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For other uses, see Collaboration (disambiguation). Collaboration_sentence_0

For the definition in music, between two or more artists, see Featuring. Collaboration_sentence_1

Collaboration is the process of two or more people, entities or organizations working together to complete a task or achieve a goal. Collaboration_sentence_2

Collaboration is similar to cooperation. Collaboration_sentence_3

Most collaboration requires leadership, although the form of leadership can be social within a decentralized and egalitarian group. Collaboration_sentence_4

Teams that work collaboratively often access greater resources, recognition and rewards when facing competition for finite resources. Collaboration_sentence_5

Structured methods of collaboration encourage introspection of behavior and communication. Collaboration_sentence_6

Such methods aim to increase the success of teams as they engage in collaborative problem-solving. Collaboration_sentence_7

Collaboration is present in opposing goals exhibiting the notion of adversarial collaboration, though this is not a common use of the term. Collaboration_sentence_8

In its applied sense,"(a) collaboration is a purposeful relationship in which all parties strategically choose to cooperate in order to accomplish a shared outcome." Collaboration_sentence_9

Examples Collaboration_section_0

Trade Collaboration_section_1

Trade is a form of collaboration between two societies that produce different portfolios of goods. Collaboration_sentence_10

Trade began in prehistoric times and continues because it benefits all of its participants. Collaboration_sentence_11

Prehistoric peoples bartered goods and services with each other without a modern currency. Collaboration_sentence_12

Peter Watson dates the history of long-distance commerce from circa 150,000 years ago. Collaboration_sentence_13

Trade exists because different communities have a comparative advantage in the production of tradable goods. Collaboration_sentence_14

Community organization: Intentional Community Collaboration_section_2

Main article: intentional community Collaboration_sentence_15

The members of an intentional community typically hold a common social, political or spiritual vision. Collaboration_sentence_16

They share responsibilities and resources. Collaboration_sentence_17

Intentional communities include cohousing, residential land trusts, ecovillages, communes, kibbutzim, ashrams, and housing cooperatives. Collaboration_sentence_18

Typically, new members of an intentional community are selected by the community's existing membership, rather than by real estate agents or land owners (if the land is not owned by the community). Collaboration_sentence_19

Hutterite, Austria (founded 16th century) Collaboration_section_3

In Hutterite communities housing units are built and assigned to individual families, but belong to the colony with little personal property. Collaboration_sentence_20

Meals are taken by the entire colony in a common long room. Collaboration_sentence_21

Oneida Community, Oneida, New York (1848) Collaboration_section_4

The Oneida Community practiced Communalism (in the sense of communal property and possessions) and Mutual Criticism, where every member of the community was subject to criticism by committee or the community as a whole, during a general meeting. Collaboration_sentence_22

The goal was to remove bad character traits. Collaboration_sentence_23

Kibbutz (1890) Collaboration_section_5

A Kibbutz is an Israeli collective community. Collaboration_sentence_24

The movement combines socialism and Zionism seeking a form of practical Labor Zionism. Collaboration_sentence_25

Choosing communal life, and inspired by their own ideology, kibbutz members developed a communal mode of living. Collaboration_sentence_26

The kibbutzim lasted for several generations as utopian communities, although most became capitalist enterprises and regular towns. Collaboration_sentence_27

Indigenous Collaboration Collaboration_section_6

Collaboration in indigenous communities, particularly in the Americas, often involves the entire community working toward a common goal in a horizontal structure with flexible leadership. Collaboration_sentence_28

Children in some indigenous American communities collaborate with the adults. Collaboration_sentence_29

Children can be contributors in the process of meeting objectives by taking on tasks that suit their skills. Collaboration_sentence_30

Indigenous learning techniques comprise Learning by Observing and Pitching In. Collaboration_sentence_31

For example, a study of Mayan fathers and children with traditional Indigenous ways of learning worked together in collaboration more frequently when building a 3D model puzzle than Mayan fathers with western schooling. Collaboration_sentence_32

Also, Chillihuani people of the Andes value work and create work parties in which members of each household in the community participate. Collaboration_sentence_33

Children from indigenous-heritage communities want to help around the house voluntarily. Collaboration_sentence_34

In the Mazahua Indigenous community of Mexico, school children show initiative and autonomy by contributing in their classroom, completing activities as a whole, assisting and correcting their teacher during lectures when a mistake is made. Collaboration_sentence_35

