Colorado

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This article is about the State of Colorado. Colorado_sentence_0

For the river, see Colorado River. Colorado_sentence_1

For the physiographic region, see Colorado Plateau. Colorado_sentence_2

For other uses, see Colorado (disambiguation). Colorado_sentence_3

Colorado_table_infobox_0

ColoradoColorado_header_cell_0_0_0
CountryColorado_header_cell_0_1_0 United StatesColorado_cell_0_1_1
Admitted to the UnionColorado_header_cell_0_2_0 August 1, 1876 (38th)Colorado_cell_0_2_1
Capital

(and largest city)Colorado_header_cell_0_3_0

DenverColorado_cell_0_3_1
Largest metroColorado_header_cell_0_4_0 Denver metropolitan areaColorado_cell_0_4_1
GovernmentColorado_header_cell_0_5_0
GovernorColorado_header_cell_0_6_0 Jared Polis (D)Colorado_cell_0_6_1
Lieutenant GovernorColorado_header_cell_0_7_0 Dianne Primavera (D)Colorado_cell_0_7_1
LegislatureColorado_header_cell_0_8_0 General AssemblyColorado_cell_0_8_1
Upper houseColorado_header_cell_0_9_0 SenateColorado_cell_0_9_1
Lower houseColorado_header_cell_0_10_0 House of RepresentativesColorado_cell_0_10_1
JudiciaryColorado_header_cell_0_11_0 Colorado Supreme CourtColorado_cell_0_11_1
U.S. senatorsColorado_header_cell_0_12_0 Michael Bennet (D)
Cory Gardner (R)Colorado_cell_0_12_1
U.S. House delegationColorado_header_cell_0_13_0 4 Democrats

3 Republicans (list)Colorado_cell_0_13_1

AreaColorado_header_cell_0_14_0
TotalColorado_header_cell_0_15_0 104,094 sq mi (269,837 km)Colorado_cell_0_15_1
LandColorado_header_cell_0_16_0 103,718 sq mi (268,875 km)Colorado_cell_0_16_1
WaterColorado_header_cell_0_17_0 376 sq mi (962 km)  0.36%Colorado_cell_0_17_1
Area rankColorado_header_cell_0_18_0 8thColorado_cell_0_18_1
DimensionsColorado_header_cell_0_19_0
LengthColorado_header_cell_0_20_0 380 mi (610 km)Colorado_cell_0_20_1
WidthColorado_header_cell_0_21_0 280 mi (450 km)Colorado_cell_0_21_1
ElevationColorado_header_cell_0_22_0 6,800 ft (2,070 m)Colorado_cell_0_22_1
Highest elevation (Mount Elbert)Colorado_header_cell_0_23_0 14,440 ft (4,401.2 m)Colorado_cell_0_23_1
Lowest elevation (Arikaree River)Colorado_header_cell_0_24_0 3,317 ft (1,011 m)Colorado_cell_0_24_1
Population (2019)Colorado_header_cell_0_25_0
TotalColorado_header_cell_0_26_0 5,758,736Colorado_cell_0_26_1
RankColorado_header_cell_0_27_0 21stColorado_cell_0_27_1
DensityColorado_header_cell_0_28_0 52.0/sq mi (19.9/km)Colorado_cell_0_28_1
Density rankColorado_header_cell_0_29_0 37thColorado_cell_0_29_1
Median household incomeColorado_header_cell_0_30_0 $69,117Colorado_cell_0_30_1
Income rankColorado_header_cell_0_31_0 12thColorado_cell_0_31_1
Demonym(s)Colorado_header_cell_0_32_0 ColoradanColorado_cell_0_32_1
LanguageColorado_header_cell_0_33_0
Official languageColorado_header_cell_0_34_0 EnglishColorado_cell_0_34_1
Time zoneColorado_header_cell_0_35_0 UTC−07:00 (Mountain)Colorado_cell_0_35_1
Summer (DST)Colorado_header_cell_0_36_0 UTC−06:00 (MDT)Colorado_cell_0_36_1
USPS abbreviationColorado_header_cell_0_37_0 COColorado_cell_0_37_1
ISO 3166 codeColorado_header_cell_0_38_0 US-COColorado_cell_0_38_1
LatitudeColorado_header_cell_0_39_0 37°N to 41°NColorado_cell_0_39_1
LongitudeColorado_header_cell_0_40_0 102°02′48″W to 109°02′48″WColorado_cell_0_40_1
WebsiteColorado_header_cell_0_41_0 Colorado_cell_0_41_1

Colorado_table_infobox_1

Colorado state symbolsColorado_header_cell_1_0_0
Living insigniaColorado_header_cell_1_1_0
AmphibianColorado_header_cell_1_2_0 Western tiger salamander

Ambystoma mavortiumColorado_cell_1_2_1

BirdColorado_header_cell_1_3_0 Lark bunting

Calamospiza melanocoryusColorado_cell_1_3_1

CactusColorado_header_cell_1_4_0 Claret cup cactus

Echinocereus triglochidiatusColorado_cell_1_4_1

FishColorado_header_cell_1_5_0 Greenback cutthroat trout

Oncorhynchus clarki somiasColorado_cell_1_5_1

FlowerColorado_header_cell_1_6_0 Rocky Mountain columbine

Aquilegia coeruleaColorado_cell_1_6_1

GrassColorado_header_cell_1_7_0 Blue grama grass

Bouteloua gracilisColorado_cell_1_7_1

InsectColorado_header_cell_1_8_0 Colorado Hairstreak

Hypaurotis crysalusColorado_cell_1_8_1

MammalColorado_header_cell_1_9_0 Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep

Ovis canadensisColorado_cell_1_9_1

PetColorado_header_cell_1_10_0 Colorado shelter pets

Canis lupus familiaris and Felis catusColorado_cell_1_10_1

ReptileColorado_header_cell_1_11_0 Western painted turtle

Chrysemys picta belliiColorado_cell_1_11_1

TreeColorado_header_cell_1_12_0 Colorado blue spruce

Picea pungensColorado_cell_1_12_1

Inanimate insigniaColorado_header_cell_1_13_0
ColorsColorado_header_cell_1_14_0 Blue, red, yellow, whiteColorado_cell_1_14_1
DinosaurColorado_header_cell_1_15_0 StegosaurusColorado_cell_1_15_1
Folk danceColorado_header_cell_1_16_0 Square dance

Chorea quadraColorado_cell_1_16_1

FossilColorado_header_cell_1_17_0 Stegosaurus

Stegosaurus armatusColorado_cell_1_17_1

GemstoneColorado_header_cell_1_18_0 AquamarineColorado_cell_1_18_1
MineralColorado_header_cell_1_19_0 RhodochrositeColorado_cell_1_19_1
RockColorado_header_cell_1_20_0 Yule MarbleColorado_cell_1_20_1
ShipColorado_header_cell_1_21_0 USS Colorado (SSN-788)Colorado_cell_1_21_1
SloganColorado_header_cell_1_22_0 Colorful ColoradoColorado_cell_1_22_1
SoilColorado_header_cell_1_23_0 SeitzColorado_cell_1_23_1
SportColorado_header_cell_1_24_0 Pack burro racingColorado_cell_1_24_1
TartanColorado_header_cell_1_25_0 Colorado state tartanColorado_cell_1_25_1
State route markerColorado_header_cell_1_26_0
State quarterColorado_header_cell_1_27_0

Colorado (/ˌkɒləˈrædoʊ, -ˈrɑːdoʊ/ (listen), other variants) is a state in the western United States encompassing most of the southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains. Colorado_sentence_4

It is the 8th most extensive and 21st most populous U.S. state. Colorado_sentence_5

The estimated population of Colorado is 5,758,736 as of 2019, an increase of 14.5% since the 2010 United States Census. Colorado_sentence_6

The region has been inhabited by Native Americans for more than 13,000 years, with the Lindenmeier Site containing artifacts dating from approximately 9200 BCE to 1000 BCE; the eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains was a major migration route for early peoples who spread throughout the Americas. Colorado_sentence_7

The state was named for the Colorado River, which early Spanish explorers named the Río Colorado ("Red River") for the silt the river carried from the mountains. Colorado_sentence_8

The Territory of Colorado was organized on February 28, 1861, and on August 1, 1876, U.S. Colorado_sentence_9

President Ulysses S. Grant signed Proclamation 230 admitting Colorado to the Union as the 38th state. Colorado_sentence_10

Colorado is nicknamed the "Centennial State" because it became a state one century after the signing of the United States Declaration of Independence. Colorado_sentence_11

