged the Southern Christian Leadership Conference to come to St. Augustine. Civil rights movement_sentence_526

Four prominent Massachusetts women – Mary Parkman Peabody, Esther Burgess, Hester Campbell (all of whose husbands were Episcopal bishops), and Florence Rowe (whose husband was vice president of the John Hancock Insurance Company) – also came to lend their support. Civil rights movement_sentence_527

The arrest of Peabody, the 72-year-old mother of the governor of Massachusetts, for attempting to eat at the segregated Ponce de Leon Motor Lodge in an integrated group, made front-page news across the country and brought the movement in St. Augustine to the attention of the world. Civil rights movement_sentence_528

Widely publicized activities continued in the ensuing months. Civil rights movement_sentence_529

When King was arrested, he sent a "Letter from the St. Augustine Jail" to a northern supporter, Rabbi Israel Dresner. Civil rights movement_sentence_530

A week later, in the largest mass arrest of rabbis in American history took place, while they were conducting a pray-in at the segregated Monson Motel. Civil rights movement_sentence_531

A well-known photograph taken in St. Augustine shows the manager of the Monson Motel pouring muriatic acid in the swimming pool while blacks and whites are swimming in it. Civil rights movement_sentence_532

The horrifying photograph was run on the front page of a Washington newspaper the day the Senate was to vote on passing the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Civil rights movement_sentence_533

Chester school protests, Spring 1964 Civil rights movement_section_22

Main article: Chester school protests Civil rights movement_sentence_534

From November 1963 through April 1964, the Chester school protests were a series of civil rights protests led by George Raymond of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored Persons (NAACP) and Stanley Branche of the Committee for Freedom Now (CFFN) that made Chester, Pennsylvania one of the key battlegrounds of the civil rights movement. Civil rights movement_sentence_535

James Farmer, the national director of the Congress of Racial Equality called Chester "the Birmingham of the North". Civil rights movement_sentence_536

In 1962, Branche and the CFFN focused on improving conditions at the predominantly black Franklin Elementary school in Chester. Civil rights movement_sentence_537

Although the school was built to house 500 students, it had become overcrowded with 1,200 students. Civil rights movement_sentence_538

The school's average class-size was 39, twice the number of nearby all-white schools. Civil rights movement_sentence_539

The school was built in 1910 and had never been updated. Civil rights movement_sentence_540

Only two bathrooms were available for the entire school. Civil rights movement_sentence_541

In November 1963, CFFN protesters blocked the entrance to Franklin Elementary school and the Chester Municipal Building resulting in the arrest of 240 protesters. Civil rights movement_sentence_542

Following public attention to the protests stoked by media coverage of the mass arrests, the mayor and school board negotiated with the CFFN and NAACP. Civil rights movement_sentence_543

The Chester Board of Education agreed to reduce class sizes at Franklin school, remove unsanitary toilet facilities, relocate classes held in the boiler room and coal bin and repair school grounds. Civil rights movement_sentence_544

Emboldened by the success of the Franklin Elementary school demonstrations, the CFFN recruited new members, sponsored voter registration drives and planned a citywide boycott of Chester schools. Civil rights movement_sentence_545

Branche built close ties with students at nearby Swarthmore College, Pennsylvania Military College and Cheyney State College in order to ensure large turnouts at demonstrations and protests. Civil rights movement_sentence_546

Branche invited Dick Gregory and Malcolm X to Chester to participate in the "Freedom Now Conference" and other national civil rights leaders such as Gloria Richardson came to Chester in support of the demonstrations. Civil rights movement_sentence_547

In 1964, a series of almost nightly protests brought chaos to Chester as protestors argued that the Chester School Board had de facto segregation of schools. Civil rights movement_sentence_548

The mayor of Chester, James Gorbey, issued "The Police Position to Preserve the Public Peace", a ten-point statement promising an immediate return to law and order. Civil rights movement_sentence_549

The city deputized firemen and trash collectors to help handle demonstrators. Civil rights movement_sentence_550

The State of Pennsylvania deployed 50 state troopers to assist the 77-member Chester police force. Civil rights movement_sentence_551

The demonstrations were marked by violence and charges of police brutality. Civil rights movement_sentence_552

Over six hundred people were arrested over a two month period of civil rights rallies, marches, pickets, boycotts and sit-ins. Civil rights movement_sentence_553

Pennsylvania Governor William Scranton became involved in the negotiations and convinced Branche to obey a court-ordered moratorium on demonstrations. Civil rights movement_sentence_554

Scranton created the Pennsylvania Human Relations Commission to conduct hearings on the de facto segregation of public schools. Civil rights movement_sentence_555

All protests were discontinued while the commission held hearings during the summer of 1964. Civil rights movement_sentence_556

In November 1964, the Pennsylvania Human Relations Commission concluded that the Chester School Board had violated the law and ordered the Chester School District to desegregate the city's six predominantly African-American schools. Civil rights movement_sentence_557

The city appealed the ruling, which delayed implementation. Civil rights movement_sentence_558

Freedom Summer, 1964 Civil rights movement_section_23

Main article: Freedom Summer Civil rights movement_sentence_559

In the summer of 1964, COFO brought nearly 1,000 activists to Mississippi—most of them white college students from the North and West—to join with local black activists to register voters, teach in "Freedom Schools," and organize the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP). Civil rights movement_sentence_560

Many of Mississippi's white residents deeply resented the outsiders and attempts to change their society. Civil rights movement_sentence_561

State and local governments, police, the White Citizens' Council and the Ku Klux Klan used arrests, beatings, arson, murder, spying, firing, evictions, and other forms of intimidation and harassment to oppose the project and prevent blacks from registering to vote or achieving social equality. Civil rights movement_sentence_562

On June 21, 1964, three civil rights workers disappeared: James Chaney, a young black Mississippian and plasterer's apprentice; and two Jewish activists, Andrew Goodman, a Queens College anthropology student; and Michael Schwerner, a CORE organizer from Manhattan's Lower East Side. Civil rights movement_sentence_563

They were found weeks later, murdered by conspirators who turned out to be local members of the Klan, some of the members of the Neshoba County sheriff's department. Civil rights movement_sentence_564

This outraged the public, leading the U.S. Justice Department along with the FBI (the latter which had previously avoided dealing with the issue of segregation and persecution of blacks) to take action. Civil rights movement_sentence_565

The outrage over these murders helped lead to the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. Civil rights movement_sentence_566

From June to August, Freedom Summer activists worked in 38 local projects scattered across the state, with the largest number concentrated in the Mississippi Delta region. Civil rights movement_sentence_567

At least 30 Freedom Schools, with close to 3,500 students, were established, and 28 community centers set up. Civil rights movement_sentence_568

Over the course of the Summer Project, some 17,000 Mississippi blacks attempted to become registered voters in defiance of the red tape and forces of white supremacy arrayed against them—only 1,600 (less than 10%) succeeded. Civil rights movement_sentence_569

But more than 80,000 joined the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP), founded as an alternative political organization, showing their desire to vote and participate in politics. Civil rights movement_sentence_570

Though Freedom Summer failed to register many voters, it had a significant effect on the course of the civil rights movement. Civil rights movement_sentence_571

It helped break down the decades of people's isolation and repression that were the foundation of the Jim Crow system. Civil rights movement_sentence_572

Before Freedom Summer, the national news media had paid little attention to the persecution of black voters in the Deep South and the dangers endured by black civil rights workers. Civil rights movement_sentence_573

The progression of events throughout the South increased media attention to Mississippi. Civil rights movement_sentence_574

The deaths of affluent northern white students and threats to non-Southerners attracted the full attention of the media spotlight to the state. Civil rights movement_sentence_575

Many black activists became embittered, believing the media valued lives of whites and blacks differently. Civil rights movement_sentence_576

