This article is about the State of Colorado.
For the river, see Colorado River.
For the physiographic region, see Colorado Plateau.
For other uses, see Colorado (disambiguation).
|Admitted to the Union||August 1, 1876 (38th)|
|Largest metro||Denver metropolitan area|
|Governor||Jared Polis (D)|
|Lieutenant Governor||Dianne Primavera (D)|
|Lower house||House of Representatives|
|Judiciary||Colorado Supreme Court|
|U.S. senators||Michael Bennet (D)|
|U.S. House delegation||4 Democrats
3 Republicans (list)
|Total||104,094 sq mi (269,837 km)|
|Land||103,718 sq mi (268,875 km)|
|Water||376 sq mi (962 km) 0.36%|
|Length||380 mi (610 km)|
|Width||280 mi (450 km)|
|Elevation||6,800 ft (2,070 m)|
|Highest elevation (Mount Elbert)||14,440 ft (4,401.2 m)|
|Lowest elevation (Arikaree River)||3,317 ft (1,011 m)|
|Density||52.0/sq mi (19.9/km)|
|Median household income||$69,117|
|Time zone||UTC−07:00 (Mountain)|
|Summer (DST)||UTC−06:00 (MDT)|
|ISO 3166 code||US-CO|
|Latitude||37°N to 41°N|
|Longitude||102°02′48″W to 109°02′48″W|
|Colorado state symbols|
|Amphibian||Western tiger salamander
|Cactus||Claret cup cactus
|Fish||Greenback cutthroat trout
Oncorhynchus clarki somias
|Flower||Rocky Mountain columbine
|Grass||Blue grama grass
|Mammal||Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep
|Pet||Colorado shelter pets
Canis lupus familiaris and Felis catus
|Reptile||Western painted turtle
Chrysemys picta bellii
|Tree||Colorado blue spruce
|Colors||Blue, red, yellow, white|
|Folk dance||Square dance
|Ship||USS Colorado (SSN-788)|
|Sport||Pack burro racing|
|Tartan||Colorado state tartan|
|State route marker|
Colorado (/ˌkɒləˈrædoʊ, -ˈrɑːdoʊ/ (listen), other variants) is a state in the western United States encompassing most of the southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains.
The estimated population of Colorado is 5,758,736 as of 2019, an increase of 14.5% since the 2010 United States Census.
The region has been inhabited by Native Americans for more than 13,000 years, with the Lindenmeier Site containing artifacts dating from approximately 9200 BCE to 1000 BCE; the eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains was a major migration route for early peoples who spread throughout the Americas.
Colorado is bordered by Wyoming to the north, Nebraska to the northeast, Kansas to the east, Oklahoma to the southeast, New Mexico to the south, Utah to the west, and touches Arizona to the southwest at the Four Corners.
Residents of the state are known as Coloradans, although the antiquated term "Coloradoan" is occasionally used.
Colorado is a comparatively wealthy state, ranking 8th in household income in 2016, and 11th in per capita income in 2010.
Major parts of the economy include government and defense, mining, agriculture, tourism, and increasingly other kinds of manufacturing.
With increasing temperatures and decreasing water availability, Colorado's agriculture, forestry and tourism economies are expected to be heavily affected by climate change.
Main article: Geography of Colorado
Colorado is notable for its diverse geography, which includes alpine mountains, high plains, deserts with huge sand dunes, and deep canyons.
In 1861, the United States Congress defined the boundaries of the new Territory of Colorado exclusively by lines of latitude and longitude, stretching from 37°N to 41°N latitude, and from 102°02′48″W to 109°02′48″W longitude (25°W to 32°W from the Washington Meridian).
See also: List of mountain peaks of Colorado
To the west of the Great Plains of Colorado rises the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains.
The Rocky Mountains within Colorado contain 53 true peaks with a total of 58 that are 14,000 feet (4,267 m) or higher in elevation above sea level, known as fourteeners.
These mountains are largely covered with trees such as conifers and aspens up to the tree line, at an elevation of about 12,000 feet (3,658 m) in southern Colorado to about 10,500 feet (3,200 m) in northern Colorado.
Above this tree line only alpine vegetation grows.
Only small parts of the Colorado Rockies are snow-covered year-round.
Much of the alpine snow melts by mid-August with the exception of a few snow-capped peaks and a few small glaciers.
The Colorado Mineral Belt, stretching from the San Juan Mountains in the southwest to Boulder and Central City on the front range, contains most of the historic gold- and silver-mining districts of Colorado.
Colorado is the only U.S. state that lies entirely above 1,000 meters elevation.
This point, which holds the distinction of being the highest low elevation point of any state, is higher than the high elevation points of 18 states and the District of Columbia.
A little less than half of Colorado is flat and rolling land.
East of the Rocky Mountains are the Colorado Eastern Plains of the High Plains, the section of the Great Plains within Nebraska at elevations ranging from roughly 3,350 to 7,500 feet (1,020 to 2,290 m).
Precipitation averages 15 to 25 inches (380 to 640 mm) annually.
Eastern Colorado is presently mainly farmland and rangeland, along with small farming villages and towns.
Corn, wheat, hay, soybeans, and oats are all typical crops.
Most villages and towns in this region boast both a water tower and a grain elevator.
Irrigation water is available from both surface and subterranean sources.
Surface water sources include the South Platte, the Arkansas River, and a few other streams.
Subterranean water is generally accessed through artesian wells.
Heavy usage of these wells for irrigation purposes caused underground water reserves to decline in the region.
Eastern Colorado also hosts a considerable amount and range of livestock, such as cattle ranches and hog farms.
This region is partially protected from prevailing storms that blow in from the Pacific Ocean region by the high Rockies in the middle of Colorado.
The area of Colorado to the west of the Continental Divide is called the Western Slope of Colorado.
Within the interior of the Rocky Mountains are several large parks which are high broad basins.
In the north, on the east side of the Continental Divide is the North Park of Colorado.
The North Park is drained by the North Platte River, which flows north into Wyoming and Nebraska.