Colorado is bordered by Wyoming to the north, Nebraska to the northeast, Kansas to the east, Oklahoma to the southeast, New Mexico to the south, Utah to the west, and touches Arizona to the southwest at the Four Corners. Colorado_sentence_12

Colorado is noted for its vivid landscape of mountains, forests, high plains, mesas, canyons, plateaus, rivers and desert lands. Colorado_sentence_13

Colorado is one of the Mountain States and is a part of the western and southwestern United States. Colorado_sentence_14

Denver is the capital and most populous city in Colorado. Colorado_sentence_15

Residents of the state are known as Coloradans, although the antiquated term "Coloradoan" is occasionally used. Colorado_sentence_16

Colorado is a comparatively wealthy state, ranking 8th in household income in 2016, and 11th in per capita income in 2010. Colorado_sentence_17

Major parts of the economy include government and defense, mining, agriculture, tourism, and increasingly other kinds of manufacturing. Colorado_sentence_18

With increasing temperatures and decreasing water availability, Colorado's agriculture, forestry and tourism economies are expected to be heavily affected by climate change. Colorado_sentence_19

Geography Colorado_section_0

Main article: Geography of Colorado Colorado_sentence_20

Colorado is notable for its diverse geography, which includes alpine mountains, high plains, deserts with huge sand dunes, and deep canyons. Colorado_sentence_21

In 1861, the United States Congress defined the boundaries of the new Territory of Colorado exclusively by lines of latitude and longitude, stretching from 37°N to 41°N latitude, and from 102°02′48″W to 109°02′48″W longitude (25°W to 32°W from the Washington Meridian). Colorado_sentence_22

After 159 years of government surveys, the borders of Colorado are now officially defined by 697 boundary markers and 697 straight boundary lines. Colorado_sentence_23

Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah are the only states that have their borders defined solely by straight boundary lines with no natural features. Colorado_sentence_24

The southwest corner of Colorado is the Four Corners Monument at 36°59′56″N, 109°2′43″W. Colorado_sentence_25

The Four Corners Monument, located at the place where Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, and Utah meet, is the only place in the United States where four states meet. Colorado_sentence_26

Mountains Colorado_section_1

See also: List of mountain peaks of Colorado Colorado_sentence_27

To the west of the Great Plains of Colorado rises the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains. Colorado_sentence_28

Notable peaks of the Rocky Mountains include Longs Peak, Mount Evans, Pikes Peak, and the Spanish Peaks near Walsenburg, in southern Colorado. Colorado_sentence_29

This area drains to the east and the southeast, ultimately either via the Mississippi River or the Rio Grande into the Gulf of Mexico. Colorado_sentence_30

The Rocky Mountains within Colorado contain 53 true peaks with a total of 58 that are 14,000 feet (4,267 m) or higher in elevation above sea level, known as fourteeners. Colorado_sentence_31

These mountains are largely covered with trees such as conifers and aspens up to the tree line, at an elevation of about 12,000 feet (3,658 m) in southern Colorado to about 10,500 feet (3,200 m) in northern Colorado. Colorado_sentence_32

Above this tree line only alpine vegetation grows. Colorado_sentence_33

Only small parts of the Colorado Rockies are snow-covered year-round. Colorado_sentence_34

Much of the alpine snow melts by mid-August with the exception of a few snow-capped peaks and a few small glaciers. Colorado_sentence_35

The Colorado Mineral Belt, stretching from the San Juan Mountains in the southwest to Boulder and Central City on the front range, contains most of the historic gold- and silver-mining districts of Colorado. Colorado_sentence_36

Mount Elbert is the highest summit of the Rocky Mountains. Colorado_sentence_37

The 30 highest major summits of the Rocky Mountains of North America all lie within the state. Colorado_sentence_38

The summit of Mount Elbert at 14,440 feet (4,401.2 m) elevation in Lake County is the highest point in Colorado and the Rocky Mountains of North America. Colorado_sentence_39

Colorado is the only U.S. state that lies entirely above 1,000 meters elevation. Colorado_sentence_40

The point where the Arikaree River flows out of Yuma County, Colorado, and into Cheyenne County, Kansas, is the lowest point in Colorado at 3,317 feet (1,011 m) elevation. Colorado_sentence_41

This point, which holds the distinction of being the highest low elevation point of any state, is higher than the high elevation points of 18 states and the District of Columbia. Colorado_sentence_42

Plains Colorado_section_2

A little less than half of Colorado is flat and rolling land. Colorado_sentence_43

East of the Rocky Mountains are the Colorado Eastern Plains of the High Plains, the section of the Great Plains within Nebraska at elevations ranging from roughly 3,350 to 7,500 feet (1,020 to 2,290 m). Colorado_sentence_44

The Colorado plains are mostly prairies but also include deciduous forests, buttes, and canyons. Colorado_sentence_45

Precipitation averages 15 to 25 inches (380 to 640 mm) annually. Colorado_sentence_46

Eastern Colorado is presently mainly farmland and rangeland, along with small farming villages and towns. Colorado_sentence_47

Corn, wheat, hay, soybeans, and oats are all typical crops. Colorado_sentence_48

Most villages and towns in this region boast both a water tower and a grain elevator. Colorado_sentence_49

Irrigation water is available from both surface and subterranean sources. Colorado_sentence_50

Surface water sources include the South Platte, the Arkansas River, and a few other streams. Colorado_sentence_51

Subterranean water is generally accessed through artesian wells. Colorado_sentence_52

Heavy usage of these wells for irrigation purposes caused underground water reserves to decline in the region. Colorado_sentence_53

Eastern Colorado also hosts a considerable amount and range of livestock, such as cattle ranches and hog farms. Colorado_sentence_54

Front Range Colorado_section_3

Roughly 70% of Colorado's population resides along the eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains in the Front Range Urban Corridor between Cheyenne, Wyoming, and Pueblo, Colorado. Colorado_sentence_55

This region is partially protected from prevailing storms that blow in from the Pacific Ocean region by the high Rockies in the middle of Colorado. Colorado_sentence_56

The "Front Range" includes Denver, Boulder, Fort Collins, Loveland, Castle Rock, Colorado Springs, Pueblo, Greeley, and other townships and municipalities in between. Colorado_sentence_57

On the other side of the Rockies, the significant population centers in Western Colorado (which is not considered the "Front Range") are the cities of Grand Junction, Durango, and Montrose. Colorado_sentence_58

Continental Divide Colorado_section_4

The Continental Divide of the Americas extends along the crest of the Rocky Mountains. Colorado_sentence_59

The area of Colorado to the west of the Continental Divide is called the Western Slope of Colorado. Colorado_sentence_60

West of the Continental Divide, water flows to the southwest via the Colorado River and the Green River into the Gulf of California. Colorado_sentence_61

Within the interior of the Rocky Mountains are several large parks which are high broad basins. Colorado_sentence_62

In the north, on the east side of the Continental Divide is the North Park of Colorado. Colorado_sentence_63

The North Park is drained by the North Platte River, which flows north into Wyoming and Nebraska. Colorado_sentence_64

Just to the south of North Park, but on the western side of the Continental Divide, is the Middle Park of Colorado, which is drained by the Colorado River. Colorado_sentence_65

The South Park of Colorado is the region of the headwaters of the South Platte River. Colorado_sentence_66

Southern region Colorado_section_5

In southmost Colorado is the large San Luis Valley, where the headwaters of the Rio Grande are located. Colorado_sentence_67

The valley sits between the Sangre De Cristo Mountains and San Juan Mountains, and consists of large desert lands that eventually run into the mountains. Colorado_sentence_68

The Rio Grande drains due south into New Mexico, Mexico, and Texas. Colorado_sentence_69

Across the Sangre de Cristo Range to the east of the San Luis Valley lies the Wet Mountain Valley. Colorado_sentence_70

These basins, particularly the San Luis Valley, lie along the Rio Grande Rift, a major geological formation of the Rocky Mountains, and its branches. Colorado_sentence_71

Colorado Western Slope Colorado_section_6

The Western Slope area of Colorado includes the western face of the Rocky Mountains and all of the state to the western border. Colorado_sentence_72

This area includes several terrains and climates from alpine mountains to arid deserts. Colorado_sentence_73

The Western Slope includes many ski resort towns in the Rocky Mountains and towns west of the mountains. Colorado_sentence_74

It is less populous than the Front Range but includes a large number of national parks and monuments. Colorado_sentence_75

From west to east, the land of Colorado consists of desert lands, desert plateaus, alpine mountains, National Forests, relatively flat grasslands, scattered forests, buttes, and canyons in the western edge of the Great Plains. Colorado_sentence_76

