Clerical fascism

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Clerical fascism (also clero-fascism or clerico-fascism) is an ideology that combines the political and economic doctrines of fascism with clericalism. Clerical fascism_sentence_0

The term has been used to describe organizations and movements that combine religious elements with fascism, receive support from religious organizations which espouse sympathy for fascism, or fascist regimes in which clergy play a leading role. Clerical fascism_sentence_1

History Clerical fascism_section_0

The term clerical fascism (clero-fascism or clerico-fascism) emerged in the early 1920s in the Kingdom of Italy, referring to the faction of the Roman Catholic Partito Popolare Italiano which supported Benito Mussolini and his régime; it was supposedly coined by Don Luigi Sturzo, a priest and Christian democrat leader who opposed Mussolini and went into exile in 1924, although the term had also been used before Mussolini's March on Rome in 1922 to refer to Catholics in Northern Italy who advocated a synthesis of Roman Catholicism and fascism. Clerical fascism_sentence_2

Sturzo made a distinction between the "filofascists", who left the Catholic PPI in 1921 and 1922, and the "clerical fascists" who stayed in the party after the March on Rome, advocating collaboration with the fascist government. Clerical fascism_sentence_3

Eventually, the latter group converged with Mussolini, abandoning the PPI in 1923 and creating the Centro Nazionale Italiano. Clerical fascism_sentence_4

The PPI was disbanded by the fascist régime in 1926. Clerical fascism_sentence_5

The term has since been used by scholars seeking to contrast authoritarian-conservative clerical fascism with more radical variants. Clerical fascism_sentence_6

Christian fascists focus on internal religious politics, such as passing laws and regulations that reflect their view of Christianity. Clerical fascism_sentence_7

Radicalized forms of Christian fascism or clerical fascism (clero-fascism or clerico-fascism) were emerging on the far-right of the political spectrum in some European countries during the interwar period in the first half of the 20th century. Clerical fascism_sentence_8

Fascist Italy Clerical fascism_section_1

See also: Kingdom of Italy under Fascism (1922–1943), Roman Question, and Freedom of religion in Italy § History Clerical fascism_sentence_9

In 1870 the newly formed Kingdom of Italy annexed the remaining Papal States, depriving the Pope of his temporal power. Clerical fascism_sentence_10

However, papal rule in Italy was later restored by the Fascist regime (albeit on a greatly diminished scale) in 1929 as head of the Vatican City state; under Mussolini's dictatorship, Roman Catholicism became the state religion of Fascist Italy. Clerical fascism_sentence_11

In March 1929, a nationwide plebiscite was held to publicly endorse the Lateran Treaty. Clerical fascism_sentence_12

Opponents were intimidated by the fascist regime: the Catholic Action organisation (Azione Cattolica) and Mussolini claimed that "no" votes were of those "few ill-advised anti-clericals who refuse to accept the Lateran Pacts". Clerical fascism_sentence_13

Nearly nine million Italians voted, or 90 per cent of the registered electorate, and only 136,000 voted "no". Clerical fascism_sentence_14

Almost immediately after the signing of the Treaty, relations between Mussolini and the Church soured again. Clerical fascism_sentence_15

Mussolini "referred to Catholicism as, in origin, a minor sect that had spread beyond Palestine only because grafted onto the organization of the Roman empire." Clerical fascism_sentence_16

After the concordat, "he confiscated more issues of Catholic newspapers in the next three months than in the previous seven years." Clerical fascism_sentence_17

Mussolini reportedly came close to being excommunicated from the Catholic Church around this time. Clerical fascism_sentence_18

In 1938, the Italian Racial Laws and Manifesto of Race were promulgated by the fascist regime, enforced to both outlaw and persecute Italian Jews and Protestant Christians, especially Evangelicals and Pentecostals. Clerical fascism_sentence_19

Thousands of Italian Jews and a small number of Protestants died in the Nazi concentration camps. Clerical fascism_sentence_20

In Jan. 1939, The Jewish National Monthly reports "the only bright spot in Italy has been the Vatican, where fine humanitarian statements by the Pope have been issuing regularly". Clerical fascism_sentence_21

When Mussolini's anti-Semitic decrees began depriving Jews of employment in Italy, Pius XI, on his own initiative, admitted Professor Vito Volterra, a famous Italian Jewish mathematician, into the Pontifical Academy of Science. Clerical fascism_sentence_22

Despite Mussolini's close alliance with Hitler's Germany, Italy did not fully adopt Nazism's genocidal ideology towards the Jews. Clerical fascism_sentence_23

The Nazis were frustrated by the Italian authorities' refusal to co-operate in the round-ups of Jews, and no Jews were deported prior to the formation of the Italian Social Republic following the Armistice of Cassibile. Clerical fascism_sentence_24

