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This article is about the city in Ohio. Cleveland_sentence_0

For the metropolitan area, see Greater Cleveland. Cleveland_sentence_1

For other uses, see Cleveland (disambiguation). Cleveland_sentence_2


Cleveland, OhioCleveland_header_cell_0_0_0
CountryCleveland_header_cell_0_1_0 United StatesCleveland_cell_0_1_1
StateCleveland_header_cell_0_2_0 OhioCleveland_cell_0_2_1
CountyCleveland_header_cell_0_3_0 CuyahogaCleveland_cell_0_3_1
FoundedCleveland_header_cell_0_4_0 July 22, 1796Cleveland_cell_0_4_1
IncorporatedCleveland_header_cell_0_5_0 December 23, 1814 (village)Cleveland_cell_0_5_1
Cleveland_header_cell_0_6_0 March 6, 1836 (city)Cleveland_cell_0_6_1
Named forCleveland_header_cell_0_7_0 Moses CleavelandCleveland_cell_0_7_1
TypeCleveland_header_cell_0_9_0 Mayor–councilCleveland_cell_0_9_1
BodyCleveland_header_cell_0_10_0 Cleveland City CouncilCleveland_cell_0_10_1
MayorCleveland_header_cell_0_11_0 Frank G. Jackson (D)Cleveland_cell_0_11_1
CityCleveland_header_cell_0_13_0 82.48 sq mi (213.62 km)Cleveland_cell_0_13_1
LandCleveland_header_cell_0_14_0 77.73 sq mi (201.33 km)Cleveland_cell_0_14_1
WaterCleveland_header_cell_0_15_0 4.75 sq mi (12.29 km)Cleveland_cell_0_15_1
UrbanCleveland_header_cell_0_16_0 772 sq mi (1,999.4 km)Cleveland_cell_0_16_1
MetroCleveland_header_cell_0_17_0 3,979 sq mi (10,307 km)Cleveland_cell_0_17_1
CSACleveland_header_cell_0_18_0 11,624.49 sq mi (30,107.4 km)Cleveland_cell_0_18_1
ElevationCleveland_header_cell_0_19_0 653 ft (199 m)Cleveland_cell_0_19_1
Population (2010)Cleveland_header_cell_0_20_0
CityCleveland_header_cell_0_21_0 396,815Cleveland_cell_0_21_1
Estimate (2019)Cleveland_header_cell_0_22_0 381,009Cleveland_cell_0_22_1
RankCleveland_header_cell_0_23_0 US: 53rdCleveland_cell_0_23_1
DensityCleveland_header_cell_0_24_0 4,901.51/sq mi (1,892.49/km)Cleveland_cell_0_24_1
UrbanCleveland_header_cell_0_25_0 1,780,673 (US: 25th)Cleveland_cell_0_25_1
MetroCleveland_header_cell_0_26_0 2,057,009 (US: 33rd)Cleveland_cell_0_26_1
CSACleveland_header_cell_0_27_0 3,599,264 (US: 17th)Cleveland_cell_0_27_1
Demonym(s)Cleveland_header_cell_0_28_0 ClevelanderCleveland_cell_0_28_1
Time zoneCleveland_header_cell_0_29_0 UTC−5 (EST)Cleveland_cell_0_29_1
Summer (DST)Cleveland_header_cell_0_30_0 UTC−4 (EDT)Cleveland_cell_0_30_1
ZIP CodesCleveland_header_cell_0_31_0 ZIP CodesCleveland_cell_0_31_1
Area codeCleveland_header_cell_0_32_0 216Cleveland_cell_0_32_1
FIPS codeCleveland_header_cell_0_33_0 39-16000Cleveland_cell_0_33_1
GNIS feature IDCleveland_header_cell_0_34_0 Cleveland_cell_0_34_1
Major airportsCleveland_header_cell_0_35_0 Cleveland Hopkins International Airport, Cleveland Burke Lakefront AirportCleveland_cell_0_35_1
InterstatesCleveland_header_cell_0_36_0 Interstate_71#Ohio Interstate_77_in_Ohio Interstate_90_in_Ohio Interstate_480_(Ohio) Interstate_490_(Ohio)Cleveland_cell_0_36_1
Rapid TransitCleveland_header_cell_0_37_0 RTA_Rapid_TransitCleveland_cell_0_37_1
WebsiteCleveland_header_cell_0_38_0 Cleveland_cell_0_38_1

Cleveland (/ˈkliːvlənd/ KLEEV-lənd), officially the City of Cleveland, is a major city in the U.S. Cleveland_sentence_3

state of Ohio, and the county seat of Cuyahoga County. Cleveland_sentence_4

It is located on the southern shore of Lake Erie, across the U.S. maritime border with Canada and approximately 60 miles (100 kilometers) west of the Ohio-Pennsylvania state border. Cleveland_sentence_5

Cleveland is the largest city on the shores of Lake Erie and the largest metropolitan economy and population in Ohio. Cleveland_sentence_6

Metropolitan Cleveland, with a population of 2.8 million, comprises two US-defined metropolitan statistical areas (MSA), the Cleveland MSA and the Akron MSA. Cleveland_sentence_7

Its GDP is $171 Billion (2018), making it the 21st largest in the United States. Cleveland_sentence_8

The city proper, with an estimated 2019 population of 381,009, ranks as the 53rd-largest city in the United States, though its economy and population are fluid across individual municipal boundaries. Cleveland_sentence_9

Designated as a "Gamma -" global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, Cleveland anchors the Cleveland–Akron–Canton Combined Statistical Area, the most populous combined statistical area in Ohio and the 15th largest in the U.S., with a population of 3,515,646 in 2010. Cleveland_sentence_10

Cleveland was founded in 1796 near the mouth of the Cuyahoga River by General Moses Cleaveland, after whom the city was named. Cleveland_sentence_11

A port city, it grew into a major manufacturing center due to its location on both the river and the lake shore, as well as numerous canals and railroad lines. Cleveland_sentence_12

Cleveland's economy relies on diversified sectors such as manufacturing, financial services, healthcare, biomedicals, and higher education. Cleveland_sentence_13

The city's major cultural institutions include the Cleveland Museum of Art, the Cleveland Museum of Natural History, the Cleveland Orchestra, Playhouse Square, and the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Cleveland_sentence_14

Known as "The Forest City" among many other nicknames, Cleveland serves as the center of the Cleveland Metroparks nature reserve system. Cleveland_sentence_15

The city's major league professional sports teams include the Cleveland Browns, the Cleveland Cavaliers, the Cleveland Indians, and the Cleveland Monsters. Cleveland_sentence_16

History Cleveland_section_0

Main articles: History of Cleveland and Timeline of Cleveland history Cleveland_sentence_17

Establishment Cleveland_section_1

Cleveland was established on July 22, 1796, by surveyors of the Connecticut Land Company when they laid out Connecticut's Western Reserve into townships and a capital city. Cleveland_sentence_18

They named the new settlement "Cleaveland" after their leader, General Moses Cleaveland. Cleveland_sentence_19

Cleaveland oversaw the New England-style design of the plan for what would become the modern downtown area, centered on Public Square, before returning home, never again to visit Ohio. Cleveland_sentence_20

The first permanent European settler in Cleaveland was Lorenzo Carter, who built a cabin on the banks of the Cuyahoga River. Cleveland_sentence_21

The settlement served as an important supply post for the U.S. during the Battle of Lake Erie in the War of 1812. Cleveland_sentence_22

Locals adopted Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry as a civic hero and erected a monument in his honor decades later. Cleveland_sentence_23

The Village of Cleaveland was incorporated on December 23, 1814. Cleveland_sentence_24

In spite of the nearby swampy lowlands and harsh winters, the town's waterfront location proved to be an advantage, giving it access to Great Lakes trade. Cleveland_sentence_25

It grew rapidly after the 1832 completion of the Ohio and Erie Canal. Cleveland_sentence_26

This key link between the Ohio River and the Great Lakes connected it to the Atlantic Ocean via the Erie Canal and Hudson River, and later via the St. Cleveland_sentence_27

Lawrence Seaway. Cleveland_sentence_28

Its products could reach markets on the Gulf of Mexico via the Mississippi River. Cleveland_sentence_29

The town's growth continued with added railroad links. Cleveland_sentence_30

In 1831, the spelling of the town's name was altered by The Cleveland Advertiser newspaper. Cleveland_sentence_31

In order to fit the name on the newspaper's masthead, the editors dropped the first "a", reducing the city's name to Cleveland, which eventually became the official spelling. Cleveland_sentence_32

In 1836, Cleveland, then only on the eastern banks of the Cuyahoga River, was officially incorporated as a city. Cleveland_sentence_33

That same year, it nearly erupted into open warfare with neighboring Ohio City over a bridge connecting the two communities. Cleveland_sentence_34

Ohio City remained an independent municipality until its annexation by Cleveland in 1854. Cleveland_sentence_35

Growth and expansion Cleveland_section_2

Home to a vocal group of abolitionists, Cleveland (code-named "Station Hope") was a major stop on the Underground Railroad for escaped African American slaves en route to Canada. Cleveland_sentence_36

The city also served as an important center for the Union during the American Civil War. Cleveland_sentence_37

After the war, the city witnessed rapid growth. Cleveland_sentence_38

Its prime geographic location as a transportation hub between the East Coast and the Midwest played an important role in its development as a commercial center. Cleveland_sentence_39

Cleveland served as a destination for iron ore shipped from Minnesota, along with coal transported by rail. Cleveland_sentence_40

In 1870, John D. Rockefeller founded Standard Oil in Cleveland. Cleveland_sentence_41

In 1885, he moved its headquarters to New York City, which had become a center of finance and business. Cleveland_sentence_42

By the early 20th century, Cleveland had emerged as a major American manufacturing center. Cleveland_sentence_43

Its businesses included automotive companies such as Peerless, People's, Jordan, Chandler, and Winton, maker of the first car driven across the U.S. Other manufacturers in Cleveland produced steam-powered cars, which included White and Gaeth, as well as the electric car company Baker. Cleveland_sentence_44

Known as the "Sixth City" due to its position as the sixth largest U.S. city at the time, Cleveland counted major Progressive Era politicians among its leaders, most prominently the populist Mayor Tom L. Johnson, who was responsible for the development of the Cleveland Mall Plan. Cleveland_sentence_45

The era of the City Beautiful movement in Cleveland architecture, this period also saw wealthy patrons support the establishment of the city's major cultural institutions. Cleveland_sentence_46

The most prominent among them were the Cleveland Museum of Art, which opened in 1916, and the Cleveland Orchestra, established in 1918. Cleveland_sentence_47

Cleveland's economic growth and industrial jobs attracted large waves of immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe as well as Ireland. Cleveland_sentence_48

African American migrants from the rural South also arrived in Cleveland (among other Northeastern and Midwestern cities) as part of the Great Migration for jobs, constitutional rights, and relief from racial discrimination. Cleveland_sentence_49

By 1920, the year in which the Cleveland Indians won their first World Series championship, Cleveland had grown into a densely-populated metropolis of 796,841 with a foreign-born population of 30%, making it the fifth largest city in the nation. Cleveland_sentence_50

At this time, Cleveland saw the rise of radical labor movements in response to the conditions of the largely immigrant and migrant workers. Cleveland_sentence_51

In 1919, the city attracted national attention amid the First Red Scare for the Cleveland May Day Riots, in which socialist demonstrators clashed with anti-socialists. Cleveland_sentence_52

Despite the immigration restrictions of 1921 and 1924, the city's population continued to grow throughout the 1920s. Cleveland_sentence_53

Prohibition first took effect in Ohio in May 1919 (although it was not well-enforced in Cleveland), became law with the Volstead Act in 1920, and was eventually repealed nationally by Congress in 1933. Cleveland_sentence_54

The ban on alcohol led to the rise of speakeasies throughout the city and organized crime gangs, such as the Mayfield Road Mob, who smuggled bootleg liquor across Lake Erie from Canada into Cleveland. Cleveland_sentence_55

The Roaring Twenties also saw the establishment of Cleveland's Playhouse Square and the rise of the risqué Short Vincent entertainment district. Cleveland_sentence_56