The famous Pikes Peak is located just west of Colorado Springs. Colorado_sentence_77

Its isolated peak is visible from nearly the Kansas border on clear days, and also far to the north and the south. Colorado_sentence_78

The northwestern corner of Colorado is a sparsely populated region, and it contains part of the noted Dinosaur National Monument, which not only is a paleontological area, but is also a scenic area of rocky hills, canyons, arid desert, and streambeds. Colorado_sentence_79

Here, the Green River briefly crosses over into Colorado. Colorado_sentence_80

Desert lands in Colorado are located in and around areas such as the Pueblo, Canon City, Florence, Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, San Luis Valley, Cortez, Canyon of the Ancients National Monument, Hovenweep National Monument, Ute Mountain, Delta, Grand Junction, Colorado National Monument, and other areas surrounding the Uncompahgre Plateau and Uncompahgre National Forest. Colorado_sentence_81

The Western Slope of Colorado is drained by the Colorado River and its tributaries (primarily the Gunnison River, Green River, and the San Juan River), or by evaporation in its arid areas. Colorado_sentence_82

The Colorado River flows through Glenwood Canyon, and then through an arid valley made up of desert from Rifle to Parachute, through the desert canyon of De Beque Canyon, and into the arid desert of Grand Valley, where the city of Grand Junction is located. Colorado_sentence_83

Also prominent in or near the southern portion of the Western Slope are the Grand Mesa, which lies to the southeast of Grand Junction; the high San Juan Mountains, a rugged mountain range; and to the west of the San Juan Mountains, the Colorado Plateau, a high arid region that borders Southern Utah. Colorado_sentence_84

Grand Junction, Colorado is the largest city on the Western Slope. Colorado_sentence_85

Grand Junction and Durango are the only major centers of television broadcasting west of the Continental Divide in Colorado, though most mountain resort communities publish daily newspapers. Colorado_sentence_86

Grand Junction is located along Interstate 70, the only major highway in Western Colorado. Colorado_sentence_87

Grand Junction is also along the major railroad of the Western Slope, the Union Pacific. Colorado_sentence_88

This railroad also provides the tracks for Amtrak's California Zephyr passenger train, which crosses the Rocky Mountains between Denver and Grand Junction via a route on which there are no continuous highways. Colorado_sentence_89

The Western Slope includes multiple notable destinations in the Colorado Rocky Mountains, including Glenwood Springs, with its resort hot springs, and the ski resorts of Aspen, Breckenridge, Vail, Crested Butte, Steamboat Springs, and Telluride. Colorado_sentence_90

Higher education in and near the Western Slope can be found at Colorado Mesa University in Grand Junction, Western Colorado University in Gunnison, Fort Lewis College in Durango, and Colorado Mountain College in Glenwood Springs and Steamboat Springs. Colorado_sentence_91

The Four Corners Monument in the southwest corner of Colorado marks the common boundary of Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, and Utah; the only such place in the United States. Colorado_sentence_92

See also: List of cities and towns in Colorado, List of counties in Colorado, List of rivers of Colorado, and Four Corners Monument Colorado_sentence_93

Climate Colorado_section_7

The climate of Colorado is more complex than states outside of the Mountain States region. Colorado_sentence_94

Unlike most other states, southern Colorado is not always warmer than northern Colorado. Colorado_sentence_95

Most of Colorado is made up of mountains, foothills, high plains, and desert lands. Colorado_sentence_96

Mountains and surrounding valleys greatly affect local climate. Colorado_sentence_97

As a general rule, with an increase in elevation comes a decrease in temperature and an increase in precipitation. Colorado_sentence_98

Northeast, east, and southeast Colorado are mostly the high plains, while Northern Colorado is a mix of high plains, foothills, and mountains. Colorado_sentence_99

Northwest and west Colorado are predominantly mountainous, with some desert lands mixed in. Colorado_sentence_100

Southwest and southern Colorado are a complex mixture of desert and mountain areas. Colorado_sentence_101

Eastern Plains Colorado_section_8

The climate of the Eastern Plains is semiarid (Köppen climate classification: BSk) with low humidity and moderate precipitation, usually from 15 to 25 inches (380 to 640 millimeters) annually. Colorado_sentence_102

The area is known for its abundant sunshine and cool, clear nights, which give this area a great average diurnal temperature range. Colorado_sentence_103

The difference between the highs of the days and the lows of the nights can be considerable as warmth dissipates to space during clear nights, the heat radiation not being trapped by clouds. Colorado_sentence_104

The Front Range urban corridor, where most of the population of Colorado resides, lies in a pronounced precipitation shadow as a result of being on the lee side of the Rocky Mountains. Colorado_sentence_105

In summer, this area can have many days above 95 °F (35 °C) and often 100 °F (38 °C). Colorado_sentence_106

On the plains, the winter lows usually range from 25 to −10 °F (−4 to −23 °C). Colorado_sentence_107

About 75% of the precipitation falls within the growing season, from April to September, but this area is very prone to droughts. Colorado_sentence_108

Most of the precipitation comes from thunderstorms, which can be severe, and from major snowstorms that occur in the winter and early spring. Colorado_sentence_109

Otherwise, winters tend to be mostly dry and cold. Colorado_sentence_110

In much of the region, March is the snowiest month. Colorado_sentence_111

April and May are normally the rainiest months, while April is the wettest month overall. Colorado_sentence_112

The Front Range cities closer to the mountains tend to be warmer in the winter due to Chinook winds which warm the area, sometimes bringing temperatures of 70 °F (21 °C) or higher in the winter. Colorado_sentence_113

The average July temperature is 55 °F (13 °C) in the morning and 90 °F (32 °C) in the afternoon. Colorado_sentence_114

The average January temperature is 18 °F (−8 °C) in the morning and 48 °F (9 °C) in the afternoon, although variation between consecutive days can be 40 °F (20 °C). Colorado_sentence_115

Front Range foothills Colorado_section_9

Just west of the plains and into the foothills, there are a wide variety of climate types. Colorado_sentence_116

Locations merely a few miles apart can experience entirely different weather depending on the topography. Colorado_sentence_117

Most valleys have a semi-arid climate not unlike the eastern plains, which transitions to an alpine climate at the highest elevations. Colorado_sentence_118

Microclimates also exist in local areas that run nearly the entire spectrum of climates, including subtropical highland (Cfb/Cwb), humid subtropical (Cfa), humid continental (Dfa/Dfb), Mediterranean (Csa/Csb) and subarctic (Dfc). Colorado_sentence_119

Extreme weather Colorado_section_10

Extreme weather changes are common in Colorado, although a significant portion of the extreme weather occurs in the least populated areas of the state. Colorado_sentence_120

Thunderstorms are common east of the Continental Divide in the spring and summer, yet are usually brief. Colorado_sentence_121

Hail is a common sight in the mountains east of the Divide and across the eastern Plains, especially the northeast part of the state. Colorado_sentence_122

Hail is the most commonly reported warm-season severe weather hazard, and occasionally causes human injuries, as well as significant property damage. Colorado_sentence_123

The eastern Plains are subject to some of the biggest hail storms in North America. Colorado_sentence_124

Notable examples are the severe hailstorms that hit Denver on July 11, 1990 and May 8, 2017, the latter being the costliest ever in the state. Colorado_sentence_125

The Eastern Plains are part of the extreme western portion of Tornado Alley; some damaging tornadoes in the Eastern Plains include the 1990 Limon F3 tornado and the 2008 Windsor EF3 tornado, which devastated the small town. Colorado_sentence_126

Portions of the eastern Plains see especially frequent tornadoes, both those spawned from mesocyclones in supercell thunderstorms and from less intense landspouts, such as within the Denver convergence vorticity zone (DCVZ). Colorado_sentence_127

The Plains are also susceptible to occasional floods and particularly severe flash floods, which are caused both by thunderstorms and by the rapid melting of snow in the mountains during warm weather. Colorado_sentence_128

Notable examples include the 1965 Denver Flood, the Big Thompson River flooding of 1976 and the 2013 Colorado floods. Colorado_sentence_129

Hot weather is common during summers in Denver. Colorado_sentence_130

The city's record in 1901 for the number of consecutive days above 90 °F (32 °C) was broken during the summer of 2008. Colorado_sentence_131

The new record of 24 consecutive days surpassed the previous record by almost a week. Colorado_sentence_132

Much of Colorado is very dry, with the state averaging only 17 inches (430 millimeters) of precipitation per year statewide. Colorado_sentence_133

The state rarely experiences a time when some portion is not in some degree of drought. Colorado_sentence_134

