Climate change mitigation

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Climate change mitigation consists of actions to limit the magnitude or rate of global warming and its related effects. Climate change mitigation_sentence_0

This generally involves reductions in human emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Climate change mitigation_sentence_1

Fossil fuels account for about 70% of GHG emissions. Climate change mitigation_sentence_2

The main challenge is to eliminate the use of coal, oil and gas and substitute these fossil fuels with clean energy sources. Climate change mitigation_sentence_3

Due to massive price drops, wind power and solar photovoltaics (PV) are increasingly out-competing oil, gas and coal though these require energy storage and extended electrical grids. Climate change mitigation_sentence_4

Mitigation or reversal of climate change, may also be achieved by replacing petrol and diesel with electric vehicles, reforestation and forest preservation (a "carbon sink"), changes to agriculture practice and machinery, divestment from fossil fuel finance, democratic corporate governance reforms, changes to consumer laws, and implementing a green recovery after the COVID-19 pandemic. Climate change mitigation_sentence_5

Techniques for removing carbon dioxide from Earth's atmosphere remain costly, or climate engineering at safe or sufficient scale. Climate change mitigation_sentence_6

Almost all countries are parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Climate change mitigation_sentence_7

The ultimate objective of the UNFCCC is to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of GHGs at a level that would prevent dangerous human interference with the climate system. Climate change mitigation_sentence_8

In 2010, Parties to the UNFCCC agreed that future global warming should be limited to below 2 °C (3.6 °F) relative to the pre-industrial level. Climate change mitigation_sentence_9

With the Paris Agreement of 2015 this was confirmed. Climate change mitigation_sentence_10

With the Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5 °C, the International Panel on Climate Change has emphasized the benefits of keeping global warming below this level, suggesting a global collective effort that may be guided by the 2015 United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Climate change mitigation_sentence_11

Emissions pathways with no or limited overshoot would require rapid and far-reaching transitions in energy, land, urban and infrastructure including transport and buildings, and industrial systems. Climate change mitigation_sentence_12

The current trajectory of global greenhouse gas emissions does not appear to be consistent with limiting global warming to below 1.5 or 2 °C. Climate change mitigation_sentence_13

However, globally the benefits of keeping warming under 2 °C exceed the costs. Climate change mitigation_sentence_14

Greenhouse gas concentrations and stabilization Climate change mitigation_section_0

See also: Greenhouse gas § Removal from the atmosphere and global warming potential, and Carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere Climate change mitigation_sentence_15

The UNFCCC aims to stabilize greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations in the atmosphere at a level where ecosystems can adapt naturally to climate change, food production is not threatened, and economic development can proceed in a sustainable fashion. Climate change mitigation_sentence_16

Currently human activities are adding CO2 to the atmosphere faster than natural processes can remove it. Climate change mitigation_sentence_17

According to a 2011 US study, stabilizing atmospheric CO2 concentrations would require anthropogenic CO2 emissions to be reduced by 80% relative to the peak emissions level. Climate change mitigation_sentence_18

The IPCC works with the concept of a fixed carbon emissions budget. Climate change mitigation_sentence_19

If emissions remain on the current level of 42 GtCO 2, the carbon budget for 1.5°C could be exhausted in 2028. Climate change mitigation_sentence_20

The rise in temperature to that level would occur with some delay between 2030 and 2052. Climate change mitigation_sentence_21

Even if it was possible to achieve negative emissions in the future, 1.5°C must not be exceeded at any time to avoid the loss of ecosystems. Climate change mitigation_sentence_22

After leaving room for emissions for food production for 9 billion people and to keep the global temperature rise below 2 °C, emissions from energy production and transport will have to peak almost immediately in the developed world and decline at about 10% each year until zero emissions are reached around 2030. Climate change mitigation_sentence_23

Sources of greenhouse gas emissions Climate change mitigation_section_1

With the Kyoto Protocol, the reduction of almost all anthropogenic greenhouse gases has been addressed. Climate change mitigation_sentence_24

These gases are Carbon Dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and fluorinated gases (F-Gases): the hydrofluorocarbons (HFC), perfluorocarbons (PFC), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). Climate change mitigation_sentence_25

Their global warming potential (GWP) depends on their lifetime in the atmosphere. Climate change mitigation_sentence_26

Methane has a relatively short atmospheric lifetime of about 10 -15 years but a high immediate impact. Climate change mitigation_sentence_27

For methane, a reduction of about 30% below current emission levels would lead to a stabilization in its atmospheric concentration, while for N2O, an emissions reduction of more than 50% would be required. Climate change mitigation_sentence_28

Estimations largely depend on the ability of oceans and land sinks to absorb GHGs. Climate change mitigation_sentence_29

N2O has a high GWP and significant Ozone Depleting Potential (ODP). Climate change mitigation_sentence_30

It is estimated that the global warming potential of N2O over 100 years is 265 times greater than CO2. Climate change mitigation_sentence_31

The risk of feedback effects in global warming leads to high uncertainties in the determination of GWP values.GHG emissions are measured in CO 2 equivalents, taking the global warming potential into account. Climate change mitigation_sentence_32

Current emissions are estimated at 51.8 GtCO 2e, while CO 2 emissions alone make up 42 Gt per year. Climate change mitigation_sentence_33

Short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) Climate change mitigation_section_2

Short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) persist in the atmosphere for a period ranging from days to 15 years as compared to carbon dioxide which can remain in the atmosphere for millennia. Climate change mitigation_sentence_34

SLCPs comprise of methane, hydroflourocarbons (HFCs), tropospheric ozone and black carbon. Climate change mitigation_sentence_35

Reducing SLCPs emissions can cut the ongoing rate of global warming by almost half and is a key climate strategy especially for diminishing near-term global warming and its impacts. Climate change mitigation_sentence_36

Cutting SLCPs may also reduce the rate of global warming and the projected Arctic warming by two-thirds. Climate change mitigation_sentence_37

Carbon dioxide (CO2) Climate change mitigation_section_3

Climate change mitigation_unordered_list_0

  • Fossil fuel: oil, gas and coal are the major driver of anthropogenic global warming with annual emissions of 34.6 GtCO 2 in 2018.Climate change mitigation_item_0_0
  • Cement production is estimated 1.5 GtCO 2Climate change mitigation_item_0_1
  • Land-use change (LUC) is the imbalance of deforestation and reforestation. Estimations are very uncertain at 3.8 GtCO 2. Wildfires cause emissions of about 7 GtCO 2Climate change mitigation_item_0_2
  • Flaring: In crude oil production vast amounts of associated gas are commonly flared as waste or unusable gas.Climate change mitigation_item_0_3

Methane (CH4) Climate change mitigation_section_4

Climate change mitigation_unordered_list_1

  • Fossil fuel (33%) also accounts for most of the methane emissions including gas distribution, leakages and gas venting.Climate change mitigation_item_1_4
  • Cattle (21%) account for two thirds of the methane emitted by livestock, followed by buffalo, sheep and goatsClimate change mitigation_item_1_5
  • Human waste and waste water (21%): When biomass waste in landfills and organic substances in domestic and industrial waste water are decomposed by bacteria in anaerobic conditions, substantial amounts of methane are generated.Climate change mitigation_item_1_6
  • Rice cultivation (10%) on flooded rice fields is another agricultural source, where anaerobic decomposition of organic material produces methane.Climate change mitigation_item_1_7

Nitrous oxide (N2O) Climate change mitigation_section_5

Climate change mitigation_unordered_list_2

  • Most emissions by agriculture, especially meat production: cattle (droppings on pasture), fertilizers, animal manureClimate change mitigation_item_2_8
  • Combustion of fossil and bio fuels.Climate change mitigation_item_2_9
  • Industrial production of adipic acid and nitric acid.Climate change mitigation_item_2_10

F-Gases Climate change mitigation_section_6

Climate change mitigation_unordered_list_3

  • Switchgear in the power sector, semi-conducture manufacture, aluminium production and a large unknown source of SF6Climate change mitigation_item_3_11

Projections Climate change mitigation_section_7

Projections of future greenhouse gas emissions are highly uncertain. Climate change mitigation_sentence_38

In the absence of policies to mitigate climate change, GHG emissions could rise significantly over the 21st century. Climate change mitigation_sentence_39

Current scientific projections warn of a 4.5 degree temperature rise in decades. Climate change mitigation_sentence_40

Methods and means Climate change mitigation_section_8

As the cost of reducing GHG emissions in the electricity sector appears to be lower than in other sectors, such as in the transportation sector, the electricity sector may deliver the largest proportional carbon reductions under an economically efficient climate policy. Climate change mitigation_sentence_41

Economic tools can be useful in designing climate change mitigation policies. Climate change mitigation_sentence_42

Abolishing fossil fuel subsidies is very important but must be done carefully to avoid making poor people poorer. Climate change mitigation_sentence_43

Short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) emissions like methane may be reduced by controlling fugitive emissions from oil and gas production and controlling emissions from coal mining. Climate change mitigation_sentence_44

Black carbon emissions may be mitigated by upgrading coke ovens, installing particulate filters on diesel-based engines and minimizing open burning of biomass. Climate change mitigation_sentence_45

Continued phase down of manufacture and use of hydroflourocarbons (HFCs) under the Montreal Protocol will help reduce HFC emissions and concurrently improve the energy efficiency of appliances that use HFCs like air conditioners, freezers and refrigerators. Climate change mitigation_sentence_46

Other frequently discussed efficiency means include public transport, increasing fuel economy in automobiles (which includes the use of electric hybrids), charging plug-in hybrids and electric cars by low-carbon electricity, making individual changes, and changing business practices. Climate change mitigation_sentence_47

Replacing gasoline and diesel vehicles with electric means their emissions would be displaced away from street level, where they cause illness. Climate change mitigation_sentence_48

Another consideration is how future socioeconomic development proceeds. Climate change mitigation_sentence_49

Fossil fuel substitution Climate change mitigation_section_9

Main article: Fossil fuel phase-out Climate change mitigation_sentence_50

Further information: Phase-out of fossil fuel vehicles Climate change mitigation_sentence_51

Further information: Alternative fuel vehicle Climate change mitigation_sentence_52

As most greenhouse gas emissions are due to fossil fuels, rapidly phasing out oil, gas and coal is critical. Climate change mitigation_sentence_53

The incentive to use 100% renewable energy has been created by global warming and other ecological as well as economic concerns. Climate change mitigation_sentence_54

According to the IPCC, there are few fundamental technological limits to integrating a portfolio of renewable energy technologies to meet most of total global energy demand. Climate change mitigation_sentence_55

