Classical music

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This article is about Western art music to the present. Classical music_sentence_0

For Western art music from 1750 to 1820, see Classical period (music). Classical music_sentence_1

For other "classical" and art music traditions, see List of classical and art music traditions. Classical music_sentence_2

For the magazine, see Classical Music (magazine). Classical music_sentence_3

Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture, including both liturgical (religious) and secular music. Classical music_sentence_4

While a more precise term is also used to refer to the period from 1750 to 1820 (the Classical period), this article is about the broad span of time from before the 6th century AD to the present day, which includes the Classical period and various other periods. Classical music_sentence_5

The central norms of this tradition became codified between 1650 and 1900, which is known as the common-practice period. Classical music_sentence_6

Overview Classical music_section_0

European art music is largely distinguished from many other non-European classical and some popular musical forms by its system of staff notation, in use since about the 11th century. Classical music_sentence_7

Catholic monks developed the first forms of modern European musical notation in order to standardize liturgy throughout the worldwide Church. Classical music_sentence_8

Western staff notation is used by composers to indicate to the performer the pitches and durations for a piece of music. Classical music_sentence_9

In contrast to most popular styles that adopted the song (strophic) form or a derivation of this form, classical music has been noted for its development of highly sophisticated forms of instrumental music such as the symphony, concerto, fugue, sonata, and mixed vocal and instrumental styles such as opera, cantata, and mass. Classical music_sentence_10

Alongside traditional musical attributes, Classical music is conscientious about drawing from and re-purposing its formal and social tradition with forms such as the Mass evolving and communicating through over a thousand years. Classical music_sentence_11

The term "classical music" did not appear until the early 19th century, in an attempt to distinctly canonize the period from Johann Sebastian Bach to Ludwig van Beethoven as a golden age. Classical music_sentence_12

The earliest reference to "classical music" recorded by the Oxford English Dictionary is from about 1829. Classical music_sentence_13

Timeline Classical music_section_1

The major time divisions of Western art music are as follows: Classical music_sentence_14

Classical music_unordered_list_0

  • Ancient music period, before 500 ADClassical music_item_0_0
  • Early music period, which includesClassical music_item_0_1
  • Common-practice period, which includesClassical music_item_0_7
  • Late 19th-century to 20th- and 21st-centuries (1890–present) which includes:Classical music_item_0_12
    • Modernist era (1890–1975) that overlaps from the late-19th centuryClassical music_item_0_13
      • Impressionism (1890–1925) that also overlaps from the late-19th centuryClassical music_item_0_14
      • Expressionism (1900–1930)Classical music_item_0_15
      • Neoclassicism (1920–1950), predominantly in the inter-war periodClassical music_item_0_16
    • Postmodern era/Contemporary (1950–present)Classical music_item_0_17

Characteristics Classical music_section_2

Given the wide range of styles in European classical music, from Medieval plainchant sung by monks to Classical and Romantic symphonies for orchestra from the 1700s and 1800s to avant-garde atonal compositions from the 1900s, it is difficult to list characteristics that can be attributed to all works of that type. Classical music_sentence_15

Nonetheless, a universal characteristic of classical music written since the late 13th century is the invariable appliance of a standardized system of precise mensural notation (which evolved into modern bar notation after 1600) for all compositions and their accurate performance. Classical music_sentence_16

Another is the creation and development of complex pieces of solo instrumental works (e.g., the fugue). Classical music_sentence_17

The first symphonies were produced during the Classical period; beginning in the mid 18th century, the symphony ensemble and the compositions became prominent features of Classical-period music. Classical music_sentence_18

Complexity Classical music_section_3

Works of classical repertoire often exhibit complexity in their use of orchestration, counterpoint, harmony, musical development, rhythm, phrasing, texture, and form. Classical music_sentence_19

Whereas most popular styles are usually written in song form, classical music is noted for its development of highly sophisticated instrumental musical forms, like the concerto, symphony and sonata. Classical music_sentence_20

Classical music is also noted for its use of sophisticated vocal/instrumental forms, such as opera. Classical music_sentence_21

In opera, vocal soloists and choirs perform staged dramatic works with an orchestra providing accompaniment. Classical music_sentence_22

Longer instrumental works are often divided into self-contained pieces, called movements, often with contrasting characters or moods. Classical music_sentence_23

For instance, symphonies written during the Classical period are usually divided into four movements: Classical music_sentence_24