Just to the south of North Park, but on the western side of the Continental Divide, is the Middle Park of Colorado, which is drained by the Colorado River.
The Rio Grande drains due south into New Mexico, Mexico, and Texas.
Colorado Western Slope
The Western Slope area of Colorado includes the western face of the Rocky Mountains and all of the state to the western border.
This area includes several terrains and climates from alpine mountains to arid deserts.
The Western Slope includes many ski resort towns in the Rocky Mountains and towns west of the mountains.
It is less populous than the Front Range but includes a large number of national parks and monuments.
From west to east, the land of Colorado consists of desert lands, desert plateaus, alpine mountains, National Forests, relatively flat grasslands, scattered forests, buttes, and canyons in the western edge of the Great Plains.
Its isolated peak is visible from nearly the Kansas border on clear days, and also far to the north and the south.
The northwestern corner of Colorado is a sparsely populated region, and it contains part of the noted Dinosaur National Monument, which not only is a paleontological area, but is also a scenic area of rocky hills, canyons, arid desert, and streambeds.
Here, the Green River briefly crosses over into Colorado.
Desert lands in Colorado are located in and around areas such as the Pueblo, Canon City, Florence, Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, San Luis Valley, Cortez, Canyon of the Ancients National Monument, Hovenweep National Monument, Ute Mountain, Delta, Grand Junction, Colorado National Monument, and other areas surrounding the Uncompahgre Plateau and Uncompahgre National Forest.
The Colorado River flows through Glenwood Canyon, and then through an arid valley made up of desert from Rifle to Parachute, through the desert canyon of De Beque Canyon, and into the arid desert of Grand Valley, where the city of Grand Junction is located.
Also prominent in or near the southern portion of the Western Slope are the Grand Mesa, which lies to the southeast of Grand Junction; the high San Juan Mountains, a rugged mountain range; and to the west of the San Juan Mountains, the Colorado Plateau, a high arid region that borders Southern Utah.
Grand Junction, Colorado is the largest city on the Western Slope.
Grand Junction and Durango are the only major centers of television broadcasting west of the Continental Divide in Colorado, though most mountain resort communities publish daily newspapers.
Grand Junction is located along Interstate 70, the only major highway in Western Colorado.
Grand Junction is also along the major railroad of the Western Slope, the Union Pacific.
This railroad also provides the tracks for Amtrak's California Zephyr passenger train, which crosses the Rocky Mountains between Denver and Grand Junction via a route on which there are no continuous highways.
The Western Slope includes multiple notable destinations in the Colorado Rocky Mountains, including Glenwood Springs, with its resort hot springs, and the ski resorts of Aspen, Breckenridge, Vail, Crested Butte, Steamboat Springs, and Telluride.
Higher education in and near the Western Slope can be found at Colorado Mesa University in Grand Junction, Western Colorado University in Gunnison, Fort Lewis College in Durango, and Colorado Mountain College in Glenwood Springs and Steamboat Springs.
Unlike most other states, southern Colorado is not always warmer than northern Colorado.
Most of Colorado is made up of mountains, foothills, high plains, and desert lands.
Mountains and surrounding valleys greatly affect local climate.
As a general rule, with an increase in elevation comes a decrease in temperature and an increase in precipitation.
Northeast, east, and southeast Colorado are mostly the high plains, while Northern Colorado is a mix of high plains, foothills, and mountains.
Northwest and west Colorado are predominantly mountainous, with some desert lands mixed in.
Southwest and southern Colorado are a complex mixture of desert and mountain areas.
The area is known for its abundant sunshine and cool, clear nights, which give this area a great average diurnal temperature range.
The difference between the highs of the days and the lows of the nights can be considerable as warmth dissipates to space during clear nights, the heat radiation not being trapped by clouds.
In summer, this area can have many days above 95 °F (35 °C) and often 100 °F (38 °C).
On the plains, the winter lows usually range from 25 to −10 °F (−4 to −23 °C).
About 75% of the precipitation falls within the growing season, from April to September, but this area is very prone to droughts.
Most of the precipitation comes from thunderstorms, which can be severe, and from major snowstorms that occur in the winter and early spring.
Otherwise, winters tend to be mostly dry and cold.
In much of the region, March is the snowiest month.
April and May are normally the rainiest months, while April is the wettest month overall.
The Front Range cities closer to the mountains tend to be warmer in the winter due to Chinook winds which warm the area, sometimes bringing temperatures of 70 °F (21 °C) or higher in the winter.
The average July temperature is 55 °F (13 °C) in the morning and 90 °F (32 °C) in the afternoon.
The average January temperature is 18 °F (−8 °C) in the morning and 48 °F (9 °C) in the afternoon, although variation between consecutive days can be 40 °F (20 °C).
Front Range foothills
Just west of the plains and into the foothills, there are a wide variety of climate types.
Locations merely a few miles apart can experience entirely different weather depending on the topography.
Most valleys have a semi-arid climate not unlike the eastern plains, which transitions to an alpine climate at the highest elevations.
Microclimates also exist in local areas that run nearly the entire spectrum of climates, including subtropical highland (Cfb/Cwb), humid subtropical (Cfa), humid continental (Dfa/Dfb), Mediterranean (Csa/Csb) and subarctic (Dfc).
Extreme weather changes are common in Colorado, although a significant portion of the extreme weather occurs in the least populated areas of the state.
Thunderstorms are common east of the Continental Divide in the spring and summer, yet are usually brief.
Hail is a common sight in the mountains east of the Divide and across the eastern Plains, especially the northeast part of the state.
Hail is the most commonly reported warm-season severe weather hazard, and occasionally causes human injuries, as well as significant property damage.
The eastern Plains are subject to some of the biggest hail storms in North America.
Notable examples are the severe hailstorms that hit Denver on July 11, 1990 and May 8, 2017, the latter being the costliest ever in the state.
The Eastern Plains are part of the extreme western portion of Tornado Alley; some damaging tornadoes in the Eastern Plains include the 1990 Limon F3 tornado and the 2008 Windsor EF3 tornado, which devastated the small town.