The Bal-Masque balls of the avant-garde Kokoon Arts Club scandalized the city. Cleveland_sentence_57

Jazz came to prominence in Cleveland during this period. Cleveland_sentence_58

In 1929, the city hosted the first of many National Air Races. Cleveland_sentence_59

The Van Sweringen brothers commenced construction of the Terminal Tower skyscraper in 1926 and, by the time it was dedicated in 1930, Cleveland had a population of over 900,000. Cleveland_sentence_60

The era of the flapper also marked the beginning of the golden age in Downtown Cleveland retail, centered on major department stores Higbee's, Bailey's, the May Company, Taylor's, Halle's, and Sterling Lindner Davis, which collectively represented one of the largest and most fashionable shopping districts in the country, often compared to New York's Fifth Avenue. Cleveland_sentence_61

Cleveland was hit hard by the Wall Street Crash of 1929 and the subsequent Great Depression. Cleveland_sentence_62

A center of union activity, the city was aided by major federal works projects sponsored by President Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal. Cleveland_sentence_63

In commemoration of the centennial of Cleveland's incorporation as a city, the Great Lakes Exposition debuted in June 1936 at the city's North Coast Harbor, along the Lake Erie shore north of downtown. Cleveland_sentence_64

Conceived by Cleveland's business leaders as a way to revitalize the city during the Depression, it drew four million visitors in its first season, and seven million by the end of its second and final season in September 1937. Cleveland_sentence_65

On December 7, 1941, Imperial Japan attacked Pearl Harbor and declared war on the United States. Cleveland_sentence_66

One of the victims of the attack was a Cleveland native, Rear Admiral Isaac C. Kidd. Cleveland_sentence_67

The attack signaled America's entry into World War II. Cleveland_sentence_68

A major hub of the "Arsenal of Democracy", Cleveland under Mayor Frank Lausche contributed massively to the U.S. Cleveland_sentence_69

war effort as the fifth largest manufacturing center in the nation. Cleveland_sentence_70

During his tenure, Lausche also oversaw the establishment of the Cleveland Transit System, the predecessor to the Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority. Cleveland_sentence_71

Late 20th and early 21st centuries Cleveland_section_3

After the war, Cleveland initially experienced an economic boom, and businesses declared the city to be the "best location in the nation." Cleveland_sentence_72

In 1949, the city was named an All-America City for the first time and, in 1950, its population reached 914,808. Cleveland_sentence_73

In sports, the Indians won the 1948 World Series, the hockey team, the Barons, became champions of the American Hockey League, and the Browns dominated professional football in the 1950s. Cleveland_sentence_74

As a result, along with track and boxing champions produced, Cleveland was declared the "City of Champions" in sports at this time. Cleveland_sentence_75

The 1950s also saw the rising popularity of a new music genre that local WJW (AM) disc jockey Alan Freed dubbed "rock and roll." Cleveland_sentence_76

However, by the 1960s, Cleveland's economy began to slow down, and residents increasingly sought new housing in the suburbs, reflecting the national trends of suburban growth following federally subsidized highways. Cleveland_sentence_77

Industrial restructuring, particularly in the railroad and steel industries, resulted in the loss of numerous jobs in Cleveland and the region, and the city suffered economically. Cleveland_sentence_78

The burning of the Cuyahoga River in June 1969 brought national attention to the issue of industrial pollution in Cleveland and served as a catalyst for the American environmental movement. Cleveland_sentence_79

Housing discrimination and redlining against African Americans led to racial unrest in Cleveland and numerous other Northern U.S. cities. Cleveland_sentence_80

In Cleveland, the Hough riots erupted from July 18 to 23, 1966 and the Glenville Shootout took place from July 23 to 25, 1968. Cleveland_sentence_81

In November 1967, Cleveland became the first major American city to elect an African American mayor, Carl B. Stokes, who served from 1968 to 1971 and played an instrumental role in restoring the Cuyahoga River. Cleveland_sentence_82

In December 1978, during the turbulent tenure of Dennis Kucinich as mayor, Cleveland became the first major American city since the Great Depression to enter into a financial default on federal loans. Cleveland_sentence_83

By the beginning of the 1980s, several factors, including changes in international free trade policies, inflation, and the Savings and Loans Crisis, contributed to the recession that severely affected cities like Cleveland. Cleveland_sentence_84

While unemployment during the period peaked in 1983, Cleveland's rate of 13.8% was higher than the national average due to the closure of several steel production centers. Cleveland_sentence_85

The city began a gradual economic recovery under Mayor George V. Voinovich in the 1980s. Cleveland_sentence_86

The downtown area saw the construction of the Key Tower and 200 Public Square skyscrapers, as well as the development of the Gateway Sports and Entertainment Complex—consisting of Progressive Field and Rocket Mortgage FieldHouse—and the North Coast Harbor, including the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, FirstEnergy Stadium, and the Great Lakes Science Center. Cleveland_sentence_87

The city emerged from default in 1987. Cleveland_sentence_88

By the turn of the 21st century, Cleveland succeeded in developing a more diversified economy and gained a national reputation as a center for healthcare and the arts. Cleveland_sentence_89

Additionally, it has become a national leader in environmental protection, with its successful cleanup of the Cuyahoga River. Cleveland_sentence_90

The city's downtown has experienced dramatic economic and population growth since 2010. Cleveland_sentence_91

In 2018, the population of Cleveland began to flatten after decades of decline. Cleveland_sentence_92

However, challenges still remain for the city, with economic development of neighborhoods, improvement of city schools, and continued encouragement of new immigration to Cleveland being top municipal priorities. Cleveland_sentence_93

Despite such challenges, Cleveland has become increasingly recognized by national media as a city on the upswing. Cleveland_sentence_94

This trend has been accompanied by major victories in sports, including championships by the Lake Erie Monsters of the AHL and heavyweight Stipe Miocic, and capped most prominently by the victory of the Cleveland Cavaliers in the 2016 NBA Finals, the first major professional sports championship won by a Cleveland team since 1964. Cleveland_sentence_95

Geography Cleveland_section_4

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 82.47 square miles (213.60 km), of which 77.70 square miles (201.24 km) is land and 4.77 square miles (12.35 km) is water. Cleveland_sentence_96

The shore of Lake Erie is 569 feet (173 m) above sea level; however, the city lies on a series of irregular bluffs lying roughly parallel to the lake. Cleveland_sentence_97

In Cleveland these bluffs are cut principally by the Cuyahoga River, Big Creek, and Euclid Creek. Cleveland_sentence_98

The land rises quickly from the lake shore elevation of 569 feet. Cleveland_sentence_99

Public Square, less than one mile (1.6 km) inland, sits at an elevation of 650 feet (198 m), and Hopkins Airport, 5 miles (8 km) inland from the lake, is at an elevation of 791 feet (241 m). Cleveland_sentence_100

Cleveland borders several inner-ring and streetcar suburbs. Cleveland_sentence_101

To the west, it borders Lakewood, Rocky River, and Fairview Park, and to the east, it borders Shaker Heights, Cleveland Heights, South Euclid, and East Cleveland. Cleveland_sentence_102

To the southwest, it borders Linndale, Brooklyn, Parma, and Brook Park. Cleveland_sentence_103

To the south, the city also borders Newburgh Heights, Cuyahoga Heights, and Brooklyn Heights and to the southeast, it borders Warrensville Heights, Maple Heights, and Garfield Heights. Cleveland_sentence_104

To the northeast, along the shore of Lake Erie, Cleveland borders Bratenahl and Euclid. Cleveland_sentence_105

Cityscapes Cleveland_section_5

Architecture Cleveland_section_6

See also: List of tallest buildings in Cleveland and National Register of Historic Places listings in Cleveland Cleveland_sentence_106

Cleveland's downtown architecture is diverse. Cleveland_sentence_107

Many of the city's government and civic buildings, including City Hall, the Cuyahoga County Courthouse, the Cleveland Public Library, and Public Auditorium, are clustered around the open Cleveland Mall and share a common neoclassical architecture. Cleveland_sentence_108

Built in the early 20th century, they are the result of the 1903 Group Plan. Cleveland_sentence_109

They constitute one of the most complete examples of City Beautiful design in the United States. Cleveland_sentence_110

Completed in 1927 and dedicated in 1930 as part of the Cleveland Union Terminal complex, the Terminal Tower was the tallest building in North America outside New York City until 1964 and the tallest in the city until 1991. Cleveland_sentence_111

It is a prototypical Beaux-Arts skyscraper. Cleveland_sentence_112

The two newer skyscrapers on Public Square, Key Tower (currently the tallest building in Ohio) and the 200 Public Square, combine elements of Art Deco architecture with postmodern designs. Cleveland_sentence_113

Cleveland's architectural treasures also include the Cleveland Trust Company Building, completed in 1907 and renovated in 2015 as a downtown Heinen's supermarket, and the Cleveland Arcade (sometimes called the Old Arcade), a five-story arcade built in 1890 and renovated in 2001 as a Hyatt Regency Hotel. Cleveland_sentence_114

Running east from Public Square through University Circle is Euclid Avenue, which was known for its prestige and elegance as a residential street. Cleveland_sentence_115

In the late 1880s, writer Bayard Taylor described it as "the most beautiful street in the world". Cleveland_sentence_116

Known as "Millionaires' Row", Euclid Avenue was world-renowned as the home of such major figures as John D. Rockefeller, Mark Hanna, and John Hay. Cleveland_sentence_117

Cleveland's landmark ecclesiastical architecture includes the historic Old Stone Church in downtown Cleveland and the onion domed St. Cleveland_sentence_118

Theodosius Russian Orthodox Cathedral in Tremont, along with myriad ethnically inspired Roman Catholic churches. Cleveland_sentence_119


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Parks and nature Cleveland_section_7

See also: Cleveland Metroparks and Cleveland Public Parks District Cleveland_sentence_120

Known locally as the "Emerald Necklace", the Olmsted-inspired Cleveland Metroparks encircle Cleveland and Cuyahoga County. Cleveland_sentence_121

The city proper is home to the Metroparks' Brookside and Lakefront Reservations, as well as significant parts of the Rocky River, Washington, and Euclid Creek Reservations. Cleveland_sentence_122

The Lakefront Reservation, which provides public access to Lake Erie, consists of four parks: Edgewater Park, Whiskey Island–Wendy Park, East 55th Street Marina, and Gordon Park. Cleveland_sentence_123

Three more parks fall under the jurisdiction of the Euclid Creek Reservation: Euclid Beach, Villa Angela, and Wildwood Marina. Cleveland_sentence_124

Bike and hiking trails in the Brecksville and Bedford Reservations, along with Garfield Park further north, provide access to trails in the Cuyahoga Valley National Park. Cleveland_sentence_125

The extensive system of trails within Cuyahoga Valley National Park extends south into Summit County, offering access to Summit Metro Parks as well. Cleveland_sentence_126

Also included in the system is the renowned Cleveland Metroparks Zoo, established in 1882. Cleveland_sentence_127

Located in Big Creek valley, the zoo has one of the largest collection of primates in North America. Cleveland_sentence_128

The Cleveland Metroparks provides ample opportunity for outdoor recreational activities. Cleveland_sentence_129

Hiking and biking trails, including single track mountain bike trails, wind extensively throughout the parks. Cleveland_sentence_130

Rock climbing is available at Whipp's Ledges at the Hinckley Reservation. Cleveland_sentence_131

During the summer months, kayakers, paddle boarders, and rowing and sailing crews can be seen on the Cuyahoga River and Lake Erie. Cleveland_sentence_132

In the winter months, downhill skiing, snowboarding, and tubing are available not far from downtown at the Boston Mills/Brandywine and Alpine Valley ski resorts. Cleveland_sentence_133

In addition to the Metroparks, Cleveland Public Parks District oversees the city's neighborhood parks, the largest of which is the historic Rockefeller Park, notable for its late 19th century landmark bridges, Rockefeller Park Greenhouse, and Cleveland Cultural Gardens, which celebrate the city's ethnic diversity. Cleveland_sentence_134