Perhaps the most significant effect of Freedom Summer was on the volunteers, almost all of whom—black and white—still consider it to have been one of the defining periods of their lives. Civil rights movement_sentence_577

Civil Rights Act of 1964 Civil rights movement_section_24

Main article: Civil Rights Act of 1964 Civil rights movement_sentence_578

Although President Kennedy had proposed civil rights legislation and it had support from Northern Congressmen and Senators of both parties, Southern Senators blocked the bill by threatening filibusters. Civil rights movement_sentence_579

After considerable parliamentary maneuvering and 54 days of filibuster on the floor of the United States Senate, President Johnson got a bill through the Congress. Civil rights movement_sentence_580

On July 2, 1964, Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which banned discrimination based on "race, color, religion, sex or national origin" in employment practices and public accommodations. Civil rights movement_sentence_581

The bill authorized the Attorney General to file lawsuits to enforce the new law. Civil rights movement_sentence_582

The law also nullified state and local laws that required such discrimination. Civil rights movement_sentence_583

Harlem riot of 1964 Civil rights movement_section_25

Main article: Harlem riot of 1964 Civil rights movement_sentence_584

When police shot an unarmed black teenager in Harlem in July 1964, tensions escalated out of control. Civil rights movement_sentence_585

Residents were frustrated with racial inequalities. Civil rights movement_sentence_586

Rioting broke out, and Bedford-Stuyvesant, a major black neighborhood in Brooklyn, erupted next. Civil rights movement_sentence_587

That summer, rioting also broke out in Philadelphia, for similar reasons. Civil rights movement_sentence_588

The riots were on a much smaller scale than what would occur in 1965 and later. Civil rights movement_sentence_589

Washington responded with a pilot program called Project Uplift. Civil rights movement_sentence_590

Thousands of young people in Harlem were given jobs during the summer of 1965. Civil rights movement_sentence_591

The project was inspired by a report generated by HARYOU called Youth in the Ghetto. Civil rights movement_sentence_592

HARYOU was given a major role in organizing the project, together with the National Urban League and nearly 100 smaller community organizations. Civil rights movement_sentence_593

Permanent jobs at living wages were still out of reach of many young black men. Civil rights movement_sentence_594

Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party, 1964 Civil rights movement_section_26

Main article: Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party Civil rights movement_sentence_595

Blacks in Mississippi had been disfranchised by statutory and constitutional changes since the late 19th century. Civil rights movement_sentence_596

In 1963 COFO held a Freedom Ballot in Mississippi to demonstrate the desire of black Mississippians to vote. Civil rights movement_sentence_597

More than 80,000 people registered and voted in the mock election, which pitted an integrated slate of candidates from the "Freedom Party" against the official state Democratic Party candidates. Civil rights movement_sentence_598

In 1964, organizers launched the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP) to challenge the all-white official party. Civil rights movement_sentence_599

When Mississippi voting registrars refused to recognize their candidates, they held their own primary. Civil rights movement_sentence_600

They selected Fannie Lou Hamer, Annie Devine, and Victoria Gray to run for Congress, and a slate of delegates to represent Mississippi at the 1964 Democratic National Convention. Civil rights movement_sentence_601

The presence of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party in Atlantic City, New Jersey, was inconvenient, however, for the convention organizers. Civil rights movement_sentence_602

They had planned a triumphant celebration of the Johnson administration's achievements in civil rights, rather than a fight over racism within the Democratic Party. Civil rights movement_sentence_603

All-white delegations from other Southern states threatened to walk out if the official slate from Mississippi was not seated. Civil rights movement_sentence_604

Johnson was worried about the inroads that Republican Barry Goldwater's campaign was making in what previously had been the white Democratic stronghold of the "Solid South", as well as support that George Wallace had received in the North during the Democratic primaries. Civil rights movement_sentence_605

Johnson could not, however, prevent the MFDP from taking its case to the Credentials Committee. Civil rights movement_sentence_606

There Fannie Lou Hamer testified eloquently about the beatings that she and others endured and the threats they faced for trying to register to vote. Civil rights movement_sentence_607

Turning to the television cameras, Hamer asked, "Is this America?" Civil rights movement_sentence_608

Johnson offered the MFDP a "compromise" under which it would receive two non-voting, at-large seats, while the white delegation sent by the official Democratic Party would retain its seats. Civil rights movement_sentence_609

The MFDP angrily rejected the "compromise." Civil rights movement_sentence_610

The MFDP kept up its agitation at the convention after it was denied official recognition. Civil rights movement_sentence_611

When all but three of the "regular" Mississippi delegates left because they refused to pledge allegiance to the party, the MFDP delegates borrowed passes from sympathetic delegates and took the seats vacated by the official Mississippi delegates. Civil rights movement_sentence_612

National party organizers removed them. Civil rights movement_sentence_613

When they returned the next day, they found convention organizers had removed the empty seats that had been there the day before. Civil rights movement_sentence_614

They stayed and sang "freedom songs". Civil rights movement_sentence_615

The 1964 Democratic Party convention disillusioned many within the MFDP and the civil rights movement, but it did not destroy the MFDP. Civil rights movement_sentence_616

The MFDP became more radical after Atlantic City. Civil rights movement_sentence_617

It invited Malcolm X to speak at one of its conventions and opposed the war in Vietnam. Civil rights movement_sentence_618

Selma Voting Rights Movement Civil rights movement_section_27

Main articles: Selma to Montgomery marches and Voting Rights Act Civil rights movement_sentence_619

SNCC had undertaken an ambitious voter registration program in Selma, Alabama, in 1963, but by 1965 little headway had been made in the face of opposition from Selma's sheriff, Jim Clark. Civil rights movement_sentence_620

After local residents asked the SCLC for assistance, King came to Selma to lead several marches, at which he was arrested along with 250 other demonstrators. Civil rights movement_sentence_621

The marchers continued to meet violent resistance from the police. Civil rights movement_sentence_622

Jimmie Lee Jackson, a resident of nearby Marion, was killed by police at a later march on February 17, 1965. Civil rights movement_sentence_623

Jackson's death prompted James Bevel, director of the Selma Movement, to initiate and organize a plan to march from Selma to Montgomery, the state capital. Civil rights movement_sentence_624

On March 7, 1965, acting on Bevel's plan, Hosea Williams of the SCLC and John Lewis of SNCC led a march of 600 people to walk the 54 miles (87 km) from Selma to the state capital in Montgomery. Civil rights movement_sentence_625

Six blocks into the march, at the Edmund Pettus Bridge where the marchers left the city and moved into the county, state troopers, and local county law enforcement, some mounted on horseback, attacked the peaceful demonstrators with billy clubs, tear gas, rubber tubes wrapped in barbed wire, and bullwhips. Civil rights movement_sentence_626

They drove the marchers back into Selma. Civil rights movement_sentence_627

Lewis was knocked unconscious and dragged to safety. Civil rights movement_sentence_628

At least 16 other marchers were hospitalized. Civil rights movement_sentence_629

Among those gassed and beaten was Amelia Boynton Robinson, who was at the center of civil rights activity at the time. Civil rights movement_sentence_630

The national broadcast of the news footage of lawmen attacking unresisting marchers' seeking to exercise their constitutional right to vote provoked a national response and hundreds of people from all over the country came for a second march. Civil rights movement_sentence_631

These marchers were turned around by King at the last minute so as not to violate a federal injunction. Civil rights movement_sentence_632

This displeased many demonstrators, especially those who resented King's nonviolence (such as James Forman and Robert F. Williams). Civil rights movement_sentence_633

That night, local Whites attacked James Reeb, a voting rights supporter. Civil rights movement_sentence_634

He died of his injuries in a Birmingham hospital on March 11. Civil rights movement_sentence_635