Portions of the eastern Plains see especially frequent tornadoes, both those spawned from mesocyclones in supercell thunderstorms and from less intense landspouts, such as within the Denver convergence vorticity zone (DCVZ).
The Plains are also susceptible to occasional floods and particularly severe flash floods, which are caused both by thunderstorms and by the rapid melting of snow in the mountains during warm weather.
Hot weather is common during summers in Denver.
The city's record in 1901 for the number of consecutive days above 90 °F (32 °C) was broken during the summer of 2008.
The new record of 24 consecutive days surpassed the previous record by almost a week.
Much of Colorado is very dry, with the state averaging only 17 inches (430 millimeters) of precipitation per year statewide.
The state rarely experiences a time when some portion is not in some degree of drought.
The lack of precipitation contributes to the severity of wildfires in the state, such as the Hayman Fire of 2002.
Even these fires were exceeded in severity by the Pine Gulch Fire, Cameron Peak Fire and East Troublesome Fire in 2020, all being the three largest fires in Colorado history (see 2020 Colorado wildfires).
However, some of the mountainous regions of Colorado receive a huge amount of moisture from winter snowfalls.
Water flowing out of the Colorado Rocky Mountains is a very significant source of water for the farms, towns, and cities of the southwest states of New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, and Nevada, as well as the Midwest, such as Nebraska and Kansas, and the southern states of Oklahoma and Texas.
A significant amount of water is also diverted for use in California; occasionally (formerly naturally and consistently), the flow of water reaches northern Mexico.
The highest official ambient air temperature ever recorded in Colorado was 115 °F (46.1 °C) on July 20, 2019, at John Martin Dam.
The lowest official air temperature was −61 °F (−51.7 °C) on February 1, 1985, at Maybell.
Despite its mountainous terrain, Colorado is relatively quiet seismically.
There were no casualties and only a small amount of damage was reported.
It was the second-largest earthquake in Colorado's history.
A magnitude 5.7 earthquake was recorded in 1973.
In early morning hours of August 24, 2018, four minor earthquakes rattled the state of Colorado ranging from magnitude 2.9 to 4.3.
Colorado has recorded 525 earthquakes since 1973, a majority of which range 2 to 3.5 on the Richter scale.
The region that is today the state of Colorado has been inhabited by Native Americans for more than 13,000 years.
The Spanish Empire claimed Colorado as part of its New Mexico province prior to U.S. involvement in the region.
The U.S. acquired a territorial claim to the eastern Rocky Mountains with the Louisiana Purchase from France in 1803.
Army reconnaissance expedition into the disputed region.
The U.S. relinquished its claim to all land south and west of the Arkansas River and south of 42nd parallel north and west of the 100th meridian west as part of its purchase of Florida from Spain with the Adams-Onís Treaty of 1819.
The treaty took effect February 22, 1821.
The remainder of Missouri Territory, including what would become northeastern Colorado, became unorganized territory, and remained so for 33 years over the question of slavery.
After 11 years of war, Spain finally recognized the independence of Mexico with the Treaty of Córdoba signed on August 24, 1821.
Mexico eventually ratified the Adams-Onís Treaty in 1831.
Mexico surrendered its northern territory to the U.S. with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo at the conclusion of the war in 1848.
Most American settlers traveling overland west to the Oregon Country, the new goldfields of California, or the new Mormon settlements of the State of Deseret in the Salt Lake Valley, avoided the rugged Southern Rocky Mountains, and instead followed the North Platte River and Sweetwater River to South Pass (Wyoming), the lowest crossing of the Continental Divide between the Southern Rocky Mountains and the Central Rocky Mountains.
Instead, the Compromise of 1850 divided the Mexican Cession and the northwestern claims of Texas into a new state and two new territories, the state of California, the Territory of New Mexico, and the Territory of Utah.
On April 9, 1851, Mexican American settlers from the area of Taos settled the village of San Luis, then in the New Mexico Territory, later to become Colorado's first permanent Euro-American settlement.
Congress to divide the unorganized territory east of the Continental Divide into two new organized territories, the Territory of Kansas and the Territory of Nebraska, and an unorganized southern region known as the Indian territory.
The gold seekers organized the Provisional Government of the Territory of Jefferson on August 24, 1859, but this new territory failed to secure approval from the Congress of the United States embroiled in the debate over slavery.
Seeking to augment the political power of the Union states, the Republican Party-dominated Congress quickly admitted the eastern portion of the Territory of Kansas into the Union as the free State of Kansas on January 29, 1861, leaving the western portion of the Kansas Territory, and its gold-mining areas, as unorganized territory.
The original boundaries of Colorado remain unchanged except for government survey amendments.
The name Colorado was chosen because it was commonly believed that the Colorado River originated in the territory.
In 1859, a U.S.
The Macomb party designated the confluence as the source of the Colorado River.
The object of this Western Campaign was to seize or disrupt the gold fields of Colorado and California and to seize ports on the Pacific Ocean for the Confederacy.
On March 28, the Coloradans and local New Mexico volunteers stopped the Texans at the Battle of Glorieta Pass, destroyed their cannon and supply wagons, and dispersed 500 of their horses and mules.
The Texans were forced to retreat to Santa Fe.
Having lost the supplies for their campaign and finding little support in New Mexico, the Texans abandoned Santa Fe and returned to San Antonio in defeat.
The Confederacy made no further attempts to seize the Southwestern United States.
In 1864, Territorial Governor John Evans appointed the Reverend John Chivington as Colonel of the Colorado Volunteers with orders to protect white settlers from Cheyenne and Arapaho warriors who were accused of stealing cattle.
Colonel Chivington ordered his men to attack a band of Cheyenne and Arapaho encamped along Sand Creek.
Chivington reported that his troops killed more than 500 warriors.
The militia returned to Denver City in triumph, but several officers reported that the so-called battle was a blatant massacre of Indians at peace, that most of the dead were women and children, and that bodies of the dead had been hideously mutilated and desecrated.