Just outside of Rockefeller Park, the Cleveland Botanical Garden in University Circle, established in 1930, is the oldest civic garden center in the nation. Cleveland_sentence_135

Located in the historic FirstEnergy Powerhouse in the Flats, the Greater Cleveland Aquarium is the only independent, free-standing aquarium in the state of Ohio. Cleveland_sentence_136

Neighborhoods Cleveland_section_8

Downtown Cleveland is centered on Public Square and includes a wide range of districts. Cleveland_sentence_137

It contains the traditional Financial District and Civic Center, as well as the Cleveland Theater District, which is home to Playhouse Square Center. Cleveland_sentence_138

Downtown also historically included the lively Short Vincent entertainment district, which emerged in the 1920s and reached its height in the 1940s and 1950s. Cleveland_sentence_139

Today the former Short Vincent forms part of the Financial District. Cleveland_sentence_140

Mixed-use neighborhoods, such as the Flats and the Warehouse District, are occupied by industrial and office buildings as well as restaurants and bars. Cleveland_sentence_141

The number of downtown housing units, in the form of condominiums, lofts, and apartments, has been on the increase since 2000 and especially 2010. Cleveland_sentence_142

Recent developments include the revival of the Flats, the Euclid Corridor Project, and the developments along East 4th Street. Cleveland_sentence_143

Clevelanders geographically define themselves in terms of whether they live on the east or west side of the Cuyahoga River. Cleveland_sentence_144

The East Side includes the neighborhoods of Buckeye–Shaker, Central, Collinwood, Corlett, Euclid–Green, Fairfax, Forest Hills, Glenville, Goodrich–Kirtland Park (with Asiatown), Hough, Kinsman, Lee–Miles, Mount Pleasant, Nottingham, St. Cleveland_sentence_145

Clair-Superior, Union–Miles Park, University Circle (with Little Italy), and Woodland Hills. Cleveland_sentence_146

The West Side includes the neighborhoods of Brooklyn Centre, Clark–Fulton, Detroit–Shoreway, Cudell, Edgewater, Ohio City, Tremont, Old Brooklyn, Stockyards, West Boulevard, and the four neighborhoods colloquially known as West Park: Kamm's Corners, Jefferson, Bellaire–Puritas, and Hopkins. Cleveland_sentence_147

Three neighborhoods in the Cuyahoga Valley are sometimes referred to as the South Side: Industrial Valley, Broadway–Slavic Village, and Tremont. Cleveland_sentence_148

Several neighborhoods have begun to attract the return of the middle class that left the city for the suburbs in the 1960s and 1970s. Cleveland_sentence_149

These neighborhoods are on both the West Side (Ohio City, Tremont, Detroit-Shoreway, and Edgewater) and the East Side (Collinwood, Hough, Fairfax, and Little Italy). Cleveland_sentence_150

Much of the growth has been spurred on by attracting creative class members, which in turn is spurring new residential development. Cleveland_sentence_151

A live-work zoning overlay for the city's near East Side has facilitated the transformation of old industrial buildings into loft spaces for artists. Cleveland_sentence_152

Climate Cleveland_section_9

Typical of the Great Lakes region, Cleveland exhibits a continental climate with four distinct seasons, which lies in the humid continental (Köppen Dfa) zone. Cleveland_sentence_153

Summers are hot and humid while winters are cold and snowy. Cleveland_sentence_154

The Lake Erie shoreline is very close to due east–west from the mouth of the Cuyahoga west to Sandusky, but at the mouth of the Cuyahoga it turns sharply northeast. Cleveland_sentence_155

This feature is the principal contributor to the lake-effect snow that is typical in Cleveland (especially on the city's East Side) from mid-November until the surface of Lake Erie freezes, usually in late January or early February. Cleveland_sentence_156

The lake effect also causes a relative differential in geographical snowfall totals across the city: while Hopkins Airport, on the city's far West Side, has only reached 100 inches (254 cm) of snowfall in a season three times since record-keeping for snow began in 1893, seasonal totals approaching or exceeding 100 inches (254 cm) are not uncommon as the city ascends into the Heights on the east, where the region known as the 'Snow Belt' begins. Cleveland_sentence_157

Extending from the city's East Side and its suburbs, the Snow Belt reaches up the Lake Erie shore as far as Buffalo. Cleveland_sentence_158

The all-time record high in Cleveland of 104 °F (40 °C) was established on June 25, 1988, and the all-time record low of −20 °F (−29 °C) was set on January 19, 1994. Cleveland_sentence_159

On average, July is the warmest month with a mean temperature of 73.5 °F (23.1 °C), and January, with a mean temperature of 28.1 °F (−2.2 °C), is the coldest. Cleveland_sentence_160

Normal yearly precipitation based on the 30-year average from 1981 to 2010 is 39.1 inches (990 mm). Cleveland_sentence_161

The least precipitation occurs on the western side and directly along the lake, and the most occurs in the eastern suburbs. Cleveland_sentence_162

Parts of Geauga County to the east receive over 44 inches (1,100 mm) of liquid precipitation annually. Cleveland_sentence_163


Climate data for ClevelandCleveland_header_cell_1_0_0
MonthCleveland_header_cell_1_1_0 JanCleveland_header_cell_1_1_1 FebCleveland_header_cell_1_1_2 MarCleveland_header_cell_1_1_3 AprCleveland_header_cell_1_1_4 MayCleveland_header_cell_1_1_5 JunCleveland_header_cell_1_1_6 JulCleveland_header_cell_1_1_7 AugCleveland_header_cell_1_1_8 SepCleveland_header_cell_1_1_9 OctCleveland_header_cell_1_1_10 NovCleveland_header_cell_1_1_11 DecCleveland_header_cell_1_1_12 YearCleveland_header_cell_1_1_13
Average sea temperature °F (°C)Cleveland_header_cell_1_2_0 34.0


























Mean daily daylight hoursCleveland_header_cell_1_3_0 10.0Cleveland_cell_1_3_1 11.0Cleveland_cell_1_3_2 12.0Cleveland_cell_1_3_3 13.0Cleveland_cell_1_3_4 15.0Cleveland_cell_1_3_5 15.0Cleveland_cell_1_3_6 15.0Cleveland_cell_1_3_7 14.0Cleveland_cell_1_3_8 12.0Cleveland_cell_1_3_9 11.0Cleveland_cell_1_3_10 10.0Cleveland_cell_1_3_11 9.0Cleveland_cell_1_3_12 12.3Cleveland_cell_1_3_13
Source: Weather AtlasCleveland_header_cell_1_4_0

Demographics Cleveland_section_10

Main article: Demographics of Cleveland Cleveland_sentence_164


Racial compositionCleveland_header_cell_2_0_0 2019Cleveland_header_cell_2_0_1 2010Cleveland_header_cell_2_0_2 1990Cleveland_header_cell_2_0_3 1970Cleveland_header_cell_2_0_4 1940Cleveland_header_cell_2_0_5
WhiteCleveland_cell_2_1_0 39.8%Cleveland_cell_2_1_1 37.3%Cleveland_cell_2_1_2 49.5%Cleveland_cell_2_1_3 61%Cleveland_cell_2_1_4 90.3%Cleveland_cell_2_1_5
—Non-HispanicCleveland_cell_2_2_0 33.7%Cleveland_cell_2_2_1 33.4%Cleveland_cell_2_2_2 47.8%Cleveland_cell_2_2_3 59.4%Cleveland_cell_2_2_4 90.2%Cleveland_cell_2_2_5
Black or African AmericanCleveland_cell_2_3_0 49.6%Cleveland_cell_2_3_1 53.3%Cleveland_cell_2_3_2 46.6%Cleveland_cell_2_3_3 38.3%Cleveland_cell_2_3_4 9.6%Cleveland_cell_2_3_5
Hispanic or Latino (of any race)Cleveland_cell_2_4_0 11.6%Cleveland_cell_2_4_1 10.0%Cleveland_cell_2_4_2 4.6%Cleveland_cell_2_4_3 1.9%Cleveland_cell_2_4_4 0.1%Cleveland_cell_2_4_5
AsianCleveland_cell_2_5_0 2.4%Cleveland_cell_2_5_1 1.8%Cleveland_cell_2_5_2 1.0%Cleveland_cell_2_5_3 0.2%Cleveland_cell_2_5_4 Cleveland_cell_2_5_5

As of the census of 2010, there were 396,698 people, 167,490 households, and 89,821 families residing in the city. Cleveland_sentence_165

The population density was 5,107.0 inhabitants per square mile (1,971.8/km). Cleveland_sentence_166

There were 207,536 housing units at an average density of 2,671.0 per square mile (1,031.3/km). Cleveland_sentence_167

There were 167,490 households, of which 29.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 22.4% were married couples living together, 25.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 6.0% had a male householder with no wife present, and 46.4% were non-families. Cleveland_sentence_168

39.5% of all households were made up of individuals, and 10.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. Cleveland_sentence_169

The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 3.11. Cleveland_sentence_170

The median age in the city was 35.7 years. Cleveland_sentence_171

24.6% of residents were under the age of 18; 11% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 26.1% were from 25 to 44; 26.3% were from 45 to 64; and 12% were 65 years of age or older. Cleveland_sentence_172

The gender makeup of the city was 48.0% male and 52.0% female. Cleveland_sentence_173

The median income for a household in the city was $27,349, and the median income for a family was $31,182. Cleveland_sentence_174

The per capita income for the city was $16,302. Cleveland_sentence_175

31.0% of the population and 22.9% of families were below the poverty line. Cleveland_sentence_176

Out of the total population, 37.6% of those under the age of 18 and 16.8% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. Cleveland_sentence_177

Of the city's population over the age of 25, 13.1% held a bachelor's degree or higher, and 75.7% had a high school diploma or equivalent. Cleveland_sentence_178

Ethnicity Cleveland_section_11

As of the 2019 census estimate, the racial composition of the city was 39.8% white, 49.6% African American, 0.5% Native American, 2.4% Asian, and 4.3% from two or more races. Cleveland_sentence_179

Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 11.6% of the population. Cleveland_sentence_180

In the 19th and early 20th centuries, Cleveland saw a massive influx of immigrants from Ireland, Italy, and the Austro-Hungarian, German, Russian, and Ottoman Empires, most of whom were attracted by manufacturing jobs. Cleveland_sentence_181

As a result, Cleveland and Cuyahoga County today have substantial communities of Irish (especially in Kamm's Corners and other areas of West Park), Italians (especially in Little Italy and around Mayfield Road), Germans, and several Central-Eastern European ethnicities, including Czechs, Hungarians, Lithuanians, Poles, Romanians, Russians, Rusyns, Slovaks, Ukrainians, and ex-Yugoslav groups, such as Slovenes, Croats, and Serbs. Cleveland_sentence_182

The presence of Hungarians within Cleveland proper was, at one time, so great that the city boasted the highest concentration of Hungarians in the world outside of Budapest. Cleveland_sentence_183

Cleveland has a long-established Jewish community, historically centered on the East Side neighborhoods of Glenville and Kinsman, but now mostly concentrated in East Side suburbs such as Cleveland Heights and Beachwood, home to the Maltz Museum of Jewish Heritage. Cleveland_sentence_184

The availability of jobs also attracted African Americans from the South. Cleveland_sentence_185

Between 1920 and 1970, the black population of Cleveland, largely concentrated on the city's East Side, increased significantly as a result of the First and Second Great Migrations. Cleveland_sentence_186

Cleveland's Latino community consists primarily of Puerto Ricans, who make up over 80% of the city's Hispanic/Latino population, as well as smaller numbers of immigrants from Mexico, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, South and Central America, and Spain. Cleveland_sentence_187

The city's Asian community, centered on historical Asiatown, consists of Chinese, Koreans, Vietnamese, and other groups. Cleveland_sentence_188

Additionally, the city and the county have significant communities of Albanians, Arabs (especially Lebanese, Syrians, and Palestinians), Armenians, French, Greeks, Iranians, Scots, Turks, and West Indians. Cleveland_sentence_189

A 2020 analysis found Cleveland to be the most ethnically and racially diverse city in Ohio. Cleveland_sentence_190