The lack of precipitation contributes to the severity of wildfires in the state, such as the Hayman Fire of 2002. Colorado_sentence_135

Other notable fires include the Fourmile Canyon Fire of 2010, the Waldo Canyon Fire and High Park Fire of June 2012, and the Black Forest Fire of June 2013. Colorado_sentence_136

Even these fires were exceeded in severity by the Pine Gulch Fire, Cameron Peak Fire and East Troublesome Fire in 2020, all being the three largest fires in Colorado history (see 2020 Colorado wildfires). Colorado_sentence_137

However, some of the mountainous regions of Colorado receive a huge amount of moisture from winter snowfalls. Colorado_sentence_138

The spring melts of these snows often cause great waterflows in the Yampa River, the Colorado River, the Rio Grande, the Arkansas River, the North Platte River, and the South Platte River. Colorado_sentence_139

Water flowing out of the Colorado Rocky Mountains is a very significant source of water for the farms, towns, and cities of the southwest states of New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, and Nevada, as well as the Midwest, such as Nebraska and Kansas, and the southern states of Oklahoma and Texas. Colorado_sentence_140

A significant amount of water is also diverted for use in California; occasionally (formerly naturally and consistently), the flow of water reaches northern Mexico. Colorado_sentence_141

Climate change Colorado_section_11

Records Colorado_section_12

The highest official ambient air temperature ever recorded in Colorado was 115 °F (46.1 °C) on July 20, 2019, at John Martin Dam. Colorado_sentence_142

The lowest official air temperature was −61 °F (−51.7 °C) on February 1, 1985, at Maybell. Colorado_sentence_143

Colorado_table_general_2

Monthly normal high and low temperatures for various Colorado citiesColorado_table_caption_2
CityColorado_header_cell_2_0_0 JanColorado_header_cell_2_0_1 FebColorado_header_cell_2_0_2 MarColorado_header_cell_2_0_3 AprColorado_header_cell_2_0_4 MayColorado_header_cell_2_0_5 JunColorado_header_cell_2_0_6 JulColorado_header_cell_2_0_7 AugColorado_header_cell_2_0_8 SepColorado_header_cell_2_0_9 OctColorado_header_cell_2_0_10 NovColorado_header_cell_2_0_11 DecColorado_header_cell_2_0_12
AlamosaColorado_header_cell_2_1_0 34/−2

2/−19Colorado_cell_2_1_1

40/6

4/−14Colorado_cell_2_1_2

50/17

10/−8Colorado_cell_2_1_3

59/24

15/−4Colorado_cell_2_1_4

69/33

21/1Colorado_cell_2_1_5

79/41

26/5Colorado_cell_2_1_6

82/47

28/8Colorado_cell_2_1_7

80/46

27/8Colorado_cell_2_1_8

73/40

23/4Colorado_cell_2_1_9

62/25

17/−4Colorado_cell_2_1_10

47/12

8/−11Colorado_cell_2_1_11

35/1

2/−17Colorado_cell_2_1_12

Colorado SpringsColorado_header_cell_2_2_0 43/18

6/−8Colorado_cell_2_2_1

45/20

7/−7Colorado_cell_2_2_2

52/26

11/−3Colorado_cell_2_2_3

60/33

16/1Colorado_cell_2_2_4

69/43

21/6Colorado_cell_2_2_5

79/51

26/11Colorado_cell_2_2_6

85/57

29/14Colorado_cell_2_2_7

82/56

28/13Colorado_cell_2_2_8

75/47

24/8Colorado_cell_2_2_9

63/36

17/2Colorado_cell_2_2_10

51/25

11/−4Colorado_cell_2_2_11

42/18

6/−8Colorado_cell_2_2_12

DenverColorado_header_cell_2_3_0 49/20

9/−7Colorado_cell_2_3_1

49/21

9/−6Colorado_cell_2_3_2

56/29

13/−2Colorado_cell_2_3_3

64/35

18/2Colorado_cell_2_3_4

73/46

23/8Colorado_cell_2_3_5

84/54

29/12Colorado_cell_2_3_6

92/61

33/16Colorado_cell_2_3_7

89/60

32/16Colorado_cell_2_3_8

81/50

27/10Colorado_cell_2_3_9

68/37

20/3Colorado_cell_2_3_10

55/26

13/−3Colorado_cell_2_3_11

47/18

8/−8Colorado_cell_2_3_12

Grand JunctionColorado_header_cell_2_4_0 38/17

3/−8Colorado_cell_2_4_1

45/24

7/−4Colorado_cell_2_4_2

57/31

14/-1Colorado_cell_2_4_3

65/38

18/3Colorado_cell_2_4_4

76/47

24/8Colorado_cell_2_4_5

88/56

31/13Colorado_cell_2_4_6

93/63

34/17Colorado_cell_2_4_7

90/61

32/16Colorado_cell_2_4_8

80/52

27/11Colorado_cell_2_4_9

66/40

19/4Colorado_cell_2_4_10

51/28

11/−2Colorado_cell_2_4_11

39/19

4/−7Colorado_cell_2_4_12

PuebloColorado_header_cell_2_5_0 47/14

8/−10Colorado_cell_2_5_1

51/17

11/−8Colorado_cell_2_5_2

59/26

15/−3Colorado_cell_2_5_3

67/34

19/1Colorado_cell_2_5_4

77/44

25/7Colorado_cell_2_5_5

87/53

31/12Colorado_cell_2_5_6

93/59

34/15Colorado_cell_2_5_7

90/58

32/14Colorado_cell_2_5_8

82/48

28/9Colorado_cell_2_5_9

69/34

21/1Colorado_cell_2_5_10

56/23

13/−5Colorado_cell_2_5_11

46/14

8/−10Colorado_cell_2_5_12

Earthquakes Colorado_section_13

Despite its mountainous terrain, Colorado is relatively quiet seismically. Colorado_sentence_144

The U.S. National Earthquake Information Center is located in Golden. Colorado_sentence_145

On August 22, 2011, a 5.3 magnitude earthquake occurred 9 miles (14 km) west-southwest of the city of Trinidad. Colorado_sentence_146

There were no casualties and only a small amount of damage was reported. Colorado_sentence_147

It was the second-largest earthquake in Colorado's history. Colorado_sentence_148

A magnitude 5.7 earthquake was recorded in 1973. Colorado_sentence_149

In early morning hours of August 24, 2018, four minor earthquakes rattled the state of Colorado ranging from magnitude 2.9 to 4.3. Colorado_sentence_150

Colorado has recorded 525 earthquakes since 1973, a majority of which range 2 to 3.5 on the Richter scale. Colorado_sentence_151

History Colorado_section_14

Main articles: History of Colorado and Timeline of Colorado history Colorado_sentence_152

The region that is today the state of Colorado has been inhabited by Native Americans for more than 13,000 years. Colorado_sentence_153

The Lindenmeier Site in Larimer County contains artifacts dating from approximately 11200 BC to 3000 BC. Colorado_sentence_154

The eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains was a major migration route that was important to the spread of early peoples throughout the Americas. Colorado_sentence_155

The Ancient Pueblo peoples lived in the valleys and mesas of the Colorado Plateau. Colorado_sentence_156

The Ute Nation inhabited the mountain valleys of the Southern Rocky Mountains and the Western Rocky Mountains, even as far east as the Front Range of present day. Colorado_sentence_157

The Apache and the Comanche also inhabited Eastern and Southeastern parts of the state. Colorado_sentence_158

At times, the Arapaho Nation and the Cheyenne Nation moved west to hunt across the High Plains. Colorado_sentence_159

The Spanish Empire claimed Colorado as part of its New Mexico province prior to U.S. involvement in the region. Colorado_sentence_160

The U.S. acquired a territorial claim to the eastern Rocky Mountains with the Louisiana Purchase from France in 1803. Colorado_sentence_161

This U.S. claim conflicted with the claim by Spain to the upper Arkansas River Basin as the exclusive trading zone of its colony of Santa Fé de Nuevo México. Colorado_sentence_162

In 1806, Zebulon Pike led a U.S. Colorado_sentence_163

Army reconnaissance expedition into the disputed region. Colorado_sentence_164

Colonel Pike and his men were arrested by Spanish cavalrymen in the San Luis Valley the following February, taken to Chihuahua, and expelled from Mexico the following July. Colorado_sentence_165

The U.S. relinquished its claim to all land south and west of the Arkansas River and south of 42nd parallel north and west of the 100th meridian west as part of its purchase of Florida from Spain with the Adams-Onís Treaty of 1819. Colorado_sentence_166