The global primary energy demand was 161,320 TWh in 2018. Climate change mitigation_sentence_56

This refers to electricity, transport and heating including all losses. Climate change mitigation_sentence_57

The primary energy demand in a low-carbon economy is difficult to determine. Climate change mitigation_sentence_58

In transport and electricity production, fossil fuel usage has a low efficiency of less than 50%. Climate change mitigation_sentence_59

Motors of vehicles produce a lot of heat which is wasted. Climate change mitigation_sentence_60

Electrification of all sectors and switching to renewable energy can lower the primary energy demand significantly. Climate change mitigation_sentence_61

On the other hand, storage requirements, energy density issues of batteries and reconversion to electricity lower the efficiency of renewable energy. Climate change mitigation_sentence_62

In 2018, biomass and waste was listed with a share of 10% of primary energy, hydro power with 3%. Climate change mitigation_sentence_63

Wind, solar energy and other renewables were at 2%. Climate change mitigation_sentence_64

Low-carbon energy sources Climate change mitigation_section_10

See also: Low-carbon economy, Renewable energy, Renewable energy commercialization, Renewable energy debate, and Emission intensity § Energy sources emission intensity per unit of energy generated Climate change mitigation_sentence_65

Wind and sun can be sources for large amounts of low-carbon energy at competitive production costs. Climate change mitigation_sentence_66

Solar PV module prices fell by around 80% in the 2010s, and wind turbine prices by 30–40%. Climate change mitigation_sentence_67

But even in combination, generation of variable renewable energy fluctuates a lot. Climate change mitigation_sentence_68

This can be tackled by extending grids over large areas with a sufficient capacity or by using energy storage. Climate change mitigation_sentence_69

According to the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), the deployment of renewable energy would have to be accelerated six-fold though to stay under the 2 °C target. Climate change mitigation_sentence_70

Load management of industrial energy consumption can help to balance the production of renewable energy production and its demand. Climate change mitigation_sentence_71

Electricity production by biogas and hydro power can follow the energy demand. Climate change mitigation_sentence_72

Solar energy Climate change mitigation_section_11

Main article: Solar energy Climate change mitigation_sentence_73

Climate change mitigation_unordered_list_4

  • Solar photovoltaics has become the cheapest way to produce electric energy in many regions of the world, with production costs down to 0.015 - 0.02 US$/KWh in desert regions. The growth of photovoltaics is exponential and has doubled every three years since the 1990s.Climate change mitigation_item_4_12
  • A different technology is concentrated solar power (CSP) using mirrors or lenses to concentrate a large area of sunlight onto a receiver. With CSP, the energy can be saved up for a few hours. Prices in Chile are expected to fall below 0.05 US$/KWh in 2020.Climate change mitigation_item_4_13
  • Solar water heating makes an important and growing contribution in many countries, most notably in China, which now has 70 percent of the global total (180 GWth). Worldwide, total installed solar water heating systems meet a portion of the water heating needs of over 70 million households.Climate change mitigation_item_4_14

Wind power Climate change mitigation_section_12

Main article: wind power Climate change mitigation_sentence_74

Regions in the higher northern and southern latitudes have the highest potential for wind power. Climate change mitigation_sentence_75

Installed capacity has reached 650 GW in 2019. Climate change mitigation_sentence_76

Offshore wind power currently has a share of about 10% of new installations. Climate change mitigation_sentence_77

Offshore wind farms are more expensive but the units deliver more energy per installed capacity with less fluctuations. Climate change mitigation_sentence_78

Hydro Power Climate change mitigation_section_13

Main article: Hydropower Climate change mitigation_sentence_79

Hydroelectricity plays a leading role in countries like Brazil, Norway and China. Climate change mitigation_sentence_80

but there are geographical limits and environmental issues. Climate change mitigation_sentence_81

Tidal power can be used in coastal regions. Climate change mitigation_sentence_82

Bioenergy Climate change mitigation_section_14

Main article: Biomass Climate change mitigation_sentence_83

Biogas plants can provide dispatchable electricity generation, and heat when needed. Climate change mitigation_sentence_84

A common concept is the co-fermentation of energy crops mixed with manure in agriculture. Climate change mitigation_sentence_85

Burning plant-derived biomass releases CO 2, but it has still been classified as a renewable energy source in the EU and UN legal frameworks because photosynthesis cycles the CO 2 back into new crops. Climate change mitigation_sentence_86

How a fuel is produced, transported and processed has a significant impact on lifecycle emissions. Climate change mitigation_sentence_87

Transporting fuels over long distances and excessive use of nitrogen fertilisers can reduce the emissions savings made by the same fuel compared to natural gas by between 15 and 50 per cent. Climate change mitigation_sentence_88

Renewable biofuels are starting to be used in aviation. Climate change mitigation_sentence_89

Nuclear power Climate change mitigation_section_15

In most 1.5 °C pathways nuclear power increases its share. Climate change mitigation_sentence_90

The main advantage is the ability to deliver large amounts of base load when renewable energy is not available. Climate change mitigation_sentence_91

It has been repeatedly classified as a climate change mitigation technology. Climate change mitigation_sentence_92

On the other hand, nuclear power comes with environmental risks which could outweigh the benefits. Climate change mitigation_sentence_93

Apart from nuclear accidents, the disposal of radioactive waste can cause damage and costs over more than one million years. Climate change mitigation_sentence_94

Separated plutonium could be used for nuclear weapons. Climate change mitigation_sentence_95

Public opinion about nuclear power varies widely between countries. Climate change mitigation_sentence_96

As of 2019 the cost of extending nuclear power plant lifetimes is competitive with other electricity generation technologies, including new solar and wind projects. Climate change mitigation_sentence_97

New projects are reported to be highly dependent on public subsidies. Climate change mitigation_sentence_98

Nuclear fusion research, in the form of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor is underway but fusion is not likely to be commercially widespread before 2050. Climate change mitigation_sentence_99

Carbon neutral and negative fuels Climate change mitigation_section_16

Fossil fuel may be phased-out with carbon-neutral and carbon-negative pipeline and transportation fuels created with power to gas and gas to liquids technologies. Climate change mitigation_sentence_100

Natural gas Climate change mitigation_section_17

Natural gas, which is mostly methane, is viewed as a bridge fuel since it produces about half as much CO 2 as burning coal. Climate change mitigation_sentence_101

Gas-fired power plants can provide the required flexibility in electricity production in combination wind and solar energy. Climate change mitigation_sentence_102

But methane is itself a potent greenhouse gas, and it currently leaks from production wells, storage tanks, pipelines, and urban distribution pipes for natural gas. Climate change mitigation_sentence_103

In a low-carbon scenario, gas-fueled power plants could still continue operation if methane was produced using power-to-gas technology with renewable energy sources. Climate change mitigation_sentence_104

Energy storage Climate change mitigation_section_18

Main article: Energy storage Climate change mitigation_sentence_105

See also: Hydrogen economy Climate change mitigation_sentence_106

Wind energy and photovoltaics can deliver large amounts of electric energy but not at any time and place. Climate change mitigation_sentence_107

One approach is the conversation into storable forms of energy. Climate change mitigation_sentence_108

This generally leads to losses in efficiency. Climate change mitigation_sentence_109

A study by Imperial College London calculated the lowest levelised cost of different systems for mid-term and seasonal storage. Climate change mitigation_sentence_110

In 2020, pumped hydro (PHES), compressed air (CAES) and Li-on batteries are most cost effective depending on charging rhythm. Climate change mitigation_sentence_111

For 2040, a more significant role for Li-on and hydrogen is projected. Climate change mitigation_sentence_112

Climate change mitigation_unordered_list_5

Climate change mitigation_unordered_list_6

  • Hydrogen may be useful for seasonal energy storage. The low efficiency of 30% must improve dramatically before hydrogen storage can offer the same overall energy efficiency as batteries. For the electricity grid a German study estimated high costs of 0.176 €/KWh for reconversion concluding that substituting the electricity grid expansion entirely with hydrogen reconversion systems does not make sense from an economic standpoint. The concept of solar hydrogen is discussed for remote desert projects where grid connections to demand centers are not available. Because it has more energy per unit volume sometimes it may be better to use hydrogen in ammonia.Climate change mitigation_item_6_16

Super grids Climate change mitigation_section_19

Main article: Super grid Climate change mitigation_sentence_113

Long-distance power lines help to minimize storage requirements. Climate change mitigation_sentence_114

A continental transmission network can smoothen local variations of wind energy. Climate change mitigation_sentence_115

With a global grid, even photovoltaics could be available all day and night. Climate change mitigation_sentence_116

The strongest High-voltage direct current (HVDC) connections are quoted with losses of only 1.6% per 1000 km with a clear advantage compared to AC. Climate change mitigation_sentence_117

HVDC is currently only used for point-to-point connections. Climate change mitigation_sentence_118

Meshed HVDC grids are reported to be ready-to-use in Europe and to be in operation in China by 2022. Climate change mitigation_sentence_119

China has built many HVDC connections within the country and supports the idea of a global, intercontinental grid as a backbone system for the existing national AC grids. Climate change mitigation_sentence_120

A super grid in the US in combination with renewable energy could reduce GHG emissions by 80%. Climate change mitigation_sentence_121

Smart grid and load management Climate change mitigation_section_20

Main articles: Smart grid and Load management Climate change mitigation_sentence_122

Instead of expanding grids and storage for more power, there are a variety of ways to affect the size and timing of electricity demand on the consumer side. Climate change mitigation_sentence_123

Identifying and shifting electrical loads can reduce power bills by taking advantage of lower off-peak rates and flatten demand peaks. Climate change mitigation_sentence_124

Traditionally, the energy system has treated consumer demand as fixed and used centralised supply options to manage variable demand. Climate change mitigation_sentence_125

Now, better data systems and emerging onsite storageand generation technologies can combine with advanced, automated demand control software to pro-actively manage demand and respond to energy market prices. Climate change mitigation_sentence_126

Time of use metering is a common way to motivate electricity users to reduce their peak load consumption. Climate change mitigation_sentence_127

For instance, running dishwashers and laundry at night after the peak has passed, reduces electricity costs. Climate change mitigation_sentence_128

Dynamic demand plans have devices passively shut off when stress is sensed on the electrical grid. Climate change mitigation_sentence_129

This method may work very well with thermostats, when power on the grid sags a small amount, a low power temperature setting is automatically selected reducing the load on the grid. Climate change mitigation_sentence_130

For instance millions of refrigerators reduce their consumption when clouds pass over solar installations. Climate change mitigation_sentence_131