Due to the national outcry at a White minister being murdered so brazenly (as well as the subsequent civil disobedience led by Gorman and other SNCC leaders all over the country, especially in Montgomery and at the White House), the marchers were able to lift the injunction and obtain protection from federal troops, permitting them to make the march across Alabama without incident two weeks later; during the march, Gorman, Williams, and other more militant protesters carried bricks and sticks of their own. Civil rights movement_sentence_636

Four Klansmen shot and killed Detroit homemaker Viola Liuzzo as she drove marchers back to Selma that night. Civil rights movement_sentence_637

Voting Rights Act of 1965 Civil rights movement_section_28

Eight days after the first march, but before the final march, President Johnson delivered a televised address to support the voting rights bill he had sent to Congress. Civil rights movement_sentence_638

In it he stated: Civil rights movement_sentence_639

On August 6, Johnson signed the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which suspended literacy tests and other subjective voter registration tests. Civil rights movement_sentence_640

It authorized Federal supervision of voter registration in states and individual voting districts where such tests were being used and where African Americans were historically under-represented in voting rolls compared to the eligible population. Civil rights movement_sentence_641

African Americans who had been barred from registering to vote finally had an alternative to taking suits to local or state courts, which had seldom prosecuted their cases to success. Civil rights movement_sentence_642

If discrimination in voter registration occurred, the 1965 act authorized the Attorney General of the United States to send Federal examiners to replace local registrars. Civil rights movement_sentence_643

Within months of the bill's passage, 250,000 new black voters had been registered, one-third of them by federal examiners. Civil rights movement_sentence_644

Within four years, voter registration in the South had more than doubled. Civil rights movement_sentence_645

In 1965, Mississippi had the highest black voter turnout at 74% and led the nation in the number of black public officials elected. Civil rights movement_sentence_646

In 1969, Tennessee had a 92.1% turnout among black voters; Arkansas, 77.9%; and Texas, 73.1%. Civil rights movement_sentence_647

Several whites who had opposed the Voting Rights Act paid a quick price. Civil rights movement_sentence_648

In 1966 Sheriff Jim Clark of Selma, Alabama, infamous for using cattle prods against civil rights marchers, was up for reelection. Civil rights movement_sentence_649

Although he took off the notorious "Never" pin on his uniform, he was defeated. Civil rights movement_sentence_650

At the election, Clark lost as blacks voted to get him out of office. Civil rights movement_sentence_651

Blacks' regaining the power to vote changed the political landscape of the South. Civil rights movement_sentence_652

When Congress passed the Voting Rights Act, only about 100 African Americans held elective office, all in northern states. Civil rights movement_sentence_653

By 1989, there were more than 7,200 African Americans in office, including more than 4,800 in the South. Civil rights movement_sentence_654

Nearly every county where populations were majority black in Alabama had a black sheriff. Civil rights movement_sentence_655

Southern blacks held top positions in city, county, and state governments. Civil rights movement_sentence_656

Atlanta elected a black mayor, Andrew Young, as did Jackson, Mississippi, with Harvey Johnson Jr., and New Orleans, with Ernest Morial. Civil rights movement_sentence_657

Black politicians on the national level included Barbara Jordan, elected as a Representative from Texas in Congress, and President Jimmy Carter appointed Andrew Young as United States Ambassador to the United Nations. Civil rights movement_sentence_658

Julian Bond was elected to the Georgia State Legislature in 1965, although political reaction to his public opposition to the U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War prevented him from taking his seat until 1967. Civil rights movement_sentence_659

John Lewis was first elected in 1986 to represent Georgia's 5th congressional district in the United States House of Representatives, where he served from 1987 until his death in 2020. Civil rights movement_sentence_660

Watts riot of 1965 Civil rights movement_section_29

Main article: Watts Riots Civil rights movement_sentence_661

The new Voting Rights Act of 1965 had no immediate effect on living conditions for poor blacks. Civil rights movement_sentence_662

A few days after the act became law, a riot broke out in the South Central Los Angeles neighborhood of Watts. Civil rights movement_sentence_663

Like Harlem, Watts was a majority-black neighborhood with very high unemployment and associated poverty. Civil rights movement_sentence_664

Its residents confronted a largely white police department that had a history of abuse against blacks. Civil rights movement_sentence_665

While arresting a young man for drunk driving, police officers argued with the suspect's mother before onlookers. Civil rights movement_sentence_666

The spark triggered massive destruction of property through six days of rioting in Los Angeles. Civil rights movement_sentence_667

Thirty-four people were killed, and property valued at about $40 million was destroyed, making the Watts Riots among the city's worst unrest until the Rodney King riots of 1992. Civil rights movement_sentence_668

With black militancy on the rise, ghetto residents directed acts of anger at the police. Civil rights movement_sentence_669

Black residents growing tired of police brutality continued to riot. Civil rights movement_sentence_670

Some young people joined groups such as the Black Panthers, whose popularity was based in part on their reputation for confronting police officers. Civil rights movement_sentence_671

Riots among blacks occurred in 1966 and 1967 in cities such as Atlanta, San Francisco, Oakland, Baltimore, Seattle, Tacoma, Cleveland, Cincinnati, Columbus, Newark, Chicago, New York City (specifically in Brooklyn, Harlem and the Bronx), and worst of all in Detroit. Civil rights movement_sentence_672

Fair housing movements, 1966–1968 Civil rights movement_section_30

The first major blow against housing segregation in the era, the Rumford Fair Housing Act, was passed in California in 1963. Civil rights movement_sentence_673

It was overturned by white California voters and real estate lobbyists the following year with Proposition 14, a move which helped precipitate the Watts Riots. Civil rights movement_sentence_674

In 1966, the California Supreme Court invalidated Proposition 14 and reinstated the Rumford Fair Housing Act. Civil rights movement_sentence_675

Working and organizing for fair housing laws became a major project of the movement over the next two years, with Martin Luther King Jr., James Bevel, and Al Raby leading the Chicago Freedom Movement around the issue in 1966. Civil rights movement_sentence_676

In the following year, Father James Groppi and the NAACP Youth Council also attracted national attention with a fair housing campaign in Milwaukee. Civil rights movement_sentence_677

Both movements faced violent resistance from white homeowners and legal opposition from conservative politicians. Civil rights movement_sentence_678

The Fair Housing Bill was the most contentious civil rights legislation of the era. Civil rights movement_sentence_679

Senator Walter Mondale, who advocated for the bill, noted that over successive years, it was the most filibustered legislation in U.S. history. Civil rights movement_sentence_680

It was opposed by most Northern and Southern senators, as well as the National Association of Real Estate Boards. Civil rights movement_sentence_681

A proposed "Civil Rights Act of 1966" had collapsed completely because of its fair housing provision. Civil rights movement_sentence_682

Mondale commented that: Civil rights movement_sentence_683

Nationwide riots of 1967 Civil rights movement_section_31

Main article: Long Hot Summer of 1967 Civil rights movement_sentence_684

Further information: Detroit Riot of 1967, 1967 Newark riots, and 1967 Plainfield riots Civil rights movement_sentence_685

In 1967 riots broke out in black neighborhoods in more than 100 U.S. cities, including Detroit, Newark, Cincinnati, Cleveland, and Washington, D.C. Civil rights movement_sentence_686

The largest of these was the 1967 Detroit riot. Civil rights movement_sentence_687

In Detroit, a large black middle class had begun to develop among those African Americans who worked at unionized jobs in the automotive industry. Civil rights movement_sentence_688

These workers complained of persisting racist practices, limiting the jobs they could have and opportunities for promotion. Civil rights movement_sentence_689

The United Auto Workers channeled these complaints into bureaucratic and ineffective grievance procedures. Civil rights movement_sentence_690

Violent white mobs enforced the segregation of housing up through the 1960s. Civil rights movement_sentence_691

Blacks who were not upwardly mobile were living in substandard conditions, subject to the same problems as poor African Americans in Watts and Harlem. Civil rights movement_sentence_692