In the Italian-occupied Independent State of Croatia, German envoy Siegfried Kasche advised Berlin that Italian forces had "apparently been influenced" by Vatican opposition to German anti-Semitism. Clerical fascism_sentence_25

As anti-Axis feeling grew in Italy, the use of Vatican Radio to broadcast papal disapproval of race murder and anti-Semitism angered the Nazis. Clerical fascism_sentence_26

Mussolini was overthrown in July 1943, the Germans moved to occupy Italy, and commenced a round-up of Jews. Clerical fascism_sentence_27

Around 4% of Resistance forces were formally Catholic organisations, but Catholics dominated other "independent groups" such as the Fiamme Verdi and Osoppo partisans, and there were also Catholic militants in the Garibaldi Brigades, such as Benigno Zaccagnini, who later served as a prominent Christian Democrat politician. Clerical fascism_sentence_28

In Northern Italy, tensions between Catholics and communists in the movement led Catholics to form the Fiamme Verdi as a separate brigade of Christian Democrats. Clerical fascism_sentence_29

After the war, the ideological divisions between former partisans re-emerged, becoming a hallmark of post-war Italian politics. Clerical fascism_sentence_30

Examples of clerical fascism Clerical fascism_section_2

Examples of political movements involving certain elements of clerical fascism include: Clerical fascism_sentence_31

Clerical fascism_unordered_list_0

The National Union in Portugal led by Prime Ministers António de Oliveira Salazar and Marcelo Caetano is not considered Fascist by historians such as Stanley G. Payne, Thomas Gerard Gallagher, Juan José Linz, António Costa Pinto, Roger Griffin, Robert Paxton and Howard J. Wiarda. Clerical fascism_sentence_32

Though it is considered Fascist by historians usch as Manuel de Lucena, Jorge Pais de Sousa, Manuel Loff, and Hermínio Martins. Clerical fascism_sentence_33

One of Salazar's actions was to ban the National Syndicalists/Fascists. Clerical fascism_sentence_34

Salazar distanced himself from fascism and Nazism, which he criticized as a "pagan Caesarism" that recognised neither legal nor moral limits. Clerical fascism_sentence_35

Likewise, the Fatherland Front in Austria led by Austrian Catholic Chancellors Engelbert Dollfuss and Kurt Schuschnigg is often not regarded as a fully fascist party. Clerical fascism_sentence_36

It has been called semi-Fascist and even imitation Fascist. Clerical fascism_sentence_37

Dollfuss was murdered by the Nazis, shot in his office by the SS and left to bleed to death. Clerical fascism_sentence_38

His regime did initially receive support from Fascist Italy, which formed the Stresa Front with the United Kingdom and France. Clerical fascism_sentence_39

Nonetheless, scholars who accept the use of the term clerical fascism debate which of the listed examples should be dubbed "clerical fascist", with the Ustaše being the most widely included. Clerical fascism_sentence_40

In the examples cited above, the degree of official Catholic support and clerical influence over lawmaking and government varies. Clerical fascism_sentence_41

Moreover, several authors reject the concept of a clerical fascist régime, arguing that an entire fascist régime does not become "clerical" if elements of the clergy support it, while others are not prepared to use the term "clerical fascism" outside the context of what they call the fascist epoch, between the ends of the two world wars (1918–1945). Clerical fascism_sentence_42

Some scholars consider certain contemporary movements to be forms of clerical fascism, such as Christian Identity and Christian Reconstructionism in the United States; "the most virulent form" of Islamic fundamentalism, Islamism; and militant Hindu nationalism in India. Clerical fascism_sentence_43

The political theorist Roger Griffin warns against the "hyperinflation of clerical fascism". Clerical fascism_sentence_44

According to Griffin, the use of the term "clerical fascism" should be limited to "the peculiar forms of politics that arise when religious clerics and professional theologians are drawn either into collusion with the secular ideology of fascism (an occurrence particularly common in interwar Europe); or, more rarely, manage to mix a theologically illicit cocktail of deeply held religious beliefs with a fascist commitment to saving the nation or race from decadence or collapse". Clerical fascism_sentence_45

Griffin adds that "clerical fascism" "should never be used to characterize a political movement or a regime in its entirety, since it can at most be a faction within fascism", while he defines fascism as "a revolutionary, secular variant of ultranationalism bent on the total rebirth of society through human agency". Clerical fascism_sentence_46

In the case of the Slovak State, some scholars have rejected the use of the term clerical fascism as a label for the regime and they have particularly rejected its use as a label for Jozef Tiso. Clerical fascism_sentence_47

Slovak historian Ľubomír Lipták has argued that "clerofascism" is similar to Judeo-Bolshevism because both movements mutually sought "to compromise one [component] with the other." Clerical fascism_sentence_48

See also Clerical fascism_section_3

Clerical fascism_unordered_list_1

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: fascism.