Coleman Hawkins

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Coleman Hawkins_table_infobox_0

Coleman HawkinsColeman Hawkins_header_cell_0_0_0
Background informationColeman Hawkins_header_cell_0_1_0
Birth nameColeman Hawkins_header_cell_0_2_0 Coleman Randolph HawkinsColeman Hawkins_cell_0_2_1
Also known asColeman Hawkins_header_cell_0_3_0 "Bean", "Hawk"Coleman Hawkins_cell_0_3_1
BornColeman Hawkins_header_cell_0_4_0 (1904-11-21)November 21, 1904

Saint Joseph, Missouri, United StatesColeman Hawkins_cell_0_4_1

DiedColeman Hawkins_header_cell_0_5_0 May 19, 1969(1969-05-19) (aged 64)

New York City, United StatesColeman Hawkins_cell_0_5_1

GenresColeman Hawkins_header_cell_0_6_0 Jazz, Swing music, bebopColeman Hawkins_cell_0_6_1
InstrumentsColeman Hawkins_header_cell_0_7_0 Tenor saxophone, bass saxophone, clarinetColeman Hawkins_cell_0_7_1
Years activeColeman Hawkins_header_cell_0_8_0 1921–1969Coleman Hawkins_cell_0_8_1
Associated actsColeman Hawkins_header_cell_0_9_0 Ben Webster, Max RoachColeman Hawkins_cell_0_9_1

Coleman Randolph Hawkins (November 21, 1904 – May 19, 1969), nicknamed "Hawk" and sometimes "Bean", was an American jazz tenor saxophonist. Coleman Hawkins_sentence_0

One of the first prominent jazz musicians on his instrument, as Joachim E. Berendt explained: "there were some tenor players before him, but the instrument was not an acknowledged jazz horn". Coleman Hawkins_sentence_1

Hawkins biographer John Chilton described the prevalent styles of tenor saxophone solos prior to Hawkins as "mooing" and "rubbery belches." Coleman Hawkins_sentence_2

Hawkins cited as influences Happy Caldwell, Stump Evans, and Prince Robinson, although he was the first to tailor his method of improvisation to the saxophone rather than imitate the techniques of the clarinet. Coleman Hawkins_sentence_3

Hawkins' virtuosic, arpeggiated approach to improvisation, with his characteristic rich, emotional, loud, and vibrato-laden tonal style, was the main influence on a generation of tenor players that included Chu Berry, Charlie Barnet, Tex Beneke, Ben Webster, Vido Musso, Herschel Evans, Buddy Tate, and Don Byas, and through them the later tenormen, Arnett Cobb, Illinois Jacquet, Flip Phillips, Ike Quebec, Al Sears, Paul Gonsalves, and Lucky Thompson. Coleman Hawkins_sentence_4

While Hawkins became well known with swing music during the big band era, he had a role in the development of bebop in the 1940s. Coleman Hawkins_sentence_5

Fellow saxophonist Lester Young, known as "Pres", commented in a 1959 interview with The Jazz Review: "As far as I'm concerned, I think Coleman Hawkins was the President first, right? Coleman Hawkins_sentence_6

As far as myself, I think I'm the second one." Coleman Hawkins_sentence_7

Miles Davis once said: "When I heard Hawk, I learned to play ballads." Coleman Hawkins_sentence_8

Early life Coleman Hawkins_section_0

Hawkins was born in Saint Joseph, Missouri, in 1904. Coleman Hawkins_sentence_9

He was named Coleman after his mother Cordelia's maiden name. Coleman Hawkins_sentence_10

There is record of Hawkins' parents' first child, a girl, being born in 1901 and dying at the age of two. Coleman Hawkins_sentence_11

He attended high school in Chicago, then in Topeka, Kansas at Topeka High School. Coleman Hawkins_sentence_12

He later stated that he studied harmony and composition for two years at Washburn College in Topeka while still attending high school. Coleman Hawkins_sentence_13

In his youth he played piano and cello, and started playing saxophone at the age of nine; by the age of fourteen he was playing around eastern Kansas. Coleman Hawkins_sentence_14

Later life and career Coleman Hawkins_section_1

1921–1939 Coleman Hawkins_section_2

Hawkins's first major gig was with Mamie Smith's Jazz Hounds in 1921, and he was with the band full-time from April 1922 to 1923, when he settled in New York City. Coleman Hawkins_sentence_15

In the Jazz Hounds, he coincided with Garvin Bushell, Everett Robbins, Bubber Miley and Herb Flemming, among others. Coleman Hawkins_sentence_16

Hawkins joined Fletcher Henderson's Orchestra, where he remained until 1934, sometimes doubling on clarinet and bass saxophone. Coleman Hawkins_sentence_17

Hawkins's playing changed significantly during Louis Armstrong's tenure with the Henderson Orchestra (1924–25). Coleman Hawkins_sentence_18