When white Detroit Police Department (DPD) officers shut down an illegal bar and arrested a large group of patrons during the hot summer, furious black residents rioted. Civil rights movement_sentence_693

Rioters looted and destroyed property while snipers engaged in firefights from rooftops and windows, undermining the DPD's ability to curtail the disorder. Civil rights movement_sentence_694

In response, the Michigan Army National Guard and U.S. Civil rights movement_sentence_695 Army paratroopers were deployed to reinforce the DPD and protect Detroit Fire Department (DFD) firefighters from attacks while putting out fires. Civil rights movement_sentence_696

Residents reported that police officers and National Guardsmen shot at black civilians and suspects indiscriminately. Civil rights movement_sentence_697

After five days, 43 people had been killed, hundreds injured, and thousands left homeless; $40 to $45 million worth of damage was caused. Civil rights movement_sentence_698

State and local governments responded to the riot with a dramatic increase in minority hiring. Civil rights movement_sentence_699

In the aftermath of the turmoil, the Greater Detroit Board of Commerce also launched a campaign to find jobs for ten thousand "previously unemployable" persons, a preponderant number of whom were black. Civil rights movement_sentence_700

Governor George Romney immediately responded to the riot of 1967 with a special session of the Michigan legislature where he forwarded sweeping housing proposals that included not only fair housing, but "important relocation, tenants' rights and code enforcement legislation." Civil rights movement_sentence_701

Romney had supported such proposals in 1965 but abandoned them in the face of organized opposition. Civil rights movement_sentence_702

The laws passed both houses of the legislature. Civil rights movement_sentence_703

Historian Sidney Fine wrote that: Civil rights movement_sentence_704

President Johnson created the National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders in response to a nationwide wave of riots. Civil rights movement_sentence_705

The commission's final report called for major reforms in employment and public policy in black communities. Civil rights movement_sentence_706

It warned that the United States was moving toward separate white and black societies. Civil rights movement_sentence_707

Memphis, King assassination and the Civil Rights Act of 1968 Civil rights movement_section_32

Main articles: Poor People's Campaign, Assassination of Martin Luther King Jr., and Civil Rights Act of 1968 Civil rights movement_sentence_708

See also: Orangeburg massacre Civil rights movement_sentence_709

As 1968 began, the fair housing bill was being filibustered once again, but two developments revived it. Civil rights movement_sentence_710

The Kerner Commission report on the 1967 ghetto riots was delivered to Congress on March 1, and it strongly recommended "a comprehensive and enforceable federal open housing law" as a remedy to the civil disturbances. Civil rights movement_sentence_711

The Senate was moved to end their filibuster that week. Civil rights movement_sentence_712

James Lawson invited King to Memphis, Tennessee, in March 1968 to support a sanitation workers' strike. Civil rights movement_sentence_713

These workers launched a campaign for union representation after two workers were accidentally killed on the job; they were seeking fair wages and improved working conditions. Civil rights movement_sentence_714

King considered their struggle to be a vital part of the Poor People's Campaign he was planning. Civil rights movement_sentence_715

A day after delivering his stirring "I've Been to the Mountaintop" sermon, which has become famous for his vision of American society, King was assassinated on April 4, 1968. Civil rights movement_sentence_716

Riots broke out in black neighborhoods in more than 110 cities across the United States in the days that followed, notably in Chicago, Baltimore, and Washington, D.C. Civil rights movement_sentence_717

The day before King's funeral, April 8, a completely silent march with Coretta Scott King, SCLC, and UAW president Walter Reuther attracted approximately 42,000 participants. Civil rights movement_sentence_718

Armed National Guardsmen lined the streets, sitting on M-48 tanks, to protect the marchers, and helicopters circled overhead. Civil rights movement_sentence_719

On April 9, Mrs. King led another 150,000 people in a funeral procession through the streets of Atlanta. Civil rights movement_sentence_720

Her dignity revived courage and hope in many of the Movement's members, confirming her place as the new leader in the struggle for racial equality. Civil rights movement_sentence_721

Coretta Scott King said, Civil rights movement_sentence_722

Ralph Abernathy succeeded King as the head of the SCLC and attempted to carry forth King's plan for a Poor People's March. Civil rights movement_sentence_723

It was to unite blacks and whites to campaign for fundamental changes in American society and economic structure. Civil rights movement_sentence_724

The march went forward under Abernathy's plainspoken leadership but did not achieve its goals. Civil rights movement_sentence_725

Civil Rights Act of 1968 Civil rights movement_section_33

The House of Representatives had been deliberating its Fair Housing Act in early April, before King's assassination and the aforementioned wave of unrest that followed, the largest since the Civil War. Civil rights movement_sentence_726

Senator Charles Mathias wrote: Civil rights movement_sentence_727

The House passed the legislation on April 10, less than a week after King was murdered, and President Johnson signed it the next day. Civil rights movement_sentence_728

The Civil Rights Act of 1968 prohibited discrimination concerning the sale, rental, and financing of housing based on race, religion, and national origin. Civil rights movement_sentence_729

It also made it a federal crime to "by force or by the threat of force, injure, intimidate, or interfere with anyone...by reason of their race, color, religion, or national origin." Civil rights movement_sentence_730

Gates v. Collier Civil rights movement_section_34

Conditions at the Mississippi State Penitentiary at Parchman, then known as Parchman Farm, became part of the public discussion of civil rights after activists were imprisoned there. Civil rights movement_sentence_731

In the spring of 1961, Freedom Riders came to the South to test the desegregation of public facilities. Civil rights movement_sentence_732

By the end of June 1963, Freedom Riders had been convicted in Jackson, Mississippi. Civil rights movement_sentence_733

Many were jailed in Mississippi State Penitentiary at Parchman. Civil rights movement_sentence_734

Mississippi employed the trusty system, a hierarchical order of inmates that used some inmates to control and enforce punishment of other inmates. Civil rights movement_sentence_735

In 1970 the civil rights lawyer Roy Haber began taking statements from inmates. Civil rights movement_sentence_736

He collected 50 pages of details of murders, rapes, beatings and other abuses suffered by the inmates from 1969 to 1971 at Mississippi State Penitentiary. Civil rights movement_sentence_737

In a landmark case known as Gates v. Collier (1972), four inmates represented by Haber sued the superintendent of Parchman Farm for violating their rights under the United States Constitution. Civil rights movement_sentence_738

Federal Judge William C. Keady found in favor of the inmates, writing that Parchman Farm violated the civil rights of the inmates by inflicting cruel and unusual punishment. Civil rights movement_sentence_739

He ordered an immediate end to all unconstitutional conditions and practices. Civil rights movement_sentence_740

Racial segregation of inmates was abolished, as was the trusty system, which allowed certain inmates to have power and control over others. Civil rights movement_sentence_741

The prison was renovated in 1972 after the scathing ruling by Keady, who wrote that the prison was an affront to "modern standards of decency." Civil rights movement_sentence_742

Among other reforms, the accommodations were made fit for human habitation. Civil rights movement_sentence_743

The system of trusties was abolished. Civil rights movement_sentence_744

(The prison had armed lifers with rifles and given them authority to oversee and guard other inmates, which led to many cases of abuse and murders.) Civil rights movement_sentence_745

In integrated correctional facilities in northern and western states, blacks represented a disproportionate number of the prisoners, in excess of their proportion of the general population. Civil rights movement_sentence_746

They were often treated as second-class citizens by white correctional officers. Civil rights movement_sentence_747

Blacks also represented a disproportionately high number of death row inmates. Civil rights movement_sentence_748

Eldridge Cleaver's book Soul on Ice was written from his experiences in the California correctional system; it contributed to black militancy. Civil rights movement_sentence_749

Legacy Civil rights movement_section_35

Civil rights protest activity had an observable impact on white American's views on race and politics over time. Civil rights movement_sentence_750