Consumers need to have a smart meter in order for the utility to calculate credits. Climate change mitigation_sentence_132

Demand response devices can receive all sorts of messages from the grid. Climate change mitigation_sentence_133

The message could be a request to use a low power mode similar to dynamic demand, to shut off entirely during a sudden failure on the grid, or notifications about the current and expected prices for power. Climate change mitigation_sentence_134

This allows electric cars to recharge at the least expensive rates independent of the time of day. Climate change mitigation_sentence_135

Vehicle-to-grid uses a car's battery or fuel cell to supply the grid temporarily. Climate change mitigation_sentence_136

Decarbonization of transport Climate change mitigation_section_21

Main articles: Electrification and Electric vehicle Climate change mitigation_sentence_137

Between a quarter and three-quarters of cars on the road by 2050 are forecast to be electric. Climate change mitigation_sentence_138

Hydrogen can be a solution for long-distance transport by trucks and hydrogen-powered ships where batteries alone are too heavy. Climate change mitigation_sentence_139

Passenger cars using hydrogen are already produced in small numbers. Climate change mitigation_sentence_140

While being more expensive than battery powered cars, they can refuel much faster, offering higher ranges up to 700 km. Climate change mitigation_sentence_141

The main disadvantage of hydrogen is the low efficiency of only 30%. Climate change mitigation_sentence_142

When used for vehicles, more than twice as much energy is needed compared to a battery powered electric car. Climate change mitigation_sentence_143

Although aviation biofuel is used somewhat, as of 2019 decarbonisation of aviation by 2050 is claimed to be "really difficult". Climate change mitigation_sentence_144

Decarbonization of heating Climate change mitigation_section_22

See also: Electric heating Climate change mitigation_sentence_145

The buildings sector accounts for 23% of global energy-related CO2 emissions About half of the energy is used for space and water heating. Climate change mitigation_sentence_146

A combination of electric heat pumps and building insolation can reduce the primary energy demand significantly. Climate change mitigation_sentence_147

Generally, electrification of heating would only reduce GHG emissions if the electric power comes from low-carbon sources. Climate change mitigation_sentence_148

A fossil-fuel power station may only deliver 3 units of electrical energy for every 10 units of fuel energy released. Climate change mitigation_sentence_149

Electrifying heating loads may also provide a flexible resource that can participate in demand response to integrate variable renewable resources into the grid. Climate change mitigation_sentence_150

Heat pump Climate change mitigation_section_23

Main article: Heat pump Climate change mitigation_sentence_151

A modern heat pump typically produces around three times more thermal energy than electrical energy consumed, giving an effective efficiency of 300%, depending on the coefficient of performance. Climate change mitigation_sentence_152

It uses an electrically driven compressor to operate a refrigeration cycle that extracts heat energy from outdoor air and moves that heat to the space to be warmed. Climate change mitigation_sentence_153

In the summer months, the cycle can be reversed for air conditioning. Climate change mitigation_sentence_154

In areas with average winter temperatures well below freezing, ground source heat pumps are more efficient than air-source heat pumps. Climate change mitigation_sentence_155

The high purchase price of a heat pump compared to resistance heaters may be offset when air conditioning is also needed. Climate change mitigation_sentence_156

With a market share of 30% and clean electricity, heat pumps could reduce global CO 2 emissions by 8% annually. Climate change mitigation_sentence_157

Using ground source heat pumps could reduce around 60% of the primary energy demand and 90% of CO 2 emissions of natural gas boilers in Europe in 2050 and make handling high shares of renewable energy easier. Climate change mitigation_sentence_158

Using surplus renewable energy in heat pumps is regarded as the most effective household means to reduce global warming and fossil fuel depletion. Climate change mitigation_sentence_159

Electric resistant heating Climate change mitigation_section_24

Radiant heaters in households are cheap and widespread but less efficient than heat pumps. Climate change mitigation_sentence_160

In areas like Norway, Brazil, and Quebec that have abundant hydroelectricity, electric heat and hot water are common. Climate change mitigation_sentence_161

Large scale hot water tanks can be used for demand-side management and store variable renewable energy over hours or days. Climate change mitigation_sentence_162

Energy conservation Climate change mitigation_section_25

Reducing energy use is seen as a key solution to the problem of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Climate change mitigation_sentence_163

According to the International Energy Agency, improved energy efficiency in buildings, industrial processes and transportation could reduce the world's energy needs in 2050 by one third, and help control global emissions of greenhouse gases. Climate change mitigation_sentence_164

Energy efficiency Climate change mitigation_section_26

Main articles: Efficient energy use and Energy conservation Climate change mitigation_sentence_165

Energy efficiency means using the least amount of energy to perform a task or the ability of a piece of equipment to use the least amount of energy to perform a task. Climate change mitigation_sentence_166

To conserve energy or reduce electricity costs, individual consumers or businesses may deliberately purchase energy efficient products that use refrigerants with low global warming potential (GWP) or products that are ENERGY STAR certified. Climate change mitigation_sentence_167

In general, the more the number of ENERGY STARS, the more efficient the product is. Climate change mitigation_sentence_168

A procurement toolkit to assist individuals and businesses buy energy efficient products that use low GWP refrigerants was developed by the Sustainable Purchasing Leadership Council and is available for use. Climate change mitigation_sentence_169

Products with refrigerants include household refrigerators and freezers, commercial stand-alone refrigerators and freezers, lab-grade refrigerators and freezers, commercial ice makers, vending machines, water dispensers, water coolers, room air conditioners and vehicles. Climate change mitigation_sentence_170

Efficiency covers a wide range of means from building insulation to public transport. Climate change mitigation_sentence_171

The cogeneration of electric energy and district heat also improves efficiency. Climate change mitigation_sentence_172

Lifestyle and behavior Climate change mitigation_section_27

The IPCC Fifth Assessment Report emphasises that behaviour, lifestyle, and cultural change have a high mitigation potential in some sectors, particularly when complementing technological and structural change. Climate change mitigation_sentence_173

Examples would be heating a room less or driving less. Climate change mitigation_sentence_174

In general, higher consumption lifestyles have a greater environmental impact. Climate change mitigation_sentence_175

The sources of emissions have also been shown to be highly unevenly distributed, with 45% of emissions coming from the lifestyles of just 10% of the global population. Climate change mitigation_sentence_176

Several scientific studies have shown that when relatively rich people wish to reduce their carbon footprint, there are a few key actions they can take such as living car-free (2.4 tonnes CO2), avoiding one round-trip transatlantic flight (1.6 tonnes) and eating a plant-based diet (0.8 tonnes). Climate change mitigation_sentence_177

These appear to differ significantly from the popular advice for "greening" one's lifestyle, which seem to fall mostly into the "low-impact" category: Replacing a typical car with a hybrid (0.52 tonnes); Washing clothes in cold water (0.25 tonnes); Recycling (0.21 tonnes); Upgrading light bulbs (0.10 tonnes); etc. Climate change mitigation_sentence_178

The researchers found that public discourse on reducing one's carbon footprint overwhelmingly focuses on low-impact behaviors, and that mention of the high-impact behaviors is almost non-existent in the mainstream media, government publications, school textbooks, etc. Climate change mitigation_sentence_179

Scientists also argue that piecemeal behavioural changes like re-using plastic bags are not a proportionate response to climate change. Climate change mitigation_sentence_180

Though being beneficial, these debates would drive public focus away from the requirement for an energy system change of unprecedented scale to decarbonise rapidly. Climate change mitigation_sentence_181

Dietary change Climate change mitigation_section_28

See also: Low-carbon diet Climate change mitigation_sentence_182

Overall, food accounts for the largest share of consumption-based GHG emissions with nearly 20% of the global carbon footprint, followed by housing, mobility, services, manufactured products, and construction. Climate change mitigation_sentence_183

Food and services are more significant in poor countries, while mobility and manufactured goods are more significant in rich countries. Climate change mitigation_sentence_184

The widespread adoption of a vegetarian diet could cut food-related greenhouse gas emissions by 63% by 2050. Climate change mitigation_sentence_185

China introduced new dietary guidelines in 2016 which aim to cut meat consumption by 50% and thereby reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 1 billion tonnes by 2030. Climate change mitigation_sentence_186

A 2016 study concluded that taxes on meat and milk could simultaneously result in reduced greenhouse gas emissions and healthier diets. Climate change mitigation_sentence_187

The study analyzed surcharges of 40% on beef and 20% on milk and suggests that an optimum plan would reduce emissions by 1 billion tonnes per year. Climate change mitigation_sentence_188

Modal shift Climate change mitigation_section_29

Main article: Modal shift Climate change mitigation_sentence_189

Further information: Smart mobility Climate change mitigation_sentence_190

Heavyweight, large personal vehicles (such as cars) require a lot of energy to move and take up much urban space. Climate change mitigation_sentence_191

Several alternatives modes of transport are available to replace these. Climate change mitigation_sentence_192

The European Union has made smart mobility part of its European Green Deal and in smart cities, smart mobility is also important. Climate change mitigation_sentence_193

Carbon sinks and removal Climate change mitigation_section_30

Main articles: Carbon sink, Carbon dioxide removal, Protected area, and Rewilding (conservation biology) Climate change mitigation_sentence_194

A carbon sink is a natural or artificial reservoir that accumulates and stores some carbon-containing chemical compound for an indefinite period, such as a growing forest. Climate change mitigation_sentence_195

Carbon dioxide removal on the other hand is a permanent removal of carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere. Climate change mitigation_sentence_196

Examples are direct air capture, enhanced weathering technologies such as storing it in geologic formations underground and biochar. Climate change mitigation_sentence_197

These processes are sometimes considered variations of sinks or mitigation, and sometimes as geoengineering. Climate change mitigation_sentence_198

In combination with other mitigation measures, carbon sinks and removal are crucial for meeting the 2 degree target. Climate change mitigation_sentence_199

The Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centre (ACE-CRC) notes that one third of humankind's annual emissions of CO 2 are absorbed by the oceans. Climate change mitigation_sentence_200

However, this also leads to ocean acidification, which may harm marine life. Climate change mitigation_sentence_201

Acidification lowers the level of carbonate ions available for calcifying organisms to form their shells. Climate change mitigation_sentence_202

These organisms include plankton species that contribute to the foundation of the Southern Ocean food web. Climate change mitigation_sentence_203

However acidification may impact on a broad range of other physiological and ecological processes, such as fish respiration, larval development and changes in the solubility of both nutrients and toxins. Climate change mitigation_sentence_204

Conserving areas by protecting areas can boost the carbon sequestration capacity. Climate change mitigation_sentence_205