Three U.S. Army inquiries condemned the action, and incoming President Andrew Johnson asked Governor Evans for his resignation, but none of the perpetrators was ever punished.
This event is now known as the Sand Creek massacre.
In the midst and aftermath of Civil War, many discouraged prospectors returned to their homes, but a few stayed and developed mines, mills, farms, ranches, roads, and towns in Colorado Territory.
On September 14, 1864, James Huff discovered silver near Argentine Pass, the first of many silver strikes.
The Ute people were removed from the San Juans the following year.
On August 1, 1876 (four weeks after the Centennial of the United States), U.S. President Ulysses S. Grant signed a proclamation admitting Colorado to the Union as the 38th state and earning it the moniker "Centennial State".
The repeal of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act in 1893 led to a staggering collapse of the mining and agricultural economy of Colorado, but the state slowly and steadily recovered.
Between the 1880s and 1930s, Denver's floriculture industry developed into a major industry in Colorado.
This period became known locally as the Carnation Gold Rush.
Poor labor conditions and discontent among miners resulted in several major clashes between strikers and the Colorado National Guard, including the 1903-1904 Western Federation of Miners Strike and Colorado Coalfield War, the latter of which included the Ludlow massacre that killed a dozen women and children.
Both the 1913-1914 Coalfield War and the Denver streetcar strike of 1920 resulted in federal troops intervening to end the violence.
More than 5,000 Colorado miners—many immigrants—are estimated to have died in accidents since records began to be formally collected following an accident in Crested Butte that killed 59 in 1884.
Colorado became the first western state to host a major political convention when the Democratic Party met in Denver in 1908.
By the U.S.
Census in 1930, the population of Colorado first exceeded one million residents.
Tourism became a mainstay of the state economy, and high technology became an important economic engine.
The United States Census Bureau estimated that the population of Colorado exceeded five million in 2009.
Three warships of the U.S.
At the time of the attack on Pearl Harbor, this USS Colorado was located at the naval base in San Diego, Calif. and hence went unscathed.
Colorado's most populous city and capital, is Denver.
The Greater Denver Metropolitan Area, with an estimated 2017 population of 3,515,374, is considered the largest metropolitan area within the state and is found within the larger Front Range Urban Corridor, home to about five million.
The largest increases are expected in the Front Range Urban Corridor, especially in the Denver metropolitan area.
According to the 2010 United States Census, Colorado had a population of 5,029,196.
Racial composition of the state's population was:
- 81.3% White American (70.0% Non-Hispanic White, 11.3% Hispanic white)
- 7.2% Some Other Race
- 4.0% Black or African American
- 3.4% Multiracial American
- 2.8% Asian American
- 1.1% American Indian and Alaska Native
- 0.1% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
|White (includes White Hispanics)||95.7%||88.2%||82.8%||81.3%|
|Native Hawaiian and||–||–||0.1%||0.1%|
|Two or more races||–||–||2.8%||3.4%|
People of Hispanic and Latino American (of any race made) heritage made up 20.7% of the population.
Persons reporting German ancestry are especially numerous in the Front Range, the Rockies (west-central counties), and Eastern parts/High Plains.
Southern, Southwestern, and Southeastern Colorado has a large number of Hispanos, the descendants of the early Mexican settlers of colonial Spanish origin.
In 1940, the Census Bureau reported Colorado's population as 8.2% Hispanic and 90.3% non-Hispanic white.
The Hispanic population of Colorado has continued to grow quickly over the past decades.
Spoken English in Colorado has many Spanish idioms.
Colorado also has some large African-American communities located in Denver, in the neighborhoods of Montbello, Five Points, Whittier, and many other East Denver areas.
The highest population of Asian Americans can be found on the south and southeast side of Denver, as well as some on Denver's southwest side.
The Denver metropolitan area is considered more liberal and diverse than much of the state when it comes to political issues and environmental concerns.
There were a total of 70,331 births in Colorado in 2006.
(Birth rate of 14.6 per thousand.)
In 2007, non-Hispanic whites were involved in 59.1% of all the births.
Some 14.06% of those births involved a non-Hispanic white person and someone of a different race, most often with a couple including one Hispanic.
A birth where at least one Hispanic person was involved counted for 43% of the births in Colorado.
As of the 2010 Census, Colorado has the seventh highest percentage of Hispanics (20.7%) in the U.S. behind New Mexico (46.3%), California (37.6%), Texas (37.6%), Arizona (29.6%), Nevada (26.5%), and Florida (22.5%).
Per the 2000 census, the Hispanic population is estimated to be 918,899 or approximately 20% of the state total population.
In percentages, Colorado has the 6th-highest percentage of Mexican-Americans, behind New Mexico, California, Texas, Arizona, and Nevada.
In 2011, 46% of Colorado's population younger than the age of one were minorities, meaning that they had at least one parent who was not non-Hispanic white.
Note: Births in table don't add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.
|White:||57,491 (88.4%)||58,117 (88.3%)||58,756 (88.2%)||...||...||...|
|> Non-Hispanic White||39,872 (61.3%)||40,629 (61.7%)||40,878 (61.4%)||39,617 (59.5%)||37,516 (58.3%)||36,466 (58.0%)|
|Black||3,760 (5.8%)||3,926 (6.0%)||4,049 (6.1%)||3,004 (4.5%)||3,110 (4.8%)||3,032 (4.8%)|
|Asian||2,863 (4.4%)||3,010 (4.6%)||2,973 (4.5%)||2,617 (3.9%)||2,611 (4.1%)||2,496 (4.0%)|
|American Indian||793 (1.2%)||777 (1.2%)||803 (1.2%)||412 (0.6%)||421 (0.7%)||352 (0.6%)|
|Pacific Islander||...||...||...||145 (0.2%)||145 (0.2%)||155 (0.2%)|
|Hispanic (of any race)||17,821 (27.4%)||17,665 (26.8%)||18,139 (27.2%)||18,513 (27.8%)||18,125 (28.2%)||17,817 (28.3%)|
|Total Colorado||65,007 (100%)||65,830 (100%)||66,581 (100%)||66,613 (100%)||64,382 (100%)||62,885 (100%)|
- Since 2016, data for births of White Hispanic origin are not collected, but included in one Hispanic group; persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.
In 2017, Colorado recorded the second-lowest fertility rate in the United States outside of New England, after Oregon, at 1.63 children per woman.
Spanish is the second-most spoken language in Colorado, after English.
The religiously unaffiliated make up 29% of the population.
The largest denominations by number of adherents in 2010 were the Catholic Church with 811,630; non-denominational Evangelical Protestants with 229,981; and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints with 151,433.
According to several studies, Coloradans have the lowest rates of obesity of any state in the US.
As of 2018, 24% of the population was considered medically obese, and while the lowest in the nation, the percentage had increased from 17% in 2004.
According to a report in the Journal of the American Medical Association, residents of Colorado had a 2014 life expectancy of 80.21 years, the longest of any U.S. state.
Arts and film
A number of historic military forts, railways with trains still operating, mining ghost towns have been utilized and transformed for historical accuracy in well known films.
The Colorado Office of Film and Television has noted that more than 400 films have been shot in Colorado.
There are also a number of established film festivals in Colorado, including Aspen Shortsfest, Boulder International Film Festival, Castle Rock Film Festival, Denver Film Festival, Festivus Film Festival (ended in 2013), Mile High Horror Film Festival, Moondance International Film Festival, Mountainfilm in Telluride, Rocky Mountain Women's Film Festival, and Telluride Film Festival.
Mexican restaurants are prominent throughout the state.
Boulder, and Colorado in general, is home to a number of national food and beverage companies, top-tier restaurants and farmers' markets.
Aspen also has a reputation as the culinary capital of the Rocky Mountain region.
Denver is known for steak, but now has a diverse culinary scene with many restaurants.
Wine and beer
Main article: Colorado wine
Main article: Colorado beer
Colorado wines include award-winning varietals that have attracted favorable notice from outside the state.
With wines made from traditional Vitis vinifera grapes along with wines made from cherries, peaches, plums and honey, Colorado wines have won top national and international awards for their quality.
Colorado's grape growing regions contain the highest elevation vineyards in the United States, with most viticulture in the state practiced between 4,000 and 7,000 feet (1,219 and 2,134 m) above sea level.
The mountain climate ensures warm summer days and cool nights.
However, an increasing number of wineries are located along the Front Range.
Marijuana and hemp
Colorado is open to cannabis (marijuana) tourism.
Colorado's marijuana industry sold $1.31 billion worth of marijuana in 2016 and $1.26 billion in the first three-quarters of 2017.
The state generated tax, fee, and license revenue of $194 million in 2016 on legal marijuana sales.
Colorado regulates hemp as any part of the plant with less than 0.3% THC.
Amendment 64, adopted by the voters in the 2012 general election, forces the Colorado state legislature to enact legislation governing the cultivation, processing and sale of recreational marijuana and industrial hemp.
On April 4, 2014, Senate Bill 14–184 addressing oversight of Colorado's industrial hemp program was first introduced, ultimately being signed into law by Governor John Hickenlooper on May 31, 2014.
On November 7, 2000, 54% of Colorado voters passed Amendment 20, which amends the Colorado State constitution to allow the medical use of marijuana.
A patient's medical use of marijuana, within the following limits, is lawful:
- (I) No more than 2 ounces (57 g) of a usable form of marijuana; and
- (II) No more than twelve marijuana plants, with six or fewer being mature, flowering plants that are producing a usable form of marijuana.
Currently Colorado has listed "eight medical conditions for which patients can use marijuana—cancer, glaucoma, HIV/AIDS, muscle spasms, seizures, severe pain, severe nausea and cachexia, or dramatic weight loss and muscle atrophy".
While governor, John Hickenlooper allocated about half of the state's $13 million "Medical Marijuana Program Cash Fund" to medical research in the 2014 budget.
By 2018, the Medical Marijuana Program Cash Fund was the "largest pool of pot money in the state" and was used to fund programs including research into pediatric applications for controlling autism symptoms.
The first recreational marijuana shops in Colorado, and by extension the United States, opened their doors on January 1, 2014.
Main article: Sports in Colorado
Colorado has five major professional sports leagues, all based in the Denver metropolitan area.
Colorado is the least populous state with a franchise in each of the major professional sports leagues.
The Pikes Peak International Hill Climb is a major hillclimbing motor race held at the Pikes Peak Highway.
Professional sports teams
Main article: List of college athletic programs in Colorado
The most popular college sports program is the University of Colorado Buffaloes, who used to play in the Big-12 but now play in the Pac-12.
|Air Force Falcons||United States Air Force Academy||Colorado Springs||Mountain West|
|Colorado Buffaloes||University of Colorado Boulder||Boulder||Pac-12|
|Colorado State Rams||Colorado State University||Fort Collins||Mountain West|
|Denver Pioneers||University of Denver||Denver||NCHC / Summit|
|Northern Colorado Bears||University of Northern Colorado||Greeley||Big Sky|
Main article: Economy of Colorado
See also: Colorado locations by per capita income
- Total employment (2016): 2,318,190
- Number of employer establishments: 165,264
CNBC's list of "Top States for Business for 2010" has recognized Colorado as the third-best state in the nation, falling short only to Texas and Virginia.
The total state product in 2015 was $318,600 million.
Median Annual Household Income in 2016 was $70,666, 8th in the nation.
Per capita personal income in 2010 was $51,940, ranking Colorado 11th in the nation.
The state's economy broadened from its mid-19th-century roots in mining when irrigated agriculture developed, and by the late 19th century, raising livestock had become important.
Early industry was based on the extraction and processing of minerals and agricultural products.
The federal government is also a major economic force in the state with many important federal facilities including NORAD (North American Aerospace Defense Command), United States Air Force Academy, Schriever Air Force Base located approximately 10 miles (16 kilometers) east of Peterson Air Force Base, and Fort Carson, both located in Colorado Springs within El Paso County; NOAA, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, and the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Boulder; U.S.
Geological Survey and other government agencies at the Denver Federal Center near Lakewood; the Denver Mint, Buckley Air Force Base, the Tenth Circuit Court of Appeals, and the Byron G. Rogers Federal Building and United States Courthouse in Denver; and a federal Supermax Prison and other federal prisons near Cañon City.
In addition to these and other federal agencies, Colorado has abundant National Forest land and four National Parks that contribute to federal ownership of 24,615,788 acres (99,617 km) of land in Colorado, or 37% of the total area of the state.
In the second half of the 20th century, the industrial and service sectors have expanded greatly.
The state's economy is diversified, and is notable for its concentration of scientific research and high-technology industries.
Colorado now also has the largest annual production of beer of any state.
Denver is an important financial center.
The state's diverse geography and majestic mountains attract millions of tourists every year, including 85.2 million in 2018.
Tourism contributes greatly to Colorado's economy, with tourists generating $22.3 billion in 2018.
A number of nationally known brand names have originated in Colorado factories and laboratories.
Kuner canned vegetables began in Brighton in 1864.
Colorado has a flat 4.63% income tax, regardless of income level.
On Nov. 3, 2020 voters authorized an initiative to lower that income tax rate to 4.55 percent.
Unlike most states, which calculate taxes based on federal adjusted gross income, Colorado taxes are based on taxable income—income after federal exemptions and federal itemized (or standard) deductions.
Colorado's state sales tax is 2.9% on retail sales.
When state revenues exceed state constitutional limits, according to Colorado's Taxpayer Bill of Rights legislation, full-year Colorado residents can claim a sales tax refund on their individual state income tax return.
Many counties and cities charge their own rates, in addition to the base state rate.
There are also certain county and special district taxes that may apply.
Real estate and personal business property are taxable in Colorado.
The state's senior property tax exemption was temporarily suspended by the Colorado Legislature in 2003.
The tax break was scheduled to return for assessment year 2006, payable in 2007.
As of December 2018, the state's unemployment rate was 4.2%.
Colorado has significant hydrocarbon resources.
Conventional and unconventional natural gas output from several Colorado basins typically account for more than five percent of annual U.S. natural gas production.
Colorado's oil shale deposits hold an estimated 1 trillion barrels (160 km) of oil—nearly as much oil as the entire world's proven oil reserves; the economic viability of the oil shale, however, has not been demonstrated.
Uranium mining in Colorado goes back to 1872, when pitchblende ore was taken from gold mines near Central City, Colorado.
The Colorado uranium industry has seen booms and busts, but continues to this day.
Not counting byproduct uranium from phosphate, Colorado is considered to have the third-largest uranium reserves of any U.S. state, behind Wyoming and New Mexico.
Uranium price increases from 2001 to 2007 prompted a number of companies to revive uranium mining in Colorado.
Price drops and financing problems in late 2008 forced these companies to cancel or scale back uranium-mining project.
Currently, there are no uranium producing mines in Colorado.
Much of the state is sunny, and could produce solar power.
Major rivers flowing from the Rocky Mountains offer hydroelectric power resources.
Corn grown in the flat eastern part of the state offers potential resources for ethanol production.
Main article: Transportation in Colorado
Colorado's primary mode of transportation (in terms of passengers) is its highway system.
Interstate 25 (I-25) is the primary north–south highway in the state, connecting Pueblo, Colorado Springs, Denver, and Fort Collins, and extending north to Wyoming and south to New Mexico.
I-70 is the primary east–west corridor.
It connects Grand Junction and the mountain communities with Denver, and enters Utah and Kansas.
The state is home to a network of US and Colorado highways that provide access to all principal areas of the state.
Many smaller communities are connected to this network only via county roads.
Denver International Airport (DIA) is the fifth-busiest domestic U.S. airport and twentieth busiest airport in the world by passenger traffic.
DIA handles by far the largest volume of commercial air traffic in Colorado, and is the busiest U.S. hub airport between Chicago and the Pacific coast, making Denver the most important airport for connecting passenger traffic in the western United States.
Extensive public transportation bus services are offered both intra-city and inter-city—including the Denver metro area's extensive RTD services.
As of January 2013 the RTD rail system had 170 light-rail vehicles, serving 47 miles (76 km) of track.
Colorado's contribution to world railroad history was forged principally by the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad which began in 1870 and wrote the book on mountain railroading.
On September 11, 1996, Anschutz sold the combined company to the Union Pacific Railroad, creating the largest railroad network in the United States.
The Anschutz sale was partly in response to the earlier merger of Burlington Northern and Santa Fe which formed the large Burlington Northern and Santa Fe Railway (BNSF), Union Pacific's principal competitor in western U.S. railroading.
Both Union Pacific and BNSF have extensive freight operations in Colorado.
Colorado's freight railroad network consists of 2,688 miles of Class I trackage.
It is integral to the U.S. economy, being a critical artery for the movement of energy, agriculture, mining, and industrial commodities as well as general freight and manufactured products between the East and Midwest and the Pacific coast states.
In September 2014, KCNC reported that 524 non-citizens were issued Colorado driver licenses that are normally issued to U.S. citizens living in Colorado.
Main article: Government of Colorado
Like the federal government and all other U.S. states, Colorado's state constitution provides for three branches of government: the legislative, the executive, and the judicial branches.
The Governor of Colorado heads the state's executive branch.
Colorado's other statewide elected executive officers are the Lieutenant Governor of Colorado (elected on a ticket with the Governor), Secretary of State of Colorado, Colorado State Treasurer, and Attorney General of Colorado, all of whom serve four-year terms.
The seven-member Colorado Supreme Court is the state's highest court, with seven justices.
The Colorado Court of Appeals, with 22 judges, sits in divisions of three judges each.
Colorado is divided into 22 , each of which has a district court and a county court with limited jurisdiction.
The state also has a , which sits in seven distinct divisions around the state and which decides matters relating to water rights and the use and administration of water.
The House has 65 members and the Senate has 35.
As of 2018, the Democratic Party holds a 19 to 16 majority in the Senate and a 41 to 24 majority in the House.
Most Coloradans are native to other states (nearly 60% according to the 2000 census), and this is illustrated by the fact that the state did not have a native-born governor from 1975 (when John David Vanderhoof left office) until 2007, when Bill Ritter took office; his election the previous year marked the first electoral victory for a native-born Coloradan in a gubernatorial race since 1958 (Vanderhoof had ascended from the Lieutenant Governorship when John Arthur Love was given a position in Richard Nixon's administration in 1973).
In the 2016 election, the Democratic party won the Colorado electoral college votes.
Tax is collected by the Colorado Department of Revenue.
Main article: List of counties in Colorado
The State of Colorado is divided into 64 counties.
Counties are important units of government in Colorado since the state has no secondary civil subdivisions such as townships.
Nine Colorado counties have a population in excess of 250,000 each, while eight Colorado counties have a population of less than 2,500 each.
The ten most populous Colorado counties are all located in the Front Range Urban Corridor.
|Rank||County||2017 Estimate||2010 Census||Change|
|1||City and County of Denver||704,621||600,158||+17.41%|
|2||El Paso County||699,232||622,263||+12.37%|
|12||City and County of Broomfield||68,341||55,889||+22.28%|
|14||La Plata County||55,589||51,334||+8.29%|
Main article: Colorado statistical areas
The United States Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has defined one combined statistical area (CSA), seven Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs), and seven Micropolitan Statistical Areas (μSAs) in the state of Colorado.
The most populous of the 14 Core Based Statistical Areas in Colorado is the Denver-Aurora-Broomfield, CO Metropolitan Statistical Area.
This area had an estimated population of 2,888,227 on July 1, 2017, an increase of +13.55% since the 2010 United States Census.
The more extensive Denver-Aurora-Boulder, CO Combined Statistical Area had an estimated population of 3,515,374 on July 1, 2017, an increase of +13.73% since the 2010 United States Census.
Main article: List of cities and towns in Colorado
The state of Colorado currently has 271 active incorporated municipalities, including 196 towns, 73 cities, and two consolidated city and county governments.
Colorado municipalities operate under one of five types of municipal governing authority.
|Rank||Municipality||2017 Estimate||2010 Census||Change|
|1||City and County of Denver||704,621||600,158||+17.41%|
|2||City of Colorado Springs||464,474||416,427||+11.54%|
|3||City of Aurora||366,623||325,078||+12.78%|
|4||City of Fort Collins||165,080||143,986||+14.65%|
|5||City of Lakewood||154,958||142,980||+8.38%|
|6||City of Thornton||136,978||118,772||+15.33%|
|7||City of Arvada||118,807||106,433||+11.63%|
|8||City of Westminster||112,812||106,114||+6.31%|
|9||City of Pueblo||111,127||106,595||+4.25%|
|10||City of Centennial||110,250||100,377||+9.84%|
|11||City of Boulder||107,125||97,385||+10.00%|
|12||City of Greeley||105,448||92,889||+13.52%|
|13||City of Longmont||94,341||86,270||+9.36%|
|14||City of Loveland||76,701||66,859||+14.72%|
|15||City and County of Broomfield||68,341||55,889||+22.28%|
|16||City of Grand Junction||62,475||58,566||+6.67%|
|17||Town of Castle Rock||62,276||48,231||+29.12%|
|18||City of Commerce City||55,923||45,913||+21.80%|
|19||Town of Parker||54,202||45,297||+19.66%|
|20||City of Littleton||47,734||41,737||+14.37%|
|21||City of Brighton||40,562||33,352||+21.62%|
|22||City of Northglenn||38,928||35,789||+8.77%|
|23||City of Englewood||34,407||30,255||+13.72%|
|24||City of Wheat Ridge||31,294||30,166||+3.74%|
|25||City of Fountain||29,804||25,846||+15.31%|
|26||City of Lafayette||28,328||24,453||+15.85%|
|27||Town of Windsor||25,330||18,644||+35.86%|
Main article: List of census-designated places in Colorado
See also: Places in Colorado
|Rank||Census Designated Place||2010 Census||2000 Census||Change|
The state of Colorado has more than 3,000 districts with taxing authority.
These districts may provide schools, law enforcement, fire protection, water, sewage, drainage, irrigation, transportation, recreation, infrastructure, cultural facilities, business support, redevelopment, or other services.
Some of these districts have authority to levy sales tax and well as property tax and use fees.
This has led to a hodgepodge of sales tax and property tax rates in Colorado.
There are some street intersections in Colorado with a different sales tax rate on each corner, sometimes substantially different.
Some of the more notable Colorado districts are:
- The Regional Transportation District (RTD), which affects the counties of Denver, Boulder, Jefferson, and portions of Adams, Arapahoe, Broomfield, and Douglas Counties
- The Scientific and Cultural Facilities District (SCFD), a special regional tax district with physical boundaries contiguous with county boundaries of Adams, Arapahoe, Boulder, Broomfield, Denver, Douglas, and Jefferson Counties
- It is a 0.1% retail sales and use tax (one penny on every $10).
- According to the Colorado statute, the SCFD distributes the money to local organizations on an annual basis. These organizations must provide for the enlightenment and entertainment of the public through the production, presentation, exhibition, advancement or preservation of art, music, theater, dance, zoology, botany, natural history or cultural history.
- As directed by statute, SCFD recipient organizations are currently divided into three "tiers" among which receipts are allocated by percentage.
- Tier I includes regional organizations: the Denver Art Museum, the Denver Botanic Gardens, the Denver Museum of Nature and Science, the Denver Zoo, and the Denver Center for the Performing Arts. It receives 65.5%.
- Tier II currently includes 26 regional organizations. Tier II receives 21%.
- Tier III has more than 280 local organizations such as small theaters, orchestras, art centers, and natural history, cultural history, and community groups. Tier III organizations apply for funding to the county cultural councils via a grant process. This tier receives 13.5%.
- An 11-member board of directors oversees the distributions in accordance with the Colorado Revised Statutes. Seven board members are appointed by county commissioners (in Denver, the Denver City Council) and four members are appointed by the Governor of Colorado.
- The Football Stadium District (FD or FTBL), approved by the voters to pay for and help build the Denver Broncos' stadium Sports Authority Field at Mile High
- Local Improvement Districts (LID) within designated areas of southeast Jefferson and Boulder counties
- The Metropolitan Major League Baseball Stadium District, approved by voters to pay for and help build the Colorado Rockies' stadium Coors Field
- Regional Transportation Authority (RTA) taxes at varying rates in Basalt, Carbondale, Glenwood Springs, Gunnison County
Main article: Politics of Colorado
In presidential politics, Colorado was considered a reliably Republican state during the post-World War II era, voting for the Democratic candidate only in 1948, 1964, and 1992.
However, it became a competitive swing state in the 1990s.
Colorado politics has the contrast of conservative cities such as Colorado Springs and Grand Junction and liberal cities such as Boulder and Denver.
The Republicans are strongest in the Eastern Plains, Colorado Springs, Greeley, and far Western Colorado near Grand Junction.
Colorado is represented by two United States Senators:
- United States Senate Class 2, John Hickenlooper (Democratic) 2021–
- United States Senate Class 3, Michael Bennet (Democratic) 2009–
- Colorado's 1st congressional district, Diana DeGette (Democratic) 1997–
- Colorado's 2nd congressional district, Joe Neguse (Democratic) 2019-
- Colorado's 3rd congressional district, Scott Tipton (Republican) 2011–
- Colorado's 4th congressional district, Ken Buck (Republican) 2015–
- Colorado's 5th congressional district, Doug Lamborn (Republican) 2007–
- Colorado's 6th congressional district, Jason Crow (Democratic) 2019–
- Colorado's 7th congressional district, Ed Perlmutter (Democratic) 2007–
Significant Initiatives and Legislation Enacted in Colorado
That initiative was approved by the state's voters on Nov. 7, 1893.
On the November 8, 1932 ballot, Colorado approved the repeal of alcohol prohibition more than a year before the Twenty-first Amendment to the United States Constitution was ratified.
Colorado has banned, via C.R.S.
section 12-6-302, the sale of motor vehicles on Sunday since at least 1953.
Denver had been chosen by the International Olympic Committee as host city on May 12, 1970.
In 2006 voters passed Amendment 43, which purported to ban gay marriage in Colorado.
The first recreational marijuana shops in Colorado, and by extension the United States, opened their doors on January 1, 2014.
On May 29, 2019, Governor Jared Polis signed House Bill 1124 immediately prohibiting law enforcement officials in Colorado from holding undocumented immigrants solely on the basis of a request from U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement.
Main article: List of colleges and universities in Colorado
- Adams State University
- Aims Community College
- Arapahoe Community College
- Art Institute of Colorado
- Belleview Christian College & Bible Seminary
- Colorado Christian University
- Colorado College
- Colorado Mesa University
- Colorado Mountain College
- Colorado Northwestern Community College
- Colorado School of Mines
- Colorado State University System
- Colorado Technical University
- Community College of Aurora
- Community College of Denver
- Denver Seminary
- DeVry University
- Emily Griffith Opportunity School
- Ecotech Institute
- Fort Lewis College
- Front Range Community College
- Iliff School of Theology
- Johnson & Wales University
- Lamar Community College
- Metropolitan State University of Denver
- Morgan Community College
- Naropa University
- Nazarene Bible College
- Northeastern Junior College
- Otero Junior College
- Pikes Peak Community College
- Pueblo Community College
- Red Rocks Community College
- Regis University
- Rocky Mountain College of Art and Design
- Rocky Vista University College of Osteopathic Medicine
- Trinidad State Junior College
- United States Air Force Academy
- University of Colorado System
- University of Colorado Boulder
- University of Colorado Colorado Springs
- University of Colorado Denver
- University of Denver
- University of Northern Colorado
- Western Colorado University
- Air Reserve Personnel Center
- Buckley Air Force Base
- Fort Carson (U.S. Army)
- Peterson Air Force Base
- Pueblo Chemical Depot (U.S. Army)
- Schriever Air Force Base
- United States Air Force Academy
Former Military installations and outposts include:
- Camp Collins (1862–1870)
- Camp Hale (1942–1945)
- Fitzsimons Army Hospital (1918–1999)
- Fort Garland (1858–1883)
- Fort Logan (1887–1946)
- Lowry Air Force Base (1938–1994)
See also: List of the prehistoric life of Colorado
Colorado is home to 4 national parks, 8 national monuments, 2 national recreation areas, 2 national historic sites, 3 national historic trails, a national scenic trail, 11 national forests, 2 national grasslands, 42 national wilderness areas, 2 national conservation areas, 8 national wildlife refuges, 44 state parks, 307 state wildlife areas, and numerous other scenic, historic, and recreational areas.
Units of the National Park System in Colorado:
- Arapaho National Recreation Area
- Bent's Old Fort National Historic Site
- Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Park
- Browns Canyon National Monument
- Canyons of the Ancients National Monument
- Chimney Rock National Monument
- Colorado National Monument
- Continental Divide National Scenic Trail
- Curecanti National Recreation Area
- Dinosaur National Monument
- Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument
- Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve
- Hovenweep National Monument
- Mesa Verde National Park and UNESCO World Heritage Site
- Old Spanish National Historic Trail
- Pony Express National Historic Trail
- Rocky Mountain National Park
- Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site
- Santa Fe National Historic Trail
- Yucca House National Monument
- Bibliography of Colorado
- Climate change in Colorado
- Colorado statistical areas
- Economy of Colorado
- Geography of Colorado
- List of mountain passes of Colorado
- List of mountain peaks of Colorado
- List of mountain ranges of Colorado
- List of rivers of Colorado
- Geology of Colorado
- Government of Colorado
- History of Colorado
- Index of Colorado-related articles
- Outline of Colorado
- Paleontology in Colorado
- Transportation in Colorado
Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colorado.