White people who live in counties in which civil rights protests of historical significance occurred have been found to have lower levels of racial resentment against blacks, are more likely to identify with the Democratic Party as well as more likely to support affirmative action. Civil rights movement_sentence_751

Characteristics Civil rights movement_section_36

African-American women Civil rights movement_section_37

Main article: African-American women in the civil rights movement Civil rights movement_sentence_752

African-American women in the civil rights movement were pivotal to its success. Civil rights movement_sentence_753

They volunteered as activists, advocates, educators, clerics, writers, spiritual guides, caretakers and politicians for the civil rights movement; leading and participating in organizations that contributed to the cause of civil rights. Civil rights movement_sentence_754

Rosa Parks's refusal to sit at the back of a public bus resulted in the year-long Montgomery bus boycott, and the eventual desegregation of interstate travel in the United States. Civil rights movement_sentence_755

Women were members of the NAACP because they believed it could help them contribute to the cause of civil rights. Civil rights movement_sentence_756

Some of those involved with the Black Panthers were nationally recognized as leaders, and still others did editorial work on the Black Panther newspaper spurring internal discussions about gender issues. Civil rights movement_sentence_757

Ella Baker founded the SNCC and was a prominent figure in the civil rights movement. Civil rights movement_sentence_758

Female students involved with the SNCC helped to organize sit-ins and the Freedom Rides. Civil rights movement_sentence_759

At the same time many elderly black women in towns across the Southern US cared for the organization's volunteers at their homes, providing the students food, a bed, healing aid and motherly love. Civil rights movement_sentence_760

Other women involved also formed church groups, bridge clubs, and professional organizations, such as the National Council of Negro Women, to help achieve freedom for themselves and their race. Civil rights movement_sentence_761

Several who participated in these organizations lost their jobs because of their involvement. Civil rights movement_sentence_762

Sexist discrimination Civil rights movement_section_38

Many women who participated in the movement experienced gender discrimination and sexual harassment. Civil rights movement_sentence_763

In the SCLC, Ella Baker's input was discouraged in spite of her being the oldest and most experienced person on the staff. Civil rights movement_sentence_764

There are many other accounts and examples. Civil rights movement_sentence_765

Avoiding the "Communist" label Civil rights movement_section_39

See also: The Communist Party and African-Americans Civil rights movement_sentence_766

On December 17, 1951, the Communist Party–affiliated Civil Rights Congress delivered the petition We Charge Genocide: The Crime of Government Against the Negro People to the United Nations, arguing that the U.S. federal government, by its failure to act against lynching in the United States, was guilty of genocide under Article II of the UN Genocide Convention (see Black genocide). Civil rights movement_sentence_767

The petition was presented to the United Nations at two separate venues: Paul Robeson, a concert singer and activist, presented it to a UN official in New York City, while William L. Patterson, executive director of the CRC, delivered copies of the drafted petition to a UN delegation in Paris. Civil rights movement_sentence_768

Patterson, the editor of the petition, was a leader of the Communist Party USA and head of the International Labor Defense, a group that offered legal representation to communists, trade unionists, and African Americans who were involved in cases which involved issues of political or racial persecution. Civil rights movement_sentence_769

The ILD was known for leading the defense of the Scottsboro Boys in Alabama in 1931, where the Communist Party had a considerable amount of influence among African Americans in the 1930s. Civil rights movement_sentence_770

This influence had largely declined by the late 1950s, although it could command international attention. Civil rights movement_sentence_771

As earlier civil rights figures such as Robeson, Du Bois and Patterson became more politically radical (and therefore targets of Cold War anti-Communism by the U.S. Government), they lost favor with mainstream Black America as well as with the NAACP. Civil rights movement_sentence_772

In order to secure a place in the political mainstream and gain the broadest base of support, the new generation of civil rights activists believed that it had to openly distance itself from anything and anyone associated with the Communist party. Civil rights movement_sentence_773

According to Ella Baker, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference added the word "Christian" to its name in order to deter charges that it was associated with Communism. Civil rights movement_sentence_774

Under J. Civil rights movement_sentence_775 Edgar Hoover, the FBI had been concerned about communism since the early 20th century, and it kept civil rights activists under close surveillance and labeled some of them "Communist" or "subversive", a practice that continued during the Civil Rights Movement. Civil rights movement_sentence_776

In the early 1960s, the practice of distancing the civil rights movement from "Reds" was challenged by the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee which adopted a policy of accepting assistance and participation from anyone who supported the SNCC's political program and was willing to "put their body on the line, regardless of political affiliation." Civil rights movement_sentence_777

At times the SNCC's policy of political openness put it at odds with the NAACP. Civil rights movement_sentence_778

Grassroots leadership Civil rights movement_section_40

While most popular representations of the movement are centered on the leadership and philosophy of Martin Luther King Jr., some scholars note that the movement was too diverse to be credited to one person, organization, or strategy. Civil rights movement_sentence_779

Sociologist Doug McAdam has stated that, "in King's case, it would be inaccurate to say that he was the leader of the modern civil rights movement...but more importantly, there was no singular civil rights movement. Civil rights movement_sentence_780

The movement was, in fact, a coalition of thousands of local efforts nationwide, spanning several decades, hundreds of discrete groups, and all manner of strategies and tactics—legal, illegal, institutional, non-institutional, violent, non-violent. Civil rights movement_sentence_781

Without discounting King's importance, it would be sheer fiction to call him the leader of what was fundamentally an amorphous, fluid, dispersed movement." Civil rights movement_sentence_782

Decentralized grassroots leadership has been a major focus of movement scholarship in recent decades through the work of historians John Dittmer, Charles Payne, Barbara Ransby, and others. Civil rights movement_sentence_783

Popular reactions Civil rights movement_section_41

American Jews Civil rights movement_section_42

See also: African American–Jewish relations; New York City teachers' strike of 1968; and Brownsville, Brooklyn Civil rights movement_sentence_784

Many in the Jewish community supported the civil rights movement. Civil rights movement_sentence_785

In fact, statistically, Jews were one of the most actively involved non-black groups in the Movement. Civil rights movement_sentence_786

Many Jewish students worked in concert with African Americans for CORE, SCLC, and SNCC as full-time organizers and summer volunteers during the Civil Rights era. Civil rights movement_sentence_787

Jews made up roughly half of the white northern and western volunteers involved in the 1964 Mississippi Freedom Summer project and approximately half of the civil rights attorneys active in the South during the 1960s. Civil rights movement_sentence_788

Jewish leaders were arrested while heeding a call from Martin Luther King Jr. in St. Civil rights movement_sentence_789 Augustine, Florida, in June 1964, where the largest mass arrest of rabbis in American history took place at the Monson Motor Lodge. Civil rights movement_sentence_790

Abraham Joshua Heschel, a writer, rabbi, and professor of theology at the Jewish Theological Seminary of America in New York, was outspoken on the subject of civil rights. Civil rights movement_sentence_791

He marched arm-in-arm with King in the 1965 Selma to Montgomery march. Civil rights movement_sentence_792

In the 1964 murders of Chaney, Goodman, and Schwerner, the two white activists killed, Andrew Goodman and Michael Schwerner, were both Jewish. Civil rights movement_sentence_793

Brandeis University, the only nonsectarian Jewish-sponsored college university in the world, created the Transitional Year Program (TYP) in 1968, in part response to the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr.. Civil rights movement_sentence_794

The faculty created it to renew the university's commitment to social justice. Civil rights movement_sentence_795

Recognizing Brandeis as a university with a commitment to academic excellence, these faculty members created a chance for disadvantaged students to participate in an empowering educational experience. Civil rights movement_sentence_796

The American Jewish Committee, American Jewish Congress, and Anti-Defamation League (ADL) actively promoted civil rights. Civil rights movement_sentence_797

While Jews were very active in the civil rights movement in the South, in the North, many had experienced a more strained relationship with African Americans. Civil rights movement_sentence_798