The European Union, through the EU Biodiversity Strategy for 2030 targets to protect 30% of the sea territory and 30% of the land territory by 2030. Climate change mitigation_sentence_206

Also, Campaign for Nature's 30x30 for Nature Petition tries to let governments agree to the same goal during the Convention on Biodiversity COP15 Summit. Climate change mitigation_sentence_207

has the same target. Climate change mitigation_sentence_208

The One Earth Climate Model advises a protection of 50% of our lands and oceans. Climate change mitigation_sentence_209

It also stresses the importance of rewilding, like other reports. Climate change mitigation_sentence_210

The reason being that predators keep the population of herbivores in check (which reduce the biomass of vegetation), and also impact their feeding behavior. Climate change mitigation_sentence_211

Proforestation, avoided deforestation, reforestation and afforestation Climate change mitigation_section_31

Main articles: Deforestation, Reforestation, and Biosequestration Climate change mitigation_sentence_212

Further information: Carbon_sequestration § Forestry Climate change mitigation_sentence_213

Almost 20 percent (8 GtCO2/year) of total greenhouse-gas emissions were from deforestation in 2007. Climate change mitigation_sentence_214

It is estimated that avoided deforestation reduces CO2 emissions at a rate of 1 tonne of CO2 per $1–5 in opportunity costs from lost agriculture. Climate change mitigation_sentence_215

Reforestation, which is restocking of depleted forests, could save at least another 1 GtCO2/year, at an estimated cost of $5–15/tCO2. Climate change mitigation_sentence_216

According to research conducted at ETH Zurich, restoring all degraded forests all over the world could capture about 205 billion tons of carbon in total (which is about 2/3rd of all carbon emissions, bringing global warming down to below 2 °C). Climate change mitigation_sentence_217

Afforestation is where there was previously no forest. Climate change mitigation_sentence_218

According to research by Tom Crowther et al., there is still enough room to plant an additional 1.2 trillion trees. Climate change mitigation_sentence_219

This amount of trees would cancel out the last 10 years of CO2 emissions and sequester 160 billion tons of carbon. Climate change mitigation_sentence_220

This vision is being executed by the Trillion Tree Campaign. Climate change mitigation_sentence_221

Other studies have found large-scale afforestation can do more harm than good or such plantations are estimated to have to be prohibitively massive to reduce emissions. Climate change mitigation_sentence_222

Proforestation which is maintaining or growing existing forests intact to their ecological potential, maintains and optimizes carbon sequestration or carbon dioxide removal from the atmosphere while limiting climate change. Climate change mitigation_sentence_223

Proforestation is a nature-based solution. Climate change mitigation_sentence_224

Transferring rights over land from public domain to its indigenous inhabitants, who have had a stake for millennia in preserving the forests that they depend on, is argued to be a cost-effective strategy to conserve forests. Climate change mitigation_sentence_225

This includes the protection of such rights entitled in existing laws, such as India's Forest Rights Act. Climate change mitigation_sentence_226

The transferring of such rights in China, perhaps the largest land reform in modern times, has been argued to have increased forest cover. Climate change mitigation_sentence_227

Granting title of the land has shown to have two or three times less clearing than even state run parks, notably in the Brazilian Amazon. Climate change mitigation_sentence_228

Conservation methods that exclude humans and even evict inhabitants from protected areas (called "fortress conservation") often lead to more exploitation of the land as the native inhabitants then turn to work for extractive companies to survive. Climate change mitigation_sentence_229

With increased intensive agriculture and urbanization, there is an increase in the amount of abandoned farmland. Climate change mitigation_sentence_230

By some estimates, for every acre of original old-growth forest cut down, more than 50 acres of new secondary forests are growing, even though they do not have the same biodiversity as the original forests and original forests store 60% more carbon than these new secondary forests. Climate change mitigation_sentence_231

According to a study in Science, promoting regrowth on abandoned farmland could offset years of carbon emissions. Climate change mitigation_sentence_232

Research by the university ETH Zurich estimates that Russia, the United States and Canada have the most land suitable for reforestation. Climate change mitigation_sentence_233

Avoided desertification Climate change mitigation_section_32

Restoring grasslands stores CO2 from the air in plant material. Climate change mitigation_sentence_234

Grazing livestock, usually not left to wander, would eat the grass and would minimize any grass growth. Climate change mitigation_sentence_235

However, grass left alone would eventually grow to cover its own growing buds, preventing them from photosynthesizing and the dying plant would stay in place. Climate change mitigation_sentence_236

A method proposed to restore grasslands uses fences with many small paddocks and moving herds from one paddock to another after a day or two in order to mimic natural grazers and allowing the grass to grow optimally. Climate change mitigation_sentence_237

Additionally, when part of the leaf matter is consumed by an animal in the herd, a corresponding amount of root matter is sloughed off too as it would not be able to sustain the previous amount of root matter and while most of the lost root matter would rot and enter the atmosphere, part of the carbon is sequestered into the soil. Climate change mitigation_sentence_238

It is estimated that increasing the carbon content of the soils in the world's 3.5 billion hectares of agricultural grassland by 1% would offset nearly 12 years of CO2 emissions. Climate change mitigation_sentence_239

Allan Savory, as part of holistic management, claims that while large herds are often blamed for desertification, prehistoric lands supported large or larger herds and areas where herds were removed in the United States are still desertifying. Climate change mitigation_sentence_240

Additionally, the global warming induced thawing of the permafrost, which stores about two times the amount of the carbon currently released in the atmosphere, releases the potent greenhouse gas, methane, in a positive feedback cycle that is feared to lead to a tipping point called runaway climate change. Climate change mitigation_sentence_241

While the permafrost is about 14 degrees Fahrenheit, a blanket of snow insulates it from the colder air above which could be 40 degrees below zero Fahrenheit. Climate change mitigation_sentence_242

A method proposed to prevent such a scenario is to bring back large herbivores such as seen in Pleistocene Park, where they keep the ground cooler by reducing snow cover height by about half and eliminating shrubs and thus keeping the ground more exposed to the cold air. Climate change mitigation_sentence_243

Protecting healthy soils and recovering damaged soils could remove 5.5 billion tons of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere annually, which is approximately equal to the annual emissions of the USA. Climate change mitigation_sentence_244

Blue carbon Climate change mitigation_section_33

Peatlands Climate change mitigation_section_34

Further information: Peat Climate change mitigation_sentence_245

Peatland globally stores up to 550 gigatonnes of carbon, representing 42% of all soil carbon and exceeds the carbon stored in all other vegetation types, including the world's forests. Climate change mitigation_sentence_246

Across the world, peat covers just 3% of the land’s surface, but stores one-third of the Earth’s soil carbon. Climate change mitigation_sentence_247

Restoration of degraded peatlands can be done by blocking drainage channels in the peatland, and allowing natural vegetation to recover. Climate change mitigation_sentence_248

Carbon capture and storage Climate change mitigation_section_35

Main article: Carbon capture and storage Climate change mitigation_sentence_249

See also: CCS and climate change mitigation Climate change mitigation_sentence_250

Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a method to mitigate climate change by capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) from large point sources such as power plants and subsequently storing it away safely instead of releasing it into the atmosphere. Climate change mitigation_sentence_251

The IPCC estimates that the costs of halting global warming would double without CCS. Climate change mitigation_sentence_252

The International Energy Agency says CCS is "the most important single new technology for CO2 savings" in power generation and industry. Climate change mitigation_sentence_253

Norway's Sleipner gas field, beginning in 1996, stores almost a million tons of CO2 a year to avoid penalties in producing natural gas with unusually high levels of CO2. Climate change mitigation_sentence_254

According to a Sierra Club analysis, the US Kemper Project, which was due to be online in 2017, is the most expensive power plant ever built for the watts of electricity it will generate. Climate change mitigation_sentence_255

Enhanced weathering Climate change mitigation_section_36

Geoengineering Climate change mitigation_section_37

Main article: Climate engineering Climate change mitigation_sentence_256

IPCC (2007) concluded that geoengineering options, such as ocean fertilization to remove CO2 from the atmosphere, remained largely unproven. Climate change mitigation_sentence_257

It was judged that reliable cost estimates for geoengineering had not yet been published. Climate change mitigation_sentence_258

Chapter 28 of the National Academy of Sciences report Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base (1992) defined geoengineering as "options that would involve large-scale engineering of our environment in order to combat or counteract the effects of changes in atmospheric chemistry." Climate change mitigation_sentence_259

They evaluated a range of options to try to give preliminary answers to two questions: can these options work and could they be carried out with a reasonable cost. Climate change mitigation_sentence_260

They also sought to encourage discussion of a third question — what adverse side effects might there be. Climate change mitigation_sentence_261

Increasing ocean absorption of carbon dioxide (carbon sequestration) and screening out some sunlight were evaluated. Climate change mitigation_sentence_262

NAS also argued "Engineered countermeasures need to be evaluated but should not be implemented without broad understanding of the direct effects and the potential side effects, the ethical issues, and the risks." Climate change mitigation_sentence_263

In July 2011 a report by the United States Government Accountability Office on geoengineering found that "[c]limate engineering technologies do not now offer a viable response to global climate change." Climate change mitigation_sentence_264

Carbon dioxide removal Climate change mitigation_section_38

Main articles: Carbon dioxide removal, Greenhouse gas remediation, and Carbon sequestration Climate change mitigation_sentence_265

Carbon dioxide removal has been proposed as a method of reducing the amount of radiative forcing. Climate change mitigation_sentence_266

A variety of means of artificially capturing and storing carbon, as well as of enhancing natural sequestration processes, are being explored. Climate change mitigation_sentence_267

The main natural process is photosynthesis by plants and single-celled organisms (see biosequestration). Climate change mitigation_sentence_268

Artificial processes vary, and concerns have been expressed about the long-term effects of some of these processes. Climate change mitigation_sentence_269

It is notable that the availability of cheap energy and appropriate sites for geological storage of carbon may make carbon dioxide air capture viable commercially. Climate change mitigation_sentence_270

It is, however, generally expected that carbon dioxide air capture may be uneconomic when compared to carbon capture and storage from major sources — in particular, fossil fuel powered power stations, refineries, etc. As in the case of the US Kemper Project with carbon capture, costs of energy produced will grow significantly. Climate change mitigation_sentence_271

CO2 can also be used in commercial greenhouses, giving an opportunity to kick-start the technology. Climate change mitigation_sentence_272

Solar radiation management Climate change mitigation_section_39

See also: Stratospheric aerosol injection (climate engineering) Climate change mitigation_sentence_273