Fifth and sixth graders in the community work with the teacher installing a classroom window; the installation becomes a class project in which the students participate in the process alongside the teacher. Collaboration_sentence_36

They all work together without needing leadership, and their movements are all in sync and flowing. Collaboration_sentence_37

It is not a process of instruction, but rather a hands-on experience in which students work together as a synchronous group with the teacher, switching roles and sharing tasks. Collaboration_sentence_38

In these communities, collaboration is emphasized, and learners are trusted to take initiative. Collaboration_sentence_39

While one works, the other watches intently and all are allowed to attempt tasks with the more experienced stepping in to complete more complex parts, while others pay close attention. Collaboration_sentence_40

Collaboration in the free market Collaboration_section_7

Ayn Rand said that one way people pursue their rational self-interest is by building strong relationships with other people. Collaboration_sentence_41

According to Rand, participants in capitalism are connected through the voluntary division of labor in the free market, where value is exchanged always for value. Collaboration_sentence_42

Rand's theory of rational egoism claims that acting in one's self-interest entails looking out for others in order to protect the innocent from injustice, and to aid friends, allies, and loved ones. Collaboration_sentence_43

Game theory Collaboration_section_8

Game theory is a branch of applied mathematics, computer science, and economics that looks at situations where multiple players make decisions in an attempt to maximize their returns. Collaboration_sentence_44

The first documented discussion of game theory is in a letter written by James Waldegrave, 1st Earl Waldegrave in 1713. Collaboration_sentence_45

Antoine Augustin Cournot's Researches into the Mathematical Principles of the Theory of Wealth in 1838 provided the first general theory. Collaboration_sentence_46

In 1928 it became a recognized field when John von Neumann published a series of papers. Collaboration_sentence_47

Von Neumann's work in game theory culminated in the 1944 book The Theory of Games and Economic Behavior by von Neumann and Oskar Morgenstern. Collaboration_sentence_48

Military-industrial complex Collaboration_section_9

The term military-industrial complex refers to a close and symbiotic relationship among a nation's armed forces, its private industry, and associated political interests. Collaboration_sentence_49

In such a system, the military is dependent on industry to supply material and other support, while the defense industry depends on government for revenue. Collaboration_sentence_50

Skunk Works Collaboration_section_10

Skunk Works is a term used in engineering and technical fields to describe a group within an organization given a high degree of autonomy unhampered by bureaucracy, tasked with advanced or secret projects. Collaboration_sentence_51

One such group was created at Lockheed in 1943. Collaboration_sentence_52

The team developed highly innovative aircraft in short time frames, notably beating its first deadline by 37 days. Collaboration_sentence_53

Manhattan Project Collaboration_section_11

The Manhattan Project was a collaborative project during World War II among the Allies that developed the first atomic bomb . Collaboration_sentence_54

It was a collaborative effort by the United States, the United Kingdom and Canada. Collaboration_sentence_55

The value of this project as an influence on organized collaboration is attributed to Vannevar Bush. Collaboration_sentence_56

In early 1940, Bush lobbied for the creation of the National Defense Research Committee. Collaboration_sentence_57

Frustrated by previous bureaucratic failures in implementing technology in World War I, Bush sought to organize the scientific power of the United States for greater success. Collaboration_sentence_58

The project succeeded in developing and detonating three nuclear weapons in 1945: a test detonation of a plutonium implosion bomb on July 16 (the Trinity test) near Alamogordo, New Mexico; an enriched uranium bomb code-named "Little Boy" on August 6 over Hiroshima, Japan; and a second plutonium bomb, code-named "Fat Man" on August 9 over Nagasaki, Japan. Collaboration_sentence_59

Project management Collaboration_section_12

Academia Collaboration_section_13

Classical music Collaboration_section_14

Main article: Classical music written in collaboration Collaboration_sentence_60

Arts Collaboration_section_15

Figurative arts Collaboration_section_16

The romanticized notion of a lone, genius artist has existed since the time of Giorgio Vasari’s Lives of the Artists, published in 1568. Collaboration_sentence_61

Vasari promulgated the idea that artistic skill was endowed upon chosen individuals by gods, which created an enduring and largely false popular misunderstanding of many artistic processes. Collaboration_sentence_62