There are many ethnic festivals held in Cleveland throughout the year, such as the annual Feast of the Assumption in Little Italy, the Harvest Festival in Slavic Village, Russian Maslenitsa in Rockefeller Park, the Cleveland Puerto Rican Parade and Festival in Clark–Fulton, the Cleveland Asian Festival in Asiatown, and the Greek and Romanian Festivals in West Park. Cleveland_sentence_191

Vendors at the West Side Market in Ohio City offer many ethnic foods for sale. Cleveland_sentence_192

Cleveland hosts an annual parade on Saint Patrick's Day that brings hundreds of thousands to the streets of Downtown. Cleveland_sentence_193

The Cleveland Thyagaraja Festival held annually each spring at Cleveland State University is the largest Indian classical music and dance festival in the world outside of India. Cleveland_sentence_194

Since 1946, the city has annually marked One World Day in the Cleveland Cultural Gardens in Rockefeller Park, celebrating all of its ethnic communities. Cleveland_sentence_195

Religion Cleveland_section_12

The influx of immigrants in the 19th and early 20th centuries drastically transformed Cleveland's religious landscape. Cleveland_sentence_196

From a homogeneous settlement of New England Protestants, it evolved into a city with a diverse religious composition. Cleveland_sentence_197

The predominant faith among Clevelanders today is Christianity (Catholic, Protestant, and Orthodox), with Jewish, Muslim, Hindu, and Buddhist minorities. Cleveland_sentence_198

Language Cleveland_section_13

As of 2010, 88.4% (337,658) of Cleveland residents age 5 and older spoke English at home as a primary language, while 7.1% (27,262) spoke Spanish, 0.6% (2,200) Arabic, and 0.5% (1,960) Chinese. Cleveland_sentence_199

In addition 0.9% (3,364) spoke a Slavic language (1,279 – Polish, 679 Serbo-Croatian, and 485 Russian). Cleveland_sentence_200

In total, 11.6% (44,148) of Cleveland's population age 5 and older spoke a language other than English. Cleveland_sentence_201

Immigration Cleveland_section_14

In 1920, Cleveland proper boasted a foreign-born population of 30% and, in 1870, that percentage was 42%. Cleveland_sentence_202

Although the foreign-born population of Cleveland today is not as big as it once was, the sense of identity remains strong among the city's various ethnic communities, as reflected in the Cleveland Cultural Gardens. Cleveland_sentence_203

Within Cleveland, the neighborhoods with the highest foreign-born populations are Asiatown/Goodrich–Kirtland Park (32.7%), Clark–Fulton (26.7%), West Boulevard (18.5%), Brooklyn Centre (17.3%), Downtown (17.2%), University Circle (15.9%, with 20% in Little Italy), and Jefferson (14.3%). Cleveland_sentence_204

Recent waves of immigration have brought new groups to Cleveland, including Ethiopians and South Asians, as well as immigrants from Russia and the former USSR, Southeast Europe (especially Albania), the Middle East, East Asia, and Latin America. Cleveland_sentence_205

In the 2010s, the immigrant population of Cleveland and Cuyahoga County began to see significant growth, becoming one of the fastest growing centers for immigration in the Great Lakes region. Cleveland_sentence_206

A 2019 study found Cleveland to be the city with the shortest average processing time in the nation for immigrants to become U.S. Cleveland_sentence_207

citizens. Cleveland_sentence_208

The city's annual One World Day in Rockefeller Park includes a naturalization ceremony of new immigrants. Cleveland_sentence_209

Economy Cleveland_section_15

Main article: Economy of Greater Cleveland Cleveland_sentence_210

Cleveland's location on the Cuyahoga River and Lake Erie has been key to its growth. Cleveland_sentence_211

The Ohio and Erie Canal coupled with rail links helped the city become an important business center. Cleveland_sentence_212

Steel and many other manufactured goods emerged as leading industries. Cleveland_sentence_213

The city has since diversified its economy in addition to its manufacturing sector. Cleveland_sentence_214

Established in 1914, the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland is one of 12 U.S. Federal Reserve Banks. Cleveland_sentence_215

Its downtown building, located on East 6th Street and Superior Avenue, was completed in 1923 by the Cleveland architectural firm Walker and Weeks. Cleveland_sentence_216

The headquarters of the Federal Reserve System's Fourth District, the bank employs 1,000 people and maintains branch offices in Cincinnati and Pittsburgh. Cleveland_sentence_217

The chief executive officer and president is Loretta Mester. Cleveland_sentence_218

The city is also home to the corporate headquarters of many large companies such as Aleris, American Greetings, Applied Industrial Technologies, Cleveland-Cliffs, Inc., Eaton, Forest City Enterprises, Heinen's Fine Foods, Hyster-Yale Materials Handling, KeyCorp, Lincoln Electric, Medical Mutual of Ohio, NACCO Industries, Nordson, OM Group, Parker-Hannifin, PolyOne, Progressive, RPM International, Sherwin-Williams Company, Steris, Swagelok, Things Remembered, Third Federal S&L, TransDigm Group, Travel Centers of America and Vitamix. Cleveland_sentence_219

NASA maintains a facility in Cleveland, the Glenn Research Center. Cleveland_sentence_220

Jones Day, one of the largest law firms in the U.S., was founded in Cleveland. Cleveland_sentence_221

The Cleveland Clinic is the largest private employer in the city of Cleveland and the state of Ohio, with a workforce of over 50,000 as of 2019. Cleveland_sentence_222

It carries the distinction as being among America's best hospitals with top ratings published in U.S. Cleveland_sentence_223

News & World Report. Cleveland_sentence_224

Cleveland's healthcare sector also includes University Hospitals of Cleveland, MetroHealth medical center, and the insurance company Medical Mutual of Ohio. Cleveland_sentence_225

Cleveland is also noted in the fields of biotechnology and fuel cell research, led by Case Western Reserve University, the Cleveland Clinic, and University Hospitals of Cleveland. Cleveland_sentence_226

The city is among the top recipients of investment for biotech start-ups and research. Cleveland_sentence_227

Technology is another growing sector in Cleveland. Cleveland_sentence_228

In 2005, the city appointed a "tech czar" to recruit technology companies to the downtown office market, offering connections to the high-speed fiber networks that run underneath downtown streets in several "high-tech offices" focused on Euclid Avenue. Cleveland_sentence_229

Cleveland State University hired a technology transfer officer to cultivate technology transfers from CSU research to marketable ideas and companies in the Cleveland area. Cleveland_sentence_230

Local observers have noted that the city is transitioning from a manufacturing-based economy to a health-tech-based economy. Cleveland_sentence_231

Education Cleveland_section_16

Primary and secondary education Cleveland_section_17

The Cleveland Metropolitan School District is the second largest K–12 district in the state of Ohio. Cleveland_sentence_232

It is the only district in Ohio under direct control of the mayor, who appoints a school board. Cleveland_sentence_233

Approximately 1 square mile (2.6 km) of Cleveland, adjacent the Shaker Square neighborhood, is part of the Shaker Heights City School District. Cleveland_sentence_234

The area, which has been a part of the Shaker school district since the 1920s, permits these Cleveland residents to pay the same school taxes as the Shaker residents, as well as vote in the Shaker school board elections. Cleveland_sentence_235

Private and parochial schools within Cleveland proper include Benedictine High School, Birchwood School, Cleveland Central Catholic High School, Eleanor Gerson School, Montessori High School at University Circle, St. Ignatius High School, St. Joseph Academy, Villa Angela-St. Joseph High School, Urban Community School, St. Martin de Porres, and The Bridge Avenue School. Cleveland_sentence_236

Higher education Cleveland_section_18

Cleveland is home to a number of colleges and universities. Cleveland_sentence_237

Most prominent among these is Case Western Reserve University, a world-renowned research and teaching institution in University Circle. Cleveland_sentence_238

A private university with several prominent graduate programs, CWRU was ranked 40th in the nation in 2020 by U.S. Cleveland_sentence_239

News & World Report. Cleveland_sentence_240

University Circle also contains Cleveland Institute of Art and the Cleveland Institute of Music. Cleveland_sentence_241

Cleveland State University (CSU), based in Downtown Cleveland, is the city's public four-year university. Cleveland_sentence_242

In addition to CSU, downtown hosts the metropolitan campus of Cuyahoga Community College, the county's two-year higher education institution. Cleveland_sentence_243

Ohio Technical College is also based in Cleveland. Cleveland_sentence_244

Cleveland's suburban universities and colleges include Baldwin Wallace University in Berea, John Carroll University in University Heights, Ursuline College in Pepper Pike, and Notre Dame College in South Euclid. Cleveland_sentence_245

Public library system Cleveland_section_19

Main article: Cleveland Public Library Cleveland_sentence_246

Established in 1869, the Cleveland Public Library is one of the largest public libraries in the nation with a collection of 10,559,651 materials as of 2018. Cleveland_sentence_247

Its John G. White Special Collection includes the largest chess library in the world as well as a significant collection of folklore and rare books on the Middle East and Eurasia. Cleveland_sentence_248

Under head librarian William Howard Brett, the library adopted an "open shelf" philosophy, which allowed patrons open access to the library's bookstacks. Cleveland_sentence_249

Brett's successor, Linda Eastman, became the first woman ever to lead a major library system in the world. Cleveland_sentence_250

She oversaw the construction of the library's main building on Superior Avenue, designed by Walker and Weeks and opened on May 6, 1925. Cleveland_sentence_251

The Louis Stokes Wing addition was completed in April 1997. Cleveland_sentence_252

Between 1904 and 1920, 15 libraries built with funds from Andrew Carnegie were opened in the city. Cleveland_sentence_253

Known as the "People's University," the library presently maintains 27 branches. Cleveland_sentence_254

It serves as the headquarters for the CLEVNET library consortium, which includes over 40 public library systems in the Greater Cleveland Metropolitan Area and Northeast Ohio. Cleveland_sentence_255

Culture Cleveland_section_20

See also: :Category:Culture of Cleveland and Cleveland School (arts community) Cleveland_sentence_256

Performing arts Cleveland_section_21

Cleveland is home to Playhouse Square, the second largest performing arts center in the United States behind New York City's Lincoln Center. Cleveland_sentence_257

Playhouse Square includes the State, Palace, Allen, Hanna, and Ohio theaters within what is known as the Cleveland Theater District. Cleveland_sentence_258

The center hosts Broadway musicals, special concerts, speaking engagements, and other events throughout the year. Cleveland_sentence_259

Its resident performing arts companies include Cleveland Ballet, the Cleveland International Film Festival, the Cleveland Play House, Cleveland State University Department of Theatre and Dance, DANCECleveland, the Great Lakes Theater Festival, and the Tri-C Jazz Fest. Cleveland_sentence_260

A city with strong traditions in theater and vaudeville, Cleveland has produced many renowned actors and actresses, most prominently comedian Bob Hope. Cleveland_sentence_261

Outside Playhouse Square, Cleveland is home to Karamu House, the oldest African American theater in the nation, established in the 1920s. Cleveland_sentence_262

On the West Side, the Gordon Square Arts District in Detroit-Shoreway is the location of the Capitol Theatre, the Near West Theatre, and an Off-Off-Broadway Playhouse, the Cleveland Public Theatre. Cleveland_sentence_263

Cleveland's streetcar suburbs of Cleveland Heights and Lakewood are home to the Dobama Theatre and the Beck Center for the Arts respectively. Cleveland_sentence_264

Cleveland is home to The Cleveland Orchestra, widely considered one of the world's finest orchestras, and often referred to as the finest in the nation. Cleveland_sentence_265

It is one of the "Big Five" major orchestras in the United States. Cleveland_sentence_266

The Cleveland Orchestra plays at Severance Hall in University Circle during the winter and at Blossom Music Center in Cuyahoga Falls during the summer. Cleveland_sentence_267

The city is also home to the Cleveland Pops Orchestra, the Cleveland Youth Orchestra, the Contemporary Youth Orchestra, the Cleveland Youth Wind Symphony, and the biennial Cleveland International Piano Competition which has, in the past, often featured The Cleveland Orchestra. Cleveland_sentence_268