The treaty took effect February 22, 1821. Colorado_sentence_167

Having settled its border with Spain, the U.S. admitted the southeastern portion of the Territory of Missouri to the Union as the state of Missouri on August 10, 1821. Colorado_sentence_168

The remainder of Missouri Territory, including what would become northeastern Colorado, became unorganized territory, and remained so for 33 years over the question of slavery. Colorado_sentence_169

After 11 years of war, Spain finally recognized the independence of Mexico with the Treaty of Córdoba signed on August 24, 1821. Colorado_sentence_170

Mexico eventually ratified the Adams-Onís Treaty in 1831. Colorado_sentence_171

The Texian Revolt of 1835–36 fomented a dispute between the U.S. and Mexico which eventually erupted into the Mexican–American War in 1846. Colorado_sentence_172

Mexico surrendered its northern territory to the U.S. with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo at the conclusion of the war in 1848. Colorado_sentence_173

Most American settlers traveling overland west to the Oregon Country, the new goldfields of California, or the new Mormon settlements of the State of Deseret in the Salt Lake Valley, avoided the rugged Southern Rocky Mountains, and instead followed the North Platte River and Sweetwater River to South Pass (Wyoming), the lowest crossing of the Continental Divide between the Southern Rocky Mountains and the Central Rocky Mountains. Colorado_sentence_174

In 1849, the Mormons of the Salt Lake Valley organized the extralegal State of Deseret, claiming the entire Great Basin and all lands drained by the rivers Green, Grand, and Colorado. Colorado_sentence_175

The federal government of the U.S. flatly refused to recognize the new Mormon government, because it was theocratic and sanctioned plural marriage. Colorado_sentence_176

Instead, the Compromise of 1850 divided the Mexican Cession and the northwestern claims of Texas into a new state and two new territories, the state of California, the Territory of New Mexico, and the Territory of Utah. Colorado_sentence_177

On April 9, 1851, Mexican American settlers from the area of Taos settled the village of San Luis, then in the New Mexico Territory, later to become Colorado's first permanent Euro-American settlement. Colorado_sentence_178

In 1854, Senator Stephen A. Douglas persuaded the U.S. Colorado_sentence_179

Congress to divide the unorganized territory east of the Continental Divide into two new organized territories, the Territory of Kansas and the Territory of Nebraska, and an unorganized southern region known as the Indian territory. Colorado_sentence_180

Each new territory was to decide the fate of slavery within its boundaries, but this compromise merely served to fuel animosity between free soil and pro-slavery factions. Colorado_sentence_181

The gold seekers organized the Provisional Government of the Territory of Jefferson on August 24, 1859, but this new territory failed to secure approval from the Congress of the United States embroiled in the debate over slavery. Colorado_sentence_182

The election of Abraham Lincoln for the President of the United States on November 6, 1860, led to the secession of nine southern slave states and the threat of civil war among the states. Colorado_sentence_183

Seeking to augment the political power of the Union states, the Republican Party-dominated Congress quickly admitted the eastern portion of the Territory of Kansas into the Union as the free State of Kansas on January 29, 1861, leaving the western portion of the Kansas Territory, and its gold-mining areas, as unorganized territory. Colorado_sentence_184

Territory act Colorado_section_15

Main articles: Organic act § List of organic acts, New Mexico Territory, Utah Territory, Kansas–Nebraska Act, Kansas Territory, Nebraska Territory, Colorado Territory, and Pike's Peak Gold Rush Colorado_sentence_185

Thirty days later on February 28, 1861, outgoing U.S. President James Buchanan signed an Act of Congress organizing the free Territory of Colorado. Colorado_sentence_186

The original boundaries of Colorado remain unchanged except for government survey amendments. Colorado_sentence_187

The name Colorado was chosen because it was commonly believed that the Colorado River originated in the territory. Colorado_sentence_188

In 1776, Spanish priest Silvestre Vélez de Escalante recorded that Native Americans in the area knew the river as for the red-brown silt that the river carried from the mountains. Colorado_sentence_189

In 1859, a U.S. Colorado_sentence_190

Army topographic expedition led by Captain John Macomb located the confluence of the Green River with the Grand River in what is now Canyonlands National Park in Utah. Colorado_sentence_191

The Macomb party designated the confluence as the source of the Colorado River. Colorado_sentence_192

On April 12, 1861, South Carolina artillery opened fire on Fort Sumter to start the American Civil War. Colorado_sentence_193

While many gold seekers held sympathies for the Confederacy, the vast majority remained fiercely loyal to the Union cause. Colorado_sentence_194

In 1862, a force of Texas cavalry invaded the Territory of New Mexico and captured Santa Fe on March 10. Colorado_sentence_195

The object of this Western Campaign was to seize or disrupt the gold fields of Colorado and California and to seize ports on the Pacific Ocean for the Confederacy. Colorado_sentence_196

A hastily organized force of Colorado volunteers force-marched from Denver City, Colorado Territory, to Glorieta Pass, New Mexico Territory, in an attempt to block the Texans. Colorado_sentence_197

On March 28, the Coloradans and local New Mexico volunteers stopped the Texans at the Battle of Glorieta Pass, destroyed their cannon and supply wagons, and dispersed 500 of their horses and mules. Colorado_sentence_198

The Texans were forced to retreat to Santa Fe. Colorado_sentence_199

Having lost the supplies for their campaign and finding little support in New Mexico, the Texans abandoned Santa Fe and returned to San Antonio in defeat. Colorado_sentence_200

The Confederacy made no further attempts to seize the Southwestern United States. Colorado_sentence_201

In 1864, Territorial Governor John Evans appointed the Reverend John Chivington as Colonel of the Colorado Volunteers with orders to protect white settlers from Cheyenne and Arapaho warriors who were accused of stealing cattle. Colorado_sentence_202

Colonel Chivington ordered his men to attack a band of Cheyenne and Arapaho encamped along Sand Creek. Colorado_sentence_203

Chivington reported that his troops killed more than 500 warriors. Colorado_sentence_204

The militia returned to Denver City in triumph, but several officers reported that the so-called battle was a blatant massacre of Indians at peace, that most of the dead were women and children, and that bodies of the dead had been hideously mutilated and desecrated. Colorado_sentence_205

Three U.S. Army inquiries condemned the action, and incoming President Andrew Johnson asked Governor Evans for his resignation, but none of the perpetrators was ever punished. Colorado_sentence_206

This event is now known as the Sand Creek massacre. Colorado_sentence_207

In the midst and aftermath of Civil War, many discouraged prospectors returned to their homes, but a few stayed and developed mines, mills, farms, ranches, roads, and towns in Colorado Territory. Colorado_sentence_208

On September 14, 1864, James Huff discovered silver near Argentine Pass, the first of many silver strikes. Colorado_sentence_209

In 1867, the Union Pacific Railroad laid its tracks west to Weir, now Julesburg, in the northeast corner of the Territory. Colorado_sentence_210

The Union Pacific linked up with the Central Pacific Railroad at Promontory Summit, Utah, on May 10, 1869, to form the First Transcontinental Railroad. Colorado_sentence_211

The Denver Pacific Railway reached Denver in June the following year, and the Kansas Pacific arrived two months later to forge the second line across the continent. Colorado_sentence_212

In 1872, rich veins of silver were discovered in the San Juan Mountains on the Ute Indian reservation in southwestern Colorado. Colorado_sentence_213

The Ute people were removed from the San Juans the following year. Colorado_sentence_214

Statehood Colorado_section_16

Main articles: Admission to the Union, List of U.S. states by date of admission to the Union, Colorado Silver Boom, and Cripple Creek Gold Rush Colorado_sentence_215

The United States Congress passed an enabling act on March 3, 1875, specifying the requirements for the Territory of Colorado to become a state. Colorado_sentence_216

On August 1, 1876 (four weeks after the Centennial of the United States), U.S. President Ulysses S. Grant signed a proclamation admitting Colorado to the Union as the 38th state and earning it the moniker "Centennial State". Colorado_sentence_217

The discovery of a major silver lode near Leadville in 1878 triggered the Colorado Silver Boom. Colorado_sentence_218

The Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890 invigorated silver mining, and Colorado's last, but greatest, gold strike at Cripple Creek a few months later lured a new generation of gold seekers. Colorado_sentence_219

Colorado women were granted the right to vote on November 7, 1893, making Colorado the second state to grant universal suffrage and the first one by a popular vote (of Colorado men). Colorado_sentence_220

The repeal of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act in 1893 led to a staggering collapse of the mining and agricultural economy of Colorado, but the state slowly and steadily recovered. Colorado_sentence_221