Artists have used collaboration to complete large scale works for centuries, but the myth of the lone artist was not widely questioned until the 1960s and 1970s. Collaboration_sentence_63

Collaborative art groups Collaboration_section_17


Ballet Collaboration_section_18

Ballet is a collaborative art form. Collaboration_sentence_64

Ballet entails music, dancers, costumes, a venue, lighting, etc. Hypothetically, one person could control all of this, but most often every work of ballet is the by-product of collaboration. Collaboration_sentence_65

From the earliest formal works of ballet, to the great 19th century masterpieces of Pyotr Tchaikovsky and Marius Petipa, to the 20th century masterworks of George Balanchine and Igor Stravinsky, to today’s ballet companies, feature strong collaborative connections between choreographers, composers and costume designers are essential. Collaboration_sentence_66

Within dance as an art form, there is also the collaboration between choreographer and dancer. Collaboration_sentence_67

The choreographer creates a movement in her/his head and then physically demonstrates the movement to the dancer, which the dancer sees and attempts to either mimic or interpret. Collaboration_sentence_68

Music Collaboration_section_19

Main article: Classical music written in collaboration Collaboration_sentence_69

Musical collaboration occurs when musicians in different places or groups work on the piece. Collaboration_sentence_70

Typically, multiple parties are involved (singers, songwriters, lyricists, composers, and producers) and come together to create one work. Collaboration_sentence_71

For example, one specific collaboration from recent times (2015) was the song "FourFiveSeconds". Collaboration_sentence_72

This single represents a type of collaboration because it was developed by pop idol Rihanna, Paul McCartney (former bassist, composer and vocalist for The Beatles), and rapper/composer Kanye West. Collaboration_sentence_73

Websites and software facilitate musical collaboration over the Internet, resulting in the emergence of Online Bands. Collaboration_sentence_74

Several awards exist specifically for collaboration in music: Collaboration_sentence_75


Collaboration has been a constant feature of Electroacoustic Music, due to the technology's complexity. Collaboration_sentence_76

Embedding technological tools into the process stimulated the emergence of new agents with new expertise: the musical assistant, the technician, the computer music designer, the music mediator (a profession that has been described and defined in different ways over the years) – aiding with writing, creating new instruments, recording and/or performance. Collaboration_sentence_77

The musical assistant explains developments in musical research and translates artistic ideas into programming languages. Collaboration_sentence_78

Finally, he or she transforms those ideas into a score or a computer program and often performs the musical piece during the concerts. Collaboration_sentence_79

Examples of collaboration include Pierre Boulez and Andrew Gerzso, Alvise Vidolin and Luigi Nono, Jonathan Harvey and Gilbert Nouno, among others. Collaboration_sentence_80

Entertainment Collaboration_section_20

Collaboration in entertainment dates from the origin of theatrical productions, millennia ago. Collaboration_sentence_81

It takes the form of writers, directors, actors, producers and other individuals or groups work on the same production. Collaboration_sentence_82

In the twenty-first century, new technology has enhanced collaboration. Collaboration_sentence_83

A system developed by Will Wright for the TV series title Bar Karma on CurrentTV facilitates plot collaboration over the Internet. Collaboration_sentence_84

Screenwriter organizations bring together professional and amateur writers and filmmakers. Collaboration_sentence_85

Business Collaboration_section_21

See also: Management cybernetics Collaboration_sentence_86

Collaboration in business can be found both within and across organizations and ranges from partnership and crowd funding to the complexity of a multinational corporation. Collaboration_sentence_87

Inter-organizational collaboration brings participating parties to invest resources, mutually achieve goals, share information, resources, rewards and responsibilities, as well as make joint decisions and solve problems. Collaboration_sentence_88

Collaboration between public, private and voluntary sectors can be effective in tackling complex policy problems, but may be handled more effectively by boundary-spanning teams and networks than by formal organizational structures. Collaboration_sentence_89

In turn, business and management scholars have paid much attention to the importance of both formal and informal mechanisms to support inter-organizational collaboration. Collaboration_sentence_90

It especially points to the role of contractual and relational mechanisms and the inherent tensions between these two mechanisms. Collaboration_sentence_91

Collaboration allows for better communication within the organization and along supply chains. Collaboration_sentence_92