By Sector Climate change mitigation_section_40

See also: Sustainable design Climate change mitigation_sentence_274

Agriculture Climate change mitigation_section_41

See also: Climate change and agriculture, Environmental impact of meat production, and Sustainable agriculture Climate change mitigation_sentence_275

An agriculture that mitigates climate change is generally called sustainable agriculture, defined as an agriculture that "meets society's food and textile needs in the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs". Climate change mitigation_sentence_276

One mode of agriculture considered as relatively sustainable is regenerative agriculture. Climate change mitigation_sentence_277

It includes several methods, the main of which are: conservation tillage, diversity, rotation and cover crops, minimizing physical disturbance, minimizing the usage of chemicals. Climate change mitigation_sentence_278

It has other benefits like improving the state of the soil and consequently yields. Climate change mitigation_sentence_279

Some of the big agricultural companies like General Mills and a lot of farms support it. Climate change mitigation_sentence_280

In the United States, soils account for about half of agricultural greenhouse gas emissions while agriculture, forestry and other land use emits 24%. Climate change mitigation_sentence_281

Globally, livestock is responsible for 18 percent of greenhouse gas emissions, according to FAO's report called "Livestock's Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options" Climate change mitigation_sentence_282

The US EPA says soil management practices that can reduce the emissions of nitrous oxide (N 2O) from soils include fertilizer usage, irrigation, and tillage. Climate change mitigation_sentence_283

Manure management and rice cultivation also produce gaseous emissions. Climate change mitigation_sentence_284

Important mitigation options for reducing the greenhouse gas emissions from livestock (especially ruminants) include genetic selection introduction of methanotrophic bacteria into the rumen, diet modification and grazing management. Climate change mitigation_sentence_285

Other options include just using ruminant-free alternatives instead, such as milk substitutes and meat analogues. Climate change mitigation_sentence_286

Non-ruminant livestock (e.g. poultry) generates far fewer emissions. Climate change mitigation_sentence_287

Methods that enhance carbon sequestration in soil include no-till farming, residue mulching, cover cropping, and crop rotation, all of which are more widely used in organic farming than in conventional farming. Climate change mitigation_sentence_288

Because only 5% of US farmland currently uses no-till and residue mulching, there is a large potential for carbon sequestration. Climate change mitigation_sentence_289

A 2015 study found that farming can deplete soil carbon and render soil incapable of supporting life; however, the study also showed that conservation farming can protect carbon in soils, and repair damage over time. Climate change mitigation_sentence_290

The farming practice of cover crops has been recognized as climate-smart agriculture. Climate change mitigation_sentence_291

Best management practices for European soils were described to be increase soil organic carbon: conversion of arable land to grassland, straw incorporation, reduced tillage, straw incorporation combined with reduced tillage, ley cropping system and cover crops. Climate change mitigation_sentence_292

In terms of prevention, vaccines are being developed in Australia to reduce the significant global warming contributions from methane released by livestock via flatulence and eructation. Climate change mitigation_sentence_293

A project to mitigate climate change with agriculture was launched in 2019 by the "Global EverGreening Alliance". Climate change mitigation_sentence_294

The target is to sequester carbon from the atmosphere with Agroforestry. Climate change mitigation_sentence_295

By 2050 the restored land should sequestrate 20 billion of carbon annually Climate change mitigation_sentence_296

Transport Climate change mitigation_section_42

Main article: Sustainable transport Climate change mitigation_sentence_297

Transportation emissions account for roughly 1/4 of emissions worldwide and are even more important in terms of impact in developed nations especially in North America and Australia. Climate change mitigation_sentence_298

Many citizens of countries like the United States and Canada who drive personal cars often, see well over half of their climate change impact stemming from the emissions produced from their cars. Climate change mitigation_sentence_299

Modes of mass transportation such as bus, light rail (metro, subway, etc.), and long-distance rail are far and away the most energy-efficient means of motorized transportation for passengers, able to use in many cases over twenty times less energy per person-distance than a personal automobile. Climate change mitigation_sentence_300

Modern energy-efficient technologies, such as electric vehicles and carbon-neutral synthetic gasoline and jet fuel may also help to reduce the consumption of petroleum, land use changes and emissions of carbon dioxide. Climate change mitigation_sentence_301

Utilizing rail transport, especially electric rail, over the far less efficient air transport and truck transport significantly reduces emissions. Climate change mitigation_sentence_302

With the use of electric trains and cars in transportation there is the opportunity to run them with low-carbon power, producing far fewer emissions. Climate change mitigation_sentence_303

Urban planning Climate change mitigation_section_43

Main article: Urban planning Climate change mitigation_sentence_304

Further information: Carfree city Climate change mitigation_sentence_305

Effective urban planning to reduce sprawl aims to decrease Vehicle Miles Travelled (VMT), lowering emissions from transportation. Climate change mitigation_sentence_306

Personal cars are extremely inefficient at moving passengers, while public transport and bicycles are many times more efficient (as is the simplest form of human transportation, walking). Climate change mitigation_sentence_307

All of these are encouraged by urban/community planning and are an effective way to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Climate change mitigation_sentence_308

Inefficient land use development practices have increased infrastructure costs as well as the amount of energy needed for transportation, community services, and buildings. Climate change mitigation_sentence_309

At the same time, a growing number of citizens and government officials have begun advocating a smarter approach to land use planning. Climate change mitigation_sentence_310

These smart growth practices include compact community development, multiple transportation choices, mixed land uses, and practices to conserve green space. Climate change mitigation_sentence_311

These programs offer environmental, economic, and quality-of-life benefits; and they also serve to reduce energy usage and greenhouse gas emissions. Climate change mitigation_sentence_312

Approaches such as New Urbanism and transit-oriented development seek to reduce distances travelled, especially by private vehicles, encourage public transit and make walking and cycling more attractive options. Climate change mitigation_sentence_313

This is achieved through "medium-density", mixed-use planning and the concentration of housing within walking distance of town centers and transport nodes. Climate change mitigation_sentence_314

Smarter growth land use policies have both a direct and indirect effect on energy consuming behavior. Climate change mitigation_sentence_315

For example, transportation energy usage, the number one user of petroleum fuels, could be significantly reduced through more compact and mixed use land development patterns, which in turn could be served by a greater variety of non-automotive based transportation choices. Climate change mitigation_sentence_316

Building design Climate change mitigation_section_44

Main articles: Sustainable architecture and Green building Climate change mitigation_sentence_317

Emissions from housing are substantial, and government-supported energy efficiency programmes can make a difference. Climate change mitigation_sentence_318

New buildings can be constructed using passive solar building design, low-energy building, or zero-energy building techniques, using renewable heat sources. Climate change mitigation_sentence_319

Existing buildings can be made more efficient through the use of insulation, high-efficiency appliances (particularly hot water heaters and furnaces), double- or triple-glazed gas-filled windows, external window shades, and building orientation and siting. Climate change mitigation_sentence_320

Renewable heat sources such as shallow geothermal and passive solar energy reduce the amount of greenhouse gasses emitted. Climate change mitigation_sentence_321

In addition to designing buildings which are more energy-efficient to heat, it is possible to design buildings that are more energy-efficient to cool by using lighter-coloured, more reflective materials in the development of urban areas (e.g. by painting roofs white) and planting trees. Climate change mitigation_sentence_322

This saves energy because it cools buildings and reduces the urban heat island effect thus reducing the use of air conditioning. Climate change mitigation_sentence_323

Societal controls Climate change mitigation_section_45

Main article: Personal carbon credits Climate change mitigation_sentence_324

Another method being examined is to make carbon a new currency by introducing tradeable "personal carbon credits". Climate change mitigation_sentence_325

The idea being it will encourage and motivate individuals to reduce their 'carbon footprint' by the way they live. Climate change mitigation_sentence_326

Each citizen will receive a free annual quota of carbon that they can use to travel, buy food, and go about their business. Climate change mitigation_sentence_327

It has been suggested that by using this concept it could actually solve two problems; pollution and poverty, old age pensioners will actually be better off because they fly less often, so they can cash in their quota at the end of the year to pay heating bills and so forth. Climate change mitigation_sentence_328

Population Climate change mitigation_section_46

Various organizations promote human population planning as a means for mitigating global warming. Climate change mitigation_sentence_329

Proposed measures include improving access to family planning and reproductive health care and information, reducing natalistic politics, public education about the consequences of continued population growth, and improving access of women to education and economic opportunities. Climate change mitigation_sentence_330

According to a 2017 study published in Environmental Research Letters, having one less child would have a much more substantial effect on greenhouse gas emissions compared with for example living car free or eating a plant-based diet. Climate change mitigation_sentence_331

However this has been criticised: both as a category mistake for assigning descendants emissions to their ancestors and for the very long timescale of reductions. Climate change mitigation_sentence_332

Population control efforts are impeded by there being somewhat of a taboo in some countries against considering any such efforts. Climate change mitigation_sentence_333

Also, various religions discourage or prohibit some or all forms of birth control. Climate change mitigation_sentence_334

Population size has a vastly different per capita effect on global warming in different countries, since the per capita production of anthropogenic greenhouse gases varies greatly by country. Climate change mitigation_sentence_335

Costs and benefits Climate change mitigation_section_47

Main article: Economics of climate change mitigation Climate change mitigation_sentence_336

Globally the benefits of keeping warming under 2 °C exceed the costs. Climate change mitigation_sentence_337

However some consider cost–benefit analysis unsuitable for analysing climate change mitigation as a whole, but still useful for analysing the difference between a 1.5 °C target and 2 °C..The OECD has been applying economic models and qualitative assessments to inform on climate change benefits and tradeoffs. Climate change mitigation_sentence_338

Costs Climate change mitigation_section_48

One way of estimating the cost of reducing emissions is by considering the likely costs of potential technological and output changes. Climate change mitigation_sentence_339

Policy makers can compare the marginal abatement costs of different methods to assess the cost and amount of possible abatement over time. Climate change mitigation_sentence_340

The marginal abatement costs of the various measures will differ by country, by sector, and over time. Climate change mitigation_sentence_341

Mitigation costs will vary according to how and when emissions are cut: early, well-planned action will minimise the costs. Climate change mitigation_sentence_342

Many economists estimate the cost of climate change mitigation at between 1% and 2% of GDP. Climate change mitigation_sentence_343

In 2019, scientists from Australia, and Germany presented the "One Earth Climate Model" showing how temperature increase can be limited to 1.5 °C for 1.7 trillion dollars a year. Climate change mitigation_sentence_344

According to this study, a global investment of approximately $1.7 trillion per year would be needed to keep global warming below 1.5°C. Climate change mitigation_sentence_345