Between the 1880s and 1930s, Denver's floriculture industry developed into a major industry in Colorado. Colorado_sentence_222

This period became known locally as the Carnation Gold Rush. Colorado_sentence_223

Poor labor conditions and discontent among miners resulted in several major clashes between strikers and the Colorado National Guard, including the 1903-1904 Western Federation of Miners Strike and Colorado Coalfield War, the latter of which included the Ludlow massacre that killed a dozen women and children. Colorado_sentence_224

Both the 1913-1914 Coalfield War and the Denver streetcar strike of 1920 resulted in federal troops intervening to end the violence. Colorado_sentence_225

In 1927, the Columbine Mine massacre resulted in six dead strikers following a confrontation with Colorado Rangers. Colorado_sentence_226

More than 5,000 Colorado miners—many immigrants—are estimated to have died in accidents since records began to be formally collected following an accident in Crested Butte that killed 59 in 1884. Colorado_sentence_227

Colorado became the first western state to host a major political convention when the Democratic Party met in Denver in 1908. Colorado_sentence_228

By the U.S. Colorado_sentence_229

Census in 1930, the population of Colorado first exceeded one million residents. Colorado_sentence_230

Colorado suffered greatly through the Great Depression and the Dust Bowl of the 1930s, but a major wave of immigration following World War II boosted Colorado's fortune. Colorado_sentence_231

Tourism became a mainstay of the state economy, and high technology became an important economic engine. Colorado_sentence_232

The United States Census Bureau estimated that the population of Colorado exceeded five million in 2009. Colorado_sentence_233

Three warships of the U.S. Colorado_sentence_234

Navy have been named the USS Colorado. Colorado_sentence_235

The first USS Colorado was named for the Colorado River and served in the Civil War and later the Asiatic Squadron, where it was attacked during the 1871 Korean Expedition. Colorado_sentence_236

The later two ships were named in honor of the state, including the battleship USS Colorado which served in World War II in the Pacific beginning in 1941. Colorado_sentence_237

At the time of the attack on Pearl Harbor, this USS Colorado was located at the naval base in San Diego, Calif. and hence went unscathed. Colorado_sentence_238

On September 11, 1957, a plutonium fire occurred at the Rocky Flats Plant, which resulted in the significant plutonium contamination of surrounding populated areas. Colorado_sentence_239

Fauna Colorado_section_17

Since extirpation by trapping and poisoning of the gray wolf (Canis lupus) from Colorado in the 1930s, a wolf pack recolonized Moffat County, Colorado in northwestern Colorado in 2019. Colorado_sentence_240

Demographics Colorado_section_18

The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of Colorado was 5,758,736 as of 2019, a 14.51% increase since the 2010 United States Census. Colorado_sentence_241

Colorado's most populous city and capital, is Denver. Colorado_sentence_242

The Greater Denver Metropolitan Area, with an estimated 2017 population of 3,515,374, is considered the largest metropolitan area within the state and is found within the larger Front Range Urban Corridor, home to about five million. Colorado_sentence_243

The largest increases are expected in the Front Range Urban Corridor, especially in the Denver metropolitan area. Colorado_sentence_244

The state's fastest-growing counties are Douglas and Weld. Colorado_sentence_245

The center of population of Colorado is located just north of the village of Critchell in Jefferson County. Colorado_sentence_246

According to the 2010 United States Census, Colorado had a population of 5,029,196. Colorado_sentence_247

Racial composition of the state's population was: Colorado_sentence_248

Colorado_unordered_list_0

Colorado_table_general_3

Colorado racial breakdown of populationColorado_table_caption_3
Racial compositionColorado_header_cell_3_0_0 1970Colorado_header_cell_3_0_1 1990Colorado_header_cell_3_0_2 2000Colorado_header_cell_3_0_3 2010Colorado_header_cell_3_0_4
White (includes White Hispanics)Colorado_cell_3_1_0 95.7%Colorado_cell_3_1_1 88.2%Colorado_cell_3_1_2 82.8%Colorado_cell_3_1_3 81.3%Colorado_cell_3_1_4
BlackColorado_cell_3_2_0 3.0%Colorado_cell_3_2_1 4.0%Colorado_cell_3_2_2 3.8%Colorado_cell_3_2_3 4.0%Colorado_cell_3_2_4
AsianColorado_cell_3_3_0 0.5%Colorado_cell_3_3_1 1.8%Colorado_cell_3_3_2 2.2%Colorado_cell_3_3_3 2.8%Colorado_cell_3_3_4
NativeColorado_cell_3_4_0 0.4%Colorado_cell_3_4_1 0.8%Colorado_cell_3_4_2 1.0%Colorado_cell_3_4_3 1.1%Colorado_cell_3_4_4
Native Hawaiian and

other Pacific IslanderColorado_cell_3_5_0

Colorado_cell_3_5_1 Colorado_cell_3_5_2 0.1%Colorado_cell_3_5_3 0.1%Colorado_cell_3_5_4
Other raceColorado_cell_3_6_0 0.4%Colorado_cell_3_6_1 5.1%Colorado_cell_3_6_2 7.2%Colorado_cell_3_6_3 7.2%Colorado_cell_3_6_4
Two or more racesColorado_cell_3_7_0 Colorado_cell_3_7_1 Colorado_cell_3_7_2 2.8%Colorado_cell_3_7_3 3.4%Colorado_cell_3_7_4

People of Hispanic and Latino American (of any race made) heritage made up 20.7% of the population. Colorado_sentence_249

According to the 2000 Census, the largest ancestry groups in Colorado are German (22%) including of Swiss and Austrian nationalities, Mexican (18%), Irish (12%), and English (12%). Colorado_sentence_250

Persons reporting German ancestry are especially numerous in the Front Range, the Rockies (west-central counties), and Eastern parts/High Plains. Colorado_sentence_251

Colorado has a high proportion of Hispanic, mostly Mexican-American, citizens in Metropolitan Denver, Colorado Springs, as well as the smaller cities of Greeley and Pueblo, and elsewhere. Colorado_sentence_252

Southern, Southwestern, and Southeastern Colorado has a large number of Hispanos, the descendants of the early Mexican settlers of colonial Spanish origin. Colorado_sentence_253

In 1940, the Census Bureau reported Colorado's population as 8.2% Hispanic and 90.3% non-Hispanic white. Colorado_sentence_254

The Hispanic population of Colorado has continued to grow quickly over the past decades. Colorado_sentence_255

By 2019, Hispanics made up 22% of Colorado's population, and Non-Hispanic Whites made up 70%. Colorado_sentence_256

Spoken English in Colorado has many Spanish idioms. Colorado_sentence_257

Colorado also has some large African-American communities located in Denver, in the neighborhoods of Montbello, Five Points, Whittier, and many other East Denver areas. Colorado_sentence_258

The state has sizable numbers of Asian-Americans of Mongolian, Chinese, Filipino, Korean, Southeast Asian, and Japanese descent. Colorado_sentence_259

The highest population of Asian Americans can be found on the south and southeast side of Denver, as well as some on Denver's southwest side. Colorado_sentence_260

The Denver metropolitan area is considered more liberal and diverse than much of the state when it comes to political issues and environmental concerns. Colorado_sentence_261

There were a total of 70,331 births in Colorado in 2006. Colorado_sentence_262

(Birth rate of 14.6 per thousand.) Colorado_sentence_263

In 2007, non-Hispanic whites were involved in 59.1% of all the births. Colorado_sentence_264

Some 14.06% of those births involved a non-Hispanic white person and someone of a different race, most often with a couple including one Hispanic. Colorado_sentence_265

A birth where at least one Hispanic person was involved counted for 43% of the births in Colorado. Colorado_sentence_266

As of the 2010 Census, Colorado has the seventh highest percentage of Hispanics (20.7%) in the U.S. behind New Mexico (46.3%), California (37.6%), Texas (37.6%), Arizona (29.6%), Nevada (26.5%), and Florida (22.5%). Colorado_sentence_267

Per the 2000 census, the Hispanic population is estimated to be 918,899 or approximately 20% of the state total population. Colorado_sentence_268

Colorado has the 5th-largest population of Mexican-Americans, behind California, Texas, Arizona, and Illinois. Colorado_sentence_269

In percentages, Colorado has the 6th-highest percentage of Mexican-Americans, behind New Mexico, California, Texas, Arizona, and Nevada. Colorado_sentence_270

Birth data Colorado_section_19

In 2011, 46% of Colorado's population younger than the age of one were minorities, meaning that they had at least one parent who was not non-Hispanic white. Colorado_sentence_271