It is a way of coordinating different ideas from numerous people to generate a wide variety of knowledge. Collaboration_sentence_93

Collaboration with a selected few firms has been shown to positively impact firm performance and innovation outcomes. Collaboration_sentence_94

Technology has provided the internet, wireless connectivity and collaboration tools such as blogs and wikis, and has as such created the possibility of "mass collaboration". Collaboration_sentence_95

People are able to rapidly communicate and share ideas, crossing longstanding geographical and cultural boundaries. Collaboration_sentence_96

Social networks permeate business culture where collaborative uses include and knowledge transfer. Collaboration_sentence_97

According to author Evan Rosen command-and-control organizational structures inhibit collaboration and replacing such structures allows collaboration to flourish. Collaboration_sentence_98

Studies have found that collaboration can increase achievement and productivity. Collaboration_sentence_99

However, a four-year study of interorganizational collaboration found that successful collaboration can be rapidly derailed through external policy steering, particularly where it undermines relations built on trust. Collaboration_sentence_100

Collaboration is also threatened by opportunism from the business partners and the possibility of coordination failures that can derail the efforts of even well-intentioned parties. Collaboration_sentence_101

Coworking spaces are businesses that provide space for freelancers to work with others in a collaborative environment. Collaboration_sentence_102

Education Collaboration_section_22

In recent years, co-teaching has become more common, found in US classrooms across all grade levels and content areas. Collaboration_sentence_103

Once regarded as connecting special education and general education teachers, it is now more generally defined as “…two professionals delivering substantive instruction to a diverse group of students in a single physical space." Collaboration_sentence_104

As American classrooms have become increasingly diverse, so have the challenges for educators. Collaboration_sentence_105

Due to the diverse needs of students with designated special needs, English language learners (ELL), and students of varied academic levels, teachers have developed new approaches that provide additional student support. Collaboration_sentence_106

In practice, students remain in the classroom and receive instruction by both their general teacher and special education teachers. Collaboration_sentence_107

In the 1996 report "What Matters Most: Teaching for America’s Future" economic success could be enhanced if students developed the capacity to learn how to “manage teams… and…work together successfully in teams”. Collaboration_sentence_108

Teachers increasingly use collaborative software to establish virtual learning environments (VLEs). Collaboration_sentence_109

This allows them to share learning materials and feedback with both students and in some cases, parents. Collaboration_sentence_110

Approaches include: Collaboration_sentence_111


Publishing Collaboration_section_23

See also: Collaborative writing and Collaborative fiction Collaboration_sentence_112

Collaboration in publishing can be as simple as dual-authorship or as complex as commons-based peer production. Collaboration_sentence_113

Tools include Usenet, e-mail lists, blogs and Wikis while 'brick and mortar' examples include monographs (books) and periodicals such as newspapers, journals and magazines. Collaboration_sentence_114

One approach is for an author to publish early drafts/chapters of a work on the Internet and solicit suggestions from the world at large. Collaboration_sentence_115

This approach helped ensure that the technical aspects of the novel The Martian were as accurate as possible. Collaboration_sentence_116

Technical Communication Collaboration_section_24

Collaboration in technical communication (also commonly referred to as technical writing) has become increasingly important in the creation and dissemination of technical documents in multiple technical and occupational fields, including: computer hardware and software, medicine, engineering, robotics, aeronautics, biotechnology, information technology, and finance. Collaboration_sentence_117

Collaboration in technical communication allows for greater flexibility, productivity and innovation for technical writers and the companies they work for, resulting in technical documents that are more comprehensive and accurate than documents produced by individuals. Collaboration_sentence_118

Technical communication collaboration typically occurs on shared document workspaces (such as Google Docs), through social media sites, videoconferencing, SMS and IM, and on Cloud-based authoring platforms. Collaboration_sentence_119

Science Collaboration_section_25

See also: Science 2.0 Collaboration_sentence_120

Scientific collaboration rapidly advanced throughout the twentieth century as measured by the increasing numbers of coauthors on published papers. Collaboration_sentence_121

Wagner and Leydesdorff found international collaborations to have doubled from 1990 to 2005. Collaboration_sentence_122

While collaborative authorships within nations has also risen, this has done so at a slower rate and is not cited as frequently. Collaboration_sentence_123