One Playhouse Square, now the headquarters for Cleveland's public broadcasters, was initially used as the broadcast studios of WJW (AM), where disc jockey Alan Freed first popularized the term "rock and roll". Cleveland_sentence_269

Cleveland gained a strong reputation in rock music in the 1960s and 1970s as a key breakout market for nationally promoted acts and performers. Cleveland_sentence_270

Its popularity in the city was so great that Billy Bass, the program director at the WMMS radio station, referred to Cleveland as "The Rock and Roll Capital of the World." Cleveland_sentence_271

From 1974 through 1980, the city hosted the World Series of Rock at Cleveland Municipal Stadium. Cleveland_sentence_272

Jazz and R&B have a long history in Cleveland. Cleveland_sentence_273

Many major figures in jazz, including Louis Armstrong, Cab Calloway, Duke Ellington, Ella Fitzgerald, Dizzy Gillespie, Benny Goodman, Billie Holiday, and Don Redman performed in the city, and legendary pianist Art Tatum regularly played in Cleveland clubs during the 1930s. Cleveland_sentence_274

Gypsy jazz guitarist Django Reinhardt gave his U.S. debut performance in Cleveland in 1946. Cleveland_sentence_275

Prominent jazz artist Noble Sissle was a graduate of Cleveland Central High School, Artie Shaw worked and performed in Cleveland early in his career, and bandleader Phil Spitalny led his first orchestra in Cleveland. Cleveland_sentence_276

The Tri-C Jazz Fest has been held annually in Cleveland at Playhouse Square since 1979, and the Cleveland Jazz Orchestra was established in 1984. Cleveland_sentence_277

Joe Siebert's documentary film The Sax Man on the life of Cleveland street saxophonist Maurice Reedus Jr. was released in 2014. Cleveland_sentence_278

There is a significant hip hop music scene in Cleveland. Cleveland_sentence_279

In 1997, the Cleveland hip hop group Bone Thugs-n-Harmony won a Grammy for their song "Tha Crossroads". Cleveland_sentence_280

The city also has a history of polka music being popular both past and present, even having a subgenre called Cleveland-style polka named after the city, and is home to the Polka Hall of Fame. Cleveland_sentence_281

This is due in part to the success of Frankie Yankovic, a Cleveland native who was considered America's Polka King. Cleveland_sentence_282

The square at the intersection of Waterloo Road and East 152nd Street in Cleveland (), not far from where Yankovic grew up, was named in his honor. Cleveland_sentence_283

Film and television Cleveland_section_22

See also: :Category:Films set in Cleveland and :Category:Films shot in Cleveland Cleveland_sentence_284

Cleveland has served as the setting for many major studio and independent films. Cleveland_sentence_285

The first film shot in Cleveland was in 1897. Cleveland_sentence_286

Reflecting its position as one of the largest American cities at the time, the city was referenced in numerous classic Hollywood movies, such as Howard Hawks' Ceiling Zero (1936) with James Cagney and Pat O'Brien, and Hobart Henley's romantic comedy The Big Pond (1930) with Maurice Chevalier and Claudette Colbert, which introduced the hit song "You Brought a New Kind of Love to Me". Cleveland_sentence_287

Michael Curtiz's 1933 pre-Code classic Goodbye Again with Warren William and Joan Blondell was set in Cleveland. Cleveland_sentence_288

Players from the 1948 Cleveland Indians, winners of the World Series, appeared in The Kid from Cleveland (1949). Cleveland_sentence_289

Cleveland Municipal Stadium features prominently in both that film and The Fortune Cookie (1966). Cleveland_sentence_290

Written and directed by Billy Wilder, the latter marked Walter Matthau and Jack Lemmon's first on-screen collaboration and features gameday footage of the 1965 Cleveland Browns. Cleveland_sentence_291

Director Jules Dassin's first American film in nearly twenty years, Up Tight! Cleveland_sentence_292

(1968) is set in Cleveland immediately following the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. Set in 1930s Cleveland, Sylvester Stallone leads a local labor union in F.I.S.T. Cleveland_sentence_293

(1978). Cleveland_sentence_294

Paul Simon chose Cleveland as the opening for his only venture into filmmaking, One-Trick Pony (1980). Cleveland_sentence_295

He spent six weeks filming concert scenes at the Cleveland Agora. Cleveland_sentence_296

The boxing-match-turned-riot near the start of Raging Bull (1980) is set in the Cleveland Arena in 1941. Cleveland_sentence_297

Clevelander Jim Jarmusch's critically acclaimed independent film Stranger Than Paradise (1984)—a deadpan comedy about two New Yorkers who travel to Florida by way of Cleveland—was a favorite of the Cannes Film Festival, winning the Caméra d'Or. Cleveland_sentence_298

The cult-classic mockumentary This Is Spinal Tap (1984) includes a memorable scene where the parody band gets lost backstage just before performing at a Cleveland rock concert (origin of the phrase "Hello, Cleveland!"). Cleveland_sentence_299

Michael J. Fox and Joan Jett play the sibling leads of a Cleveland rock group in Light of Day (1987); directed by Paul Schrader, much of the film was shot in the city. Cleveland_sentence_300

Both Major League (1989) and Major League II (1994) reflected the actual perennial struggles of the Cleveland Indians during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. Cleveland_sentence_301

Kevin Bacon stars in Telling Lies in America (1997), the semi-autobiographical tale of Clevelander Joe Eszterhas, a former reporter for The Plain Dealer. Cleveland_sentence_302

A group of Cleveland teenagers try to scam their way into a Kiss concert in Detroit Rock City (1999), and several key scenes from director Cameron Crowe's Almost Famous (2000) are set in Cleveland. Cleveland_sentence_303

Antwone Fisher (2002) recounts the real-life story of the Cleveland native. Cleveland_sentence_304

Brothers Joe and Anthony Russo—native Clevelanders and Case Western Reserve University alumni—filmed their comedy Welcome to Collinwood (2002) entirely on location in the city. Cleveland_sentence_305

American Splendor (2003)—the biographical film of Harvey Pekar, author of the autobiographical comic of the same name—was also filmed on location throughout Cleveland, as was The Oh in Ohio (2006). Cleveland_sentence_306

Much of The Rocker (2008) is set in the city, and Cleveland native Nathaniel Ayers' life story is told in The Soloist (2009). Cleveland_sentence_307

Kill the Irishman (2011) follows the real-life turf war in 1970s Cleveland between Irish mobster Danny Greene and the Cleveland crime family. Cleveland_sentence_308

More recently, the teenage comedy Fun Size (2012) takes place in and around Cleveland on Halloween night, and the film Draft Day (2014) followed Kevin Costner as general manager for the Cleveland Browns. Cleveland_sentence_309

Cleveland has often doubled for other locations in the film. Cleveland_sentence_310

The wedding and reception scenes in The Deer Hunter (1978), while set in the small Pittsburgh suburb of Clairton, were shot in the Cleveland neighborhood of Tremont; U.S. Cleveland_sentence_311

Steel also permitted the production to film in one of its Cleveland mills. Cleveland_sentence_312

Francis Ford Coppola produced The Escape Artist (1982), much of which was shot in Downtown Cleveland near City Hall and the Cuyahoga County Courthouse, as well as the Flats. Cleveland_sentence_313

A Christmas Story (1983) was set in Indiana, but drew many of its external shots—including the Parker family home—from Cleveland. Cleveland_sentence_314

Cleveland serves as the setting for fictitious insurance giant Great Benefit in The Rainmaker (1997); in the film, Key Tower doubles as the firm's main headquarters. Cleveland_sentence_315

The opening shots of Air Force One (1997) were filmed in and above Severance Hall. Cleveland_sentence_316

A complex chase scene in Spider-Man 3 (2007), though set in New York City, was filmed along Cleveland's Euclid Avenue. Cleveland_sentence_317

Downtown's East 9th Street also doubled for New York in the climax of The Avengers (2012); in addition, the production shot on Cleveland's Public Square as a fill-in for Stuttgart, Germany. Cleveland_sentence_318

More recently, Jackass Presents: Bad Grandpa (2013), Miss Meadows (2014) and Captain America: The Winter Soldier (2014) each filmed in Cleveland. Cleveland_sentence_319

Future productions in the Cleveland area are the responsibility of the Greater Cleveland Film Commission. Cleveland_sentence_320

In television, the city is the setting for the popular network sitcom The Drew Carey Show, starring Cleveland native Drew Carey. Cleveland_sentence_321

Hot in Cleveland, a comedy airing on TV Land, premiered on June 16, 2010 and ran for six seasons until its finale on June 3, 2015. Cleveland_sentence_322

Later episodes of the reality show Keeping Up With the Kardashians have been partially filmed in Cleveland, after series star Khloe Kardashian began a relationship with Cleveland Cavaliers center Tristan Thompson. Cleveland_sentence_323

Cleveland Hustles, the CNBC reality show co-created by LeBron James, was filmed in the city. Cleveland_sentence_324

Literature Cleveland_section_23

The American modernist poet Hart Crane was born in nearby Garrettsville, Ohio in 1899. Cleveland_sentence_325

His adolescence was divided between Cleveland and Akron before he moved to New York City in 1916. Cleveland_sentence_326

Aside from factory work during the first world war, he served as reporter to The Plain Dealer for a short period, before achieving recognition in the Modernist literary scene. Cleveland_sentence_327

A diminutive memorial park is dedicated to Crane along the left bank of the Cuyahoga in Cleveland. Cleveland_sentence_328

In University Circle, a historical marker sits at the location of his Cleveland childhood house on E. 115 near the Euclid Avenue intersection. Cleveland_sentence_329

On Case Western Reserve University campus, a statue of him, designed by sculptor William McVey, stands behind the Kelvin Smith Library. Cleveland_sentence_330

Langston Hughes, preeminent poet of the Harlem Renaissance and child of an itinerant couple, lived in Cleveland as a teenager and attended Central High School in Cleveland in the 1910s. Cleveland_sentence_331

At Central High, Hughes was taught by Helen Maria Chesnutt, daughter of renowned Cleveland-born African American novelist Charles W. Chesnutt. Cleveland_sentence_332

He also wrote for the school newspaper and started writing his earlier plays, poems and short stories while living in Cleveland. Cleveland_sentence_333

The African American avant-garde poet Russell Atkins also lived in Cleveland. Cleveland_sentence_334

Cleveland was the home of Joe Shuster and Jerry Siegel, who created the comic book character Superman in 1932. Cleveland_sentence_335

Both attended Glenville High School, and their early collaborations resulted in the creation of "The Man of Steel". Cleveland_sentence_336

Harlan Ellison, noted author of speculative fiction, was born in Cleveland in 1934; his family subsequently moved to the nearby town of Painesville, though Ellison moved back to Cleveland in 1949. Cleveland_sentence_337

As a youngster, he published a series of short stories appearing in the Cleveland News; he also performed in a number of productions for the Cleveland Play House. Cleveland_sentence_338

D. Cleveland_sentence_339

A. Cleveland_sentence_340

Levy wrote: "Cleveland: The Rectal Eye Visions". Cleveland_sentence_341

Mystery author Richard Montanari's first three novels, Deviant Way, The Violet Hour, and Kiss of Evil are set in Cleveland. Cleveland_sentence_342

Mystery writer, Les Roberts's Milan Jacovich series is also set in Cleveland. Cleveland_sentence_343

Author and Ohio resident, James Renner set his debut novel, The Man from Primrose Lane in present-day Cleveland. Cleveland_sentence_344

The Cleveland State University Poetry Center serves as an academic center for poetry. Cleveland_sentence_345

Cleveland continues to have a thriving literary and poetry community, with regular poetry readings at bookstores, coffee shops, and various other venues. Cleveland_sentence_346

Cleveland is the site of the Anisfield-Wolf Book Award, established by poet and philanthropist Edith Anisfield Wolf in 1935, which recognizes books that have made important contributions to understanding of racism and human diversity. Cleveland_sentence_347

Presented by the Cleveland Foundation, it remains the only American book prize focusing on works that address racism and diversity. Cleveland_sentence_348