It has been argued that with Black militancy and the Black Power movements on the rise, "Black Anti-Semitism" increased leading to strained relations between Blacks and Jews in Northern communities. Civil rights movement_sentence_799

In New York City, most notably, there was a major socio-economic class difference in the perception of African Americans by Jews. Civil rights movement_sentence_800

Jews from better educated Upper-Middle-Class backgrounds were often very supportive of African American civil rights activities while the Jews in poorer urban communities that became increasingly minority were often less supportive largely in part due to more negative and violent interactions between the two groups. Civil rights movement_sentence_801

According to political scientist Michael Rogin, Jewish-Black hostility was a two-way street extending to earlier decades. Civil rights movement_sentence_802

In the post-World War II era, Jews were granted white privilege and most moved into the middle-class while Blacks were left behind in the ghetto. Civil rights movement_sentence_803

Urban Jews engaged in the same sort of conflicts with Blacks—over integration busing, local control of schools, housing, crime, communal identity, and class divides—that other white ethnics did, leading to Jews participating in white flight. Civil rights movement_sentence_804

The culmination of this was the 1968 New York City teachers' strike, pitting largely Jewish schoolteachers against predominantly Black parents in Brownsville, New York. Civil rights movement_sentence_805

Public profile Civil rights movement_section_43

Many Jewish individuals in the Southern states who supported civil rights for African Americans tended to keep a low profile on "the race issue", in order to avoid attracting the attention of the anti-Black and antisemitic Ku Klux Klan. Civil rights movement_sentence_806

However, Klan groups exploited the issue of African-American integration and Jewish involvement in the struggle in order to commit violently antisemitic hate crimes. Civil rights movement_sentence_807

As an example of this hatred, in one year alone, from November 1957 to October 1958, temples and other Jewish communal gatherings were bombed and desecrated in Atlanta, Nashville, Jacksonville, and Miami, and dynamite was found under synagogues in Birmingham, Charlotte, and Gastonia, North Carolina. Civil rights movement_sentence_808

Some rabbis received death threats, but there were no injuries following these outbursts of violence. Civil rights movement_sentence_809

Black segregationists Civil rights movement_section_44

Despite the common notion that the ideas of Martin Luther King Jr., Malcolm X and Black Power only conflicted with each other and were the only ideologies of the civil rights movement, there were other sentiments felt by many blacks. Civil rights movement_sentence_810

Fearing the events during the movement was occurring too quickly, there were some blacks who felt that leaders should take their activism at an incremental pace. Civil rights movement_sentence_811

Others had reservations on how focused blacks were on the movement and felt that such attention was better spent on reforming issues within the black community. Civil rights movement_sentence_812

While Conservatives in general supported integration, some defended incrementally phased out segregation as a backstop against assimilation. Civil rights movement_sentence_813

Based on her interpretation of a 1966 study made by Donald Matthews and James Prothro detailing the relative percentage of blacks for integration, against it or feeling something else, Lauren Winner asserts that: Civil rights movement_sentence_814

Oftentimes, African-American community leaders would be staunch defenders of segregation. Civil rights movement_sentence_815

Church ministers, businessmen, and educators were among those who wished to keep segregation and segregationist ideals in order to retain the privileges they gained from patronage from whites, such as monetary gains. Civil rights movement_sentence_816

In addition, they relied on segregation to keep their jobs and economies in their communities thriving. Civil rights movement_sentence_817

It was feared that if integration became widespread in the South, black-owned businesses and other establishments would lose a large chunk of their customer base to white-owned businesses, and many blacks would lose opportunities for jobs that were presently exclusive to their interests. Civil rights movement_sentence_818

On the other hand, there were the everyday, average black people who criticized integration as well. Civil rights movement_sentence_819

For them, they took issue with different parts of the civil rights movement and the potential for blacks to exercise consumerism and economic liberty without hindrance from whites. Civil rights movement_sentence_820

For Martin Luther King Jr., Malcolm X and other leading activists and groups during the movement, these opposing viewpoints acted as an obstacle against their ideas. Civil rights movement_sentence_821

These different views made such leaders' work much harder to accomplish, but they were nonetheless important in the overall scope of the movement. Civil rights movement_sentence_822

For the most part, the black individuals who had reservations on various aspects of the movement and ideologies of the activists were not able to make a game-changing dent in their efforts, but the existence of these alternate ideas gave some blacks an outlet to express their concerns about the changing social structure. Civil rights movement_sentence_823

"Black Power" militants Civil rights movement_section_45

Main articles: Black Power and Black Power movement Civil rights movement_sentence_824

During the Freedom Summer campaign of 1964, numerous tensions within the civil rights movement came to the forefront. Civil rights movement_sentence_825

Many blacks in SNCC developed concerns that white activists from the North and West were taking over the movement. Civil rights movement_sentence_826

The participation by numerous white students was not reducing the amount of violence that SNCC suffered, but seemed to exacerbate it. Civil rights movement_sentence_827

Additionally, there was profound disillusionment at Lyndon Johnson's denial of voting status for the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party at the Democratic National Convention. Civil rights movement_sentence_828

Meanwhile, during CORE's work in Louisiana that summer, that group found the federal government would not respond to requests to enforce the provisions of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, or to protect the lives of activists who challenged segregation. Civil rights movement_sentence_829

The Louisiana campaign survived by relying on a local African-American militia called the Deacons for Defense and Justice, who used arms to repel white supremacist violence and police repression. Civil rights movement_sentence_830

CORE's collaboration with the Deacons was effective in disrupting Jim Crow in numerous Louisiana areas. Civil rights movement_sentence_831

In 1965, SNCC helped organize an independent political party, the Lowndes County Freedom Organization (LCFO), in the heart of the Alabama Black Belt, also Klan territory. Civil rights movement_sentence_832

It permitted its black leaders to openly promote the use of armed self-defense. Civil rights movement_sentence_833

Meanwhile, the Deacons for Defense and Justice expanded into Mississippi and assisted Charles Evers' NAACP chapter with a successful campaign in Natchez. Civil rights movement_sentence_834

Charles had taken the lead after his brother Medgar Evers was assassinated in 1963. Civil rights movement_sentence_835

The same year, the 1965 Watts Rebellion took place in Los Angeles. Civil rights movement_sentence_836

Many black youths were committed to the use of violence to protest inequality and oppression. Civil rights movement_sentence_837

During the March Against Fear in 1966, initiated by James Meredith, SNCC and CORE fully embraced the slogan of "black power" to describe these trends towards militancy and self-reliance. Civil rights movement_sentence_838

In Mississippi, Stokely Carmichael declared, "I'm not going to beg the white man for anything that I deserve, I'm going to take it. Civil rights movement_sentence_839

We need power." Civil rights movement_sentence_840

Some people engaging in the Black Power movement claimed a growing sense of black pride and identity. Civil rights movement_sentence_841

In gaining more of a sense of a cultural identity, blacks demanded that whites no longer refer to them as "Negroes" but as "Afro-Americans," similar to other ethnic groups, such as Irish Americans and Italian Americans. Civil rights movement_sentence_842

Until the mid-1960s, blacks had dressed similarly to whites and often straightened their hair. Civil rights movement_sentence_843

As a part of affirming their identity, blacks started to wear African-based dashikis and grow their hair out as a natural afro. Civil rights movement_sentence_844

The afro, sometimes nicknamed the "'fro," remained a popular black hairstyle until the late 1970s. Civil rights movement_sentence_845

Other variations of traditional African styles have become popular, often featuring braids, extensions, and dreadlocks. Civil rights movement_sentence_846

The Black Panther Party (BPP), which was founded by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale in Oakland, California, in 1966, gained the most attention for Black Power nationally. Civil rights movement_sentence_847

The group began following the revolutionary pan-Africanism of late-period Malcolm X, using a "by-any-means necessary" approach to stopping racial inequality. Civil rights movement_sentence_848

