Nomenclature codes

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See also: International Code of Area Nomenclature and International Code of Phytosociological Nomenclature Nomenclature codes_sentence_0

Nomenclature codes or codes of nomenclature are the various rulebooks that govern biological taxonomic nomenclature, each in their own broad field of organisms. Nomenclature codes_sentence_1

To an end-user who only deals with names of species, with some awareness that species are assignable to families, it may not be noticeable that there is more than one code, but beyond this basic level these are rather different in the way they work. Nomenclature codes_sentence_2

The successful introduction of two-part names for species by Linnaeus was the start for an ever-expanding system of nomenclature. Nomenclature codes_sentence_3

With all naturalists worldwide adopting this approach to thinking up names there arose several schools of thought about the details. Nomenclature codes_sentence_4

It became ever more apparent that a detailed body of rules was necessary to govern scientific names. Nomenclature codes_sentence_5

From the mid-19th century onwards there were several initiatives to arrive at worldwide-accepted sets of rules. Nomenclature codes_sentence_6

Presently nomenclature codes govern the naming of: Nomenclature codes_sentence_7

Nomenclature codes_unordered_list_0

Differences between codes Nomenclature codes_section_0

Starting point Nomenclature codes_section_1

The starting point, that is the time from which these codes are in effect (usually retroactively), varies from group to group, and sometimes from rank to rank. Nomenclature codes_sentence_8

In botany and mycology the starting point is often 1 May 1753 (Linnaeus, Species plantarum), in zoology 1758 (Linnaeus, Systema Naturae, 10th Edition). Nomenclature codes_sentence_9

On the other hand, bacteriology started anew, making a clean sweep in 1980 (Skerman et al., "Approved Lists of Bacterial Names"), although maintaining the original authors and dates of publication. Nomenclature codes_sentence_10

Exceptions in botany: Nomenclature codes_sentence_11

Nomenclature codes_unordered_list_1

  • Spermatophyta and Pteridophyta, suprageneric names: 4 August 1789 (Jussieu, Genera plantarum);Nomenclature codes_item_1_6
  • Musci (except Sphagnaceae): 1 January 1801 (Hedwig, Species muscorum);Nomenclature codes_item_1_7
  • Sphagnaceae and Hepaticae (including Anthocerotae), suprageneric names: 4 August 1789 (Jussieu, Genera plantarum);Nomenclature codes_item_1_8
  • (Fungi:) Microsporidia are governed by the ICZN (treated as animals), and see below for fossil fungi;Nomenclature codes_item_1_9
  • (Algae:)Nomenclature codes_item_1_10
    • Nostocaceae homocysteae: 1 January 1892 (Gomont, “Monographie des Oscillariées”);Nomenclature codes_item_1_11
    • Nostocaceae heterocysteae: 1 January 1886 (Bornet & Flahault, “Révision des Nostocacées hétérocystées”);Nomenclature codes_item_1_12
    • Desmidiaceae: 1 January 1848 (Ralfs, British Desmidieae);Nomenclature codes_item_1_13
    • Oedogoniaceae: 1 January 1900 (Hirn, “Monographie und Iconographie der Oedogoniaceen”);Nomenclature codes_item_1_14
  • Fossil plants, algae (diatoms excepted) and fungi: 31 December 1820 (Sternberg, Flora der Vorwelt).Nomenclature codes_item_1_15

Exceptions in zoology: Nomenclature codes_sentence_12

Nomenclature codes_unordered_list_2

Workings Nomenclature codes_section_2

There are also differences in the way codes work. Nomenclature codes_sentence_13

For example, the ICN (the code for algae, fungi and plants) forbids tautonyms, while the ICZN, (the animal code) allows them. Nomenclature codes_sentence_14

Terminology Nomenclature codes_section_3

These codes differ in terminology, and there is a long-term project to "harmonize" this. Nomenclature codes_sentence_15

For instance, the ICN uses "valid" in "valid publication of a name" (= the act of publishing a formal name), with "establishing a name" as the ICZN equivalent. Nomenclature codes_sentence_16

The ICZN uses "valid" in "valid name" (= "correct name"), with "correct name" as the ICN equivalent. Nomenclature codes_sentence_17

Harmonization is making very limited progress. Nomenclature codes_sentence_18

Types Nomenclature codes_section_4

There are differences in respect of what kinds of types are used. Nomenclature codes_sentence_19