In an early Gay and lesbian studies anthology titled Lavender Culture, a short piece by John Kelsey "The Cleveland Bar Scene in the Forties" discusses the gay and lesbian culture in Cleveland and the unique experiences of amateur female impersonators that existed alongside the New York and San Francisco LGBT subcultures. Cleveland_sentence_349

Cuisine Cleveland_section_24

Cleveland's mosaic of ethnic communities and their various culinary traditions have long played an important role in defining the local cuisine. Cleveland_sentence_350

Examples of these can particularly be found in neighborhoods such as Little Italy, Slavic Village, and Tremont. Cleveland_sentence_351

Local mainstays of Cleveland's cuisine include an abundance of Polish and Central European contributions, such as kielbasa, stuffed cabbage and pierogies. Cleveland_sentence_352

Cleveland also has plenty of corned beef, with nationally renowned Slyman's, on the near East Side, a perennial winner of various accolades from Esquire Magazine, including being named the best corned beef sandwich in America in 2008. Cleveland_sentence_353

Other famed sandwiches include the Cleveland original, Polish Boy, a local favorite found at many BBQ and Soul food restaurants. Cleveland_sentence_354

With its blue-collar roots well intact, and plenty of Lake Erie perch available, the tradition of Friday night fish fries remains alive and thriving in Cleveland, particularly in church-based settings and during the season of Lent. Cleveland_sentence_355

Ohio City is home to a growing brewery district, which includes Great Lakes Brewing Company (Ohio's oldest microbrewery); Market Garden Brewery next to the historic West Side Market and Platform Beer Company. Cleveland_sentence_356

Cleveland is noted in the world of celebrity food culture. Cleveland_sentence_357

Famous local figures include chef Michael Symon and food writer Michael Ruhlman, both of whom achieved local and national attentions for their contributions in the culinary world. Cleveland_sentence_358

On November 11, 2007, Symon helped gain the spotlight when he was named "The Next Iron Chef" on the Food Network. Cleveland_sentence_359

In 2007, Ruhlman collaborated with Anthony Bourdain, to do an episode of his Anthony Bourdain: No Reservations focusing on Cleveland's restaurant scene. Cleveland_sentence_360

The national food press—including publications Gourmet, Food & Wine, Esquire and Playboy—has heaped praise on several Cleveland spots for awards including 'best new restaurant', 'best steakhouse', 'best farm-to-table programs' and 'great new neighborhood eateries'. Cleveland_sentence_361

In early 2008, the Chicago Tribune ran a feature article in its 'Travel' section proclaiming Cleveland, America's "hot new dining city". Cleveland_sentence_362

In 2015, the city was named the 7th best food city in the nation by Time magazine. Cleveland_sentence_363

Museums and tourism Cleveland_section_25

See also: List of museums in Cleveland Cleveland_sentence_364

There are two main art museums in Cleveland. Cleveland_sentence_365

The Cleveland Museum of Art is a major American art museum, with a collection that includes more than 40,000 works of art ranging over 6,000 years, from ancient masterpieces to contemporary pieces. Cleveland_sentence_366

The Museum of Contemporary Art Cleveland showcases established and emerging artists, particularly from the Cleveland area, through hosting and producing temporary exhibitions. Cleveland_sentence_367

Both museums offer free admission to visitors, with the Cleveland Museum of Art declaring their museum free and open "for the benefit of all the people forever." Cleveland_sentence_368

Both museums are also part of Cleveland's University Circle, a 550-acre (2.2 km) concentration of cultural, educational, and medical institutions located 5 miles (8.0 km) east of downtown. Cleveland_sentence_369

In addition to the art museums, the neighborhood also includes the Cleveland Botanical Garden, Case Western Reserve University, University Hospitals, Severance Hall, the Cleveland Museum of Natural History, and the Western Reserve Historical Society. Cleveland_sentence_370

Also located at University Circle is the Cleveland Cinematheque at the Cleveland Institute of Art, hailed by The New York Times as one of the country's best alternative movie theaters. Cleveland_sentence_371

Cleveland is home to the I. Cleveland_sentence_372

M. Pei-designed Rock and Roll Hall of Fame on the Lake Erie waterfront at North Coast Harbor downtown. Cleveland_sentence_373

Neighboring attractions include FirstEnergy Stadium, the Great Lakes Science Center, the Steamship Mather Museum, and the USS Cod, a World War II submarine. Cleveland_sentence_374

Designed by architect Levi Scofield, the Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument at Public Square is Cleveland's major Civil War memorial and a major attraction in the city. Cleveland_sentence_375

Other city attractions include the Lorenzo Carter Cabin, the Grays Armory, the Cleveland Police Museum, and the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland's Money Museum. Cleveland_sentence_376

The Cleveland International Film Festival has been held annually since 1977, and it drew a record 106,000 people in 2017. Cleveland_sentence_377

Fashion Week Cleveland, the city's annual fashion event, is the third-largest fashion show of its kind in the United States. Cleveland_sentence_378

The Cleveland National Air Show, an indirect successor to the National Air Races, has been annually held at the city's Burke Lakefront Airport since 1964. Cleveland_sentence_379

Sponsored by the Great Lakes Brewing Company, the Great Lakes Burning River Fest, a two-night music and beer festival at Whiskey Island, has been held annually since 2001. Cleveland_sentence_380

Proceeds from that festival benefit the Burning River Foundation, a local non-profit dedicated to "improving, maintaining and celebrating the vitality of [Cleveland's] regional freshwater resources." Cleveland_sentence_381

Cleveland also hosts an annual holiday display lighting and celebration, dubbed Winterfest, which is held downtown at the city's historic hub, Public Square. Cleveland_sentence_382

Another Cleveland holiday attraction, especially for fans of Jean Shepherd's A Christmas Story, is the Christmas Story House and Museum in Tremont. Cleveland_sentence_383

Cleveland is also home to the Jack Cleveland Casino in the historic former Higbee's Building at Tower City Center. Cleveland_sentence_384

Sports Cleveland_section_26

Main article: Sports in Cleveland Cleveland_sentence_385

See also: History of the Cleveland Indians, History of the Cleveland Browns, History of the Cleveland Cavaliers, and List of Cleveland sports teams Cleveland_sentence_386

Cleveland's current major professional sports teams include the Cleveland Indians (Major League Baseball), Cleveland Browns (National Football League), and Cleveland Cavaliers (National Basketball Association). Cleveland_sentence_387

Local sporting facilities include Progressive Field, FirstEnergy Stadium, Rocket Mortgage FieldHouse, and the Wolstein Center. Cleveland_sentence_388

The city is also host to the Cleveland Monsters of the American Hockey League, who won the 2016 Calder Cup, the first Cleveland AHL team to do so since the 1964 Barons. Cleveland_sentence_389

Other professional teams in the city include the Cleveland Fusion of the Women's Football Alliance and Cleveland SC of the National Premier Soccer League. Cleveland_sentence_390

The Cleveland Indians won the World Series in 1920 and 1948. Cleveland_sentence_391

They also won the American League pennant, making the World Series in the 1954, 1995, 1997, and 2016 seasons. Cleveland_sentence_392

Between 1995 and 2001, Progressive Field (then known as Jacobs Field) sold out 455 consecutive games, a Major League Baseball record until it was broken in 2008. Cleveland_sentence_393

Historically, the Browns have been among the most successful franchises in American football history, winning eight titles during a short period of time—1946, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1950, 1954, 1955, and 1964. Cleveland_sentence_394

The Browns have never played in a Super Bowl, getting close five times by making it to the NFL/AFC Championship Game in 1968, 1969, 1986, 1987, and 1989. Cleveland_sentence_395

Former owner Art Modell's relocation of the Browns after the 1995 season (to Baltimore creating the Ravens), caused tremendous heartbreak and resentment among local fans. Cleveland_sentence_396

Cleveland mayor, Michael R. White, worked with the NFL and Commissioner Paul Tagliabue to bring back the Browns beginning in the 1999 season, retaining all team history. Cleveland_sentence_397

In Cleveland's earlier football history, the Cleveland Bulldogs won the NFL Championship in 1924, and the Cleveland Rams won the NFL Championship in 1945 before relocating to Los Angeles. Cleveland_sentence_398

The Cavaliers won the Eastern Conference in 2007, 2015, 2016, 2017 and 2018 but were defeated in the NBA Finals by the San Antonio Spurs and then by the Golden State Warriors, respectively. Cleveland_sentence_399

The Cavs won the Conference again in 2016 and won their first NBA Championship coming back from a 3–1 deficit, finally defeating the Golden State Warriors. Cleveland_sentence_400

Afterwards, an estimated 1.3 million people attended a parade held in the Cavs honor on June 22, 2016. Cleveland_sentence_401

This was the first time the city had planned for a championship parade in 50 years. Cleveland_sentence_402

Basketball, the Cleveland Rosenblums dominated the original American Basketball League winning three of the first five championships (1926, 1929, 1930), and the Cleveland Pipers, owned by George Steinbrenner, won the American Basketball League championship in 1962. Cleveland_sentence_403

Jesse Owens grew up in Cleveland after moving from Alabama when he was nine. Cleveland_sentence_404

He participated in the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin, where he achieved international fame by winning four gold medals. Cleveland_sentence_405

A statue commemorating his achievement can be found in Downtown Cleveland at Fort Washington Park. Cleveland_sentence_406

A statue of another famous Cleveland athlete, Irish-American World Featherweight boxing champion Johnny Kilbane, stands in the city's Battery Park on the West Side. Cleveland_sentence_407

Cleveland State University alum and area native, Stipe Miocic, won the UFC World Heavyweight Championship at UFC 198 in 2016. Cleveland_sentence_408

Miocic has defended his World Heavyweight Champion title at UFC 203, the first ever UFC World Championship fight held in the city of Cleveland, and again at UFC 211 and UFC 220. Cleveland_sentence_409

After losing it in 2018, Miocic regained the world title at UFC 241. Cleveland_sentence_410

Collegiately, NCAA Division I Cleveland State Vikings have 16 varsity sports, nationally known for their Cleveland State Vikings men's basketball team. Cleveland_sentence_411

NCAA Division III Case Western Reserve Spartans have 19 varsity sports, most known for their Case Western Reserve Spartans football team. Cleveland_sentence_412

The headquarters of the Mid-American Conference (MAC) are in Cleveland. Cleveland_sentence_413

The conference also stages both its men's and women's basketball tournaments at Rocket Mortgage FieldHouse. Cleveland_sentence_414

Several chess championships have taken place in Cleveland. Cleveland_sentence_415

The second American Chess Congress, a predecessor the current U.S. Championship, was held in 1871, and won by George Henry Mackenzie. Cleveland_sentence_416

The 1921 and 1957 U.S. Cleveland_sentence_417

Open Chess Championship also took place in the city, and were won by Edward Lasker and Bobby Fischer, respectively. Cleveland_sentence_418

The Cleveland Open is held annually. Cleveland_sentence_419

The Cleveland Marathon has been hosted annually since 1978. Cleveland_sentence_420

Environment Cleveland_section_27

See also: Sustainable Cleveland Cleveland_sentence_421

With its extensive cleanup of its Lake Erie coast and the Cuyahoga River, Cleveland has been recognized by national media as an environmental success story and a national leader in environmental protection. Cleveland_sentence_422

Since the city's industrialization, the Cuyahoga River had become so affected by industrial pollution that it "caught fire" a total of 13 times beginning in 1868. Cleveland_sentence_423

It was the river fire of June 1969 that spurred the city to action under Mayor Carl B. Stokes, and played a key role in the passage of the Clean Water Act in 1972 and the National Environmental Policy Act later that year. Cleveland_sentence_424

Since that time, the Cuyahoga has been extensively cleaned up through the efforts of the city and the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (OEPA). Cleveland_sentence_425

In 2019, the American Rivers conservation association named the river "River of the Year" in honor of "50 years of environmental resurgence." Cleveland_sentence_426

In addition to continued efforts to improve freshwater and air quality, Cleveland is now exploring renewable energy. Cleveland_sentence_427

The city's two main electrical utilities are FirstEnergy and Cleveland Public Power. Cleveland_sentence_428

Its climate action plan, updated in December 2018, has a 2050 target of 100 percent renewable power, along with reduction of greenhouse gases to 80 percent below the 2010 level. Cleveland_sentence_429