The method used by the One Earth Climate Model does not resort to dangerous geo-engineering methods. Climate change mitigation_sentence_346

Whereas this is a large sum, it is still far less than the subsidies governments currently provided to the ailing fossil fuel industry, estimated at more than $5 trillion per year by the International Monetary Fund. Climate change mitigation_sentence_347

Benefits Climate change mitigation_section_49

By addressing climate change, we can avoid the costs associated with the effects of climate change. Climate change mitigation_sentence_348

According to the Stern Review, inaction can be as high as the equivalent of losing at least 5% of global gross domestic product (GDP) each year, now and forever (up to 20% of the GDP or more when including a wider range of risks and impacts), whereas mitigating climate change will only cost about 2% of the GDP. Climate change mitigation_sentence_349

Also, delaying to take significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions may not be a good idea, when seen from a financial perspective. Climate change mitigation_sentence_350

The research organization Project Drawdown identified global climate solutions and ranked them according to their benefits. Climate change mitigation_sentence_351

Early deaths due to fossil fuel air pollution with a temperature rise to 2 °C cost more globally than mitigation would: and in India cost 4 to 5 times more. Climate change mitigation_sentence_352

Sharing Climate change mitigation_section_50

One of the aspects of mitigation is how to share the costs and benefits of mitigation policies. Climate change mitigation_sentence_353

In terms of the politics of mitigation, the UNFCCC's ultimate objective is to stabilize concentrations of GHG in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent "dangerous" climate change (Rogner et al., 2007). Climate change mitigation_sentence_354

Rich people tend to emit more GHG than poor people. Climate change mitigation_sentence_355

Activities of the poor that involve emissions of GHGs are often associated with basic needs, such as cooking. Climate change mitigation_sentence_356

For richer people, emissions tend to be associated with things such as eating beef, cars, frequent flying, and home heating. Climate change mitigation_sentence_357

The impacts of cutting emissions could therefore have different impacts on human welfare according to wealth. Climate change mitigation_sentence_358

Distributing emissions abatement costs Climate change mitigation_section_51

There have been different proposals on how to allocate responsibility for cutting emissions (Banuri et al., 1996, pp. 103–105): Climate change mitigation_sentence_359

Climate change mitigation_unordered_list_7

  • Egalitarianism: this system interprets the problem as one where each person has equal rights to a global resource, i.e., polluting the atmosphere.Climate change mitigation_item_7_17
  • Basic needs: this system would have emissions allocated according to basic needs, as defined according to a minimum level of consumption. Consumption above basic needs would require countries to buy more emission rights. From this viewpoint, developing countries would need to be at least as well off under an emissions control regime as they would be outside the regime.Climate change mitigation_item_7_18
  • Proportionality and polluter-pays principle: Proportionality reflects the ancient Aristotelian principle that people should receive in proportion to what they put in, and pay in proportion to the damages they cause. This has a potential relationship with the "polluter-pays principle", which can be interpreted in a number of ways:Climate change mitigation_item_7_19
    • Historical responsibilities: this asserts that allocation of emission rights should be based on patterns of past emissions. Two-thirds of the stock of GHGs in the atmosphere at present is due to the past actions of developed countries (Goldemberg et al., 1996, p. 29).Climate change mitigation_item_7_20
    • Comparable burdens and ability to pay: with this approach, countries would reduce emissions based on comparable burdens and their ability to take on the costs of reduction. Ways to assess burdens include monetary costs per head of population, as well as other, more complex measures, like the UNDP's Human Development Index.Climate change mitigation_item_7_21
    • Willingness to pay: with this approach, countries take on emission reductions based on their ability to pay along with how much they benefit from reducing their emissions.Climate change mitigation_item_7_22

Specific proposals Climate change mitigation_section_52

Climate change mitigation_unordered_list_8

  • Ad hoc: Lashof (1992) and Cline (1992) (referred to by Banuri et al., 1996, p. 106), for example, suggested that allocations based partly on GNP could be a way of sharing the burdens of emission reductions. This is because GNP and economic activity are partially tied to carbon emissions.Climate change mitigation_item_8_23
  • Equal per capita entitlements: this is the most widely cited method of distributing abatement costs, and is derived from egalitarianism (Banuri et al., 1996, pp. 106–107). This approach can be divided into two categories. In the first category, emissions are allocated according to national population. In the second category, emissions are allocated in a way that attempts to account for historical (cumulative) emissions.Climate change mitigation_item_8_24
  • Status quo: with this approach, historical emissions are ignored, and current emission levels are taken as a status quo right to emit (Banuri et al., 1996, p. 107). An analogy for this approach can be made with fisheries, which is a common, limited resource. The analogy would be with the atmosphere, which can be viewed as an exhaustible natural resource (Goldemberg et al., 1996, p. 27). In international law, one state recognized the long-established use of another state's use of the fisheries resource. It was also recognized by the state that part of the other state's economy was dependent on that resource.Climate change mitigation_item_8_25

Governmental and intergovernmental action Climate change mitigation_section_53

Main article: Politics of global warming Climate change mitigation_sentence_360

See also: Global warming § Political response Climate change mitigation_sentence_361

Further information: Global Climate Action (portal) Climate change mitigation_sentence_362

In 2019 a report was published by the United Nations saying that to limit the temperature rise to 2 °C, the world will need to cut emissions by 2.7% each year from 2020 to 2030, and triple the climate targets. Climate change mitigation_sentence_363

To limit the temperature rise to 1.5 °C the world would need to cut emissions by 7.6% each year from 2020 to 2030 and increase its climate commitments five-fold. Climate change mitigation_sentence_364

Even if all the Paris Agreement pledges as they are in 2019, are fulfilled the temperature will rise by 3.2 degrees this century. Climate change mitigation_sentence_365

A report published in September 2019 before the 2019 UN Climate Action Summit says, that the full implementation of all pledges made by international coalitions, countries, cities, regions and businesses (not only those in the Paris Agreement) will be sufficient to limit temperature rise to 2 degrees but not to 1.5 degrees. Climate change mitigation_sentence_366

Additional pledges were made in the September climate summit and in December. Climate change mitigation_sentence_367

All the information about all climate pledges is sent to the Global Climate Action Portal - Nazca. Climate change mitigation_sentence_368

The scientific community is checking their fulfillment. Climate change mitigation_sentence_369

Paris agreement and Kyoto Protocol Climate change mitigation_section_54

Main articles: Paris Agreement and Kyoto Protocol Climate change mitigation_sentence_370

The main current international agreement on combating climate change is the Paris agreement. Climate change mitigation_sentence_371

The Paris Agreement's long-term temperature goal is to keep the increase in global average temperature to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels; and to pursue efforts to limit the increase to 1.5°C. Climate change mitigation_sentence_372

Each country must determine, plan, and regularly report on the contribution that it undertakes to mitigate global warming. Climate change mitigation_sentence_373

Climate change mitigation measures can be written down in national environmental policy documents like the nationally determined contributions (NDC). Climate change mitigation_sentence_374

The Paris agreement succeeds the 1997 Kyoto Protocol which expires in 2020, and is an to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Climate change mitigation_sentence_375

Countries that ratified the Kyoto protocol committed to reduce their emissions of carbon dioxide and five other greenhouse gases, or engage in emissions trading if they maintain or increase emissions of these gases. Climate change mitigation_sentence_376

How well each individual country is on track to achieving its Paris agreement commitments can be followed on-line. Climate change mitigation_sentence_377

Additional commitments Climate change mitigation_section_55

Except the main agreements there are many additional pledges made by international coalitions, countries, cities, regions and businesses. Climate change mitigation_sentence_378

According to a report published in September 2019 before the 2019 UN Climate Action Summit, full implementation of all pledges, including those in the Paris Agreement, will be sufficient to limit temperature rise to 2 degrees but not to 1.5 degrees. Climate change mitigation_sentence_379

After the report was published, additional pledges were made in the September climate summit and in December of that year. Climate change mitigation_sentence_380

All the information about the pledges is collected and analyzed in the Global Climate Action (portal), what is facilitating to the scientific community to check their fulfillment Climate change mitigation_sentence_381

Temperature targets Climate change mitigation_section_56

Human activities are estimated to have caused approximately 1.0 °C of global warming above pre-industrial levels, with a likely range of 0.8 °C to 1.2 °C. Climate change mitigation_sentence_382

There is disagreement among experts over whether or not the 2 °C target can be met. Climate change mitigation_sentence_383

Climate change mitigation_description_list_9

In 2015, two official UNFCCC scientific expert bodies came to the conclusion that, "in some regions and vulnerable ecosystems, high risks are projected even for warming above 1.5 °C". Climate change mitigation_sentence_384

This expert position was, together with the strong diplomatic voice of the poorest countries and the island nations in the Pacific, the driving force leading to the decision of the Paris Conference 2015, to lay down this 1.5 °C long-term target on top of the existing 2 °C goal. Climate change mitigation_sentence_385

Encouraging use changes Climate change mitigation_section_57

Emissions tax Climate change mitigation_section_58

See also: carbon tax, energy tax, and carbon fee and dividend Climate change mitigation_sentence_386

An emissions tax on greenhouse gas emissions requires emitters to pay a fee, charge or tax for every tonne of greenhouse gas released into the atmosphere. Climate change mitigation_sentence_387

Most environmentally related taxes with implications for greenhouse gas emissions in OECD countries are levied on energy products and motor vehicles, rather than on CO2 emissions directly. Climate change mitigation_sentence_388

As such, non-transport sectors as the agricultural sector which produces large amounts of methane are typically left untaxed by current policies. Climate change mitigation_sentence_389

Also, revenue of the emissions taxes are not always used to offset the emissions directly. Climate change mitigation_sentence_390

Emission taxes can be both cost-effective and environmentally effective. Climate change mitigation_sentence_391

Difficulties with emission taxes include their potential unpopularity, and the fact that they cannot guarantee a particular level of emissions reduction. Climate change mitigation_sentence_392

Emissions or energy taxes also often fall disproportionately on lower income classes. Climate change mitigation_sentence_393

In developing countries, institutions may be insufficiently developed for the collection of emissions fees from a wide variety of sources. Climate change mitigation_sentence_394

Investment Climate change mitigation_section_59

See also: Fossil fuel divestment Climate change mitigation_sentence_395

Another indirect method of encouraging uses of renewable energy, and pursue sustainability and environmental protection, is that of prompting investment in this area through legal means, something that is already being done at national level as well as in the field of international investment. Climate change mitigation_sentence_396

Although state policies tackling climate change are seen as a threat to investors, so is global warming itself. Climate change mitigation_sentence_397

As well as a policy risk, Ernst and Young identify physical, secondary, liability, transitional and reputation-based risks. Climate change mitigation_sentence_398

Therefore, it is increasingly seen to be in the interest of investors to accept climate change as a real threat which they must proactively and independently address. Climate change mitigation_sentence_399

Carbon emissions trading Climate change mitigation_section_60

Main article: Carbon emissions trading Climate change mitigation_sentence_400

With the creation of a market for trading carbon dioxide emissions within the Kyoto Protocol, it is likely that London financial markets will be the centre for this potentially highly lucrative business; the New York and Chicago stock markets may have a lower trade volume than expected as long as the US maintains its rejection of the Kyoto. Climate change mitigation_sentence_401

However, emissions trading may delay the phase-out of fossil fuels. Climate change mitigation_sentence_402

In the north-east United States, a successful cap and trade program has shown potential for this solution. Climate change mitigation_sentence_403

The European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) is the largest multi-national, greenhouse gas emissions trading scheme in the world. Climate change mitigation_sentence_404

It commenced operation on 1 January 2005, and all 28 member states of the European Union participate in the scheme which has created a new market in carbon dioxide allowances estimated at 35 billion Euros (US$43 billion) per year. Climate change mitigation_sentence_405

The Chicago Climate Exchange was the first (voluntary) emissions market, and is soon to be followed by Asia's first market (Asia Carbon Exchange). Climate change mitigation_sentence_406

A total of 107 million metric tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent have been exchanged through projects in 2004, a 38% increase relative to 2003 (78 Mt CO2e). Climate change mitigation_sentence_407

Twenty three multinational corporations have come together in the G8 Climate Change Roundtable, a business group formed at the January 2005 World Economic Forum. Climate change mitigation_sentence_408

The group includes Ford, Toyota, British Airways, and BP. Climate change mitigation_sentence_409

On 9 June 2005 the Group published a statement stating that there was a need to act on climate change and claiming that market-based solutions can help. Climate change mitigation_sentence_410

It called on governments to establish "clear, transparent, and consistent price signals" through "creation of a long-term policy framework" that would include all major producers of greenhouse gases. Climate change mitigation_sentence_411

The Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative is a proposed carbon trading scheme being created by nine North-eastern and Mid-Atlantic American states; Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Rhode Island, and Vermont. Climate change mitigation_sentence_412

The scheme was due to be developed by April 2005 but has not yet been completed. Climate change mitigation_sentence_413

Implementation Climate change mitigation_section_61

Implementation puts into effect climate change mitigation strategies and targets. Climate change mitigation_sentence_414

These can be targets set by international bodies or voluntary action by individuals or institutions. Climate change mitigation_sentence_415

This is the most important, expensive and least appealing aspect of environmental governance. Climate change mitigation_sentence_416

Funding Climate change mitigation_section_62

Main article: Climate Finance Climate change mitigation_sentence_417

Funding, such as the Green Climate Fund, is often provided by nations, groups of nations and increasingly NGO and private sources. Climate change mitigation_sentence_418

These funds are often channelled through the Global Environmental Facility (GEF). Climate change mitigation_sentence_419

This is an environmental funding mechanism in the World Bank which is designed to deal with global environmental issues. Climate change mitigation_sentence_420

The GEF was originally designed to tackle four main areas: biological diversity, climate change, international waters and ozone layer depletion, to which land degradation and persistent organic pollutant were added. Climate change mitigation_sentence_421

The GEF funds projects that are agreed to achieve global environmental benefits that are endorsed by governments and screened by one of the GEF's implementing agencies. Climate change mitigation_sentence_422

Research Climate change mitigation_section_63

It has been estimated that only 0.12% of all funding for climate-related research is spent on the social science of climate change mitigation. Climate change mitigation_sentence_423

Vastly more funding is spent on natural science studies of climate change and considerable sums are also spent on studies of impact of and adaptation to climate change. Climate change mitigation_sentence_424

It has been argued that this is a misallocation of resources, as the most urgent puzzle at the current juncture is to work out how to change human behavior to mitigate climate change, whereas the natural science of climate change is already well established and there will be decades and centuries to handle adaptation. Climate change mitigation_sentence_425

Problems Climate change mitigation_section_64

There are numerous issues which result in a current perceived lack of implementation. Climate change mitigation_sentence_426

It has been suggested that the main barriers to implementation are Uncertainty, Fragmentation, Institutional void, Short time horizon of policies and politicians and Missing motives and willingness to start adapting. Climate change mitigation_sentence_427

The relationships between many climatic processes can cause large levels of uncertainty as they are not fully understood and can be a barrier to implementation. Climate change mitigation_sentence_428

When information on climate change is held between the large numbers of actors involved it can be highly dispersed, context specific or difficult to access causing fragmentation to be a barrier. Climate change mitigation_sentence_429

Institutional void is the lack of commonly accepted rules and norms for policy processes to take place, calling into question the legitimacy and efficacy of policy processes. Climate change mitigation_sentence_430

The Short time horizon of policies and politicians often means that climate change policies are not implemented in favour of socially favoured societal issues. Climate change mitigation_sentence_431

Statements are often posed to keep the illusion of political action to prevent or postpone decisions being made. Climate change mitigation_sentence_432

Missing motives and willingness to start adapting is a large barrier as it prevents any implementation. Climate change mitigation_sentence_433

The issues that arise with a system which involves international government cooperation, such as cap and trade, could potentially be improved with a polycentric approach where the rules are enforced by many small sections of authority as opposed to one overall enforcement agency. Climate change mitigation_sentence_434

Concerns about metal requirement and/or availability for essential decarbonization technologies such as photovoltaics, nuclear power, and (plug-in hybrid) electric vehicles have also been expressed as obstacles. Climate change mitigation_sentence_435

Occurrence Climate change mitigation_section_65

Despite a perceived lack of occurrence, evidence of implementation is emerging internationally. Climate change mitigation_sentence_436

Some examples of this are the initiation of NAPA's and of joint implementation. Climate change mitigation_sentence_437

Many developing nations have made National Adaptation Programs of Action (NAPAs) which are frameworks to prioritize adaption needs. Climate change mitigation_sentence_438

The implementation of many of these is supported by GEF agencies. Climate change mitigation_sentence_439

Many developed countries are implementing 'first generation' institutional adaption plans particularly at the state and local government scale. Climate change mitigation_sentence_440

There has also been a push towards joint implementation between countries by the UNFCCC as this has been suggested as a cost-effective way for objectives to be achieved. Climate change mitigation_sentence_441

Montreal protocol Climate change mitigation_section_66

Although not designed for this purpose, the Montreal Protocol has benefited climate change mitigation efforts. Climate change mitigation_sentence_442

The Montreal Protocol is an international treaty that has successfully reduced emissions of ozone-depleting substances (for example, CFCs), which are also greenhouse gases. Climate change mitigation_sentence_443

Territorial policies Climate change mitigation_section_67

Many countries are aiming for net zero emissions, and many have either carbon taxes or carbon emission trading. Climate change mitigation_sentence_444

United States Climate change mitigation_section_68

Main article: Climate change in the United States Climate change mitigation_sentence_445

Efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by the United States include energy policies which encourage efficiency through programs like Energy Star, Commercial Building Integration, and the Industrial Technologies Program. Climate change mitigation_sentence_446

In the absence of substantial federal action, state governments have adopted emissions-control laws such as the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative in the Northeast and the Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 in California. Climate change mitigation_sentence_447

In 2019 a new climate change bill was introduced in Minnesota. Climate change mitigation_sentence_448

One of the targets, is making all the energy of the state carbon free, by 2030. Climate change mitigation_sentence_449

China Climate change mitigation_section_69

Main article: Greenhouse gas emissions by China Climate change mitigation_sentence_450

As to 2019, China implements more than 100 policies to fight climate change. Climate change mitigation_sentence_451

China said in the Paris Agreement that its emission will begin to fall by 2030, but it will possibly occur by 2026. Climate change mitigation_sentence_452

This can position China as a leader on the issue because it is the biggest emitter of GHG emissions, so if it really reduces them, the significance will be large. Climate change mitigation_sentence_453

European Union Climate change mitigation_section_70

Further information: Climate change in Europe, Climate change in the European Union, European Commissioner for the Environment, European Climate Change Programme, and European Green Deal Climate change mitigation_sentence_454

The climate commitments of the European Union are divided into 3 main categories: targets for the year 2020, 2030 and 2050. Climate change mitigation_sentence_455

The European Union claim that their policies are in line with the goal of the Paris Agreement. Climate change mitigation_sentence_456

Targets for the year 2020: Climate change mitigation_sentence_457

Climate change mitigation_unordered_list_10

  • Reduce GHG emissions by 20% from the level in 1990.Climate change mitigation_item_10_26

Climate change mitigation_unordered_list_11

  • Produce 20% of energy from renewable sources.Climate change mitigation_item_11_27

Climate change mitigation_unordered_list_12

  • Increase Energy Efficiency by 20%.Climate change mitigation_item_12_28

Targets for the year 2030: Climate change mitigation_sentence_458

Climate change mitigation_unordered_list_13

  • Reduce GHG emission by 40% from the level of 1990. In 2019 The European Parliament adopted a resolution upgrading the target to 55%Climate change mitigation_item_13_29

Climate change mitigation_unordered_list_14

  • Produce 32% of energy from renewables.Climate change mitigation_item_14_30

Climate change mitigation_unordered_list_15

  • Increase energy efficiency by 32.5%.Climate change mitigation_item_15_31

Targets for the year 2050: Climate change mitigation_sentence_459

Climate change mitigation_unordered_list_16

  • Become climate neutral.Climate change mitigation_item_16_32

Implementation: Climate change mitigation_sentence_460

The European Union claims that he has already achieved the 2020 target for emission reduction and have the legislation needed to achieve the 2030 targets. Climate change mitigation_sentence_461

Already in 2018, its GHG emissions were 23% lower that in 1990. Climate change mitigation_sentence_462

New Zealand Climate change mitigation_section_71

Further information: Climate change in New Zealand Climate change mitigation_sentence_463

New Zealand made significant pledges on climate change mitigation in the year 2019: reduce emissions to zero by 2050, plant 1 billion trees by 2028, and encouraging farmers to reduce emissions by 2025 or face higher taxes Already in 2019 New Zealand banned new offshore oil and gas drilling and decided the climate change issues will be examined before every important decision. Climate change mitigation_sentence_464

