Colony of Natal

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Colony of Natal_table_infobox_0

Colony of NatalColony of Natal_header_cell_0_0_0
StatusColony of Natal_header_cell_0_1_0 British colonyColony of Natal_cell_0_1_1
CapitalColony of Natal_header_cell_0_2_0 PietermaritzburgColony of Natal_cell_0_2_1
ReligionColony of Natal_header_cell_0_3_0 Anglican, Dutch Reformed, Hindu, Presbyterian, Roman Catholic, IslamColony of Natal_cell_0_3_1
GovernmentColony of Natal_header_cell_0_4_0 Constitutional monarchyColony of Natal_cell_0_4_1
MonarchColony of Natal_header_cell_0_5_0 Colony of Natal_cell_0_5_1
1843–1901Colony of Natal_header_cell_0_6_0 VictoriaColony of Natal_cell_0_6_1
1901–10Colony of Natal_header_cell_0_7_0 Edward VIIColony of Natal_cell_0_7_1
GovernorColony of Natal_header_cell_0_8_0 Colony of Natal_cell_0_8_1
1843-1844Colony of Natal_header_cell_0_9_0 Henry CloeteColony of Natal_cell_0_9_1
1910Colony of Natal_header_cell_0_10_0 Paul Methuen, 3rd Baron MethuenColony of Natal_cell_0_10_1
Historical eraColony of Natal_header_cell_0_11_0 ImperialismColony of Natal_cell_0_11_1
EstablishedColony of Natal_header_cell_0_12_0 4 May 1843Colony of Natal_cell_0_12_1
Annexed ZululandColony of Natal_header_cell_0_13_0 1897Colony of Natal_cell_0_13_1
DisestablishedColony of Natal_header_cell_0_14_0 1910Colony of Natal_cell_0_14_1
Natal Province est.Colony of Natal_header_cell_0_15_0 31 May 1910Colony of Natal_cell_0_15_1
AreaColony of Natal_header_cell_0_16_0
1904Colony of Natal_header_cell_0_17_0 91,610 km (35,370 sq mi)Colony of Natal_cell_0_17_1
PopulationColony of Natal_header_cell_0_18_0
1904Colony of Natal_header_cell_0_19_0 1,108,754Colony of Natal_cell_0_19_1
Preceded by

Succeeded by

Natalia Republic

Zulu Kingdom

Union of South AfricaColony of Natal_cell_0_20_0

Preceded byColony of Natal_cell_0_21_0 Succeeded byColony of Natal_cell_0_21_1
Natalia Republic

Zulu KingdomColony of Natal_cell_0_22_0

Union of South AfricaColony of Natal_cell_0_22_1
Colony of Natal_cell_0_23_0 Natalia RepublicColony of Natal_cell_0_23_1
Colony of Natal_cell_0_24_0 Zulu KingdomColony of Natal_cell_0_24_1
Union of South AfricaColony of Natal_cell_0_25_0 Colony of Natal_cell_0_25_1
Today part ofColony of Natal_header_cell_0_26_0 South AfricaColony of Natal_cell_0_26_1

The Colony of Natal was a British colony in south-eastern Africa. Colony of Natal_sentence_0

It was proclaimed a British colony on 4 May 1843 after the British government had annexed the Boer Republic of Natalia, and on 31 May 1910 combined with three other colonies to form the Union of South Africa, as one of its provinces. Colony of Natal_sentence_1

It is now the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. Colony of Natal_sentence_2

It was originally only about half the size of the present province, with the north-eastern boundaries being formed by the Tugela and Buffalo rivers beyond which lay the independent Kingdom of Zululand (kwaZulu in the Zulu language). Colony of Natal_sentence_3

Fierce conflict with the Zulu population led to the evacuation of Durban, and eventually, the Boers accepted British annexation in 1844 under military pressure. Colony of Natal_sentence_4

A British governor was appointed to the region and many settlers emigrated from Europe and the Cape Colony. Colony of Natal_sentence_5

The British established a sugar cane industry in the 1860s. Colony of Natal_sentence_6

Farm owners had a difficult time attracting Zulu labourers to work on their plantations, so the British brought thousands of indentured labourers from India. Colony of Natal_sentence_7