Government and politics Cleveland_section_28

See also: List of mayors of Cleveland, Cleveland City Council, and List of politicians from Cleveland Cleveland_sentence_430

Cleveland operates on a mayor–council (strong mayor) form of government, in which the mayor is the chief executive. Cleveland_sentence_431

From 1924 to 1931, the city briefly experimented with a council–manager government under William R. Hopkins and Daniel E. Morgan before returning to the mayor–council system. Cleveland_sentence_432

The office of the mayor has been held by Frank G. Jackson since 2006. Cleveland_sentence_433

Previous mayors of Cleveland include progressive Democrat Tom L. Johnson, World War I-era War Secretary and BakerHostetler founder Newton D. Baker, U.S. Cleveland_sentence_434

Supreme Court Justice Harold Hitz Burton, two-term Ohio Governor and Senator Frank J. Lausche, former U.S. Cleveland_sentence_435

Health, Education, and Welfare Secretary Anthony J. Celebrezze, two-term Ohio Governor and Senator George V. Voinovich, former U.S. Cleveland_sentence_436

Congressman Dennis Kucinich, and Carl B. Stokes, the first African American mayor of a major U.S. city. Cleveland_sentence_437

Another nationally prominent Ohio politician, former U.S. President James A. Garfield, was born in Cuyahoga County's Orange Township (today the Cleveland suburb of Moreland Hills). Cleveland_sentence_438

His resting place is the James A. Garfield Memorial in Cleveland's Lake View Cemetery. Cleveland_sentence_439

From the Civil War era to the 1940s, Cleveland was primarily dominated by the Republican Party, with the notable exceptions of the Johnson and Baker mayoral administrations. Cleveland_sentence_440

Businessman and Senator Mark Hanna was among Cleveland's most influential Republican figures, both locally and nationally. Cleveland_sentence_441

In addition to the established support of organized labor, the Cuyahoga County Democratic Party, led by former mayor Ray T. Miller, was able to secure the support of the city's ethnic European and African American communities in the 1940s. Cleveland_sentence_442

Beginning with the Lausche administration, Cleveland's political orientation shifted to the Democratic Party and, with the exceptions of the Perk and Voinovich administrations, it has remained dominated by the Democrats ever since. Cleveland_sentence_443

Today, while other parts of Ohio, particularly Cincinnati and the southern portion of the state, support the Republicans, Cleveland commonly produces the strongest support in the state for the Democrats. Cleveland_sentence_444

At the local level, elections are nonpartisan. Cleveland_sentence_445

However, Democrats still dominate every level of government. Cleveland_sentence_446

During the 2004 Presidential election, although George W. Bush carried Ohio by 2.1%, John Kerry carried Cuyahoga County 66.6%–32.9%, his largest margin in any Ohio county. Cleveland_sentence_447

The city of Cleveland supported Kerry over Bush by the even larger margin of 83.3%–15.8%. Cleveland_sentence_448

As a result of the 2010 Census, Ohio lost two Congressional seats, which affected Cleveland's districts in the northeast part of the state. Cleveland_sentence_449

Today, Cleveland is split between two congressional districts. Cleveland_sentence_450

Most of the western part of the city is in the 9th District, represented by Marcy Kaptur. Cleveland_sentence_451

Most of the eastern part of the city, as well as most of downtown, is in the 11th District, represented by Marcia Fudge. Cleveland_sentence_452

Both are Democrats, two of four representing Ohio. Cleveland_sentence_453

Cleveland hosted three Republican national conventions in its history, in 1924, 1936, and 2016. Cleveland_sentence_454

The city also hosted the Radical Republican convention of 1864. Cleveland_sentence_455

Cleveland has not hosted a national convention for the Democrats, despite the position of Cuyahoga County as a Democratic stronghold in Ohio. Cleveland_sentence_456

Cleveland has hosted several national election debates, including the second 1980 U.S. Presidential debate, the 2004 U.S. Vice-Presidential debate, one 2008 Democratic primary debate, and the first 2020 U.S. Presidential debate. Cleveland_sentence_457

Founded in 1912, the City Club of Cleveland provides a platform for national and local debates and discussions. Cleveland_sentence_458

Known as Cleveland's "Citadel of Free Speech," it is one of the oldest continuous independent free speech and debate forums in the country. Cleveland_sentence_459

Public safety Cleveland_section_29

Police and law enforcement Cleveland_section_30

Main article: Cleveland Division of Police Cleveland_sentence_460

Like in other major American cities, crime in Cleveland is concentrated in areas with higher rates of poverty and lower access to jobs. Cleveland_sentence_461

In recent years, the rate of crime in the city has seen a significant decline, following a nationwide trend in falling crime rates. Cleveland_sentence_462

Cleveland Police statistics published in 2019 showed that rates for violent crimes and property crimes in Cleveland dropped substantially in 2018. Cleveland_sentence_463

The rate of property crimes specifically fell by 30% since 2016. Cleveland_sentence_464

Cleveland's law enforcement agency is the Cleveland Division of Police, established in 1866. Cleveland_sentence_465

The division has 1,444 sworn officers as of 2016. Cleveland_sentence_466

Cleveland has five police districts. Cleveland_sentence_467

The district system was introduced in the 1930s by Cleveland Public Safety Director Eliot Ness (of the Untouchables), who later ran for mayor of Cleveland in 1947. Cleveland_sentence_468

The division has been recognized for several "firsts," including the "first criminal conviction secured by matching a palm print lifted from a crime scene to a suspect." Cleveland_sentence_469

The current Chief of Police is Calvin D. Williams. Cleveland_sentence_470

Consent decree with Department of Justice Cleveland_section_31

In December 2014, the United States Department of Justice announced the findings of a two-year investigation, prompted by a request from Mayor Frank Jackson, to determine whether the Cleveland Police engaged in a pattern of excessive force. Cleveland_sentence_471

After reviewing nearly 600 use-of-force incidents from 2010 to 2013, the investigators found systemic patterns, insufficient accountability mechanisms, inadequate training, ineffective policies, and inadequate community engagement. Cleveland_sentence_472

As a result of the Justice Department report, the city agreed to a consent decree to revise its policies and implement new independent oversight over the police force. Cleveland_sentence_473

The consent decree, released on May 26, 2015, mandates sweeping changes in training for recruits and seasoned officers, developing programs to identify and support troubled officers, updating technology and data management practices, and an independent monitor to ensure the decree's goals are met. Cleveland_sentence_474

At least some of the provisions have been identified as unique to Cleveland. Cleveland_sentence_475

On June 12, 2015, Chief U.S. District Judge Solomon Oliver Jr. approved and signed the consent decree, beginning the process of police reform. Cleveland_sentence_476

Fire department Cleveland_section_32

Main article: Cleveland Division of Fire Cleveland_sentence_477

Cleveland is served by the firefighters of the Cleveland Division of Fire, established in 1863. Cleveland_sentence_478

The fire department operates out of 22 active fire stations throughout the city in five battalions. Cleveland_sentence_479

Each Battalion is commanded by a Battalion Chief, who reports to an on-duty Assistant Chief. Cleveland_sentence_480

The Division of Fire operates a fire apparatus fleet of twenty-two engine companies, eight ladder companies, three tower companies, two task force rescue squad companies, hazardous materials ("haz-mat") unit, and numerous other special, support, and reserve units. Cleveland_sentence_481

The current Chief of Department is Angelo Calvillo. Cleveland_sentence_482

Emergency Medical Services Cleveland_section_33

Main article: Cleveland EMS Cleveland_sentence_483

Cleveland EMS is operated by the city as its own municipal third-service EMS division. Cleveland_sentence_484

Cleveland EMS is the primary provider of Advanced Life Support and ambulance transport within the city of Cleveland, while Cleveland Fire assists by providing fire response medical care. Cleveland_sentence_485

Although a merger between the fire and EMS departments was proposed in the past, the idea was subsequently abandoned. Cleveland_sentence_486

Media Cleveland_section_34

Main article: List of mass media in Cleveland Cleveland_sentence_487

Print Cleveland_section_35

Cleveland's primary daily newspaper is The Plain Dealer and its associated online publication, Cleveland_sentence_488

Defunct major newspapers include the Cleveland Press, an afternoon publication which printed its last edition on June 17, 1982; and the Cleveland News, which ceased publication in 1960. Cleveland_sentence_489

Additional publications include: the Cleveland Magazine, a regional culture magazine published monthly; Crain's Cleveland Business, a weekly business newspaper; and Cleveland Scene, a free alternative weekly paper which absorbed its competitor, the Cleveland Free Times, in 2008. Cleveland_sentence_490

Nationally distributed rock magazine Alternative Press was founded in Cleveland in 1985, and the publication's headquarters remain in the city. Cleveland_sentence_491

The digital Belt Magazine was founded in Cleveland in 2013. Cleveland_sentence_492

Time magazine was published in Cleveland for a brief period from 1925 to 1927. Cleveland_sentence_493

Cleveland's ethnic publications include: the Call and Post, a weekly newspaper that primarily serves the city's African American community; the Cleveland Jewish News, a weekly Jewish newspaper; the bi-weekly Russian language Cleveland Russian Magazine for the Russian and post-Soviet community; the Mandarin Erie Chinese Journal for the city's Chinese community; La Gazzetta Italiana in English and Italian for the Italian community; the Ohio Irish American News for the Irish community; and the Spanish language Vocero Latino News for the Latino community. Cleveland_sentence_494

Historically, the Hungarian language newspaper Szabadság served the Hungarian community. Cleveland_sentence_495

Television Cleveland_section_36

Cleveland is the 19th-largest television market by Nielsen Media Research (as of 2013–14). Cleveland_sentence_496

The market is served by 10 full power stations, including: WEWS-TV (ABC), WJW (Fox), WKYC (NBC), WOIO (CBS), WVIZ (PBS), WUAB (The CW), WVPX-TV (Ion), WQHS-DT (Univision), WDLI-TV (Ion Plus), and the independent WBNX-TV. Cleveland_sentence_497

The Mike Douglas Show, a nationally syndicated daytime talk show, began in Cleveland in 1961 on KYW-TV (now WKYC), while The Morning Exchange on WEWS-TV served as the model for Good Morning America. Cleveland_sentence_498

Tim Conway and Ernie Anderson first established themselves in Cleveland while working together at KYW-TV and later WJW-TV (now WJW). Cleveland_sentence_499

Anderson both created and performed as the immensely popular Cleveland horror host Ghoulardi on WJW-TV's Shock Theater, and was later succeeded by the long-running late night duo Big Chuck and Lil' John. Cleveland_sentence_500

Radio Cleveland_section_37

Cleveland is directly served by 32 AM and FM radio stations, 22 of which are licensed to the city. Cleveland_sentence_501

Commercial FM music stations are frequently the highest rated stations in the market: WAKS (contemporary hit radio), WDOK (adult contemporary), WENZ (mainstream urban), WGAR-FM (country), WHLK (adult hits), WMJI (classic hits), WMMS (active rock/hot talk), WNCX (classic rock), WNWV (modern adult contemporary), WQAL (hot adult contemporary), and WZAK (urban adult contemporary). Cleveland_sentence_502

WCPN public radio functions as the local NPR affiliate, and sister station WCLV airs a classical music format. Cleveland_sentence_503

College radio stations include WBWC (Baldwin Wallace University), WCSB (Cleveland State University), WJCU (John Carroll University), and WRUW-FM (Case Western Reserve University). Cleveland_sentence_504

News/talk station WTAM serves as the AM flagship for both the Cleveland Cavaliers and Cleveland Indians. Cleveland_sentence_505

Sports oriented stations include sister stations WKNR and WWGK (ESPN Radio), WARF (Fox Sports Radio) and WKRK-FM (CBS Sports Radio). Cleveland_sentence_506

WKNR and WKRK-FM are also co-flagship stations for the Cleveland Browns. Cleveland_sentence_507

As WJW (AM), WKNR was once the home of Alan Freed − the Cleveland disc jockey credited with first using and popularizing the term "rock and roll" to describe the music genre. Cleveland_sentence_508