In the late 1920s, Hawkins also participated in some of the earliest interracial recording sessions with the Mound City Blue Blowers. Coleman Hawkins_sentence_19

During his time with Henderson he became a star soloist with increasing prominence on records. Coleman Hawkins_sentence_20

While with the band, he and Henry "Red" Allen recorded a series of small group sides for ARC (on their Perfect, Melotone, Romeo, and Oriole labels). Coleman Hawkins_sentence_21

Hawkins also recorded a number of solo recordings with either piano or a pick-up band of Henderson's musicians in 1933–34, just prior to his period in Europe. Coleman Hawkins_sentence_22

He was also featured on a Benny Goodman session on February 2, 1934 for Columbia, which also featured Mildred Bailey as guest vocalist. Coleman Hawkins_sentence_23

In late 1934, Hawkins accepted an invitation to play with Jack Hylton's orchestra in London, and toured Europe as a soloist until 1939, performing and recording with Django Reinhardt and Benny Carter in Paris in 1937. Coleman Hawkins_sentence_24

During Hawkins' time touring Europe between 1934 and 1939 attention in the U.S. shifted to other tenor saxophonists, including Lester Young, Ben Webster, and Chu Berry. Coleman Hawkins_sentence_25

Following his return to the United States, he quickly re-established himself as one of the leading lights on tenor by adding innovations to his earlier style. Coleman Hawkins_sentence_26

On October 11, 1939, he recorded a two-chorus performance of the pop standard "Body and Soul", which he had been performing at Bert Kelly's New York venue, Kelly's Stables. Coleman Hawkins_sentence_27

In a landmark recording of the swing era, captured as an afterthought at the session, Hawkins ignores almost all of the melody, with only the first four bars stated in a recognizable fashion. Coleman Hawkins_sentence_28

Hawkins' departure from the melodic themes of the tune, use of upper chord intervals, and implied passing chords in that recording have been described as "one of the early tremors of bebop." Coleman Hawkins_sentence_29

The 1940s and 1950s Coleman Hawkins_section_3

After a brief period in 1940 leading a big band, Hawkins led small groups at Kelly's Stables on Manhattan's 52nd Street. Coleman Hawkins_sentence_30

During 1944, He recorded in small and large groups for the Keynote, Savoy, and Apollo labels. Coleman Hawkins_sentence_31

Hawkins always had a keen ear for new talent and styles, and he was the leader on what is generally considered to have been the first ever bebop recording session on February 16, 1944 including Dizzy Gillespie, Don Byas, Clyde Hart, Oscar Pettiford, and Max Roach. Coleman Hawkins_sentence_32

On October 19, 1944 he led another bebop recording session with Thelonious Monk on piano, Edward Robinson on bass, and Denzil Best on drums. Coleman Hawkins_sentence_33

In 1945 he recorded extensively with small groups with Best and either Robinson or Pettiford on bass, Sir Charles Thompson on piano, Alan Reuss on guitar, Howard McGhee on trumpet, and Vic Dickenson on trombone, in sessions reflecting a highly individual style with an indifference toward the categories of "modern" and "traditional" jazz. Coleman Hawkins_sentence_34

That general period saw him recording with such diverse stylists as Sid Catlett, Tyree Glenn, Hilton Jefferson (a Fletcher Henderson bandmate), Hank Jones, Billy Taylor, J. Coleman Hawkins_sentence_35 J. Johnson and Fats Navarro. Coleman Hawkins_sentence_36

He also toured with Jazz at the Philharmonic (JATP). Coleman Hawkins_sentence_37

He maintained his eclectic approach to his music through much of his later career. Coleman Hawkins_sentence_38

After 1948, Hawkins divided his time between New York and Europe, making numerous freelance recordings. Coleman Hawkins_sentence_39

In 1948 Hawkins recorded "Picasso", an early piece for unaccompanied saxophone. Coleman Hawkins_sentence_40

He remained commercially successful with "mainstream" recordings, sometimes with strings, and the JATP tour during the early 1950s, and appeared to be losing interest in the more dynamic and challenging styles with which he had recently been associated. Coleman Hawkins_sentence_41

In the 1950s, Hawkins performed with more traditional musicians such as Red Allen and Roy Eldridge, with whom he appeared at the 1957 Newport Jazz Festival and recorded Coleman Hawkins Encounters Ben Webster with fellow tenor saxophonist Ben Webster along with Oscar Peterson, Herb Ellis, Ray Brown, and Alvin Stoller. Coleman Hawkins_sentence_42

His 1957 album The Hawk Flies High, with Idrees Sulieman, J. J. Johnson, Hank Jones, Barry Galbraith, Oscar Pettiford, and Jo Jones shows his interest in modern jazz styles during a period better known for his playing with more traditional musicians. Coleman Hawkins_sentence_43