As a result of the importation of Indian labourers, Durban became the home to the largest concentration of Indians outside India. Colony of Natal_sentence_8

British settlement Colony of Natal_section_0

In 1823 Francis Farewell, formerly a lieutenant in the British navy, with other merchants of Cape Town, formed a company to trade with the natives of the south-east coast. Colony of Natal_sentence_9

In the brig Salisbury, commanded by James S. King, who had been a midshipman in the navy, Farewell visited Port Natal, St Lucia and Delagoa Bays. Colony of Natal_sentence_10

The voyage was not successful as a trading venture, but Farewell was so impressed with the possibilities of Natal both for trade and colonization that he resolved to establish himself at the port. Colony of Natal_sentence_11

He went on with ten companions, among them Henry Francis Fynn. Colony of Natal_sentence_12

All the rest save Farewell and Fynn speedily returned to the Cape, but the two who remained were joined by three sailors, John Cane, Henry Ogle and Thomas Holstead. Colony of Natal_sentence_13

Farewell, Fynn and the others went to the royal kraal of Shaka, and, having cured him of a wound and made him various presents, obtained a document, dated 7 August 1824, ceding to "F. G. Farewell & Company entire and full possession in perpetuity" of a tract of land including "the port or harbour of Natal". Colony of Natal_sentence_14

On the 27th of the same month, Farewell declared the territory he had acquired a British possession. Colony of Natal_sentence_15

In 1825 he was joined by King, who had meantime visited England and had obtained from the government a letter of recommendation to Lord Charles Somerset, governor of the Cape, granting King permission to settle at Natal. Colony of Natal_sentence_16

Farewell, King and Fynn made independent settlements at various parts of the bay. Colony of Natal_sentence_17

In 1834, a petition from Cape Town merchants asking for the creation of a British colony at Natal was met by the statement that the Cape finances would not permit the establishment of a new dependency. Colony of Natal_sentence_18

The merchants, however, dispatched an expedition under Dr Andrew Smith to inquire into the possibilities of the country, and the favourable nature of his report induced a party of Boers under Piet Uys to go thither also. Colony of Natal_sentence_19

Both Dr Smith and Uys travelled overland through Kaffraria, and were well received by the English living at the bay. Colony of Natal_sentence_20

The next step was taken by the settlers at the port, who in 1835 resolved to lay out a town, which they named Durban, after Benjamin D'Urban, then governor of Cape Colony. Colony of Natal_sentence_21

At the same time the settlers, who numbered about 50, sent a memorial to the governor calling attention to the fact that they were acknowledged rulers over a large tract of territory south of the Tugela River, and asking that this territory should be proclaimed a British colony and that a governor and council be appointed. Colony of Natal_sentence_22

To all these requests no official answer was returned. Colony of Natal_sentence_23

The settlers had been joined in the year named (1835) by Allen Francis Gardiner, a naval officer, whose chief object was the evangelization of the natives. Colony of Natal_sentence_24

With the support of the traders he founded a mission station on the hill overlooking the bay. Colony of Natal_sentence_25

In 1837 Gardiner was given authority by the British government to exercise jurisdiction over the traders. Colony of Natal_sentence_26

They, however, refused to acknowledge Gardiner's authority, and from the Cape government he received no support. Colony of Natal_sentence_27

The next wave of immigration consisted of Voortrekkers fleeing British rule in Cape Colony, who pushed out the English settlers at Port Natal. Colony of Natal_sentence_28

In May 1838 the Boers took control of the port and soon afterwards established the Natalia Republic. Colony of Natal_sentence_29

The Republic suffered from disorganized government and poor relations with the Zulus. Colony of Natal_sentence_30

On 2 December 1841, Sir George Thomas Napier, governor of Cape Colony, issued a proclamation declaring his intent to resume British military occupation of Port Natal. Colony of Natal_sentence_31

Most of the Voortrekkers left by 1843. Colony of Natal_sentence_32

British annexation Colony of Natal_section_1

Natal was proclaimed a British Colony in 1843, and administered from the Cape Colony in 1844. Colony of Natal_sentence_33

However, it was not until the end of 1845 that an effective administration was installed with Martin West as lieutenant-governor that the power of the Boer Volksraad finally came to an end. Colony of Natal_sentence_34

In April 1842 Lord Stanley, then Secretary of State for War and the Colonies in the second Peel Administration, wrote to Sir George Napier that the establishment of a colony in Natal would be attended with little prospect of advantage, but at the same time stated that the pretensions of the emigrants to be regarded as an independent community could not be admitted. Colony of Natal_sentence_35

Various measures were proposed which would but have aggravated the situation. Colony of Natal_sentence_36

Finally, in deference to the strongly urged views of Sir George Napier, Lord Stanley, in a despatch of 13 December, received in Cape Town on 23 April 1843, consented to Natal becoming a British colony. Colony of Natal_sentence_37

The institutions adopted were to be as far as possible in accordance with the wishes of the people, but it was a fundamental condition "that there should not be in the eye of the law any distinction or disqualification whatever, founded on mere difference of colour, origin, language or creed". Colony of Natal_sentence_38

Sir George then appointed Henry Cloete (a brother of Colonel Cloete) a special commissioner to explain to the Natal volksraad the decision of the government. Colony of Natal_sentence_39

There was a considerable party of Natal Boers still strongly opposed to the British, and they were reinforced by numerous bands of Boers who came over the Drakensberg from Winburg and Potchefstroom. Colony of Natal_sentence_40

Commandant Jan Mocke of Winburg (who had helped to besiege Captain Smith at Durban) and others of the "war party" attempted to induce the volksraad not to submit, and a plan was formed to murder Pretorius, Boshof and other leaders, who were now convinced that the only chance of ending the state of complete anarchy into which the country had fallen was by accepting British sovereignty. Colony of Natal_sentence_41

In these circumstances, the task of Henry Cloete was one of great difficulty and delicacy. Colony of Natal_sentence_42

He behaved with the utmost tact and got rid of the Winburg and Potchefstroom burghers by declaring that he should recommend the Drakensberg as the northern limit of Natal. Colony of Natal_sentence_43

On 8 August 1843, the Natal volksraad unanimously agreed to the terms proposed by Lord Stanley. Colony of Natal_sentence_44

Many of the Boers who would not acknowledge British rule trekked once more over the mountains into what are now the Orange Free State and Transvaal provinces. Colony of Natal_sentence_45

At the end of 1843, there were not more than 500 Dutch families left in Natal. Colony of Natal_sentence_46

Cloete, before returning to the Cape, visited Mpande and obtained from him a valuable concession. Colony of Natal_sentence_47

Hitherto the Tugela from source to mouth had been the recognized frontier between Natal and Zululand. Colony of Natal_sentence_48

Mpande gave up to Natal all the territory between the Buffalo and Tugela rivers, now forming Klip River county. Colony of Natal_sentence_49

Growth of the colony Colony of Natal_section_2

The colony's early population growth was driven by settlement from the United Kingdom between 1849 and 1851, with approximately 4500 emigrants between 1848 and 1851. Colony of Natal_sentence_50

From the time of the coming of the first considerable body of British settlers dates the development of trade and agriculture in the colony, followed somewhat later by the exploitation of the mineral resources of the country. Colony of Natal_sentence_51

At the same time schools were established and various churches began or increased their work in the colony. Colony of Natal_sentence_52

John Colenso, appointed bishop of Natal, arrived in 1854. Colony of Natal_sentence_53

In 1856 the dependence of the country on Cape Colony was put to an end and Natal constituted a distinct colony with a legislative council of sixteen members, twelve elected by the inhabitants and four nominated by the Crown. Colony of Natal_sentence_54

At the time the population of settlers and their descendants exceeded 8000. Colony of Natal_sentence_55

While dependent on the Cape, ordinances had been passed establishing Roman-Dutch law as the law of Natal, and save where modified by legislation, it remained in force. Colony of Natal_sentence_56

On 14 September 1876, the Colonial Office in the UK received a telegram from Sir Henry Barkly in Cape Town of the imminent collapse of the Transvaal, because the Transvaal's President Burger and his men had been routed after their attack on Sekhukhune and his people the Pedi. Colony of Natal_sentence_57

This galvanized Henry Herbert, 4th Earl of Carnarvon who obtained permission from Disraeli to appoint Sir Theophilus Shepstone (known by the Zulu honorific as Somtseu meaning '’father of the nation'’) who had served for 30 years as a Natal administrator, first as Diplomatic Agent to Native Tribes, then as secretary for native affairs, to act as special commissioner to the Transvaal. Colony of Natal_sentence_58

On 15 December 1876, Shepstone with 25 troopers from the Natal Mounted Police and others set out from Pietermaritzburg to Pretoria to annex the Transvaal; arriving on 27 January 1877 to a cordial reception. Colony of Natal_sentence_59

That controversial British annexation of the Transvaal, was disrupted when Sekhukhune allegedly signed a peace treaty with the Boers removing the main justification for British intervention in the Transvaal at that time. Colony of Natal_sentence_60

Nonetheless, tensions between the British colonists and the Zulu continued to build, culminating in the Anglo-Zulu War. Colony of Natal_sentence_61

After an initial defeat the British were able to conquer Zululand, where they established a protectorate over a sub-divided kingdom. Colony of Natal_sentence_62

However this proved unsatisfactory to the colonial government, and eighteen years later the kingdoms were annexed to the Natal colony, doubling its size. Colony of Natal_sentence_63

In 1884 the Witwatersrand Gold Rush caused a considerable rush of colonists from Natal to the Transvaal. Colony of Natal_sentence_64

Railways were still far from the Transvaal border, and Natal offered the nearest route for prospectors from Cape Colony or from Europe. Colony of Natal_sentence_65

Durban was soon thronged; and Pietermaritzburg, which was then practically the terminus of the Natal railway, was the base from which nearly all the expeditions to the goldfields were fitted out. Colony of Natal_sentence_66

The journey to De Kaap by bullock-waggon occupied about six weeks. Colony of Natal_sentence_67

"Kurveying" (the conducting of transport by bullock-waggon) in itself constituted a great industry. Colony of Natal_sentence_68

Two years later, in 1886, the Rand goldfields were proclaimed, and the tide of trade which had already set in with the Transvaal steadily increased. Colony of Natal_sentence_69

Natal colonists were not merely the first in the field with the transport traffic to the new goldfields; they became some of the earliest proprietors of mines, and for several years many of the largest mining companies had their chief offices at Pietermaritzburg or Durban. Colony of Natal_sentence_70

In this year (1886) the railway reached Ladysmith, and in 1891 it was completed to the Transvaal frontier at Charlestown, the section from Ladysmith northward opening up the Dundee and Newcastle coalfields. Colony of Natal_sentence_71

Thus a new industry was added to the resources of the colony. Colony of Natal_sentence_72

The demand which the growing trade made upon the one port of Natal, Durban, encouraged the colonists to redouble their efforts to improve the Port of Durban. Colony of Natal_sentence_73

A heavy sea from the Indian Ocean is always breaking on the shore, even in the finest weather, and at the mouth of every natural harbour a bar occurs. Colony of Natal_sentence_74

To deepen the channel over the bar at Durban so that steamers might enter the harbour was the cause of labour and expenditure for many years. Colony of Natal_sentence_75

Harbour works were begun in 1857, piers and jetties were constructed, dredgers imported, and controversy raged over the various schemes for harbour improvement. Colony of Natal_sentence_76

In 1881 a harbour board was formed under the chairmanship of Harry Escombe. Colony of Natal_sentence_77

It controlled the operations for improving the sea entrance until 1893 when on the establishment of responsible government it was abolished. Colony of Natal_sentence_78

The work of improving the harbour was however continued with vigour, and finally, in 1904, such success was achieved that vessels of the largest class were enabled to enter port. Colony of Natal_sentence_79

At the same time, the railway system was continually developing under the Natal Railway Company. Colony of Natal_sentence_80

For many years there had been an agitation among the colonists for self-government. Colony of Natal_sentence_81

In 1882 the colony was offered self-government coupled with the obligations of self-defence. Colony of Natal_sentence_82

The offer was declined, but in 1883 the legislative council was remodelled so as to consist of 23 elected and 7 nominated members. Colony of Natal_sentence_83

In 1890 the elections to the council led to the return of a majority in favour of accepting self-government, and in 1893 a bill establishing responsible government was passed and received the sanction of the Imperial government. Colony of Natal_sentence_84

At the time the white inhabitants numbered about 50,000. Colony of Natal_sentence_85

The electoral law was framed to prevent more than a very few natives obtaining suffrage. Colony of Natal_sentence_86

Restrictions in this direction dated as far back as 1865, while in 1896 an act was passed aimed at the exclusion of Indians from the suffrage. Colony of Natal_sentence_87

The leader of the party which sought responsible government was John Robinson who had gone to Natal in 1850, was a leading journalist in the colony, had been a member of the legislative council since 1863, and had filled various official positions. Colony of Natal_sentence_88

He now became the first premier and colonial secretary with Harry Escombe as attorney-general and F. R. Moor as secretary for Native Affairs. Colony of Natal_sentence_89

John Robinson remained premier until 1897, a year marked by the annexation of Zululand to Natal. Colony of Natal_sentence_90

In 1898, Natal entered the Customs Union already existing between Cape Colony and the Orange Free State. Colony of Natal_sentence_91

Boer War and aftermath Colony of Natal_section_3

The Second Boer War broke out on 11 October 1899 with the Boer seizure of a Natal train on the Orange Free State border. Colony of Natal_sentence_92

Boer forces quickly occupied Newcastle. Colony of Natal_sentence_93

A landdrost was appointed and the town was renamed Viljoensdorp. Colony of Natal_sentence_94

In the Battle of Talana Hill on 20 October 1899, outside Dundee, British forces under William Penn Symons defeated the Boer columns, but failed to prevent their escape due to the fraudulent use of Red Cross flags by the Boers. Colony of Natal_sentence_95

The British withdrew to Ladysmith. Colony of Natal_sentence_96

Boer forces proceeded to Ladysmith and surrounded the town, cutting off its communications from the south. Colony of Natal_sentence_97

The Siege of Ladysmith lasted until 28 February 1900, when the town was relieved by forces under Redvers Buller. Colony of Natal_sentence_98

During the six weeks previous to the relief, 200 deaths had occurred from disease alone, and altogether as many as 8424 were reported to have passed through the hospitals. Colony of Natal_sentence_99

The relief of Ladysmith soon led to the evacuation of Natal by the Boer forces, who trekked northwards. Colony of Natal_sentence_100

As one result of the war, an addition was made to the territory of Natal, consisting of a portion of what had previously been included in the Transvaal. Colony of Natal_sentence_101

The districts transferred to Natal were: Vryheid, Utrecht and such portion of the district of Wakkerstroom as was encompassed by a line drawn from the north-eastern corner of Natal, east by Volksrust in a northerly direction to the summit of the Drakensberg Range, along that range, passing just north of the town of Wakkerstroom, to the headwaters of the Pongola River (now called Phongolo River), and thence following the river to the border of the Utrecht district. Colony of Natal_sentence_102

The districts added to Natal contained about 6,000 white inhabitants (mostly Afrikaners), and some 92,000 natives, and had an area of nearly 7,000 square miles (18,000 km), so that this annexation meant an addition to the white population of Natal of about one-tenth, to her native population of about one-tenth also, and to her territory of about one-fourth. Colony of Natal_sentence_103

An act authorizing the annexation was passed during 1902 and the territories were formally transferred to Natal in January 1903. Colony of Natal_sentence_104

The period following the war was succeeded by commercial depression, though in Natal it was not so severely felt as in other states of South Africa. Colony of Natal_sentence_105

The government met the crisis by renewed energy in harbour works, railway constructions and the development of the natural resources of the country. Colony of Natal_sentence_106

A railway to the Zululand coalfields was completed in 1903, and in the same year a line was opened to Vryheid in the newly annexed territories. Colony of Natal_sentence_107

Natal further built several railway lines in the eastern half of the Orange River Colony, thus opening up new markets for her produce and facilitating her transit trade. Colony of Natal_sentence_108

In August 1903 the Hime ministry resigned and was succeeded by a cabinet under the premiership of George Sutton, the founder of the wattle industry in Natal and one of the pioneers in the coal-mining industry. Colony of Natal_sentence_109

In May 1905 Sutton was replaced by a coalition ministry under Charles John Smythe, who had been colonial secretary under Hime. Colony of Natal_sentence_110

These somewhat frequent changes of ministry reflected, chiefly, differences concerning the treatment of commercial questions and the policy to be adopted towards the natives. Colony of Natal_sentence_111

All Dutch colonists who had joined the Boer forces during the war were pardoned. Colony of Natal_sentence_112

As early as July 1903 rumours were current that Dinuzulu, king of the Zulus, was disaffected. Colony of Natal_sentence_113

Dinuzulu, however, remained at the time quiescent, though the Zulus were in a state of excitement over incidents connected with the Boer war, when they had been subject to raids by Boer commandoes, and on one occasion at least had retaliated. Colony of Natal_sentence_114

Unrest was also manifested among the natives west of the Tugela, but it was not at first cause for alarm. Colony of Natal_sentence_115

During 1903–1904 a Native Affairs' Commission, representative of all the states, obtained evidence on the status and conditions of the natives. Colony of Natal_sentence_116

Its investigations pointed to the loosening of tribal ties and to the corresponding growth of a spirit of individual independence. Colony of Natal_sentence_117

Among its recommendations was the direct political representation of natives in the colonial legislatures on the New Zealand model, and the imposition of direct taxation upon natives, which should not be less than £ 1 a year payable by every adult male. Colony of Natal_sentence_118

The commission also called attention to the numerical insufficiency of magistrates and native commissioners in certain parts of Natal. Colony of Natal_sentence_119

With some of the recommendations the Natal commissioners disagreed; in 1905, however, an act was passed by the Natal legislature imposing a poll tax of £1 on all males over 18 in the colony, except indentured Indians and natives paying hut tax (which was 14 shillings a year). Colony of Natal_sentence_120

Every European was bound to pay the tax. Colony of Natal_sentence_121

In 1906 the Bambatha Rebellion broke out in the colony, attributable ostensibly to the poll tax, and spread to Zululand. Colony of Natal_sentence_122

It was suppressed by the colonial forces under Colonel Duncan McKenzie, aided by a detachment of Transvaal volunteers. Colony of Natal_sentence_123

Bhambatha, a chief in the Greytown district who had been deposed for misconduct, kidnapped the regent appointed in his stead. Colony of Natal_sentence_124

He was pursued and escaped to Zululand, where he received considerable help. Colony of Natal_sentence_125

He was killed in battle in June, and by the close of July the rebellion was at an end. Colony of Natal_sentence_126

Dinuzulu, accused by many colonists of having incited the rebellion, protested his loyalty to the British. Colony of Natal_sentence_127

As time went on, however, the Natal government, alarmed at a series of murders of whites in Zululand and at the evidences of continued unrest among the natives, became convinced that Dinuzulu was implicated in the rebellious movement. Colony of Natal_sentence_128

(When a young man, in 1889, he had been convicted of high treason and had been exiled, but in 1897 he had been allowed to return.) Colony of Natal_sentence_129

Now a force under Duncan McKenzie entered Zululand. Colony of Natal_sentence_130

Thereupon Dinizulu surrendered (December 1907) without opposition, and was removed to Pietermaritzburg. Colony of Natal_sentence_131

His trial was delayed until November 1908, and it was not until March 1909 that judgment was given, the court finding him guilty only on the minor charge of harbouring rebels. Colony of Natal_sentence_132

Meantime, in February 1908, the governor—Matthew Nathan, who had succeeded Henry McCallum in August 1907—had made a tour in Zululand, on which occasion some 1500 of the prisoners taken in the rebellion of 1906 were released. Colony of Natal_sentence_133

The intercolonial commission had dealt with the native question as it affected South Africa as a whole; it was felt that a more local investigation was needed, and in August 1906 a strong commission was appointed to inquire into the condition of the Natal natives. Colony of Natal_sentence_134

The general election which was held in the following month turned on native policy and on the measures necessary to meet the commercial depression. Colony of Natal_sentence_135

The election, which witnessed the return of four Labour members, resulted in a ministerial majority of a somewhat heterogeneous character, and in November 1906 Smythe resigned, being succeeded by Frederick Moor, who in his election campaign had criticized the Smythe ministry for their financial proposals. Colony of Natal_sentence_136

Moor remained premier until the office was abolished by the establishment of the Union of South Africa. Colony of Natal_sentence_137

In August 1907 the report of the Native Affairs' Commission was published. Colony of Natal_sentence_138

The commission declared that the chasm between the natives and settlers had been broadening for years and that the efforts of the administration—especially since the grant of responsible government—to reconcile the natives to the changed conditions of rule and policy and to convert them into an element of strength had been ineffective. Colony of Natal_sentence_139

It was not sufficient to secure them, as the government had done, peace and ample means of livelihood. Colony of Natal_sentence_140

The commission among other proposals for a more liberal and sympathetic native policy urged the creation of a native advisory Board entrusted with very wide powers. Colony of Natal_sentence_141

"Personal rule", they declared, "supplies the keynote of successful native control". Colony of Natal_sentence_142

The unrest in Zululand delayed action being taken on the commission's report. Colony of Natal_sentence_143

But in 1909 an act was passed which placed native affairs in the hands of four district commissioners, gave to the minister for native affairs direct executive authority and created a council for native affairs on which non-official members had seats. Colony of Natal_sentence_144

While the district commissioners were intended to keep in close touch with the natives, the council was to act as a "deliberative, consultative and advisory body." Colony of Natal_sentence_145

On 31 May 1910, the Colony of Natal became Natal Province, one of the founding provinces of the Union of South Africa. Colony of Natal_sentence_146

Sugar and Indian labourers Colony of Natal_section_4

Further information: Indian South Africans Colony of Natal_sentence_147

The British settlers quickly realized that the coastlands were suited to the cultivation of tropical or semi-tropical products, and from 1852 onward sugar, coffee, cotton and arrowroot were introduced, tea being afterwards substituted for coffee. Colony of Natal_sentence_148

The sugar industry soon became of importance, and the planters were compelled to seek for large numbers of labourers. Colony of Natal_sentence_149

The natives did not volunteer in sufficient numbers, and recourse was had to labour from India. Colony of Natal_sentence_150

The first Indian labourers reached Natal in 1860. Colony of Natal_sentence_151

They came as indentured laborers, but at the expiration of their contract were allowed to settle in the colony. Colony of Natal_sentence_152

The Indian population rapidly increased, the Indians becoming market gardeners, farmers, hawkers, and traders. Colony of Natal_sentence_153

Alone among the South Africa states, Natal offered a welcome to Indians. Colony of Natal_sentence_154

As early as 1893, when Gandhi arrived in Durban, Indians made up almost half of the non-African population, and by 1904 Indians outnumbered whites in Natal. Colony of Natal_sentence_155

In 1894, Gandhi helped to establish the Natal Indian Congress to fight discrimination against Indians. Colony of Natal_sentence_156

Governors Colony of Natal_section_5

Main article: List of governors of British South African colonies § Natal Colony Colony of Natal_sentence_157

Demographics Colony of Natal_section_6

1904 Census Colony of Natal_section_7

Population Figures for the 1904 Census: Colony of Natal_sentence_158

Colony of Natal_table_general_1

Population groupColony of Natal_cell_1_0_0 NumberColony of Natal_cell_1_0_1 Percent

(%)Colony of Natal_cell_1_0_2

BlackColony of Natal_cell_1_1_0 904,041Colony of Natal_cell_1_1_1 81.53Colony of Natal_cell_1_1_2
AsianColony of Natal_cell_1_2_0 100,918Colony of Natal_cell_1_2_1 9.10Colony of Natal_cell_1_2_2
WhiteColony of Natal_cell_1_3_0 97,109Colony of Natal_cell_1_3_1 8.75Colony of Natal_cell_1_3_2
ColouredColony of Natal_cell_1_4_0 6,686Colony of Natal_cell_1_4_1 0.60Colony of Natal_cell_1_4_2
TotalColony of Natal_cell_1_5_0 1,108,754Colony of Natal_cell_1_5_1 100.00Colony of Natal_cell_1_5_2

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: of Natal.