Notable examples of scientific collaboration include CERN, the International Space Station, the ITER nuclear fusion experiment, and the European Union's Human Brain Project. Collaboration_sentence_124

Medicine Collaboration_section_26

Collaboration in health care is defined as health care professionals assuming complementary roles and cooperatively working together, sharing responsibility for problem-solving and making decisions to formulate and carry out plans for patient care.Collaboration between physicians, nurses, and other health care professionals increases team members’ awareness of each others’ type of knowledge and skills, leading to continued improvement in decision making. Collaboration_sentence_125

A collaborative plan is filed with each state board of medicine where the PA works. Collaboration_sentence_126

This plan formally delineates the scope of practice approved by the physician. Collaboration_sentence_127

Technology Collaboration_section_27

Collaboration in technology encompasses a broad range of tools that enable groups of people to work together including social networking, instant messaging, team spaces, web sharing, audio conferencing, video, and telephony. Collaboration_sentence_128

Many large companies adopt collaboration platforms to allow employees, customers and partners to intelligently connect and interact. Collaboration_sentence_129

Enterprise collaboration tools focus on encouraging collective intelligence and staff collaboration at the organization level, or with partners. Collaboration_sentence_130

These include features such as staff networking, expert recommendations, information sharing, expertise location, peer feedback, and real-time collaboration. Collaboration_sentence_131

At the personal level, this enables employees to enhance social awareness and their profiles and interactions Collaboration encompasses both asynchronous and synchronous methods of communication and serves as an umbrella term for a wide variety of software packages. Collaboration_sentence_132

Perhaps the most commonly associated form of synchronous collaboration is web conferencing, but the term can encompass IP telephony, instant messaging, and rich video interaction with telepresence, as well. Collaboration_sentence_133

The effectiveness of a collaborative effort is driven by three critical factors: Collaboration_sentence_134


  • CommunicationCollaboration_item_3_16
  • Content ManagementCollaboration_item_3_17
  • WorkflowCollaboration_item_3_18

The Internet Collaboration_section_28

The Internet's low cost and nearly instantaneous sharing of ideas, knowledge, and skills has made collaborative work dramatically easier. Collaboration_sentence_135

Not only can a group cheaply communicate, but the wide reach of the Internet allows groups to easily form, particularly among dispersed, niche participants. Collaboration_sentence_136

An example of this is the free software movement in software development which produced GNU and Linux from scratch and has taken over development of Mozilla and (formerly known as Netscape Communicator and StarOffice). Collaboration_sentence_137

With the recent development of social media platforms, there has been a constant and quick growth in the use of the Internet for communication and collaboration between people. Collaboration_sentence_138

The 2.0 version of the internet has become a tool for collaborative projects, blogs, online communities, social networks, group games. Collaboration_sentence_139

An example of how social media aids in more effective collaboration is seen via the business environment. Collaboration_sentence_140

Communication and collaboration create new hierarchies and wider networks for employees and partners of organisations. Collaboration_sentence_141

Additionally, it also enables businesses to broaden their marketing strategies by collaborating with influencers of those social media platforms. Collaboration_sentence_142

Commons-based peer production Collaboration_section_29

Commons-based peer production is a term coined by Yale Law professor Yochai Benkler to describe a new model of economic production in which the creative energy of large numbers of people is coordinated (usually with the aid of the internet) into large, meaningful projects, mostly without hierarchical organization or financial compensation. Collaboration_sentence_143

He compares this to firm production (where a centralized decision process decides what has to be done and by whom) and market-based production (when tagging different prices to different jobs serves as an attractor to anyone interested in doing the job). Collaboration_sentence_144

Examples of products created by means of commons-based peer production include Linux, a computer operating system; Slashdot, a news and announcements website; Kuro5hin, a discussion site for technology and culture; Wikipedia, an online encyclopedia; and Clickworkers, a collaborative scientific work. Collaboration_sentence_145

Another example is Socialtext, a software solution that uses tools such as wikis and weblogs and helps companies to create a collaborative work environment. Collaboration_sentence_146

Massively distributed collaboration Collaboration_section_30

The term massively distributed collaboration was coined by Mitchell Kapor, in a presentation at UC Berkeley on 2005-11-09, to describe an emerging activity of wikis and electronic mailing lists and blogs and other content-creating virtual communities online. Collaboration_sentence_147

See also Collaboration_section_31

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