Hawkins' interest in more modern styles manifested in a reunion with Monk, with whom he had remained close even though they hadn't played together for over a decade. Coleman Hawkins_sentence_44

Monk led a June 1957 session featuring Hawkins and John Coltrane that would yield the classic Monk's Music album issued later that summer. Coleman Hawkins_sentence_45

Outtakes from this session would comprise half the tracks on Thelonious Monk with John Coltrane, released on the Jazzland Records subsidiary of Riverside Records in 1961. Coleman Hawkins_sentence_46

1960–1969 Coleman Hawkins_section_4

In the 1960s, Hawkins appeared regularly at the Village Vanguard in Manhattan. Coleman Hawkins_sentence_47

In 1960 he recorded on Max Roach's We Insist! Coleman Hawkins_sentence_48

suite, a key jazz document which anticipated the political and social linkages that would develop between jazz and the civil rights movement during the coming decade. Coleman Hawkins_sentence_49

At the behest of Impulse Records producer Bob Thiele, Hawkins availed himself of a long-desired opportunity to record with Duke Ellington for the 1962 album Duke Ellington Meets Coleman Hawkins alongside Ellington band stalwarts Johnny Hodges, Lawrence Brown, Ray Nance, and Harry Carney as well as the Duke. Coleman Hawkins_sentence_50

Sessions for Impulse with his performing quartet yielded Today and Now, also in 1962 and judged one of his better latter-day efforts by The Penguin Guide to Jazz Recordings. Coleman Hawkins_sentence_51

Hawkins recorded in 1963 alongside Sonny Rollins for their collaborative album Sonny Meets Hawk! Coleman Hawkins_sentence_52

It was shortly after this busy period that Hawkins fell into the grip of depression and heavy drinking and his recording output began to wane. Coleman Hawkins_sentence_53

His last recording was in 1967; Hawkins died of liver disease on May 19, 1969, at Wickersham Hospital, in Manhattan. Coleman Hawkins_sentence_54

He was survived by his widow, Dolores, and by three children: a son, Rene, and two daughters, Colette and Mimi. Coleman Hawkins_sentence_55

Hawkins is interred in the Yew Plot at the Woodlawn Cemetery in The Bronx, New York City. Coleman Hawkins_sentence_56

The Song of the Hawk, a 1990 biography written by British jazz historian John Chilton, chronicles Hawkins's career. Coleman Hawkins_sentence_57

On June 25, 2019, The New York Times Magazine listed Coleman Hawkins among hundreds of artists whose material was reportedly destroyed in the 2008 Universal fire. Coleman Hawkins_sentence_58

Discography Coleman Hawkins_section_5

As leader/co-leader Coleman Hawkins_section_6

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As sideman Coleman Hawkins_section_7

With Kenny Burrell Coleman Hawkins_sentence_59

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With Benny Carter Coleman Hawkins_sentence_60

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With Eddie "Lockjaw" Davis Coleman Hawkins_sentence_61

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  • Very Saxy (Prestige, 1959)Coleman Hawkins_item_5_49

With Dizzy Gillespie Coleman Hawkins_sentence_62

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With Tiny Grimes Coleman Hawkins_sentence_63

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With Fletcher Henderson Coleman Hawkins_sentence_64

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  • A Study in Frustration (Columbia, 1927-1936)Coleman Hawkins_item_8_52
  • Hocus Pocus (RCA, 1927-1936)Coleman Hawkins_item_8_53

With Lambert, Hendricks & Bavan Coleman Hawkins_sentence_65

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With Abbey Lincoln Coleman Hawkins_sentence_66

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With Shelly Manne Coleman Hawkins_sentence_67

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  • 2-3-4 (Impulse!, 1962)Coleman Hawkins_item_11_56

With Thelonious Monk Coleman Hawkins_sentence_68

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With Bob Prince Coleman Hawkins_sentence_69

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  • Saxes Inc. (1959)Coleman Hawkins_item_13_59

With Django Reinhardt Coleman Hawkins_sentence_70

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  • And His American Friends (various labels, ca. 1935-1937)Coleman Hawkins_item_14_60
  • Django Reinhardt Collection (Fabulous, 1935-1946 )Coleman Hawkins_item_14_61

With Max Roach Coleman Hawkins_sentence_71

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  • We Insist! (Candid, 1960)Coleman Hawkins_item_15_62

With Pee Wee Russell Coleman Hawkins_sentence_72

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  • Jazz Reunion (Candid, 1961)Coleman Hawkins_item_16_63

With Rex Stewart and Cootie Williams Coleman Hawkins_sentence_73

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With Ben Webster Coleman Hawkins_sentence_74

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With Randy Weston Coleman Hawkins_sentence_75

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With Joe Williams Coleman Hawkins_sentence_76

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Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coleman Hawkins.