The bacteriological code prefers living type cultures, but allows other kinds. Nomenclature codes_sentence_20

There has been ongoing debate regarding which kind of type is more useful in a case like cyanobacteria. Nomenclature codes_sentence_21

Other codes Nomenclature codes_section_5

BioCode Nomenclature codes_section_6

A more radical approach was made in 1997 when the IUBS/IUMS International Committee on Bionomenclature (ICB) presented the long debated Draft BioCode, proposed to replace all existing Codes with an harmonization of them. Nomenclature codes_sentence_22

The originally planned implementation date for the BioCode draft was January 1, 2000, but agreement to replace the existing Codes was not reached. Nomenclature codes_sentence_23

In 2011 a revised BioCode was proposed that, instead of replacing the existing Codes, would provide a unified context for them, referring to them when necessary. Nomenclature codes_sentence_24

Changes in the existing codes are slowly being made in the proposed directions. Nomenclature codes_sentence_25

Phylocode Nomenclature codes_section_7

Some authors encountered problems in using the Linnean system in phylogenetic classification. Nomenclature codes_sentence_26

Another Code in development since 1998 is the PhyloCode, which would regulate what their creators called phylogenetic nomenclature instead of the traditional Linnaean nomenclature (that is, it requires phylogenetic definitions as a "type" attached to every name, and does not contain mandatory ranks). Nomenclature codes_sentence_27

The Code and the accompanying volume (meant to serve as a list of not-suppressed names and a new starting point, like the 1980s Approved Lists of Bacterial Names functions relative to the Bacteriological Code, much like Systema naturae functions relative to the Zoological Code), is however still in the draft stage, and it is uncertain when, or even if, the code will see any form of implementation. Nomenclature codes_sentence_28

Ambiregnal protists Nomenclature codes_section_8

Some protists, sometimes called ambiregnal protists, have been considered to be both protozoa and algae, or protozoa and fungi, and names for these have been published under either or both of the ICZN and the ICN. Nomenclature codes_sentence_29

The resulting double language throughout protist classification schemes resulted in confusion. Nomenclature codes_sentence_30

Groups claimed by protozoologists and phycologists include euglenids, dinoflagellates, cryptomonads, haptophytes, glaucophytes, many heterokonts (e.g., chrysophytes, raphidophytes, silicoflagellates, some xanthophytes, proteromonads), some monadoid green algae (volvocaleans and prasinophytes), choanoflagellates, bicosoecids, ebriids and chlorarachniophytes. Nomenclature codes_sentence_31

Slime molds, plasmodial forms and other "fungus-like" organisms claimed by protozoologists and mycologists include mycetozoans, plasmodiophorids, acrasids, and labyrinthulomycetess. Nomenclature codes_sentence_32

Fungi claimed by protozoologists and mycologists include chytrids, blastoclads, and the gut fungi. Nomenclature codes_sentence_33

Other problematic groups are the Cyanobacteria and Microsporidia. Nomenclature codes_sentence_34

Unregulated taxa Nomenclature codes_section_9

The zoological code does not regulate names of taxa lower than subspecies or higher than superfamily. Nomenclature codes_sentence_35

There are many attempts to introduce some order on the nomenclature of these taxa, including the PhyloCode, or also of circumscriptional nomenclature. Nomenclature codes_sentence_36

The botanical code is applied primarily to the ranks of family and below. Nomenclature codes_sentence_37

There are some rules for names above the rank of family, but the principle of priority does not apply to them, and the principle of typification is optional. Nomenclature codes_sentence_38

These names may be either automatically typified names or be descriptive names. Nomenclature codes_sentence_39

In some circumstances, a taxon has two possible names (e.g., Chrysophyceae Pascher, 1914, nom. Nomenclature codes_sentence_40

descrip. Nomenclature codes_sentence_41

Hibberd, 1976, nom. Nomenclature codes_sentence_42

typificatum). Nomenclature codes_sentence_43

Descriptive names are problematic, once that, if a taxon is split, it is not obvious which new group takes the existing name. Nomenclature codes_sentence_44

Meanwhile, with typified names, the existing name is taken by the new group that still bears the type of this name. Nomenclature codes_sentence_45

However, typified names present special problems for microorganisms. Nomenclature codes_sentence_46

See also Nomenclature codes_section_10

Nomenclature codes_unordered_list_3

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: codes.