They sought to rid African-American neighborhoods of police brutality and to establish socialist community control in the ghettos. Civil rights movement_sentence_849

While they conducted armed confrontation with police, they also set up free breakfast and healthcare programs for children. Civil rights movement_sentence_850

Between 1968 and 1971, the BPP was one of the most important black organizations in the country and had support from the NAACP, SCLC, Peace and Freedom Party, and others. Civil rights movement_sentence_851

Black Power was taken to another level inside prison walls. Civil rights movement_sentence_852

In 1966, George Jackson formed the Black Guerrilla Family in the California San Quentin State Prison. Civil rights movement_sentence_853

The goal of this group was to overthrow the white-run government in America and the prison system. Civil rights movement_sentence_854

In 1970, this group displayed their dedication after a white prison guard was found not guilty of shooting and killing three black prisoners from the prison tower. Civil rights movement_sentence_855

They retaliated by killing a white prison guard. Civil rights movement_sentence_856

Numerous popular cultural expressions associated with black power appeared at this time. Civil rights movement_sentence_857

Released in August 1968, the number one Rhythm & Blues single for the Billboard Year-End list was James Brown's "Say It Loud – I'm Black and I'm Proud". Civil rights movement_sentence_858

In October 1968, Tommie Smith and John Carlos, while being awarded the gold and bronze medals, respectively, at the 1968 Summer Olympics, donned human rights badges and each raised a black-gloved Black Power salute during their podium ceremony. Civil rights movement_sentence_859

King was not comfortable with the "Black Power" slogan, which sounded too much like black nationalism to him. Civil rights movement_sentence_860

When King was assassinated in 1968, Stokely Carmichael said that whites had murdered the one person who would prevent rampant rioting and that blacks would burn every major city to the ground. Civil rights movement_sentence_861

Riots broke out in more than 100 cities across the country. Civil rights movement_sentence_862

Some cities did not recover from the damage for more than a generation; other city neighborhoods never recovered. Civil rights movement_sentence_863

Native Americans Civil rights movement_section_46

King and the civil rights movement inspired the Native American rights movement of the 1960s and many of its leaders. Civil rights movement_sentence_864

Native Americans had been dehumanized as "merciless Indian savages" in the United States Declaration of Independence, and in King's 1964 book Why We Can't Wait he wrote: "Our nation was born in genocide when it embraced the doctrine that the original American, the Indian, was an inferior race." Civil rights movement_sentence_865

John Echohawk, a member of the Pawnee tribe and the executive director and one of the founders of the Native American Rights Fund, stated: “Inspired by Dr. King, who was advancing the civil rights agenda of equality under the laws of this country, we thought that we could also use the laws to advance our Indianship, to live as tribes in our territories governed by our own laws under the principles of tribal sovereignty that had been with us ever since 1831. Civil rights movement_sentence_866

We believed that we could fight for a policy of self-determination that was consistent with U.S. law and that we could govern our own affairs, define our own ways and continue to survive in this society". Civil rights movement_sentence_867

Native Americans were also active supporters of King's movement throughout the 1960s, which included a sizable Native American contingent at the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. Civil rights movement_sentence_868

Northern Ireland Civil rights movement_section_47

See also: Northern Ireland civil rights movement Civil rights movement_sentence_869

Due to policies of segregation and disenfranchisement present in Northern Ireland many Irish activists took inspiration from American civil rights activists. Civil rights movement_sentence_870

People's Democracy had organized a "Long March" from Belfast to Derry which was inspired by the Selma to Montgomery marches. Civil rights movement_sentence_871

During the civil rights movement in Northern Ireland protesters often sang the American protest song We Shall Overcome and sometimes referred to themselves as the "negroes of Northern Ireland". Civil rights movement_sentence_872

Soviet Union Civil rights movement_section_48

There was an international context for the actions of the U.S. federal government during these years. Civil rights movement_sentence_873

The Soviet media frequently covered racial discrimination in the U.S. Deeming American criticism of its own human rights abuses hypocritical, the Soviet government would respond by stating "And you are lynching Negroes". Civil rights movement_sentence_874

In his 1934 book Russia Today: What Can We Learn from It?, Sherwood Eddy wrote: "In the most remote villages of Russia today Americans are frequently asked what they are going to do to the Scottsboro Negro boys and why they lynch Negroes." Civil rights movement_sentence_875

In Cold War Civil Rights: Race and the Image of American Democracy, the historian Mary L. Dudziak wrote that Communists who were critical of the United States accused it of practicing hypocrisy when it portrayed itself as the "leader of the free world," while so many of its citizens were being subjected to severe racial discrimination and violence; she argued that this was a major factor in moving the government to support civil rights legislation. Civil rights movement_sentence_876

White moderates Civil rights movement_section_49

A majority of White Southerners have been estimated to have neither supported or resisted the civil rights movement. Civil rights movement_sentence_877

Many did not enjoy the idea of expanding civil rights but were uncomfortable with the language and often violent tactics used by those who resisted the civil rights movement as part of the Massive resistance. Civil rights movement_sentence_878

Many only reacted to the movement once forced to by their changing environment, and when they did their response was usually whatever they felt would disturb their daily life the least. Civil rights movement_sentence_879

Most of their personal reactions, whether eventually in support or resistance weren't in extreme. Civil rights movement_sentence_880

White segregationists Civil rights movement_section_50

King reached the height of popular acclaim during his life in 1964, when he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Civil rights movement_sentence_881

After that point his career was filled with frustrating challenges. Civil rights movement_sentence_882

The liberal coalition that had gained passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 began to fray. Civil rights movement_sentence_883

King was becoming more estranged from the Johnson administration. Civil rights movement_sentence_884

In 1965 he broke with it by calling for peace negotiations and a halt to the bombing of Vietnam. Civil rights movement_sentence_885

He moved further left in the following years, speaking about the need for economic justice and thoroughgoing changes in American society. Civil rights movement_sentence_886

He believed that change was needed beyond the civil rights which had been gained by the movement. Civil rights movement_sentence_887

However, King's attempts to broaden the scope of the civil rights movement were halting and largely unsuccessful. Civil rights movement_sentence_888

In 1965 King made several attempts to take the Movement north in order to address housing discrimination. Civil rights movement_sentence_889

The SCLC's campaign in Chicago publicly failed, because Chicago's Mayor Richard J. Daley marginalized the SCLC's campaign by promising to "study" the city's problems. Civil rights movement_sentence_890

In 1966, white demonstrators in notoriously racist Cicero, a suburb of Chicago, held "white power" signs and threw stones at marchers who were demonstrating against housing segregation. Civil rights movement_sentence_891

Politicians and journalists quickly blamed this white backlash on the movement's shift towards Black Power in the mid-1960s; today most scholars believe the backlash was a phenomenon that was already developing in the mid-1950s, and it was embodied in the "massive resistance" movement in the South where even the few moderate white leaders (including George Wallace, who had once been endorsed by the NAACP) shifted to openly racist positions. Civil rights movement_sentence_892

Northern and Western racists opposed the southerners on a regional and cultural basis, but also held segregationist attitudes which became more pronounced as the civil rights movement headed north and west. Civil rights movement_sentence_893

For instance, prior to the Watts riot, California whites had already mobilized to repeal the state's 1963 fair housing law. Civil rights movement_sentence_894

Even so, the backlash which occurred at the time was not able to roll back the major civil rights victories which had been achieved or swing the country into reaction. Civil rights movement_sentence_895

Social historians Matthew Lassiter and Barbara Ehrenreich note that the backlash's primary constituency was suburban and middle-class, not working-class whites: "among the white electorate, one half of blue-collar voters…cast their ballot for [the liberal presidential candidate] Hubert Humphrey in 1968…only in the South did George Wallace draw substantially more blue-collar than white-collar support." Civil rights movement_sentence_896