News/talk station WHK was one of the first radio stations to broadcast in the United States and the first in Ohio. Cleveland_sentence_509

Its former sister station, rock station WMMS, dominated Cleveland radio in the 1970s and 1980s and was at that time one of the highest rated radio stations in the country. Cleveland_sentence_510

In 1972, WMMS program director Billy Bass coined the phrase "The Rock and Roll Capital of the World" to describe Cleveland. Cleveland_sentence_511

In 1987, Playboy named WMMS DJ Kid Leo (Lawrence Travagliante) "The Best Disc Jockey in the Country". Cleveland_sentence_512

Healthcare Cleveland_section_38

Cleveland is home to a number of leading hospital systems, several of which are in University Circle. Cleveland_sentence_513

Most notable is the world-renowned Cleveland Clinic, currently led by Croatian-born President and CEO Tomislav Mihaljevic. Cleveland_sentence_514

Another major and notable hospital in the city is University Hospitals and its Rainbow Babies & Children's Hospital. Cleveland_sentence_515

On the city's West Side is the main campus of the MetroHealth System, which operates one of two Level one trauma centers in the city, and has various locations throughout Greater Cleveland. Cleveland_sentence_516

Cleveland's Global Center for Health Innovation opened with 235,000 square feet (21,800 m) of display space for healthcare companies across the world. Cleveland_sentence_517

To take advantage of the proximity of universities and other medical centers in Cleveland, the Veterans Administration moved the regions VA hospital from suburban Brecksville to a new facility in University Circle. Cleveland_sentence_518

During the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic in the United States, Ohio Governor Mike DeWine reported the earliest cases of the virus in the state to be in the Greater Cleveland Metropolitan Area, specifically Cuyahoga County. Cleveland_sentence_519

In response, the Cleveland Clinic engaged in a historic partnership with University Hospitals to offer free testing for COVID-19 and to stop the spread of the virus in the metropolitan area and the state. Cleveland_sentence_520

Transportation Cleveland_section_39

Main article: Transportation in Cleveland Cleveland_sentence_521

Walkability Cleveland_section_40

In 2011, Walk Score ranked Cleveland the seventeenth most walkable of the fifty largest cities in the United States. Cleveland_sentence_522

As of 2014, Walk Score increased Cleveland's rank to being the sixteenth most walkable US city, with a Walk Score of 57, a Transit Score of 47, and a Bike Score of 51. Cleveland_sentence_523

Cleveland's most walkable and transient areas can be found in the Downtown, Ohio City, Detroit-Shoreway, University Circle, and Buckeye-Shaker Square neighborhoods. Cleveland_sentence_524

Urban transit systems Cleveland_section_41

See also: Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority and Streetcars in Cleveland Cleveland_sentence_525

Cleveland has a bus and rail mass transit system operated by the Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority (RTA). Cleveland_sentence_526

The rail portion is officially called the RTA Rapid Transit, but local residents refer to it as The Rapid. Cleveland_sentence_527

It consists of three light rail lines, known as the Blue, Green, and Waterfront Lines, and a heavy rail line, the Red Line. Cleveland_sentence_528

In 2008, RTA completed the HealthLine, a bus rapid transit line, for which naming rights were purchased by the Cleveland Clinic and University Hospitals. Cleveland_sentence_529

It runs along Euclid Avenue from downtown through University Circle, ending at the Louis Stokes Station at Windermere in East Cleveland. Cleveland_sentence_530

RTA later opened a "BRT Light" line on the West Side along Clifton Blvd and the Shoreway. Cleveland_sentence_531

In 1968, Cleveland became the first city in the nation to have a direct rail transit connection linking the city's downtown to its major airport. Cleveland_sentence_532

In 2007, the American Public Transportation Association named Cleveland's mass transit system the best in North America. Cleveland_sentence_533

Cleveland is the only metropolitan area in the Western Hemisphere with its rail rapid transit system having only one center-city area rapid transit station (Tower City-Public Square). Cleveland_sentence_534

Private automobiles Cleveland_section_42

The city of Cleveland has a higher than average percentage of households without a car. Cleveland_sentence_535

In 2016, 23.7 percent of Cleveland households lacked a car, while the national average was 8.7 percent. Cleveland_sentence_536

Cleveland averaged 1.19 cars per household in 2016, compared to a national average of 1.8. Cleveland_sentence_537

Like other major cities, the urban density of Cleveland reduces the need for private vehicle ownership, though as jobs sprawl to urban edges across the United States, connectivity is becoming beyond the reach of public transit systems, including RTA. Cleveland_sentence_538

Roads Cleveland_section_43

Cleveland's road system consists of numbered streets running roughly north–south, and named avenues, which run roughly east–west. Cleveland_sentence_539

The numbered streets are designated "east" or "west", depending where they lie in relation to Ontario Street, which bisects Public Square. Cleveland_sentence_540

The numbered street system extends beyond the city limits into some suburbs on both the West and East Sides. Cleveland_sentence_541

The named avenues that lie both on the east side of the Cuyahoga River and west of Ontario Street receive a "west" designation on street signage. Cleveland_sentence_542

The two downtown avenues which span the Cuyahoga change names on the west side of the river. Cleveland_sentence_543

Superior Avenue becomes Detroit Avenue on the West Side, and Carnegie Avenue becomes Lorain Avenue. Cleveland_sentence_544

The bridges that make these connections are often called the Detroit–Superior Bridge and the Lorain–Carnegie Bridge. Cleveland_sentence_545

Freeways Cleveland_section_44

Three two-digit Interstate highways serve Cleveland directly. Cleveland_sentence_546

Interstate 71 begins just southwest of downtown and is the major route from downtown Cleveland to the airport. Cleveland_sentence_547

I-71 runs through the southwestern suburbs and eventually connects Cleveland with Columbus and Cincinnati. Cleveland_sentence_548

Interstate 77 begins in downtown Cleveland and runs almost due south through the southern suburbs. Cleveland_sentence_549

I-77 sees the least traffic of the three interstates, although it does connect Cleveland to Akron. Cleveland_sentence_550

Interstate 90 connects the two sides of Cleveland, and is the northern terminus for both I-71 and I-77. Cleveland_sentence_551

Running due east–west through the West Side suburbs, I-90 turns northeast at the junction with and I-490, and is known as the Innerbelt through downtown. Cleveland_sentence_552

At the junction with the Shoreway, I-90 makes a 90-degree turn known in the area as Dead Man's Curve, then continues northeast, entering Lake County near the eastern split with Ohio State Route 2. Cleveland_sentence_553

Cleveland is also served by two three-digit interstates, Interstate 480, which enters Cleveland briefly at a few points and Interstate 490, which connects I-77 with the junction of I-90 and I-71 just south of downtown. Cleveland_sentence_554

Two other limited-access highways serve Cleveland. Cleveland_sentence_555

The Cleveland Memorial Shoreway carries State Route 2 along its length, and at varying points also carries US 6, US 20 and I-90. Cleveland_sentence_556

The Jennings Freeway (State Route 176) connects I-71 just south of I-90 to I-480 near the suburbs of Parma and Brooklyn Heights. Cleveland_sentence_557

A third highway, the Berea Freeway (State Route 237 in part), connects I-71 to the airport, and forms part of the boundary between Cleveland and Brook Park. Cleveland_sentence_558

Airports Cleveland_section_45

Cleveland Hopkins International Airport is the city's major airport and an international airport that once served as a main hub for United Airlines and Continental Airlines. Cleveland_sentence_559

It holds the distinction of having the first airport-to-downtown rapid transit connection in North America, established in 1968. Cleveland_sentence_560

In 1930, the airport was the site of the first airfield lighting system and the first air traffic control tower. Cleveland_sentence_561

Originally known as Cleveland Municipal Airport, it was the first municipally owned airport in the country. Cleveland_sentence_562

Cleveland Hopkins is a significant regional air freight hub hosting FedEx Express, UPS Airlines, United States Postal Service, and major commercial freight carriers. Cleveland_sentence_563

In addition to Hopkins, Cleveland is served by Burke Lakefront Airport, on the north shore of downtown between Lake Erie and the Shoreway. Cleveland_sentence_564

Burke is primarily a commuter and business airport. Cleveland_sentence_565

Seaport Cleveland_section_46

Main article: Port of Cleveland Cleveland_sentence_566

The Port of Cleveland, at the Cuyahoga River's mouth, is a major bulk freight terminal on Lake Erie, receiving much of the raw materials used by the region's manufacturing industries. Cleveland_sentence_567

In addition to freight, the Port of Cleveland also welcomes regional and international tourists who pass through the city on Great Lakes cruises. Cleveland_sentence_568

Currently docking at Dock 28, just west of First Energy Stadium. Cleveland_sentence_569

The cruises currently run from mid-May through mid-October. Cleveland_sentence_570

Railroads Cleveland_section_47

See also: Cleveland railroad history Cleveland_sentence_571

Cleveland has a long rich history as a major railroad hub in the United States. Cleveland_sentence_572

Today, Amtrak, the national passenger rail system, provides service to Cleveland, via the Capitol Limited and Lake Shore Limited routes, which stop at Cleveland Lakefront Station. Cleveland_sentence_573

Additionally, Cleveland hosts several inter-modal freight railroad terminals, for Norfolk Southern, CSX and several smaller companies. Cleveland_sentence_574

There have been several proposals for commuter rail in Cleveland, including a study into a Sandusky–Cleveland line. Cleveland_sentence_575

Cleveland was also identified as a hub for the now-suspended Ohio Hub project, which would bring high-speed rail to Ohio. Cleveland_sentence_576

Inter-city bus lines Cleveland_section_48

National intercity bus service is provided at a Greyhound station, just behind the Playhouse Square theater district. Cleveland_sentence_577

Megabus provides service to Cleveland and has a stop at the Stephanie Tubbs Jones Transit Center on the east side of downtown. Cleveland_sentence_578

Akron Metro, Brunswick Transit Alternative, Laketran, Lorain County Transit, and Medina County Transit provide connecting bus service to the Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority. Cleveland_sentence_579

Geauga County Transit and Portage Area Regional Transportation Authority (PARTA) also offer connecting bus service in their neighboring areas. Cleveland_sentence_580

Hyperloop proposal Cleveland_section_49

On February 15, 2018, Hyperloop Transportation Technologies announced that it had signed an agreement with the North Ohio Areawide Coordinating Agency and the Illinois Department of Transportation to conduct a feasibility study for a planned Great Lakes Hyperloop system connecting Cleveland to Chicago in a half hour. Cleveland_sentence_581

In June 2019, Congress approved $5 million to the U.S. Cleveland_sentence_582 Department of Transportation to explore safety standards for this project. Cleveland_sentence_583

Sister cities and international relations Cleveland_section_50

As of 2020, Cleveland maintains cultural, economic, and educational ties with 23 sister cities around the world. Cleveland_sentence_584

It concluded its first sister city partnership with Lima, Peru in 1964. Cleveland_sentence_585

The Cleveland Council on World Affairs was established in 1923. Cleveland_sentence_586

In October 1915 at Cleveland's Bohemian National Hall, Czech American and Slovak American representatives signed the Cleveland Agreement, a precursor to the Pittsburgh Agreement, calling for the formation of a joint Czech and Slovak state, which was realized with the establishment of Czechoslovakia in October 1918. Cleveland_sentence_587

During the Cold War, Cleveland industrialist Cyrus S. Eaton, an apprentice of John D. Rockefeller, played a significant role in promoting dialogue between the US and the USSR. Cleveland_sentence_588

Cleveland is home to the Consulate General of the Republic of Slovenia, which, until Slovene independence in 1991, served as an official consulate for Tito's Yugoslavia. Cleveland_sentence_589

In addition, the Jewish community of Greater Cleveland maintains an unofficial supportive relationship with the State of Israel. Cleveland_sentence_590

The Cleveland Clinic operates the Cleveland Clinic Abu Dhabi hospital and a sports medicine clinic in Toronto, and a Cleveland Clinic hospital campus in London is scheduled to open in 2021. Cleveland_sentence_591

Sister cities Cleveland_sentence_592

See also Cleveland_section_51


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: