Cocaine

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For other uses, see Cocaine (disambiguation). Cocaine_sentence_0

Cocaine_table_infobox_0

CocaineCocaine_table_caption_0
Clinical dataCocaine_header_cell_0_0_0
PronunciationCocaine_header_cell_0_1_0 kəʊˈkeɪnCocaine_cell_0_1_1
Trade namesCocaine_header_cell_0_2_0 Neurocaine, Goprelto, Numbrino, othersCocaine_cell_0_2_1
Other namesCocaine_header_cell_0_3_0 Benzoylmethylecgonine, coke, blow, crack (in freebase form)Cocaine_cell_0_3_1
AHFS/Drugs.comCocaine_header_cell_0_4_0 Cocaine_cell_0_4_1
License dataCocaine_header_cell_0_5_0 Cocaine_cell_0_5_1
Pregnancy categoryCocaine_header_cell_0_6_0 Cocaine_cell_0_6_1
Dependence liabilityCocaine_header_cell_0_7_0 HighCocaine_cell_0_7_1
Addiction liabilityCocaine_header_cell_0_8_0 HighCocaine_cell_0_8_1
Routes of administrationCocaine_header_cell_0_9_0 Topical, by mouth, insufflation, intravenousCocaine_cell_0_9_1
Drug classCocaine_header_cell_0_10_0 Cocaine_cell_0_10_1
ATC codeCocaine_header_cell_0_11_0 Cocaine_cell_0_11_1
Legal statusCocaine_header_cell_0_12_0
Legal statusCocaine_header_cell_0_13_0 Cocaine_cell_0_13_1
Pharmacokinetic dataCocaine_header_cell_0_14_0
BioavailabilityCocaine_header_cell_0_15_0 Cocaine_cell_0_15_1
MetabolismCocaine_header_cell_0_16_0 liver CYP3A4Cocaine_cell_0_16_1
MetabolitesCocaine_header_cell_0_17_0 Norcocaine, benzoylecgonine, cocaethyleneCocaine_cell_0_17_1
Onset of actionCocaine_header_cell_0_18_0 seconds to minutesCocaine_cell_0_18_1
Duration of actionCocaine_header_cell_0_19_0 5 to 90 minutesCocaine_cell_0_19_1
ExcretionCocaine_header_cell_0_20_0 KidneyCocaine_cell_0_20_1
IdentifiersCocaine_header_cell_0_21_0
CAS NumberCocaine_header_cell_0_22_0 Cocaine_cell_0_22_1
PubChem CIDCocaine_header_cell_0_23_0 Cocaine_cell_0_23_1
IUPHAR/BPSCocaine_header_cell_0_24_0 Cocaine_cell_0_24_1
DrugBankCocaine_header_cell_0_25_0 Cocaine_cell_0_25_1
ChemSpiderCocaine_header_cell_0_26_0 Cocaine_cell_0_26_1
UNIICocaine_header_cell_0_27_0 Cocaine_cell_0_27_1
KEGGCocaine_header_cell_0_28_0 Cocaine_cell_0_28_1
ChEBICocaine_header_cell_0_29_0 Cocaine_cell_0_29_1
ChEMBLCocaine_header_cell_0_30_0 Cocaine_cell_0_30_1
PDB ligandCocaine_header_cell_0_31_0 Cocaine_cell_0_31_1
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)Cocaine_header_cell_0_32_0 Cocaine_cell_0_32_1
ECHA InfoCardCocaine_header_cell_0_33_0 Q41576#P2566Cocaine_cell_0_33_1
Chemical and physical dataCocaine_header_cell_0_34_0
FormulaCocaine_header_cell_0_35_0 C17H21NO4Cocaine_cell_0_35_1
Molar massCocaine_header_cell_0_36_0 303.353 g·molCocaine_cell_0_36_1
3D model (JSmol)Cocaine_header_cell_0_37_0 Cocaine_cell_0_37_1
Melting pointCocaine_header_cell_0_38_0 98 °C (208 °F)Cocaine_cell_0_38_1
Boiling pointCocaine_header_cell_0_39_0 187 °C (369 °F)Cocaine_cell_0_39_1
Solubility in waterCocaine_header_cell_0_40_0 ≈1.8Cocaine_cell_0_40_1
Data pageCocaine_header_cell_0_41_0

Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant most frequently used as a recreational drug. Cocaine_sentence_1

It is commonly snorted, inhaled as smoke, or dissolved and injected into a vein. Cocaine_sentence_2

Mental effects may include an intense feeling of happiness, sexual arousal, loss of contact with reality, or agitation. Cocaine_sentence_3

Physical symptoms may include a fast heart rate, sweating, and large pupils. Cocaine_sentence_4

High doses can result in very high blood pressure or body temperature. Cocaine_sentence_5

Effects begin within seconds to minutes of use and last between five and ninety minutes. Cocaine_sentence_6

Cocaine has a small number of accepted medical uses, such as numbing and decreasing bleeding during nasal surgery. Cocaine_sentence_7

Cocaine is addictive due to its effect on the reward pathway in the brain. Cocaine_sentence_8

After a short period of use, there is a high risk that dependence will occur. Cocaine_sentence_9

Its use also increases the risk of stroke, myocardial infarction, lung problems in those who smoke it, blood infections, and sudden cardiac death. Cocaine_sentence_10

Cocaine sold on the street is commonly mixed with local anesthetics, cornstarch, quinine, or sugar, which can result in additional toxicity. Cocaine_sentence_11

Following repeated doses a person may have decreased ability to feel pleasure and be very physically tired. Cocaine_sentence_12

Cocaine acts by inhibiting the reuptake of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. Cocaine_sentence_13

This results in greater concentrations of these three neurotransmitters in the brain. Cocaine_sentence_14

It can easily cross the blood–brain barrier and may lead to the breakdown of the barrier. Cocaine_sentence_15

In 2013, 419 kilograms were produced legally. Cocaine_sentence_16

It is estimated that the illegal market for cocaine is 100 to US$500 billion each year. Cocaine_sentence_17

With further processing, crack cocaine can be produced from cocaine. Cocaine_sentence_18

Cocaine is the second most frequently used illegal drug globally, after cannabis. Cocaine_sentence_19

Between 14 and 21 million people use the drug each year. Cocaine_sentence_20

Use is highest in North America followed by Europe and South America. Cocaine_sentence_21

Between one and three percent of people in the developed world have used cocaine at some point in their life. Cocaine_sentence_22

In 2013, cocaine use directly resulted in 4,300 deaths, up from 2,400 in 1990. Cocaine_sentence_23

It is named after the coca plant from which it is isolated. Cocaine_sentence_24

The plant's leaves have been used by Peruvians since ancient times. Cocaine_sentence_25

Cocaine was first isolated from the leaves in 1860. Cocaine_sentence_26

Since 1961, the international Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs has required countries to make recreational use of cocaine a crime. Cocaine_sentence_27

Uses Cocaine_section_0

Adverse effects Cocaine_section_1

Acute Cocaine_section_2

Main article: Cocaine intoxication Cocaine_sentence_28

With excessive or prolonged use, the drug can cause itching, fast heart rate, hallucinations, and paranoid delusions or sensations of insects crawling on the skin. Cocaine_sentence_29

Overdoses may cause abnormally high body temperature and a marked elevation of blood pressure, which can be life-threatening, abnormal heart rhythms, and death. Cocaine_sentence_30

Anxiety, paranoia, and restlessness can also occur, especially during the comedown. Cocaine_sentence_31

With excessive dosage, tremors, convulsions and increased body temperature are observed. Cocaine_sentence_32

Severe cardiac adverse events, particularly sudden cardiac death, become a serious risk at high doses due to cocaine's blocking effect on cardiac sodium channels. Cocaine_sentence_33

Cocaine_unordered_list_0

  • Cocaine_item_0_0
  • Cocaine_item_0_1

Chronic Cocaine_section_3

Chronic cocaine intake causes strong imbalances of transmitter levels in order to compensate extremes. Cocaine_sentence_34

Thus, receptors disappear from the cell surface or reappear on it, resulting more or less in an "off" or "working mode" respectively, or they change their susceptibility for binding partners (ligands) – mechanisms called downregulation and upregulation. Cocaine_sentence_35

However, studies suggest cocaine abusers do not show normal age-related loss of striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) sites, suggesting cocaine has neuroprotective properties for dopamine neurons. Cocaine_sentence_36

Possible side effects include insatiable hunger, aches, insomnia/oversleeping, lethargy, and persistent runny nose. Cocaine_sentence_37

Depression with suicidal ideation may develop in very heavy users. Cocaine_sentence_38

Finally, a loss of vesicular monoamine transporters, neurofilament proteins, and other morphological changes appear to indicate a long term damage of dopamine neurons. Cocaine_sentence_39

All these effects contribute a rise in tolerance thus requiring a larger dosage to achieve the same effect. Cocaine_sentence_40

The lack of normal amounts of serotonin and dopamine in the brain is the cause of the dysphoria and depression felt after the initial high. Cocaine_sentence_41

Physical withdrawal is not dangerous. Cocaine_sentence_42

Physiological changes caused by cocaine withdrawal include vivid and unpleasant dreams, insomnia or hypersomnia, increased appetite and psychomotor retardation or agitation. Cocaine_sentence_43

Physical side effects from chronic smoking of cocaine include coughing up blood, bronchospasm, itching, fever, diffuse alveolar infiltrates without effusions, pulmonary and systemic eosinophilia, chest pain, lung trauma, sore throat, asthma, hoarse voice, dyspnea (shortness of breath), and an aching, flu-like syndrome. Cocaine_sentence_44

Cocaine constricts blood vessels, dilates pupils, and increases body temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure. Cocaine_sentence_45

It can also cause headaches and gastrointestinal complications such as abdominal pain and nausea. Cocaine_sentence_46

A common but untrue belief is that the smoking of cocaine chemically breaks down tooth enamel and causes tooth decay. Cocaine_sentence_47

However, cocaine does often cause involuntary tooth grinding, known as bruxism, which can deteriorate tooth enamel and lead to gingivitis. Cocaine_sentence_48

Additionally, stimulants like cocaine, methamphetamine, and even caffeine cause dehydration and dry mouth. Cocaine_sentence_49

Since saliva is an important mechanism in maintaining one's oral pH level, chronic stimulant abusers who do not hydrate sufficiently may experience demineralization of their teeth due to the pH of the tooth surface dropping too low (below 5.5). Cocaine_sentence_50

Cocaine use also promotes the formation of blood clots. Cocaine_sentence_51

This increase in blood clot formation is attributed to cocaine-associated increases in the activity of plasminogen activator inhibitor, and an increase in the number, activation, and aggregation of platelets. Cocaine_sentence_52

Chronic intranasal usage can degrade the cartilage separating the nostrils (the septum nasi), leading eventually to its complete disappearance. Cocaine_sentence_53

Due to the absorption of the cocaine from cocaine hydrochloride, the remaining hydrochloride forms a dilute hydrochloric acid. Cocaine_sentence_54

Cocaine may also greatly increase the risk of developing rare autoimmune or connective tissue diseases such as lupus, Goodpasture syndrome, vasculitis, glomerulonephritis, Stevens–Johnson syndrome, and other diseases. Cocaine_sentence_55

It can also cause a wide array of kidney diseases and kidney failure. Cocaine_sentence_56

Cocaine use leads to an increased risk of hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes. Cocaine_sentence_57

Cocaine use also increases the risk of having a heart attack. Cocaine_sentence_58

Addiction Cocaine_section_4

See also: Epigenetics of cocaine addiction Cocaine_sentence_59

Cocaine addiction occurs through ΔFosB overexpression in the nucleus accumbens, which results in altered transcriptional regulation in neurons within the nucleus accumbens. Cocaine_sentence_60

ΔFosB levels have been found to increase upon the use of cocaine. Cocaine_sentence_61

Each subsequent dose of cocaine continues to increase ΔFosB levels with no ceiling of tolerance. Cocaine_sentence_62

Elevated levels of ΔFosB leads to increases in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels, which in turn increases the number of dendritic branches and spines present on neurons involved with the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex areas of the brain. Cocaine_sentence_63

This change can be identified rather quickly, and may be sustained weeks after the last dose of the drug. Cocaine_sentence_64

Transgenic mice exhibiting inducible expression of ΔFosB primarily in the nucleus accumbens and dorsal striatum exhibit sensitized behavioural responses to cocaine. Cocaine_sentence_65

They self-administer cocaine at lower doses than control, but have a greater likelihood of relapse when the drug is withheld. Cocaine_sentence_66

ΔFosB increases the expression of AMPA receptor subunit GluR2 and also decreases expression of dynorphin, thereby enhancing sensitivity to reward. Cocaine_sentence_67

Dependence and withdrawal Cocaine_section_5

Cocaine dependence is a form of psychological dependence that develops from regular cocaine use and produces a withdrawal state with emotional-motivational deficits upon cessation of cocaine use. Cocaine_sentence_68

During pregnancy Cocaine_section_6

Cocaine is known to have a number of deleterious effects during pregnancy. Cocaine_sentence_69

Pregnant people who use cocaine have an elevated risk of placental abruption, a condition where the placenta detaches from the uterus and causes bleeding. Cocaine_sentence_70

Due to its vasoconstrictive and hypertensive effects, they are also at risk for hemorrhagic stroke and myocardial infarction. Cocaine_sentence_71

Cocaine is also teratogenic, meaning that it can cause birth defects and fetal malformations. Cocaine_sentence_72

In-utero exposure to cocaine is associated with behavioral abnormalities, cognitive impairment, cardiovascular malformations, intrauterine growth restriction, preterm birth, urinary tract malformations, and cleft lip and palate. Cocaine_sentence_73

Pharmacology Cocaine_section_7

Pharmacodynamics Cocaine_section_8

The pharmacodynamics of cocaine involve the complex relationships of neurotransmitters (inhibiting monoamine uptake in rats with ratios of about: serotonin:dopamine = 2:3, serotonin:norepinephrine = 2:5). Cocaine_sentence_74

The most extensively studied effect of cocaine on the central nervous system is the blockade of the dopamine transporter protein. Cocaine_sentence_75

Dopamine transmitter released during neural signaling is normally recycled via the transporter; i.e., the transporter binds the transmitter and pumps it out of the synaptic cleft back into the presynaptic neuron, where it is taken up into storage vesicles. Cocaine_sentence_76

Cocaine binds tightly at the dopamine transporter forming a complex that blocks the transporter's function. Cocaine_sentence_77

The dopamine transporter can no longer perform its reuptake function, and thus dopamine accumulates in the synaptic cleft. Cocaine_sentence_78

The increased concentration of dopamine in the synapse activates post-synaptic dopamine receptors, which makes the drug rewarding and promotes the compulsive use of cocaine. Cocaine_sentence_79

Cocaine affects certain serotonin (5-HT) receptors; in particular, it has been shown to antagonize the 5-HT3 receptor, which is a ligand-gated ion channel. Cocaine_sentence_80

The overabundance of 5-HT3 receptors in cocaine conditioned rats display this trait, however the exact effect of 5-HT3 in this process is unclear. Cocaine_sentence_81

The 5-HT2 receptor (particularly the subtypes 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C) are involved in the locomotor-activating effects of cocaine. Cocaine_sentence_82

Cocaine has been demonstrated to bind as to directly stabilize the DAT transporter on the open outward-facing conformation. Cocaine_sentence_83

Further, cocaine binds in such a way as to inhibit a hydrogen bond innate to DAT. Cocaine_sentence_84

Cocaine's binding properties are such that it attaches so this hydrogen bond will not form and is blocked from formation due to the tightly locked orientation of the cocaine molecule. Cocaine_sentence_85

Research studies have suggested that the affinity for the transporter is not what is involved in habituation of the substance so much as the conformation and binding properties to where and how on the transporter the molecule binds. Cocaine_sentence_86

Sigma receptors are affected by cocaine, as cocaine functions as a sigma ligand agonist. Cocaine_sentence_87

Further specific receptors it has been demonstrated to function on are NMDA and the D1 dopamine receptor. Cocaine_sentence_88

Cocaine also blocks sodium channels, thereby interfering with the propagation of action potentials; thus, like lignocaine and novocaine, it acts as a local anesthetic. Cocaine_sentence_89

It also functions on the binding sites to the dopamine and serotonin sodium dependent transport area as targets as separate mechanisms from its reuptake of those transporters; unique to its local anesthetic value which makes it in a class of functionality different from both its own derived phenyltropanes analogues which have that removed. Cocaine_sentence_90

In addition to this cocaine has some target binding to the site of the Kappa-opioid receptor as well. Cocaine_sentence_91

Cocaine also causes vasoconstriction, thus reducing bleeding during minor surgical procedures. Cocaine_sentence_92

The locomotor enhancing properties of cocaine may be attributable to its enhancement of dopaminergic transmission from the substantia nigra. Cocaine_sentence_93

Recent research points to an important role of circadian mechanisms and clock genes in behavioral actions of cocaine. Cocaine_sentence_94

Cocaine can often cause reduced food intake, many chronic users lose their appetite and can experience severe malnutrition and significant weight loss. Cocaine_sentence_95

Cocaine effects, further, are shown to be potentiated for the user when used in conjunction with new surroundings and stimuli, and otherwise novel environs. Cocaine_sentence_96

Pharmacokinetics Cocaine_section_9

Cocaine has a short half life of 0.7-1.5 hours and is extensively metabolized by cholinesterase enzymes (primarily in the liver and plasma), with only about 1% excreted unchanged in the urine. Cocaine_sentence_97

The metabolism is dominated by hydrolytic ester cleavage, so the eliminated metabolites consist mostly of benzoylecgonine (BE), the major metabolite, and other significant metabolites in lesser amounts such as ecgonine methyl ester (EME) and ecgonine. Cocaine_sentence_98

Further minor metabolites of cocaine include norcocaine, p-hydroxycocaine, m-hydroxycocaine, p-hydroxybenzoylecgonine (pOHBE), and m-hydroxybenzoylecgonine. Cocaine_sentence_99

If consumed with alcohol, cocaine combines with alcohol in the liver to form cocaethylene. Cocaine_sentence_100

Studies have suggested cocaethylene is both more euphoric, and has a higher cardiovascular toxicity than cocaine by itself. Cocaine_sentence_101

Depending on liver and kidney function, cocaine metabolites are detectable in urine. Cocaine_sentence_102

Benzoylecgonine can be detected in urine within four hours after cocaine intake and remains detectable in concentrations greater than 150 ng/mL typically for up to eight days after cocaine is used. Cocaine_sentence_103

Detection of cocaine metabolites in hair is possible in regular users until the sections of hair grown during use are cut or fall out. Cocaine_sentence_104

Chemistry Cocaine_section_10

Appearance Cocaine_section_11

Cocaine in its purest form is a white, pearly product. Cocaine_sentence_105

Cocaine appearing in powder form is a salt, typically cocaine hydrochloride. Cocaine_sentence_106

Street cocaine is often adulterated or "cut" with talc, lactose, sucrose, glucose, mannitol, inositol, caffeine, procaine, phencyclidine, phenytoin, lignocaine, strychnine, amphetamine, or heroin. Cocaine_sentence_107

The color of "crack" cocaine depends upon several factors including the origin of the cocaine used, the method of preparation – with ammonia or baking soda – and the presence of impurities. Cocaine_sentence_108

It will generally range from white to a yellowish cream to a light brown. Cocaine_sentence_109

Its texture will also depend on the adulterants, origin and processing of the powdered cocaine, and the method of converting the base. Cocaine_sentence_110

It ranges from a crumbly texture, sometimes extremely oily, to a hard, almost crystalline nature. Cocaine_sentence_111

Forms Cocaine_section_12

Salts Cocaine_section_13

Cocaine – a tropane alkaloid – is a weakly alkaline compound, and can therefore combine with acidic compounds to form salts. Cocaine_sentence_112

The hydrochloride (HCl) salt of cocaine is by far the most commonly encountered, although the sulfate (SO4) and the nitrate (NO3) salts are occasionally seen. Cocaine_sentence_113

Different salts dissolve to a greater or lesser extent in various solvents – the hydrochloride salt is polar in character and is quite soluble in water. Cocaine_sentence_114

Base Cocaine_section_14

Main article: Freebase (chemistry) Cocaine_sentence_115

As the name implies, "freebase" is the base form of cocaine, as opposed to the salt form. Cocaine_sentence_116

It is practically insoluble in water whereas hydrochloride salt is water-soluble. Cocaine_sentence_117

Smoking freebase cocaine has the additional effect of releasing methylecgonidine into the user's system due to the pyrolysis of the substance (a side effect which insufflating or injecting powder cocaine does not create). Cocaine_sentence_118

Some research suggests that smoking freebase cocaine can be even more cardiotoxic than other routes of administration because of methylecgonidine's effects on lung tissue and liver tissue. Cocaine_sentence_119

Pure cocaine is prepared by neutralizing its compounding salt with an alkaline solution, which will precipitate to non-polar basic cocaine. Cocaine_sentence_120

It is further refined through aqueous-solvent liquid–liquid extraction. Cocaine_sentence_121

Crack cocaine Cocaine_section_15

Coca leaf infusions Cocaine_section_16

N-methyl-pyrrolinium cation Cocaine_section_17

The biosynthesis begins with L-Glutamine, which is derived to L-ornithine in plants. Cocaine_sentence_122

The major contribution of L-ornithine and L-arginine as a precursor to the tropane ring was confirmed by Edward Leete. Cocaine_sentence_123

Ornithine then undergoes a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent decarboxylation to form putrescine. Cocaine_sentence_124

In animals, however, the urea cycle derives putrescine from ornithine. Cocaine_sentence_125

L-ornithine is converted to L-arginine, which is then decarboxylated via PLP to form agmatine. Cocaine_sentence_126

Hydrolysis of the imine derives N-carbamoylputrescine followed with hydrolysis of the urea to form putrescine. Cocaine_sentence_127

The separate pathways of converting ornithine to putrescine in plants and animals have converged. Cocaine_sentence_128

A SAM-dependent N-methylation of putrescine gives the N-methylputrescine product, which then undergoes oxidative deamination by the action of diamine oxidase to yield the aminoaldehyde. Cocaine_sentence_129

Schiff base formation confirms the biosynthesis of the N-methyl-Δ-pyrrolinium cation. Cocaine_sentence_130

Robert Robinson's acetonedicarboxylate Cocaine_section_18

The biosynthesis of the tropane alkaloid, however, is still uncertain. Cocaine_sentence_131

Hemscheidt proposes that Robinson's acetonedicarboxylate emerges as a potential intermediate for this reaction. Cocaine_sentence_132

Condensation of N-methylpyrrolinium and acetonedicarboxylate would generate the oxobutyrate. Cocaine_sentence_133

Decarboxylation leads to tropane alkaloid formation. Cocaine_sentence_134

Reduction of tropinone Cocaine_section_19

The reduction of tropinone is mediated by NADPH-dependent reductase enzymes, which have been characterized in multiple plant species. Cocaine_sentence_135

These plant species all contain two types of the reductase enzymes, tropinone reductase I and tropinone reductase II. Cocaine_sentence_136

TRI produces tropine and TRII produces pseudotropine. Cocaine_sentence_137

Due to differing kinetic and pH/activity characteristics of the enzymes and by the 25-fold higher activity of TRI over TRII, the majority of the tropinone reduction is from TRI to form tropine. Cocaine_sentence_138

Detection in body fluids Cocaine_section_20

Cocaine and its major metabolites may be quantified in blood, plasma, or urine to monitor for abuse, confirm a diagnosis of poisoning, or assist in the forensic investigation of a traffic or other criminal violation or a sudden death. Cocaine_sentence_139

Most commercial cocaine immunoassay screening tests cross-react appreciably with the major cocaine metabolites, but chromatographic techniques can easily distinguish and separately measure each of these substances. Cocaine_sentence_140

When interpreting the results of a test, it is important to consider the cocaine usage history of the individual, since a chronic user can develop tolerance to doses that would incapacitate a cocaine-naive individual, and the chronic user often has high baseline values of the metabolites in his system. Cocaine_sentence_141

Cautious interpretation of testing results may allow a distinction between passive or active usage, and between smoking versus other routes of administration. Cocaine_sentence_142

In 2011, researchers at John Jay College of Criminal Justice reported that dietary zinc supplements can mask the presence of cocaine and other drugs in urine. Cocaine_sentence_143

Similar claims have been made in web forums on that topic. Cocaine_sentence_144

Field analysis Cocaine_section_21

Cocaine may be detected by law enforcement using the Scott reagent. Cocaine_sentence_145

The test can easily generate false positives for common substances and must be confirmed with a laboratory test. Cocaine_sentence_146

Approximate cocaine purity can be determined using 1 mL 2% cupric sulfate pentahydrate in dilute HCl, 1 mL 2% potassium thiocyanate and 2 mL of chloroform. Cocaine_sentence_147

The shade of brown shown by the chloroform is proportional to the cocaine content. Cocaine_sentence_148

This test is not cross sensitive to heroin, methamphetamine, benzocaine, procaine and a number of other drugs but other chemicals could cause false positives. Cocaine_sentence_149

Usage Cocaine_section_22

Main article: List of countries by prevalence of cocaine use Cocaine_sentence_150

Cocaine_table_general_1

Global estimates of drug users in 2016 (in millions of users)Cocaine_table_caption_1
SubstanceCocaine_header_cell_1_0_0 Best

estimateCocaine_header_cell_1_0_1

Low

estimateCocaine_header_cell_1_0_2

High

estimateCocaine_header_cell_1_0_3

Amphetamine- type stimulantsCocaine_cell_1_1_0 34.16Cocaine_cell_1_1_1 13.42Cocaine_cell_1_1_2 55.24Cocaine_cell_1_1_3
CannabisCocaine_cell_1_2_0 192.15Cocaine_cell_1_2_1 165.76Cocaine_cell_1_2_2 234.06Cocaine_cell_1_2_3
CocaineCocaine_cell_1_3_0 18.20Cocaine_cell_1_3_1 13.87Cocaine_cell_1_3_2 22.85Cocaine_cell_1_3_3
EcstasyCocaine_cell_1_4_0 20.57Cocaine_cell_1_4_1 8.99Cocaine_cell_1_4_2 32.34Cocaine_cell_1_4_3
OpiatesCocaine_cell_1_5_0 19.38Cocaine_cell_1_5_1 13.80Cocaine_cell_1_5_2 26.15Cocaine_cell_1_5_3
OpioidsCocaine_cell_1_6_0 34.26Cocaine_cell_1_6_1 27.01Cocaine_cell_1_6_2 44.54Cocaine_cell_1_6_3

According to a 2016 United Nations report, England and Wales are the countries with the highest rate of cocaine usage (2.4% of adults in the previous year). Cocaine_sentence_151

Other countries where the usage rate meets or exceeds 1.5% are Spain and Scotland (2.2%), the United States (2.1%), Australia (2.1%), Uruguay (1.8%), Brazil (1.75%), Chile (1.73%), the Netherlands (1.5%) and Ireland (1.5%). Cocaine_sentence_152

Europe Cocaine_section_23

Cocaine is the second most popular illegal recreational drug in Europe (behind cannabis). Cocaine_sentence_153

Since the mid-1990s, overall cocaine usage in Europe has been on the rise, but usage rates and attitudes tend to vary between countries. Cocaine_sentence_154

European countries with the highest usage rates are the United Kingdom, Spain, Italy, and the Republic of Ireland. Cocaine_sentence_155

Approximately 17 million Europeans (5.1%) have used cocaine at least once and 3.5 million (1.1%) in the last year. Cocaine_sentence_156

About 1.9% (2.3 million) of young adults (15–34 years old) have used cocaine in the last year (latest data available as of 2018). Cocaine_sentence_157

Usage is particularly prevalent among this demographic: 4% to 7% of males have used cocaine in the last year in Spain, Denmark, Republic of Ireland, Italy, and the United Kingdom. Cocaine_sentence_158

The ratio of male to female users is approximately 3.8:1, but this statistic varies from 1:1 to 13:1 depending on country. Cocaine_sentence_159

In 2014 London had the highest amount of cocaine in its sewage out of 50 European cities. Cocaine_sentence_160

United States Cocaine_section_24

Main article: Cocaine in the United States Cocaine_sentence_161

Cocaine is the second most popular illegal recreational drug in the United States (behind cannabis) and the U.S. is the world's largest consumer of cocaine. Cocaine_sentence_162

Cocaine is commonly used in middle to upper-class communities and is known as a "rich man's drug". Cocaine_sentence_163

It is also popular amongst college students, as a party drug. Cocaine_sentence_164

A study throughout the entire United States has reported that around 48 percent of people who graduated from high school in 1979 have used cocaine recreationally during some point in their lifetime, compared to approximately 20 percent of students who graduated between the years of 1980 and 1995. Cocaine_sentence_165

Its users span over different ages, races, and professions. Cocaine_sentence_166

In the 1970s and 1980s, the drug became particularly popular in the disco culture as cocaine usage was very common and popular in many discos such as Studio 54. Cocaine_sentence_167

History Cocaine_section_25

Discovery Cocaine_section_26

For over a thousand years South American indigenous peoples have chewed the leaves of Erythroxylon coca, a plant that contains vital nutrients as well as numerous alkaloids, including cocaine. Cocaine_sentence_168

The coca leaf was, and still is, chewed almost universally by some indigenous communities. Cocaine_sentence_169

The remains of coca leaves have been found with ancient Peruvian mummies, and pottery from the time period depicts humans with bulged cheeks, indicating the presence of something on which they are chewing. Cocaine_sentence_170

There is also evidence that these cultures used a mixture of coca leaves and saliva as an anesthetic for the performance of trepanation. Cocaine_sentence_171

When the Spanish arrived in South America, most at first ignored aboriginal claims that the leaf gave them strength and energy, and declared the practice of chewing it the work of the Devil. Cocaine_sentence_172

But after discovering that these claims were true, they legalized and taxed the leaf, taking 10% off the value of each crop. Cocaine_sentence_173

In 1569, Spanish botanist Nicolás Monardes described the indigenous peoples' practice of chewing a mixture of tobacco and coca leaves to induce "great contentment": Cocaine_sentence_174

In 1609, Padre Blas Valera wrote: Cocaine_sentence_175

Isolation and naming Cocaine_section_27

Although the stimulant and hunger-suppressant properties of coca had been known for many centuries, the isolation of the cocaine alkaloid was not achieved until 1855. Cocaine_sentence_176

Various European scientists had attempted to isolate cocaine, but none had been successful for two reasons: the knowledge of chemistry required was insufficient at the time, and contemporary conditions of sea-shipping from South America could degrade the cocaine in the plant samples available to European chemists. Cocaine_sentence_177

The cocaine alkaloid was first isolated by the German chemist Friedrich Gaedcke in 1855. Cocaine_sentence_178

Gaedcke named the alkaloid "erythroxyline", and published a description in the journal Archiv der Pharmazie. Cocaine_sentence_179

In 1856, Friedrich Wöhler asked Dr. Carl Scherzer, a scientist aboard the Novara (an Austrian frigate sent by Emperor Franz Joseph to circle the globe), to bring him a large amount of coca leaves from South America. Cocaine_sentence_180

In 1859, the ship finished its travels and Wöhler received a trunk full of coca. Cocaine_sentence_181

Wöhler passed on the leaves to Albert Niemann, a PhD student at the University of Göttingen in Germany, who then developed an improved purification process. Cocaine_sentence_182

Niemann described every step he took to isolate cocaine in his dissertation titled Über eine neue organische Base in den Cocablättern (On a New Organic Base in the Coca Leaves), which was published in 1860—it earned him his PhD and is now in the British Library. Cocaine_sentence_183

He wrote of the alkaloid's "colourless transparent prisms" and said that "Its solutions have an alkaline reaction, a bitter taste, promote the flow of saliva and leave a peculiar numbness, followed by a sense of cold when applied to the tongue." Cocaine_sentence_184

Niemann named the alkaloid "cocaine" from "coca" (from Quechua "kuka") + suffix "ine". Cocaine_sentence_185

Because of its use as a local anesthetic, a suffix "-caine" was later extracted and used to form names of synthetic local anesthetics. Cocaine_sentence_186

The first synthesis and elucidation of the structure of the cocaine molecule was by Richard Willstätter in 1898. Cocaine_sentence_187

It was the first biomimetic synthesis of an organic structure recorded in academic chemical literature. Cocaine_sentence_188

The synthesis started from tropinone, a related natural product and took five steps. Cocaine_sentence_189

Medicalization Cocaine_section_28

With the discovery of this new alkaloid, Western medicine was quick to exploit the possible uses of this plant. Cocaine_sentence_190

In 1879, Vassili von Anrep, of the University of Würzburg, devised an experiment to demonstrate the analgesic properties of the newly discovered alkaloid. Cocaine_sentence_191

He prepared two separate jars, one containing a cocaine-salt solution, with the other containing merely salt water. Cocaine_sentence_192

He then submerged a frog's legs into the two jars, one leg in the treatment and one in the control solution, and proceeded to stimulate the legs in several different ways. Cocaine_sentence_193

The leg that had been immersed in the cocaine solution reacted very differently from the leg that had been immersed in salt water. Cocaine_sentence_194

Karl Koller (a close associate of Sigmund Freud, who would write about cocaine later) experimented with cocaine for ophthalmic usage. Cocaine_sentence_195

In an infamous experiment in 1884, he experimented upon himself by applying a cocaine solution to his own eye and then pricking it with pins. Cocaine_sentence_196

His findings were presented to the Heidelberg Ophthalmological Society. Cocaine_sentence_197

Also in 1884, Jellinek demonstrated the effects of cocaine as a respiratory system anesthetic. Cocaine_sentence_198

In 1885, William Halsted demonstrated nerve-block anesthesia, and James Leonard Corning demonstrated peridural anesthesia. Cocaine_sentence_199

1898 saw Heinrich Quincke use cocaine for spinal anesthesia. Cocaine_sentence_200

Popularization Cocaine_section_29

In 1859, an Italian doctor, Paolo Mantegazza, returned from Peru, where he had witnessed first-hand the use of coca by the local indigenous peoples. Cocaine_sentence_201

He proceeded to experiment on himself and upon his return to Milan he wrote a paper in which he described the effects. Cocaine_sentence_202

In this paper he declared coca and cocaine (at the time they were assumed to be the same) as being useful medicinally, in the treatment of "a furred tongue in the morning, flatulence, and whitening of the teeth." Cocaine_sentence_203

A chemist named Angelo Mariani who read Mantegazza's paper became immediately intrigued with coca and its economic potential. Cocaine_sentence_204

In 1863, Mariani started marketing a wine called Vin Mariani, which had been treated with coca leaves, to become cocawine. Cocaine_sentence_205

The ethanol in wine acted as a solvent and extracted the cocaine from the coca leaves, altering the drink's effect. Cocaine_sentence_206

It contained 6 mg cocaine per ounce of wine, but Vin Mariani which was to be exported contained 7.2 mg per ounce, to compete with the higher cocaine content of similar drinks in the United States. Cocaine_sentence_207

A "pinch of coca leaves" was included in John Styth Pemberton's original 1886 recipe for Coca-Cola, though the company began using decocainized leaves in 1906 when the Pure Food and Drug Act was passed. Cocaine_sentence_208

In 1879 cocaine began to be used to treat morphine addiction. Cocaine_sentence_209

Cocaine was introduced into clinical use as a local anesthetic in Germany in 1884, about the same time as Sigmund Freud published his work Über Coca, in which he wrote that cocaine causes: Cocaine_sentence_210

In 1885 the U.S. manufacturer Parke-Davis sold cocaine in various forms, including cigarettes, powder, and even a cocaine mixture that could be injected directly into the user's veins with the included needle. Cocaine_sentence_211

The company promised that its cocaine products would "supply the place of food, make the coward brave, the silent eloquent and render the sufferer insensitive to pain." Cocaine_sentence_212

By the late Victorian era, cocaine use had appeared as a vice in literature. Cocaine_sentence_213

For example, it was injected by Arthur Conan Doyle's fictional Sherlock Holmes, generally to offset the boredom he felt when he was not working on a case. Cocaine_sentence_214

In early 20th-century Memphis, Tennessee, cocaine was sold in neighborhood drugstores on Beale Street, costing five or ten cents for a small boxful. Cocaine_sentence_215

Stevedores along the Mississippi River used the drug as a stimulant, and white employers encouraged its use by black laborers. Cocaine_sentence_216

In 1909, Ernest Shackleton took "Forced March" brand cocaine tablets to Antarctica, as did Captain Scott a year later on his ill-fated journey to the South Pole. Cocaine_sentence_217

During the mid-1940s, amidst World War II, cocaine was considered for inclusion as an ingredient of a future generation of 'pep pills' for the German military, code named D-IX. Cocaine_sentence_218

In modern popular culture, references to cocaine are common. Cocaine_sentence_219

The drug has a glamorous image associated with the wealthy, famous and powerful, and is said to make users "feel rich and beautiful". Cocaine_sentence_220

In addition the pace of modern society − such as in finance − gives many the incentive to make use of the drug. Cocaine_sentence_221

Modern usage Cocaine_section_30

In many countries, cocaine is a popular recreational drug. Cocaine_sentence_222

In the United States, the development of "crack" cocaine introduced the substance to a generally poorer inner-city market. Cocaine_sentence_223

Use of the powder form has stayed relatively constant, experiencing a new height of use during the late 1990s and early 2000s in the U.S., and has become much more popular in the last few years in the UK. Cocaine_sentence_224

Cocaine use is prevalent across all socioeconomic strata, including age, demographics, economic, social, political, religious, and livelihood. Cocaine_sentence_225

The estimated U.S. cocaine market exceeded US$70 billion in street value for the year 2005, exceeding revenues by corporations such as Starbucks. Cocaine_sentence_226

There is a tremendous demand for cocaine in the U.S. market, particularly among those who are making incomes affording luxury spending, such as single adults and professionals with discretionary income. Cocaine_sentence_227

Cocaine's status as a club drug shows its immense popularity among the "party crowd". Cocaine_sentence_228

In 1995 the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI) announced in a press release the publication of the results of the largest global study on cocaine use ever undertaken. Cocaine_sentence_229

However, a decision by an American representative in the World Health Assembly banned the publication of the study, because it seemed to make a case for the positive uses of cocaine. Cocaine_sentence_230

An excerpt of the report strongly conflicted with accepted paradigms, for example "that occasional cocaine use does not typically lead to severe or even minor physical or social problems." Cocaine_sentence_231

In the sixth meeting of the B committee, the US representative threatened that "If World Health Organization activities relating to drugs failed to reinforce proven drug control approaches, funds for the relevant programs should be curtailed". Cocaine_sentence_232

This led to the decision to discontinue publication. Cocaine_sentence_233

A part of the study was recuperated and published in 2010, including profiles of cocaine use in 20 countries, but are unavailable as of 2015. Cocaine_sentence_234

In October 2010 it was reported that the use of cocaine in Australia has doubled since monitoring began in 2003. Cocaine_sentence_235

A problem with illegal cocaine use, especially in the higher volumes used to combat fatigue (rather than increase euphoria) by long-term users, is the risk of ill effects or damage caused by the compounds used in adulteration. Cocaine_sentence_236

Cutting or "stepping on" the drug is commonplace, using compounds which simulate ingestion effects, such as Novocain (procaine) producing temporary anesthaesia, as many users believe a strong numbing effect is the result of strong and/or pure cocaine, ephedrine or similar stimulants that are to produce an increased heart rate. Cocaine_sentence_237

The normal adulterants for profit are inactive sugars, usually mannitol, creatine or glucose, so introducing active adulterants gives the illusion of purity and to 'stretch' or make it so a dealer can sell more product than without the adulterants. Cocaine_sentence_238

The adulterant of sugars allows the dealer to sell the product for a higher price because of the illusion of purity and allows sale of more of the product at that higher price, enabling dealers to significantly increase revenue with little additional cost for the adulterants. Cocaine_sentence_239

A 2007 study by the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction showed that the purity levels for street purchased cocaine was often under 5% and on average under 50% pure. Cocaine_sentence_240

Society and culture Cocaine_section_31

Legal status Cocaine_section_32

Main article: Legal status of cocaine Cocaine_sentence_241

The production, distribution, and sale of cocaine products is restricted (and illegal in most contexts) in most countries as regulated by the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, and the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances. Cocaine_sentence_242

In the United States the manufacture, importation, possession, and distribution of cocaine are additionally regulated by the 1970 Controlled Substances Act. Cocaine_sentence_243

Some countries, such as Peru and Bolivia, permit the cultivation of coca leaf for traditional consumption by the local indigenous population, but nevertheless, prohibit the production, sale, and consumption of cocaine. Cocaine_sentence_244

The provisions as to how much a coca farmer can yield annually is protected by laws such as the Bolivian Cato accord. Cocaine_sentence_245

In addition, some parts of Europe, the United States, and Australia allow processed cocaine for medicinal uses only. Cocaine_sentence_246

Australia Cocaine_section_33

Cocaine is a Schedule 8 prohibited substance in Australia under the Poisons Standard (July 2016). Cocaine_sentence_247

A schedule 8 substance is a controlled Drug – Substances which should be available for use but require restriction of manufacture, supply, distribution, possession and use to reduce abuse, misuse and physical or psychological dependence. Cocaine_sentence_248

In Western Australia under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1981 4.0g of cocaine is the amount of prohibited drugs determining a court of trial, 2.0g is the amount of cocaine required for the presumption of intention to sell or supply and 28.0g is the amount of cocaine required for purposes of drug trafficking. Cocaine_sentence_249

United States Cocaine_section_34

See also: Cocaine in the United States Cocaine_sentence_250

The US federal government instituted a national labeling requirement for cocaine and cocaine-containing products through the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906. Cocaine_sentence_251

The next important federal regulation was the Harrison Narcotics Tax Act of 1914. Cocaine_sentence_252

While this act is often seen as the start of prohibition, the act itself was not actually a prohibition on cocaine, but instead set up a regulatory and licensing regime. Cocaine_sentence_253

The Harrison Act did not recognize addiction as a treatable condition and therefore the therapeutic use of cocaine, heroin or morphine to such individuals was outlawed – leading a 1915 editorial in the journal American Medicine to remark that the addict "is denied the medical care he urgently needs, open, above-board sources from which he formerly obtained his drug supply are closed to him, and he is driven to the underworld where he can get his drug, but of course, surreptitiously and in violation of the law." Cocaine_sentence_254

The Harrison Act left manufacturers of cocaine untouched so long as they met certain purity and labeling standards. Cocaine_sentence_255

Despite that cocaine was typically illegal to sell and legal outlets were rarer, the quantities of legal cocaine produced declined very little. Cocaine_sentence_256

Legal cocaine quantities did not decrease until the Jones–Miller Act of 1922 put serious restrictions on cocaine manufactures. Cocaine_sentence_257

Interdiction Cocaine_section_35

In 2004, according to the United Nations, 589 tonnes of cocaine were seized globally by law enforcement authorities. Cocaine_sentence_258

Colombia seized 188 t, the United States 166 t, Europe 79 t, Peru 14 t, Bolivia 9 t, and the rest of the world 133 t. Cocaine_sentence_259

Economics Cocaine_section_36

Because of the drug's potential for addiction and overdose, cocaine is generally treated as a "hard drug", with severe penalties for possession and trafficking. Cocaine_sentence_260

Demand remains high, and consequently, black market cocaine is quite expensive. Cocaine_sentence_261

Unprocessed cocaine, such as coca leaves, are occasionally purchased and sold, but this is exceedingly rare as it is much easier and more profitable to conceal and smuggle it in powdered form. Cocaine_sentence_262

The scale of the market is immense: 770 tonnes times $100 per gram retail = up to $77 billion. Cocaine_sentence_263

Production Cocaine_section_37

Colombia is as of 2019 the world's largest cocaine producer, with production more than tripling since 2013. Cocaine_sentence_264

Three-quarters of the world's annual yield of cocaine has been produced in Colombia, both from cocaine base imported from Peru (primarily the Huallaga Valley) and Bolivia, and from locally grown coca. Cocaine_sentence_265

There was a 28% increase from the amount of potentially harvestable coca plants which were grown in Colombia in 1998. Cocaine_sentence_266

This, combined with crop reductions in Bolivia and Peru, made Colombia the nation with the largest area of coca under cultivation after the mid-1990s. Cocaine_sentence_267

Coca grown for traditional purposes by indigenous communities, a use which is still present and is permitted by Colombian laws, only makes up a small fragment of total coca production, most of which is used for the illegal drug trade. Cocaine_sentence_268

An interview with a coca farmer published in 2003 described a mode of production by acid-base extraction that has changed little since 1905. Cocaine_sentence_269

Roughly 625 pounds (283 kg) of leaves were harvested per hectare, six times per year. Cocaine_sentence_270

The leaves were dried for half a day, then chopped into small pieces with a string trimmer and sprinkled with a small amount of powdered cement (replacing sodium carbonate from former times). Cocaine_sentence_271

Several hundred pounds of this mixture were soaked in 50 US gallons (190 L) of gasoline for a day, then the gasoline was removed and the leaves were pressed for remaining liquid, after which they could be discarded. Cocaine_sentence_272

Then battery acid (weak sulfuric acid) was used, one bucket per 55 lb (25 kg) of leaves, to create a phase separation in which the cocaine free base in the gasoline was acidified and extracted into a few buckets of "murky-looking smelly liquid". Cocaine_sentence_273

Once powdered caustic soda was added to this, the cocaine precipitated and could be removed by filtration through a cloth. Cocaine_sentence_274

The resulting material, when dried, was termed pasta and sold by the farmer. Cocaine_sentence_275

The 3750 pound yearly harvest of leaves from a hectare produced 6 lb (2.5 kg) of pasta, approximately 40–60% cocaine. Cocaine_sentence_276

Repeated recrystallization from solvents, producing pasta lavada and eventually crystalline cocaine were performed at specialized laboratories after the sale. Cocaine_sentence_277

Attempts to eradicate coca fields through the use of defoliants have devastated part of the farming economy in some coca growing regions of Colombia, and strains appear to have been developed that are more resistant or immune to their use. Cocaine_sentence_278

Whether these strains are natural mutations or the product of human tampering is unclear. Cocaine_sentence_279

These strains have also shown to be more potent than those previously grown, increasing profits for the drug cartels responsible for the exporting of cocaine. Cocaine_sentence_280

Although production fell temporarily, coca crops rebounded in numerous smaller fields in Colombia, rather than the larger plantations. Cocaine_sentence_281

The cultivation of coca has become an attractive economic decision for many growers due to the combination of several factors, including the lack of other employment alternatives, the lower profitability of alternative crops in official crop substitution programs, the eradication-related damages to non-drug farms, the spread of new strains of the coca plant due to persistent worldwide demand. Cocaine_sentence_282

Cocaine_table_general_2

Estimated Andean region coca cultivation and potential pure cocaine productionCocaine_table_caption_2
Cocaine_header_cell_2_0_0 2000Cocaine_header_cell_2_0_1 2001Cocaine_header_cell_2_0_2 2002Cocaine_header_cell_2_0_3 2003Cocaine_header_cell_2_0_4 2004Cocaine_header_cell_2_0_5
Net cultivation km (sq mi)Cocaine_cell_2_1_0 1,875 (724)Cocaine_cell_2_1_1 2,218 (856)Cocaine_cell_2_1_2 2,007.5 (775.1)Cocaine_cell_2_1_3 1,663 (642)Cocaine_cell_2_1_4 1,662 (642)Cocaine_cell_2_1_5
Potential pure cocaine production (tonnes)Cocaine_cell_2_2_0 770Cocaine_cell_2_2_1 925Cocaine_cell_2_2_2 830Cocaine_cell_2_2_3 680Cocaine_cell_2_2_4 645Cocaine_cell_2_2_5

The latest estimate provided by the U.S. authorities on the annual production of cocaine in Colombia refers to 290 metric tons. Cocaine_sentence_283

As of the end of 2011, the seizure operations of Colombian cocaine carried out in different countries have totaled 351.8 metric tons of cocaine, i.e. 121.3% of Colombia's annual production according to the U.S. Department of State's estimates. Cocaine_sentence_284

Synthesis Cocaine_section_38

Synthetic cocaine would be highly desirable to the illegal drug industry as it would eliminate the high visibility and low reliability of offshore sources and international smuggling, replacing them with clandestine domestic laboratories, as are common for illicit methamphetamine. Cocaine_sentence_285

However, natural cocaine remains the lowest cost and highest quality supply of cocaine. Cocaine_sentence_286

Actual full synthesis of cocaine is rarely done. Cocaine_sentence_287

Formation of inactive stereoisomers (cocaine has 4 chiral centres – 1R, 2R, 3S, and 5S, 2 of them dependent, hence a total potential of 8 possible stereoisomers) plus synthetic by-products limits the yield and purity. Cocaine_sentence_288

Names like "synthetic cocaine" and "new cocaine" have been misapplied to phencyclidine (PCP) and various designer drugs. Cocaine_sentence_289

Trafficking and distribution Cocaine_section_39

Organized criminal gangs operating on a large scale dominate the cocaine trade. Cocaine_sentence_290

Most cocaine is grown and processed in South America, particularly in Colombia, Bolivia, Peru, and smuggled into the United States and Europe, the United States being the world's largest consumer of cocaine, where it is sold at huge markups; usually in the US at $80–120 for 1 gram, and $250–300 for 3.5 grams (1/8 of an ounce, or an "eight ball"). Cocaine_sentence_291

Caribbean and Mexican routes Cocaine_section_40

As of 2005, cocaine shipments from South America transported through Mexico or Central America were generally moved over land or by air to staging sites in northern Mexico. Cocaine_sentence_292

The cocaine is then broken down into smaller loads for smuggling across the U.S.–Mexico border. Cocaine_sentence_293

The primary cocaine importation points in the United States have been in Arizona, southern California, southern Florida, and Texas. Cocaine_sentence_294

Typically, land vehicles are driven across the U.S.–Mexico border. Cocaine_sentence_295

Sixty-five percent of cocaine enters the United States through Mexico, and the vast majority of the rest enters through Florida. Cocaine_sentence_296

As of 2015, the Sinaloa Cartel is the most active drug cartel involved in smuggling illicit drugs like cocaine into the United States and trafficking them throughout the United States. Cocaine_sentence_297

Cocaine traffickers from Colombia and Mexico have established a labyrinth of smuggling routes throughout the Caribbean, the Bahama Island chain, and South Florida. Cocaine_sentence_298

They often hire traffickers from Mexico or the Dominican Republic to transport the drug using a variety of smuggling techniques to U.S. markets. Cocaine_sentence_299

These include airdrops of 500 to 700 kg (1,100 to 1,500 lb) in the Bahama Islands or off the coast of Puerto Rico, mid-ocean boat-to-boat transfers of 500 to 2,000 kg (1,100 to 4,400 lb), and the commercial shipment of tonnes of cocaine through the port of Miami. Cocaine_sentence_300

Chilean route Cocaine_section_41

Another route of cocaine traffic goes through Chile, which is primarily used for cocaine produced in Bolivia since the nearest seaports lie in northern Chile. Cocaine_sentence_301

The arid Bolivia–Chile border is easily crossed by 4×4 vehicles that then head to the seaports of Iquique and Antofagasta. Cocaine_sentence_302

While the price of cocaine is higher in Chile than in Peru and Bolivia, the final destination is usually Europe, especially Spain where drug dealing networks exist among South American immigrants. Cocaine_sentence_303

Techniques Cocaine_section_42

Cocaine is also carried in small, concealed, kilogram quantities across the border by couriers known as "mules" (or "mulas"), who cross a border either legally, for example, through a port or airport, or illegally elsewhere. Cocaine_sentence_304

The drugs may be strapped to the waist or legs or hidden in bags, or hidden in the body. Cocaine_sentence_305

If the mule gets through without being caught, the gangs will reap most of the profits. Cocaine_sentence_306

If he or she is caught, however, gangs will sever all links and the mule will usually stand trial for trafficking alone. Cocaine_sentence_307

Bulk cargo ships are also used to smuggle cocaine to staging sites in the western Caribbean–Gulf of Mexico area. Cocaine_sentence_308

These vessels are typically 150–250-foot (50–80 m) coastal freighters that carry an average cocaine load of approximately 2.5 tonnes. Cocaine_sentence_309

Commercial fishing vessels are also used for smuggling operations. Cocaine_sentence_310

In areas with a high volume of recreational traffic, smugglers use the same types of vessels, such as go-fast boats, as those used by the local populations. Cocaine_sentence_311

Sophisticated drug subs are the latest tool drug runners are using to bring cocaine north from Colombia, it was reported on 20 March 2008. Cocaine_sentence_312

Although the vessels were once viewed as a quirky sideshow in the drug war, they are becoming faster, more seaworthy, and capable of carrying bigger loads of drugs than earlier models, according to those charged with catching them. Cocaine_sentence_313

Sales to consumers Cocaine_section_43

Cocaine is readily available in all major countries' metropolitan areas. Cocaine_sentence_314

According to the Summer 1998 Pulse Check, published by the U.S. Office of National Drug Control Policy, cocaine use had stabilized across the country, with a few increases reported in San Diego, Bridgeport, Miami, and Boston. Cocaine_sentence_315

In the West, cocaine usage was lower, which was thought to be due to a switch to methamphetamine among some users; methamphetamine is cheaper, three and a half times more powerful, and lasts 12–24 times longer with each dose. Cocaine_sentence_316

Nevertheless, the number of cocaine users remain high, with a large concentration among urban youth. Cocaine_sentence_317

In addition to the amounts previously mentioned, cocaine can be sold in "bill sizes": As of 2007 for example, $10 might purchase a "dime bag", a very small amount (0.1–0.15 g) of cocaine. Cocaine_sentence_318

Twenty dollars might purchase 0.15–0.3 g. However, in lower Texas, it is sold cheaper due to it being easier to receive: a dime for $10 is 0.4 g, a 20 is 0.8–1.0 g and an 8-ball (3.5 g) is sold for $60 to $80, depending on the quality and dealer. Cocaine_sentence_319

These amounts and prices are very popular among young people because they are inexpensive and easily concealed on one's body. Cocaine_sentence_320

Quality and price can vary dramatically depending on supply and demand, and on geographic region. Cocaine_sentence_321

In 2008, the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction reports that the typical retail price of cocaine varied between €50 and €75 per gram in most European countries, although Cyprus, Romania, Sweden and Turkey reported much higher values. Cocaine_sentence_322

Consumption Cocaine_section_44

World annual cocaine consumption, as of 2000, stood at around 600 tonnes, with the United States consuming around 300 t, 50% of the total, Europe about 150 t, 25% of the total, and the rest of the world the remaining 150 t or 25%. Cocaine_sentence_323

It is estimated that 1.5 million people in the United States used cocaine in 2010 down from 2.4 million in 2006. Cocaine_sentence_324

Conversely, cocaine use appears to be increasing in Europe with the highest prevalences in Spain, the United Kingdom, Italy, and Ireland. Cocaine_sentence_325

The 2010 UN World Drug Report concluded that "it appears that the North American cocaine market has declined in value from US$47 billion in 1998 to US$38 billion in 2008. Cocaine_sentence_326

Between 2006 and 2008, the value of the market remained basically stable". Cocaine_sentence_327

Research Cocaine_section_45

In 2005, researchers proposed the use of cocaine in conjunction with phenylephrine administered in the form of an eye drop as a diagnostic test for Parkinson's disease. Cocaine_sentence_328

See also Cocaine_section_46

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cocaine.