In early December 2020, Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern declared a climate change emergency and pledged that the New Zealand Government would be carbon neutral by 2025. Climate change mitigation_sentence_465

Key goals and initiatives include requiring the public sector to buy only electric or hybrid vehicles, government buildings will have to meet new "green" building standards, and all 200 coal-fired boilers in public service buildings will be phased out. Climate change mitigation_sentence_466

Nigeria Climate change mitigation_section_72

Further information: Climate change in Nigeria Climate change mitigation_sentence_467

To mitigate the adverse effect of climate change, not only did Nigeria sign the Paris agreement to reduce emission, in its national climate pledge, the Nigerian government has promised to “work towards” ending gas flaring by 2030. Climate change mitigation_sentence_468

In order to achieve this goal, the government established a Gas Flare Commercialisation Programme to encourage investment in practices that reduce gas flaring. Climate change mitigation_sentence_469

Also, the federal government has approved a new National Forest Policy which is aimed at “protecting ecosystems” while enhancing social development. Climate change mitigation_sentence_470

Effort is also been made to stimulate the adoption of climate-smart agriculture and the planting of trees. Climate change mitigation_sentence_471

Developing countries Climate change mitigation_section_73

In order to reconcile economic development with mitigating carbon emissions, developing countries need particular support, both financial and technical. Climate change mitigation_sentence_472

One of the means of achieving this is the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). Climate change mitigation_sentence_473

The World Bank's Prototype Carbon Fund is a public private partnership that operates within the CDM. Climate change mitigation_sentence_474

An important point of contention, however, is how overseas development assistance not directly related to climate change mitigation is affected by funds provided to climate change mitigation. Climate change mitigation_sentence_475

One of the outcomes of the UNFCC Copenhagen Climate Conference was the Copenhagen Accord, in which developed countries promised to provide US$30 million between 2010 and 2012 of new and additional resources. Climate change mitigation_sentence_476

Yet it remains unclear what exactly the definition of additional is and the European Commission has requested its member states to define what they understand to be additional, and researchers at the Overseas Development Institute have found four main understandings: Climate change mitigation_sentence_477

Climate change mitigation_ordered_list_17

  1. Climate finance classified as aid, but additional to (over and above) the '0.7%' ODA target;Climate change mitigation_item_17_33
  2. Increase on previous year's Official Development Assistance (ODA) spent on climate change mitigation;Climate change mitigation_item_17_34
  3. Rising ODA levels that include climate change finance but where it is limited to a specified percentage; andClimate change mitigation_item_17_35
  4. Increase in climate finance not connected to ODA.Climate change mitigation_item_17_36

The main point being that there is a conflict between the OECD states budget deficit cuts, the need to help developing countries adapt to develop sustainably and the need to ensure that funding does not come from cutting aid to other important Millennium Development Goals. Climate change mitigation_sentence_478

However, none of these initiatives suggest a quantitative cap on the emissions from developing countries. Climate change mitigation_sentence_479

This is considered as a particularly difficult policy proposal as the economic growth of developing countries are proportionally reflected in the growth of greenhouse emissions. Climate change mitigation_sentence_480

Critics of mitigation often argue that, the developing countries' drive to attain a comparable living standard to the developed countries would doom the attempt at mitigation of global warming. Climate change mitigation_sentence_481

Critics also argue that holding down emissions would shift the human cost of global warming from a general one to one that was borne most heavily by the poorest populations on the planet. Climate change mitigation_sentence_482

In an attempt to provide more opportunities for developing countries to adapt clean technologies, UNEP and WTO urged the international community to reduce trade barriers and to conclude the Doha trade round "which includes opening trade in environmental goods and services". Climate change mitigation_sentence_483

In 2019 week of climate action in Latin America and the Caribbean result in a declaration in which leaders says that they will act to reduce emissions in the sectors of transportation, energy, urbanism, industry, forest conservation and land use and "sent a message of solidarity with all the people of Brazil suffering the consequences of the rainforest fires in the Amazon region, underscoring that protecting the world's forests is a collective responsibility, that forests are vital for life and that they are a critical part of the solution to climate change". Climate change mitigation_sentence_484

Non-governmental approaches Climate change mitigation_section_74

While many of the proposed methods of mitigating global warming require governmental funding, legislation and regulatory action, individuals and businesses can also play a part in the mitigation effort. Climate change mitigation_sentence_485

Choices in personal actions and business operations Climate change mitigation_section_75

Environmental groups encourage individual action against global warming, often aimed at the consumer. Climate change mitigation_sentence_486

Common recommendations include lowering home heating and cooling usage, burning less gasoline, supporting renewable energy sources, buying local products to reduce transportation, turning off unused devices, and various others. Climate change mitigation_sentence_487

A geophysicist at Utrecht University has urged similar institutions to hold the vanguard in voluntary mitigation, suggesting the use of communications technologies such as videoconferencing to reduce their dependence on long-haul flights. Climate change mitigation_sentence_488

Air travel and shipment Climate change mitigation_section_76

In 2008, climate scientist Kevin Anderson raised concern about the growing effect of rapidly increasing global air transport on the climate in a paper, and a presentation, suggesting that reversing this trend is necessary to reduce emissions.Air travel is having complex impacts on climate due to the wide range of emissions on varying attitudes within a different time span Climate change mitigation_sentence_489

Part of the difficulty is that when aviation emissions are made at high altitude, the climate impacts are much greater than otherwise. Climate change mitigation_sentence_490

Others have been raising the related concerns of the increasing hypermobility of individuals, whether traveling for business or pleasure, involving frequent and often long-distance air travel, as well as air shipment of goods. Climate change mitigation_sentence_491

Business opportunities and risks Climate change mitigation_section_77

Main article: Business action on climate change Climate change mitigation_sentence_492

Investor response Climate change mitigation_section_78

Main article: Fossil fuel divestment Climate change mitigation_sentence_493

Climate change is also a concern for large institutional investors who have a long term time horizon and potentially large exposure to the negative impacts of global warming because of the large geographic footprint of their multi-national holdings. Climate change mitigation_sentence_494

Socially responsible investing funds allow investors to invest in funds that meet high ESG (environmental, social, governance) standards as such funds invest in companies that are aligned with these goals. Climate change mitigation_sentence_495

Proxy firms can be used to draft guidelines for investment managers that take these concerns into account. Climate change mitigation_sentence_496

Legal action Climate change mitigation_section_79

See also: Duty to rescue Climate change mitigation_sentence_497

In some countries, those affected by climate change may be able to sue major producers. Climate change mitigation_sentence_498

Attempts at litigation have been initiated by entire peoples such as Palau and the Inuit, as well as non-governmental organizations such as the Sierra Club. Climate change mitigation_sentence_499

Although proving that particular weather events are due specifically to global warming may never be possible, methodologies have been developed to show the increased risk of such events caused by global warming. Climate change mitigation_sentence_500

For a legal action for negligence (or similar) to succeed, "Plaintiffs ... must show that, more probably than not, their individual injuries were caused by the risk factor in question, as opposed to any other cause. Climate change mitigation_sentence_501

This has sometimes been translated to a requirement of a relative risk of at least two." Climate change mitigation_sentence_502

Another route (though with little legal bite) is the World Heritage Convention, if it can be shown that climate change is affecting World Heritage Sites like Mount Everest. Climate change mitigation_sentence_503

Besides countries suing one another, there are also cases where people in a country have taken legal steps against their own government. Climate change mitigation_sentence_504

Legal action for instance has been taken to try to force the US Environmental Protection Agency to regulate greenhouse gas emissions under the Clean Air Act, and against the Export-Import Bank and OPIC for failing to assess environmental impacts (including global warming impacts) under NEPA. Climate change mitigation_sentence_505

In the Netherlands and Belgium, organisations such as the foundation Urgenda and the vzw Klimaatzaak in Belgium have also sued their governments as they believe their governments aren't meeting the emission reductions they agreed to. Climate change mitigation_sentence_506

Urgenda have already won their case against the Dutch government. Climate change mitigation_sentence_507

According to a 2004 study commissioned by Friends of the Earth, ExxonMobil, and its predecessors caused 4.7 to 5.3 percent of the world's man-made carbon dioxide emissions between 1882 and 2002. Climate change mitigation_sentence_508

The group suggested that such studies could form the basis for eventual legal action. Climate change mitigation_sentence_509

In 2015, Exxon received a subpoena. Climate change mitigation_sentence_510

According to the Washington Post and confirmed by the company, the attorney general of New York, Eric Schneiderman, opened an investigation into the possibility that the company had misled the public and investors about the risks of climate change. Climate change mitigation_sentence_511

In October 2019, the trial began. Climate change mitigation_sentence_512

Massachusetts sued Exxon also, for hiding the impact of climate change. Climate change mitigation_sentence_513

In 2019, 22 states, six cities and Washington DC in United States, sued the Trump administration for repealing the Clean Power Plan. Climate change mitigation_sentence_514

In 2020 a group of swiss senior women sued their government for too week action on stopping climate change. Climate change mitigation_sentence_515

They claimed that the increase in heat waves caused by climate change, particulary impact the elderly people. Climate change mitigation_sentence_516

In November 2020 the European Court of Human Rights ordered to 33 countries to respond to the climate lawsuit from 4 children and 2 adults living in Portugal. Climate change mitigation_sentence_517

The lawsuit will be treated as a priority by the court. Climate change mitigation_sentence_518

Activism Climate change mitigation_section_80

Environmental organizations organize different actions such as Peoples Climate Marches and Divestment from fossil fuels. Climate change mitigation_sentence_519

1,000 organizations with a worth of 8 trillion dollars, made commitments to divest from fossil fuel to 2018. Climate change mitigation_sentence_520

Another form of action is climate strike. Climate change mitigation_sentence_521

In January 2019 12,500 students marched in Brussels demanding Climate action. Climate change mitigation_sentence_522

In 2019 The organization Extinction Rebellion organized massive protests demanding "tell the truth about climate change, reduce carbon emissions to zero by 2025, and create a citizens' assembly to oversee progress", including blocking roads. Climate change mitigation_sentence_523

Many were arrested. Climate change mitigation_sentence_524

In many cases, activism brings positive results. Climate change mitigation_sentence_525

A major event was the global climate strike in September 2019 organized by Fridays For Future and Earth Strike. Climate change mitigation_sentence_526

The target was to influence the climate action summit organized by the UN on September 23. Climate change mitigation_sentence_527

According to the organizers four million people participated in the strike on September 20. Climate change mitigation_sentence_528

See also Climate change mitigation_section_81

By country Climate change mitigation_section_82

Climate change mitigation_unordered_list_18

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: change mitigation.