Classical music_ordered_list_1

  1. an opening Allegro in sonata form,Classical music_item_1_21
  2. a slow movement,Classical music_item_1_22
  3. a minuet or scherzo (in a triple metre, such as 4), andClassical music_item_1_23
  4. a final Allegro.Classical music_item_1_24

These movements can then be further broken down into a hierarchy of smaller units: first sections, then periods, and finally phrases. Classical music_sentence_25

Performance Classical music_section_4

Performers who have studied classical music extensively are said to be "classically trained". Classical music_sentence_26

This training may come from private lessons from instrument or voice teachers or from completion of a formal program offered by a Conservatory, college or university, such as a Bachelor of Music or Master of Music degree (which includes individual lessons from professors). Classical music_sentence_27

In classical music, "...extensive formal music education and training, often to postgraduate [Master's degree] level" is required. Classical music_sentence_28

Performance of classical music repertoire requires a proficiency in sight-reading and ensemble playing, harmonic principles, strong ear training (to correct and adjust pitches by ear), knowledge of performance practice (e.g., Baroque ornamentation), and a familiarity with the style/musical idiom expected for a given composer or musical work (e.g., a Brahms symphony or a Mozart concerto). Classical music_sentence_29

The key characteristic of European classical music that distinguishes it from popular music and folk music is that the repertoire tends to be written down in musical notation, creating a musical part or score. Classical music_sentence_30

This score typically determines details of rhythm, pitch, and, where two or more musicians (whether singers or instrumentalists) are involved, how the various parts are coordinated. Classical music_sentence_31

The written quality of the music has enabled a high level of complexity within them: fugues, for instance, achieve a remarkable marriage of boldly distinctive melodic lines weaving in counterpoint yet creating a coherent harmonic logic. Classical music_sentence_32

The use of written notation also preserves a record of the works and enables Classical musicians to perform music from many centuries ago. Classical music_sentence_33

Although Classical music in the 2000s has lost most of its tradition for musical improvisation, from the Baroque era to the Romantic era, there are examples of performers who could improvise in the style of their era. Classical music_sentence_34

In the Baroque era, organ performers would improvise preludes, keyboard performers playing harpsichord would improvise chords from the figured bass symbols beneath the bass notes of the basso continuo part and both vocal and instrumental performers would improvise musical ornaments. Classical music_sentence_35

Johann Sebastian Bach was particularly noted for his complex improvisations. Classical music_sentence_36

During the Classical era, the composer-performer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was noted for his ability to improvise melodies in different styles. Classical music_sentence_37

During the Classical era, some virtuoso soloists would improvise the cadenza sections of a concerto. Classical music_sentence_38

During the Romantic era, Ludwig van Beethoven would improvise at the piano. Classical music_sentence_39

Instrumentation and vocal practices Classical music_section_5

See also: Woodwind section, Brass section, String section, Percussion section, and Keyboard section Classical music_sentence_40

The instruments currently used in most classical music were largely invented before the mid-19th century (often much earlier) and systematized in the 18th and 19th centuries. Classical music_sentence_41

They consist of the instruments found in an orchestra or in a concert band, together with several other solo instruments (such as the piano, harpsichord, and organ). Classical music_sentence_42

The symphony orchestra includes members of the string, woodwind, brass, and percussion families of instruments. Classical music_sentence_43

The concert band consists of members of the woodwind, brass, and percussion families. Classical music_sentence_44

It generally has a larger variety and number of woodwind and brass instruments than the orchestra but does not have a string section. Classical music_sentence_45

However, many concert bands use a double bass. Classical music_sentence_46

The vocal practices changed over the classical period, from the single line monophonic Gregorian chant done by monks in the Medieval period to the complex, polyphonic choral works of the Renaissance and subsequent periods, which used multiple independent vocal melodies at the same time. Classical music_sentence_47

History Classical music_section_6

Main article: History of music Classical music_sentence_48

The major time divisions of classical music up to 1900 are the Early music period, which includes Medieval (500–1400) and Renaissance (1400–1600) eras, and the Common practice period, which includes the Baroque (1600–1750), Classical (1750–1820), and Romantic (1810–1910) eras. Classical music_sentence_49

The current period encompasses the 20th century and the 21st-century to date and includes the Modernist musical era and the Contemporary or Postmodern musical era, the dates of which are often disputed. Classical music_sentence_50

The dates are generalizations, since the periods and eras overlap and the categories are somewhat arbitrary, to the point that some authorities reverse terminologies and refer to a common practice "era" comprising baroque, classical, and romantic "periods". Classical music_sentence_51

For example, the use of counterpoint and fugue, which is considered characteristic of the Baroque era (or period), was continued by Haydn, who is classified as typical of the Classical era. Classical music_sentence_52

Beethoven, who is often described as a founder of the Romantic era, and Brahms, who is classified as Romantic, also used counterpoint and fugue, but the romantic and sometimes yearning qualities of their music define their era. Classical music_sentence_53

The prefix neo- is used to describe a 19th-, 20th-, or 21st-century composition written in the style of an earlier era, such as Classical or Romantic. Classical music_sentence_54

Stravinsky's Pulcinella, for example, is a neoclassical composition because it is stylistically similar to works of the Baroque era. Classical music_sentence_55

Roots Classical music_section_7

Main article: Ancient music Classical music_sentence_56

Burgh (2006), suggests that the roots of Western classical music ultimately lie in ancient Egyptian art music via cheironomy and the ancient Egyptian orchestra, which dates to 2695 BC. Classical music_sentence_57

The development of individual tones and scales was made by ancient Greeks such as Aristoxenus and Pythagoras. Classical music_sentence_58

Pythagoras created a tuning system and helped to codify musical notation. Classical music_sentence_59

Ancient Greek instruments such as the aulos (a reed instrument) and the lyre (a stringed instrument similar to a small harp) eventually led to several modern-day instruments of a classical orchestra. Classical music_sentence_60

The antecedent to the early period was the era of ancient music before the fall of the Roman Empire (476 AD). Classical music_sentence_61

Early period Classical music_section_8

Medieval era Classical music_section_9

Main article: Medieval music Classical music_sentence_62

See also: List of medieval composers Classical music_sentence_63

The Medieval era includes music from after the fall of Rome to about 1400. Classical music_sentence_64

Monophonic chant, also called plainsong or Gregorian chant, was the dominant form until about 1100. Classical music_sentence_65

Catholic monks developed the first forms of modern European musical notation in order to standardize liturgy throughout the worldwide Church. Classical music_sentence_66

Polyphonic (multi-voiced) music developed from monophonic chant throughout the late Middle Ages and into the Renaissance, including the more complex voicings of motets. Classical music_sentence_67

A number of European classical musical instruments have roots in Eastern instruments that were adopted from the medieval Islamic world. Classical music_sentence_68

For example, the Arabic rebab is the ancestor of all European bowed string instruments, including the lira, rebec and violin. Classical music_sentence_69

Many of the instruments used to perform medieval music still exist, but in different forms. Classical music_sentence_70

Medieval instruments included the flute, the recorder and plucked string instruments like the lute. Classical music_sentence_71

As well, early versions of the organ and fiddle (or vielle) existed. Classical music_sentence_72

Medieval instruments in Europe had most commonly been used singly, often self accompanied with a drone note, or occasionally in parts. Classical music_sentence_73

From at least as early as the 13th century through the 15th century there was a division of instruments into haut (loud, shrill, outdoor instruments) and bas (quieter, more intimate instruments). Classical music_sentence_74

During the earlier medieval period, the vocal music from the liturgical genre, predominantly Gregorian chant, was monophonic, using a single, unaccompanied vocal melody line. Classical music_sentence_75

Polyphonic vocal genres, which used multiple independent vocal melodies, began to develop during the high medieval era, becoming prevalent by the later 13th and early 14th century. Classical music_sentence_76

Notable Medieval composers include Hildegard of Bingen, Guillaume de Machaut, Léonin, Pérotin, Philippe de Vitry, Francesco Landini, and Johannes Ciconia. Classical music_sentence_77

Renaissance era Classical music_section_10

Main article: Renaissance music Classical music_sentence_78

See also: List of Renaissance composers Classical music_sentence_79

The Renaissance era was from 1400 to 1600. Classical music_sentence_80

It was characterized by greater use of instrumentation, multiple interweaving melodic lines, and the use of the first bass instruments. Classical music_sentence_81

Social dancing became more widespread, so musical forms appropriate to accompanying dance began to standardize. Classical music_sentence_82

It is in this time that the notation of music on a staff and other elements of musical notation began to take shape. Classical music_sentence_83

This invention made possible the separation of the composition of a piece of music from its transmission; without written music, transmission was oral, and subject to change every time it was transmitted. Classical music_sentence_84

With a musical score, a work of music could be performed without the composer's presence. Classical music_sentence_85

The invention of the movable-type printing press in the 15th century had far-reaching consequences on the preservation and transmission of music. Classical music_sentence_86

Many instruments originated during the Renaissance; others were variations of, or improvements upon, instruments that had existed previously. Classical music_sentence_87

Some have survived to the present day; others have disappeared, only to be re-created in order to perform music on period instruments. Classical music_sentence_88

As in the modern day, instruments may be classified as brass, strings, percussion, and woodwind. Classical music_sentence_89

Brass instruments in the Renaissance were traditionally played by professionals who were members of Guilds and they included the slide trumpet, the wooden cornet, the valveless trumpet and the sackbut. Classical music_sentence_90

Stringed instruments included the viol, the rebec, the harp-like lyre, the hurdy-gurdy, the lute, the guitar, the cittern, the bandora, and the orpharion. Classical music_sentence_91

Keyboard instruments with strings included the harpsichord and the clavichord. Classical music_sentence_92

Percussion instruments include the triangle, the Jew's harp, the tambourine, the bells, the rumble-pot, and various kinds of drums. Classical music_sentence_93

Woodwind instruments included the double-reed shawm (an early member of the oboe family), the reed pipe, the bagpipe, the transverse flute, the recorder, the dulcian, and the crumhorn. Classical music_sentence_94

Simple pipe organs existed, but were largely confined to churches, although there were portable varieties. Classical music_sentence_95

Printing enabled the standardization of descriptions and specifications of instruments, as well as instruction in their use. Classical music_sentence_96

Vocal music in the Renaissance is noted for the flourishing of an increasingly elaborate polyphonic style. Classical music_sentence_97

The principal liturgical forms which endured throughout the entire Renaissance period were masses and motets, with some other developments towards the end, especially as composers of sacred music began to adopt secular forms (such as the madrigal) for their own designs. Classical music_sentence_98

Towards the end of the period, the early dramatic precursors of opera such as monody, the madrigal comedy, and the intermedio are seen. Classical music_sentence_99

Around 1597, Italian composer Jacopo Peri wrote Dafne, the first work to be called an opera today. Classical music_sentence_100

He also composed Euridice, the first opera to have survived to the present day. Classical music_sentence_101

Notable Renaissance composers include Josquin des Prez, Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina, John Dunstaple, Johannes Ockeghem, Orlande de Lassus, Guillaume Du Fay, Gilles Binchois, Thomas Tallis, William Byrd, Giovanni Gabrieli, Carlo Gesualdo, John Dowland, Jacob Obrecht, Adrian Willaert, Jacques Arcadelt, and Cipriano de Rore. Classical music_sentence_102

Common-practice period Classical music_section_11

The common practice period is typically defined as the era between the formation and the dissolution of common-practice tonality. Classical music_sentence_103

The term usually spans roughly two-and-a-half centuries, encompassing the Baroque, Classical, and Romantic periods. Classical music_sentence_104

Baroque era Classical music_section_12

Main article: Baroque music Classical music_sentence_105

See also: List of Baroque composers Classical music_sentence_106

Baroque music is characterized by the use of complex tonal counterpoint and the use of a basso continuo, a continuous bass line. Classical music_sentence_107

Music became more complex in comparison with the simple songs of all previous periods. Classical music_sentence_108

The beginnings of the sonata form took shape in the canzona, as did a more formalized notion of theme and variations. Classical music_sentence_109

The tonalities of major and minor as means for managing dissonance and chromaticism in music took full shape. Classical music_sentence_110

During the Baroque era, keyboard music played on the harpsichord and pipe organ became increasingly popular, and the violin family of stringed instruments took the form generally seen today. Classical music_sentence_111

Opera as a staged musical drama began to differentiate itself from earlier musical and dramatic forms, and vocal forms like the cantata and oratorio became more common. Classical music_sentence_112

Vocalists for the first time began adding extra notes to the music. Classical music_sentence_113

The theories surrounding equal temperament began to be put in wider practice, especially as it enabled a wider range of chromatic possibilities in hard-to-tune keyboard instruments. Classical music_sentence_114

Although J.S. Classical music_sentence_115 Bach did not use equal temperament, as a modern piano is generally tuned, changes in the temperaments from the meantone system, common at the time, to various temperaments that made modulation between all keys musically acceptable, made possible his Well-Tempered Clavier. Classical music_sentence_116

Classical era Classical music_section_13

Romantic era Classical music_section_14

Main article: Romantic music Classical music_sentence_117

See also: List of Romantic-era composers Classical music_sentence_118

The music of the Romantic era, from roughly the first decade of the 19th century to the early 20th century, was characterized by increased attention to an extended melodic line, as well as expressive and emotional elements, paralleling romanticism in other art forms. Classical music_sentence_119

Musical forms began to break from the Classical era forms (even as those were being codified), with free-form pieces like nocturnes, fantasias, and preludes being written where accepted ideas about the exposition and development of themes were ignored or minimized. Classical music_sentence_120

The music became more chromatic, dissonant, and tonally colorful, with tensions (with respect to accepted norms of the older forms) about key signatures increasing. Classical music_sentence_121

The art song (or Lied) came to maturity in this era, as did the epic scales of grand opera, ultimately transcended by Richard Wagner's Ring cycle. Classical music_sentence_122

In the 19th century, musical institutions emerged from the control of wealthy patrons, as composers and musicians could construct lives independent of the nobility. Classical music_sentence_123

Increasing interest in music by the growing middle classes throughout western Europe spurred the creation of organizations for the teaching, performance, and preservation of music. Classical music_sentence_124

The piano, which achieved its modern construction in this era (in part due to industrial advances in metallurgy) became widely popular with the middle class, whose demands for the instrument spurred many piano builders. Classical music_sentence_125

Many symphony orchestras date their founding to this era. Classical music_sentence_126

Some musicians and composers were the stars of the day; some, like Franz Liszt and Niccolò Paganini, fulfilled both roles. Classical music_sentence_127

European cultural ideas and institutions began to follow colonial expansion into other parts of the world. Classical music_sentence_128

There was also a rise, especially toward the end of the era, of nationalism in music (echoing, in some cases, political sentiments of the time), as composers such as Edvard Grieg, Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, and Antonín Dvořák echoed traditional music of their homelands in their compositions. Classical music_sentence_129

In the Romantic era, the modern piano, with a more powerful, sustained tone and a wider range took over from the more delicate-sounding fortepiano. Classical music_sentence_130

In the orchestra, the existing Classical instruments and sections were retained (string section, woodwinds, brass, and percussion), but these sections were typically expanded to make a fuller, bigger sound. Classical music_sentence_131

For example, while a Baroque orchestra may have had two double bass players, a Romantic orchestra could have as many as ten. Classical music_sentence_132

"As music grew more expressive, the standard orchestral palette just wasn't rich enough for many Romantic composers." Classical music_sentence_133

The families of instruments used, especially in orchestras, grew larger; a process that climaxed in the early 20th century with very large orchestras used by late romantic and modernist composers. Classical music_sentence_134

A wider array of percussion instruments began to appear. Classical music_sentence_135

Brass instruments took on larger roles, as the introduction of rotary valves made it possible for them to play a wider range of notes. Classical music_sentence_136

The size of the orchestra (typically around 40 in the Classical era) grew to be over 100. Classical music_sentence_137

Gustav Mahler's 1906 Symphony No. Classical music_sentence_138 8, for example, has been performed with over 150 instrumentalists and choirs of over 400. Classical music_sentence_139

New woodwind instruments were added, such as the contrabassoon, bass clarinet and piccolo and new percussion instruments were added, including xylophones, snare drums, celestas (a bell-like keyboard instrument), bells, and triangles, large orchestral harps, and even wind machines for sound effects. Classical music_sentence_140

Saxophones appear in some scores from the late 19th century onwards, usually featured as a solo instrument rather than as in integral part of the orchestra. Classical music_sentence_141

The Wagner tuba, a modified member of the horn family, appears in Richard Wagner's cycle Der Ring des Nibelungen. Classical music_sentence_142

It also has a prominent role in Anton Bruckner's Symphony No. Classical music_sentence_143 7 in E Major and is also used in several late romantic and modernist works by Richard Strauss, Béla Bartók, and others Cornets appear regularly in 19th century scores, alongside trumpets which were regarded as less agile, at least until the end of the century. Classical music_sentence_144

Prominent composers of this era include Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, Frédéric Chopin, Hector Berlioz, Franz Schubert, Robert Schumann, Felix Mendelssohn, Franz Liszt, Giuseppe Verdi, Richard Wagner, Johannes Brahms, Edvard Grieg, and Johann Strauss II. Classical music_sentence_145

Gustav Mahler and Richard Strauss are commonly regarded as transitional composers whose music combines both late romantic and early modernist elements. Classical music_sentence_146

20th and 21st centuries Classical music_section_15

Main articles: 20th-century classical music and 21st-century classical music Classical music_sentence_147

Modernist era Classical music_section_16

Main article: Modernism (music) Classical music_sentence_148

Encompassing a wide variety of post-Romantic styles, modernist classical music includes late romantic, impressionist, expressionist, and neoclassical styles of composition. Classical music_sentence_149

Modernism marked an era when many composers rejected certain values of the common practice period, such as traditional tonality, melody, instrumentation, and structure. Classical music_sentence_150

Some music historians regard musical modernism as an era extending from about 1890 to 1930. Classical music_sentence_151

Others consider that modernism ended with one or the other of the two world wars. Classical music_sentence_152

Still other authorities claim that modernism is not associated with any historical era, but rather is "an attitude of the composer; a living construct that can evolve with the times". Classical music_sentence_153

Despite its decline in the last third of the 20th century, there remained at the end of the century an active core of composers who continued to advance the ideas and forms of modernism, such as Pierre Boulez, Pauline Oliveros, Toru Takemitsu, George Benjamin, Jacob Druckman, Brian Ferneyhough, George Perle, Wolfgang Rihm, Richard Wernick, Richard Wilson, and Ralph Shapey. Classical music_sentence_154

Two musical movements that were dominant during this time were the impressionist beginning around 1890 and the expressionist that started around 1908. Classical music_sentence_155

It was a period of diverse reactions in challenging and reinterpreting older categories of music, innovations that lead to new ways of organizing and approaching harmonic, melodic, sonic, and rhythmic aspects of music, and changes in aesthetic worldviews in close relation to the larger identifiable period of modernism in the arts of the time. Classical music_sentence_156

The operative word most associated with it is "innovation". Classical music_sentence_157

Its leading feature is a "linguistic plurality", which is to say that no single music genre ever assumed a dominant position. Classical music_sentence_158

The orchestra continued to grow in size during the early years modernist era, peaking in the first two decades of the 20th century. Classical music_sentence_159

Saxophones that appeared only rarely during the 19th century became more commonly used as supplementary instruments, but never became core members of the orchestra. Classical music_sentence_160

While appearing only as featured solo instruments in some works, for example Maurice Ravel's orchestration of Modest Mussorgsky's Pictures at an Exhibition and Sergei Rachmaninoff's Symphonic Dances, the saxophone is included in other works such as Sergei Prokofiev's Romeo and Juliet Suites 1 and 2 and many other works as a member of the orchestral ensemble. Classical music_sentence_161

In some compositions such as Ravel's Boléro, two or more saxophones of different sizes are used to create an entire section like the other sections of the orchestra. Classical music_sentence_162

The euphonium is featured in a few late Romantic and 20th century works, usually playing parts marked "tenor tuba", including Gustav Holst's The Planets, and Richard Strauss's Ein Heldenleben. Classical music_sentence_163

Prominent composers of the early 20th century include Igor Stravinsky, Claude Debussy, Sergei Rachmaninoff, Sergei Prokofiev, Arnold Schoenberg, Heitor Villa-Lobos, Anton Webern, Alban Berg, Cécile Chaminade, Paul Hindemith, Aram Khachaturian, George Gershwin, Amy Beach, Béla Bartók, and Dmitri Shostakovich, along with the aforementioned Mahler and Strauss as transitional figures who carried over from the 19th century. Classical music_sentence_164

Post-modern/contemporary era Classical music_section_17

Main articles: Postmodern music and Contemporary classical music Classical music_sentence_165

See also: High modernism, List of 20th-century classical composers, and List of 21st-century classical composers Classical music_sentence_166

Postmodern music is a period of music that began as early as 1930 according to some authorities. Classical music_sentence_167

It shares characteristics with postmodernist art – that is, art that comes after and reacts against modernism. Classical music_sentence_168

Some other authorities have more or less equated postmodern music with the "contemporary music" composed well after 1930, from the late 20th century through to the early 21st century. Classical music_sentence_169

Some of the diverse movements of the postmodern/contemporary era include the neoromantic, neomedieval, minimalist, and post minimalist. Classical music_sentence_170

Contemporary classical music at the beginning of the 21st century was often considered to include all post-1945 musical forms. Classical music_sentence_171

A generation later, this term now properly refers to the music of today written by composers who are still alive; music that came into prominence in the mid-1970s. Classical music_sentence_172

It includes different variations of modernist, postmodern, neoromantic, and pluralist music. Classical music_sentence_173

Timeline of composers Classical music_section_18

Women in classical music Classical music_section_19

See also: Women in classical music Classical music_sentence_174

Main article: Women in music Classical music_sentence_175

Almost all of the composers who are described in music textbooks on classical music and whose works are widely performed as part of the standard concert repertoire are male composers, even though there has been a large number of women composers throughout the classical music period. Classical music_sentence_176

Musicologist Marcia Citron has asked "[w]hy is music composed by women so marginal to the standard 'classical' repertoire?" Classical music_sentence_177

Citron "examines the practices and attitudes that have led to the exclusion of women composers from the received 'canon' of performed musical works". Classical music_sentence_178

She argues that in the 1800s, women composers typically wrote art songs for performance in small recitals rather than symphonies intended for performance with an orchestra in a large hall, with the latter works being seen as the most important genre for composers; since women composers did not write many symphonies, they were deemed not to be notable as composers. Classical music_sentence_179

In the "...Concise Oxford History of Music, Clara S[c]humann is one of the only sic female composers mentioned." Classical music_sentence_180

Abbey Philips states that "[d]uring the 20th century the women who were composing/playing gained far less attention than their male counterparts." Classical music_sentence_181

Historically, major professional orchestras have been mostly or entirely composed of musicians who are men. Classical music_sentence_182

Some of the earliest cases of women being hired in professional orchestras was in the position of harpist. Classical music_sentence_183

The Vienna Philharmonic, for example, did not accept women to permanent membership until 1997, far later than the other orchestras ranked among the world's top five by Gramophone in 2008. Classical music_sentence_184

The last major orchestra to appoint a woman to a permanent position was the Berlin Philharmonic. Classical music_sentence_185

As late as February 1996, the Vienna Philharmonic's principal flute, Dieter Flury, told Westdeutscher Rundfunk that accepting women would be "gambling with the emotional unity (emotionelle Geschlossenheit) that this organism currently has". Classical music_sentence_186

In April 1996, the orchestra's press secretary wrote that "compensating for the expected leaves of absence" of maternity leave would be a problem. Classical music_sentence_187

In 1997, the Vienna Philharmonic was "facing protests during a [US] tour" by the National Organization for Women and the International Alliance for Women in Music. Classical music_sentence_188

Finally, "after being held up to increasing ridicule even in socially conservative Austria, members of the orchestra gathered [on 28 February 1997] in an extraordinary meeting on the eve of their departure and agreed to admit a woman, Anna Lelkes, as harpist." Classical music_sentence_189

As of 2013, the orchestra has six female members; one of them, violinist Albena Danailova became one of the orchestra's concertmasters in 2008, the first woman to hold that position. Classical music_sentence_190

In 2012, women still made up just 6% of the orchestra's membership. Classical music_sentence_191

VPO president Clemens Hellsberg said the VPO now uses completely screened blind auditions. Classical music_sentence_192

In 2013, an article in Mother Jones stated that while "[m]any prestigious orchestras have significant female membership—women outnumber men in the New York Philharmonic's violin section—and several renowned ensembles, including the National Symphony Orchestra, the Detroit Symphony, and the Minnesota Symphony, are led by women violinists," the double bass, brass, and percussion sections of major orchestras "...are still predominantly male". Classical music_sentence_193

A 2014 BBC article stated that the "...introduction of 'blind' auditions, where a prospective instrumentalist performs behind a screen so that the judging panel can exercise no gender or racial prejudice, has seen the gender balance of traditionally male-dominated symphony orchestras gradually shift." Classical music_sentence_194

Relationship to other music traditions Classical music_section_20

Popular music Classical music_section_21

Classical music has often incorporated elements or material from popular music of the composer's time. Classical music_sentence_195

Examples include occasional music such as Brahms' use of student drinking songs in his Academic Festival Overture, genres exemplified by Kurt Weill's The Threepenny Opera, and the influence of jazz on early and mid-20th-century composers including Maurice Ravel, exemplified by the movement entitled "Blues" in his sonata for violin and piano. Classical music_sentence_196

Some postmodern, minimalist and postminimalist classical composers acknowledge a debt to popular music. Classical music_sentence_197

Numerous examples show influence in the opposite direction, including popular songs based on classical music, the use to which Pachelbel's Canon has been put since the 1970s, and the musical crossover phenomenon, where classical musicians have achieved success in the popular music arena. Classical music_sentence_198

In heavy metal, a number of lead guitarists (playing electric guitar), including Ritchie Blackmore and Randy Rhoads, modeled their playing styles on Baroque or Classical-era instrumental music. Classical music_sentence_199

Folk music Classical music_section_22

Composers of classical music have often made use of folk music (music created by musicians who are commonly not classically trained, often from a purely oral tradition). Classical music_sentence_200

Some composers, like Dvořák and Smetana, have used folk themes to impart a nationalist flavor to their work, while others like Bartók have used specific themes lifted whole from their folk-music origins. Classical music_sentence_201

Commercialization Classical music_section_23

Certain staples of classical music are often used commercially (either in advertising or in movie soundtracks). Classical music_sentence_202

In television commercials, several passages have become clichéd, particularly the opening of Richard Strauss' Also sprach Zarathustra (made famous in the film 2001: A Space Odyssey) and the opening section "O Fortuna" of Carl Orff's Carmina Burana; other examples include the "Dies irae" from the Verdi Requiem, Edvard Grieg's "In the Hall of the Mountain King" from Peer Gynt, the opening bars of Beethoven's Symphony No. Classical music_sentence_203 5, Wagner's "Ride of the Valkyries" from Die Walküre, Rimsky-Korsakov's "Flight of the Bumblebee", and excerpts of Aaron Copland's Rodeo. Classical music_sentence_204

Several works from the Golden Age of Animation matched the action to classical music. Classical music_sentence_205

Notable examples are Walt Disney's Fantasia, Tom and Jerry's Johann Mouse, and Warner Bros.' Rabbit of Seville and What's Opera, Doc? Classical music_sentence_206

Similarly, movies and television often revert to standard, clichéd excerpts of classical music to convey refinement or opulence: some of the most-often heard pieces in this category include Bach´s Cello Suite No. Classical music_sentence_207 1, Mozart's Eine kleine Nachtmusik, Vivaldi's Four Seasons, Mussorgsky's Night on Bald Mountain (as orchestrated by Rimsky-Korsakov), and Rossini's "William Tell Overture". Classical music_sentence_208

Shawn Vancour argues that the commercialization of classical music in the early 20th century may have harmed the music industry through inadequate representation. Classical music_sentence_209

Education Classical music_section_24

Main article: Music education Classical music_sentence_210

During the 1990s, several research papers and popular books wrote on what came to be called the "Mozart effect": an observed temporary, small elevation of scores on certain tests as a result of listening to Mozart's works. Classical music_sentence_211

The approach has been popularized in a book by Don Campbell, and is based on an experiment published in Nature suggesting that listening to Mozart temporarily boosted students' IQ by 8 to 9 points. Classical music_sentence_212

This popularized version of the theory was expressed succinctly by the New York Times music columnist Alex Ross: "researchers... have determined that listening to Mozart actually makes you smarter." Classical music_sentence_213

Promoters marketed CDs claimed to induce the effect. Classical music_sentence_214

Florida passed a law requiring toddlers in state-run schools to listen to classical music every day, and in 1998 the governor of Georgia budgeted $105,000 per year to provide every child born in Georgia with a tape or CD of classical music. Classical music_sentence_215

One of the co-authors of the original studies of the Mozart effect commented "I don't think it can hurt. Classical music_sentence_216

I'm all for exposing children to wonderful cultural experiences. Classical music_sentence_217

But I do think the money could be better spent on music education programs." Classical music_sentence_218

In 1996/97, a research study was conducted on a population of preschool through college students in the Cherry Creek School District in Denver, Colorado, US. Classical music_sentence_219

The study showed that students who actively listen to classical music before studying had higher academic scores. Classical music_sentence_220

The research further indicated that students who listened to the music prior to an examination also had positively elevated achievement scores. Classical music_sentence_221

Students who listened to rock-and-roll or Country music had moderately lower scores. Classical music_sentence_222

The study further indicated that students who used classical music during the course of study had a significant leap in their academic performance; whereas, those who listened to other types of music had significantly lowered academic scores. Classical music_sentence_223

The research was conducted over several schools within the Cherry Creek School District and was conducted through the University of Colorado. Classical music_sentence_224

This study is reflective of several recent studies (i.e. Mike Manthei and Steve N. Kelly of the University of Nebraska at Omaha; Donald A. Hodges and Debra S. O'Connell of the University of North Carolina at Greensboro) and others. Classical music_sentence_225

See also Classical music_section_25

Classical music_unordered_list_2

Nation-specific: Classical music_sentence_226

Classical music_unordered_list_3

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: music.