Political responses Civil rights movement_section_51

Kennedy administration, 1961–1963 Civil rights movement_section_52

For the first two years of the Kennedy administration, civil rights activists had mixed opinions of both the president and Attorney General, Robert F. Kennedy. Civil rights movement_sentence_897

A well of historical skepticism toward liberal politics had left African Americans with a sense of uneasy disdain for any white politician who claimed to share their concerns for freedom, particularly ones connected to the historically pro-segregationist Democratic Party. Civil rights movement_sentence_898

Still, many were encouraged by the discreet support Kennedy gave to King, and the administration's willingness, after dramatic pressure from civil disobedience, to bring forth racially egalitarian initiatives. Civil rights movement_sentence_899

Many of the initiatives resulted from Robert Kennedy's passion. Civil rights movement_sentence_900

The younger Kennedy gained a rapid education in the realities of racism through events such as the Baldwin-Kennedy meeting. Civil rights movement_sentence_901

The president came to share his brother's sense of urgency on the matter, resulting in the landmark Civil Rights Address of June 1963 and the introduction of the first major civil rights act of the decade. Civil rights movement_sentence_902

Robert Kennedy first became concerned with civil rights in mid-May 1961 during the Freedom Rides, when photographs of the burning bus and savage beatings in Anniston and Birmingham were broadcast around the world. Civil rights movement_sentence_903

They came at an especially embarrassing time, as President Kennedy was about to have a summit with the Soviet premier in Vienna. Civil rights movement_sentence_904

The White House was concerned with its image among the populations of newly independent nations in Africa and Asia, and Robert Kennedy responded with an address for Voice of America stating that great progress had been made on the issue of race relations. Civil rights movement_sentence_905

Meanwhile, behind the scenes, the administration worked to resolve the crisis with a minimum of violence and prevent the Freedom Riders from generating a fresh crop of headlines that might divert attention from the President's international agenda. Civil rights movement_sentence_906

The Freedom Riders documentary notes that, "The back burner issue of civil rights had collided with the urgent demands of Cold War realpolitik." Civil rights movement_sentence_907

On May 21, when a white mob attacked and burned the First Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama, where King was holding out with protesters, Robert Kennedy telephoned King to ask him to stay in the building until the U.S. Civil rights movement_sentence_908

Marshals and National Guard could secure the area. Civil rights movement_sentence_909

King proceeded to berate Kennedy for "allowing the situation to continue". Civil rights movement_sentence_910

King later publicly thanked Kennedy for deploying the force to break up an attack that might otherwise have ended King's life. Civil rights movement_sentence_911

With a very small majority in Congress, the president's ability to press ahead with legislation relied considerably on a balancing game with the Senators and Congressmen of the South. Civil rights movement_sentence_912

Without the support of Vice-President Johnson, a former Senator who had years of experience in Congress and longstanding relations there, many of the Attorney-General's programs would not have progressed. Civil rights movement_sentence_913

By late 1962, frustration at the slow pace of political change was balanced by the movement's strong support for legislative initiatives, including administrative representation across all U.S. Government departments and greater access to the ballot box. Civil rights movement_sentence_914

From squaring off against Governor George Wallace, to "tearing into" Vice-President Johnson (for failing to desegregate areas of the administration), to threatening corrupt white Southern judges with disbarment, to desegregating interstate transport, Robert Kennedy came to be consumed by the civil rights movement. Civil rights movement_sentence_915

He continued to work on these social justice issues in his bid for the presidency in 1968. Civil rights movement_sentence_916

On the night of Governor Wallace's capitulation to African-American enrollment at the University of Alabama, President Kennedy gave an address to the nation, which marked the changing tide, an address that was to become a landmark for the ensuing change in political policy as to civil rights. Civil rights movement_sentence_917

In 1966, Robert Kennedy visited South Africa and voiced his objections to apartheid, the first time a major US politician had done so: Civil rights movement_sentence_918

Robert Kennedy's relationship with the movement was not always positive. Civil rights movement_sentence_919

As attorney general, he was called to account by activists—who booed him at a June 1963 speech—for the Justice Department's own poor record of hiring blacks. Civil rights movement_sentence_920

He also presided over FBI Director J. Civil rights movement_sentence_921 Edgar Hoover and his COINTELPRO program. Civil rights movement_sentence_922

This program ordered FBI agents to "expose, disrupt, misdirect, discredit, or otherwise neutralize" the activities of Communist front groups, a category in which the paranoid Hoover included most civil rights organizations. Civil rights movement_sentence_923

Kennedy personally authorized some of the programs. Civil rights movement_sentence_924

According to Tim Weiner, "RFK knew much more about this surveillance than he ever admitted." Civil rights movement_sentence_925

Although Kennedy only gave approval for limited wiretapping of King's phones "on a trial basis, for a month or so." Civil rights movement_sentence_926

Hoover extended the clearance so his men were "unshackled" to look for evidence in any areas of the black leader's life they deemed important; they then used this information to harass King. Civil rights movement_sentence_927

Kennedy directly ordered surveillance on James Baldwin after their antagonistic racial summit in 1963. Civil rights movement_sentence_928

Johnson administration: 1963–1969 Civil rights movement_section_53

Further information: Civil Rights Act of 1964, War on Poverty, and Lyndon B. Johnson Civil rights movement_sentence_929

Lyndon Johnson made civil rights one of his highest priorities, coupling it with a whites war on poverty. Civil rights movement_sentence_930

However increasing the shrill opposition to the War in Vietnam, coupled with the cost of the war, undercut support for his domestic programs. Civil rights movement_sentence_931

Under Kennedy, major civil rights legislation had been stalled in Congress. Civil rights movement_sentence_932

His assassination changed everything. Civil rights movement_sentence_933

On one hand president Lyndon Johnson was a much more skillful negotiator than Kennedy but he had behind him a powerful national momentum demanding immediate action on moral and emotional grounds. Civil rights movement_sentence_934

Demands for immediate action originated from unexpected directions, especially white Protestant church groups. Civil rights movement_sentence_935

The Justice Department, led by Robert Kennedy, moved from a posture of defending Kennedy from the quagmire minefield of racial politics to acting to fulfill his legacy. Civil rights movement_sentence_936

The violent death and public reaction dramatically moved the conservative Republicans, led by Senator Everett McKinley Dirksen, whose support was the margin of victory for the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Civil rights movement_sentence_937

The act immediately ended de jure (legal) segregation and the era of Jim Crow. Civil rights movement_sentence_938

With the civil rights movement at full blast, Lyndon Johnson coupled black entrepreneurship with his war on poverty, setting up special program in the Small Business Administration, the Office of Economic Opportunity, and other agencies. Civil rights movement_sentence_939

This time there was money for loans designed to boost minority business ownership. Civil rights movement_sentence_940

Richard Nixon greatly expanded the program, setting up the Office of Minority Business Enterprise (OMBE) in the expectation that black entrepreneurs would help defuse racial tensions and possibly support his reelection . Civil rights movement_sentence_941

In popular culture Civil rights movement_section_54

Main article: Civil rights movement in popular culture Civil rights movement_sentence_942

The 1954 to 1968 civil rights movement contributed strong cultural threads to American and international theater, song, film, television, and folk art. Civil rights movement_sentence_943

Activist organizations Civil rights movement_section_55

National/regional civil rights organizations Civil rights movement_sentence_944

Civil rights movement_unordered_list_2

National economic empowerment organizations Civil rights movement_sentence_945

Civil rights movement_unordered_list_3

Local civil rights organizations Civil rights movement_sentence_946

Civil rights movement_unordered_list_4

Individual activists Civil rights movement_section_56

See also Civil rights movement_section_57

Civil rights movement_unordered_list_5

History preservation Civil rights movement_section_58

Civil rights movement_unordered_list_6

Post–civil rights movement Civil rights movement_section_59

Civil rights movement_unordered_list_7


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Civil rights movement.