Note: Births in table don't add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number. Colorado_sentence_272

Colorado_table_general_4

Live Births by Single Race/Ethnicity of MotherColorado_table_caption_4
RaceColorado_header_cell_4_0_0 2013Colorado_header_cell_4_0_1 2014Colorado_header_cell_4_0_2 2015Colorado_header_cell_4_0_3 2016Colorado_header_cell_4_0_4 2017Colorado_header_cell_4_0_5 2018Colorado_header_cell_4_0_6
White:Colorado_cell_4_1_0 57,491 (88.4%)Colorado_cell_4_1_1 58,117 (88.3%)Colorado_cell_4_1_2 58,756 (88.2%)Colorado_cell_4_1_3 ...Colorado_cell_4_1_4 ...Colorado_cell_4_1_5 ...Colorado_cell_4_1_6
> Non-Hispanic WhiteColorado_cell_4_2_0 39,872 (61.3%)Colorado_cell_4_2_1 40,629 (61.7%)Colorado_cell_4_2_2 40,878 (61.4%)Colorado_cell_4_2_3 39,617 (59.5%)Colorado_cell_4_2_4 37,516 (58.3%)Colorado_cell_4_2_5 36,466 (58.0%)Colorado_cell_4_2_6
BlackColorado_cell_4_3_0 3,760 (5.8%)Colorado_cell_4_3_1 3,926 (6.0%)Colorado_cell_4_3_2 4,049 (6.1%)Colorado_cell_4_3_3 3,004 (4.5%)Colorado_cell_4_3_4 3,110 (4.8%)Colorado_cell_4_3_5 3,032 (4.8%)Colorado_cell_4_3_6
AsianColorado_cell_4_4_0 2,863 (4.4%)Colorado_cell_4_4_1 3,010 (4.6%)Colorado_cell_4_4_2 2,973 (4.5%)Colorado_cell_4_4_3 2,617 (3.9%)Colorado_cell_4_4_4 2,611 (4.1%)Colorado_cell_4_4_5 2,496 (4.0%)Colorado_cell_4_4_6
American IndianColorado_cell_4_5_0 793 (1.2%)Colorado_cell_4_5_1 777 (1.2%)Colorado_cell_4_5_2 803 (1.2%)Colorado_cell_4_5_3 412 (0.6%)Colorado_cell_4_5_4 421 (0.7%)Colorado_cell_4_5_5 352 (0.6%)Colorado_cell_4_5_6
Pacific IslanderColorado_cell_4_6_0 ...Colorado_cell_4_6_1 ...Colorado_cell_4_6_2 ...Colorado_cell_4_6_3 145 (0.2%)Colorado_cell_4_6_4 145 (0.2%)Colorado_cell_4_6_5 155 (0.2%)Colorado_cell_4_6_6
Hispanic (of any race)Colorado_cell_4_7_0 17,821 (27.4%)Colorado_cell_4_7_1 17,665 (26.8%)Colorado_cell_4_7_2 18,139 (27.2%)Colorado_cell_4_7_3 18,513 (27.8%)Colorado_cell_4_7_4 18,125 (28.2%)Colorado_cell_4_7_5 17,817 (28.3%)Colorado_cell_4_7_6
Total ColoradoColorado_cell_4_8_0 65,007 (100%)Colorado_cell_4_8_1 65,830 (100%)Colorado_cell_4_8_2 66,581 (100%)Colorado_cell_4_8_3 66,613 (100%)Colorado_cell_4_8_4 64,382 (100%)Colorado_cell_4_8_5 62,885 (100%)Colorado_cell_4_8_6

Colorado_unordered_list_1

  • Since 2016, data for births of White Hispanic origin are not collected, but included in one Hispanic group; persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.Colorado_item_1_7

In 2017, Colorado recorded the second-lowest fertility rate in the United States outside of New England, after Oregon, at 1.63 children per woman. Colorado_sentence_273

Significant, contributing factors to the decline in pregnancies were the Title X Family Planning Program and an Intrauterine device grant from Warren Buffett's family. Colorado_sentence_274

Language Colorado_section_20

Spanish is the second-most spoken language in Colorado, after English. Colorado_sentence_275

There is one Native Coloradan language still spoken in Colorado, Colorado River Numic (Ute). Colorado_sentence_276

Religion Colorado_section_21

Major religious affiliations of the people of Colorado are 64% Christian, of whom there are 44% Protestant, 16% Roman Catholic, 3% Mormon, and 1% Eastern Orthodox. Colorado_sentence_277

Other religious breakdowns are 1% Jewish, 1% Muslim, 1% Buddhist and 4% other. Colorado_sentence_278

The religiously unaffiliated make up 29% of the population. Colorado_sentence_279

The largest denominations by number of adherents in 2010 were the Catholic Church with 811,630; non-denominational Evangelical Protestants with 229,981; and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints with 151,433. Colorado_sentence_280

Health Colorado_section_22

Obesity Colorado_section_23

According to several studies, Coloradans have the lowest rates of obesity of any state in the US. Colorado_sentence_281

As of 2018, 24% of the population was considered medically obese, and while the lowest in the nation, the percentage had increased from 17% in 2004. Colorado_sentence_282

Life expectancy Colorado_section_24

According to a report in the Journal of the American Medical Association, residents of Colorado had a 2014 life expectancy of 80.21 years, the longest of any U.S. state. Colorado_sentence_283

Culture Colorado_section_25

Arts and film Colorado_section_26

Colorado_unordered_list_2

A number of film productions have shot on location in Colorado, especially prominent Westerns like True Grit, The Searchers, and Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid. Colorado_sentence_284

A number of historic military forts, railways with trains still operating, mining ghost towns have been utilized and transformed for historical accuracy in well known films. Colorado_sentence_285

There are also a number of scenic highways and mountain passes that helped to feature the open road in films such as Vanishing Point, Bingo and Starman. Colorado_sentence_286

Some Colorado landmarks have been featured in films, such as The Stanley Hotel in Dumb and Dumber and The Shining and the Sculptured House in Sleeper. Colorado_sentence_287

In 2015, Furious 7 was to film driving sequences on Pikes Peak Highway in Colorado. Colorado_sentence_288

The TV series Good Luck Charlie was being filmed in Denver, Colorado. Colorado_sentence_289

The Colorado Office of Film and Television has noted that more than 400 films have been shot in Colorado. Colorado_sentence_290

There are also a number of established film festivals in Colorado, including Aspen Shortsfest, Boulder International Film Festival, Castle Rock Film Festival, Denver Film Festival, Festivus Film Festival (ended in 2013), Mile High Horror Film Festival, Moondance International Film Festival, Mountainfilm in Telluride, Rocky Mountain Women's Film Festival, and Telluride Film Festival. Colorado_sentence_291

Cuisine Colorado_section_27

Colorado is known for its Southwest and Rocky Mountain cuisine. Colorado_sentence_292

Mexican restaurants are prominent throughout the state. Colorado_sentence_293

Boulder, Colorado was named America's Foodiest Town 2010 by Bon Appétit. Colorado_sentence_294

Boulder, and Colorado in general, is home to a number of national food and beverage companies, top-tier restaurants and farmers' markets. Colorado_sentence_295

Boulder, Colorado also has more Master Sommeliers per capita than any other city, including San Francisco and New York. Colorado_sentence_296

The Food & Wine Classic is held annually each June in Aspen, Colorado. Colorado_sentence_297

Aspen also has a reputation as the culinary capital of the Rocky Mountain region. Colorado_sentence_298

Denver is known for steak, but now has a diverse culinary scene with many restaurants. Colorado_sentence_299

Wine and beer Colorado_section_28

Main article: Colorado wine Colorado_sentence_300

Main article: Colorado beer Colorado_sentence_301

Colorado wines include award-winning varietals that have attracted favorable notice from outside the state. Colorado_sentence_302

With wines made from traditional Vitis vinifera grapes along with wines made from cherries, peaches, plums and honey, Colorado wines have won top national and international awards for their quality. Colorado_sentence_303

Colorado's grape growing regions contain the highest elevation vineyards in the United States, with most viticulture in the state practiced between 4,000 and 7,000 feet (1,219 and 2,134 m) above sea level. Colorado_sentence_304

The mountain climate ensures warm summer days and cool nights. Colorado_sentence_305

Colorado is home to two designated American Viticultural Areas of the Grand Valley AVA and the West Elks AVA, where most of the vineyards in the state are located. Colorado_sentence_306

However, an increasing number of wineries are located along the Front Range. Colorado_sentence_307

In 2018, Wine Enthusiast Magazine named Colorado's Grand Valley AVA in Mesa County, Colorado, as one of the Top Ten wine travel destinations in the world. Colorado_sentence_308

Colorado is home to many nationally praised microbreweries, including New Belgium Brewing Company, Odell Brewing Company, Great Divide Brewing Company, and Bristol Brewing Company. Colorado_sentence_309

The area of northern Colorado near and between the cities of Denver, Boulder, and Fort Collins is known as the "Napa Valley of Beer" due to its high density of craft breweries. Colorado_sentence_310

Marijuana and hemp Colorado_section_29

Colorado is open to cannabis (marijuana) tourism. Colorado_sentence_311

With the adoption of their 64th state amendment in 2013, Colorado became the first state in the union to legalize the medicinal (2000), industrial (2013), and recreational (2014) use of marijuana. Colorado_sentence_312

Colorado's marijuana industry sold $1.31 billion worth of marijuana in 2016 and $1.26 billion in the first three-quarters of 2017. Colorado_sentence_313

The state generated tax, fee, and license revenue of $194 million in 2016 on legal marijuana sales. Colorado_sentence_314

Colorado regulates hemp as any part of the plant with less than 0.3% THC. Colorado_sentence_315

Amendment 64, adopted by the voters in the 2012 general election, forces the Colorado state legislature to enact legislation governing the cultivation, processing and sale of recreational marijuana and industrial hemp. Colorado_sentence_316

On April 4, 2014, Senate Bill 14–184 addressing oversight of Colorado's industrial hemp program was first introduced, ultimately being signed into law by Governor John Hickenlooper on May 31, 2014. Colorado_sentence_317

Medicinal use Colorado_section_30

On November 7, 2000, 54% of Colorado voters passed Amendment 20, which amends the Colorado State constitution to allow the medical use of marijuana. Colorado_sentence_318

A patient's medical use of marijuana, within the following limits, is lawful: Colorado_sentence_319

Colorado_unordered_list_3

  • (I) No more than 2 ounces (57 g) of a usable form of marijuana; andColorado_item_3_11
  • (II) No more than twelve marijuana plants, with six or fewer being mature, flowering plants that are producing a usable form of marijuana.Colorado_item_3_12

Currently Colorado has listed "eight medical conditions for which patients can use marijuana—cancer, glaucoma, HIV/AIDS, muscle spasms, seizures, severe pain, severe nausea and cachexia, or dramatic weight loss and muscle atrophy". Colorado_sentence_320

While governor, John Hickenlooper allocated about half of the state's $13 million "Medical Marijuana Program Cash Fund" to medical research in the 2014 budget. Colorado_sentence_321

By 2018, the Medical Marijuana Program Cash Fund was the "largest pool of pot money in the state" and was used to fund programs including research into pediatric applications for controlling autism symptoms. Colorado_sentence_322

Recreational use Colorado_section_31

On November 6, 2012, voters amended the state constitution to protect "personal use" of marijuana for adults, establishing a framework to regulate marijuana in a manner similar to alcohol. Colorado_sentence_323

The first recreational marijuana shops in Colorado, and by extension the United States, opened their doors on January 1, 2014. Colorado_sentence_324

Sports Colorado_section_32

Main article: Sports in Colorado Colorado_sentence_325

Colorado has five major professional sports leagues, all based in the Denver metropolitan area. Colorado_sentence_326

Colorado is the least populous state with a franchise in each of the major professional sports leagues. Colorado_sentence_327

The Pikes Peak International Hill Climb is a major hillclimbing motor race held at the Pikes Peak Highway. Colorado_sentence_328

The Cherry Hills Country Club has hosted several professional golf tournaments, including the U.S. Open, U.S. Colorado_sentence_329

Senior Open, U.S. Colorado_sentence_330

Women's Open, PGA Championship and BMW Championship. Colorado_sentence_331

Professional sports teams Colorado_section_33

Colorado_table_general_5

TeamColorado_header_cell_5_0_0 HomeColorado_header_cell_5_0_1 First gameColorado_header_cell_5_0_2 SportColorado_header_cell_5_0_3 LeagueColorado_header_cell_5_0_4
Boulder County BombersColorado_cell_5_1_0 BoulderColorado_cell_5_1_1 November 2011Colorado_cell_5_1_2 Roller derbyColorado_cell_5_1_3 Women's Flat Track Derby AssociationColorado_cell_5_1_4
Colorado AvalancheColorado_cell_5_2_0 DenverColorado_cell_5_2_1 October 6, 1995Colorado_cell_5_2_2 Ice hockeyColorado_cell_5_2_3 National Hockey LeagueColorado_cell_5_2_4
Colorado EaglesColorado_cell_5_3_0 LovelandColorado_cell_5_3_1 October 17, 2003Colorado_cell_5_3_2 Ice hockeyColorado_cell_5_3_3 American Hockey LeagueColorado_cell_5_3_4
Colorado MammothColorado_cell_5_4_0 DenverColorado_cell_5_4_1 January 3, 2003Colorado_cell_5_4_2 LacrosseColorado_cell_5_4_3 National Lacrosse LeagueColorado_cell_5_4_4
Colorado RapidsColorado_cell_5_5_0 Commerce CityColorado_cell_5_5_1 April 13, 1996Colorado_cell_5_5_2 SoccerColorado_cell_5_5_3 Major League SoccerColorado_cell_5_5_4
Colorado RockiesColorado_cell_5_6_0 DenverColorado_cell_5_6_1 April 5, 1993Colorado_cell_5_6_2 BaseballColorado_cell_5_6_3 Major League BaseballColorado_cell_5_6_4
Colorado Springs Switchbacks FCColorado_cell_5_7_0 Colorado SpringsColorado_cell_5_7_1 March 28, 2015Colorado_cell_5_7_2 SoccerColorado_cell_5_7_3 USL ChampionshipColorado_cell_5_7_4
Denver BarbariansColorado_cell_5_8_0 DenverColorado_cell_5_8_1 Spring 1967Colorado_cell_5_8_2 Rugby unionColorado_cell_5_8_3 Pacific Rugby PremiershipColorado_cell_5_8_4
Denver BroncosColorado_cell_5_9_0 DenverColorado_cell_5_9_1 September 9, 1960Colorado_cell_5_9_2 American footballColorado_cell_5_9_3 National Football LeagueColorado_cell_5_9_4
Denver NuggetsColorado_cell_5_10_0 DenverColorado_cell_5_10_1 September 27, 1967Colorado_cell_5_10_2 BasketballColorado_cell_5_10_3 National Basketball AssociationColorado_cell_5_10_4
Denver OutlawsColorado_cell_5_11_0 DenverColorado_cell_5_11_1 May 20, 2006Colorado_cell_5_11_2 LacrosseColorado_cell_5_11_3 Major League LacrosseColorado_cell_5_11_4
Glendale RaptorsColorado_cell_5_12_0 GlendaleColorado_cell_5_12_1 Fall 2006Colorado_cell_5_12_2 Rugby unionColorado_cell_5_12_3 Major League RugbyColorado_cell_5_12_4
Grand Junction RockiesColorado_cell_5_13_0 Grand JunctionColorado_cell_5_13_1 June 18, 2012Colorado_cell_5_13_2 BaseballColorado_cell_5_13_3 Pioneer League (Rookie, Minor League Baseball)Colorado_cell_5_13_4
Rocky Mountain RollergirlsColorado_cell_5_14_0 DenverColorado_cell_5_14_1 July 2005Colorado_cell_5_14_2 Roller derbyColorado_cell_5_14_3 Women's Flat Track Derby AssociationColorado_cell_5_14_4
Rocky Mountain VibesColorado_cell_5_15_0 Colorado SpringsColorado_cell_5_15_1 June 2019Colorado_cell_5_15_2 BaseballColorado_cell_5_15_3 Pioneer League (Rookie, Minor League Baseball)Colorado_cell_5_15_4

College athletics Colorado_section_34

Main article: List of college athletic programs in Colorado Colorado_sentence_332

The following universities and colleges participate in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I. Colorado_sentence_333

The most popular college sports program is the University of Colorado Buffaloes, who used to play in the Big-12 but now play in the Pac-12. Colorado_sentence_334

They have won the 1957 and 1991 Orange Bowl, 1995 Fiesta Bowl, and 1996 Cotton Bowl Classic. Colorado_sentence_335

Colorado_table_general_6

NCAA Division I athletic programs in ColoradoColorado_table_caption_6
TeamColorado_header_cell_6_0_0 SchoolColorado_header_cell_6_0_1 CityColorado_header_cell_6_0_2 ConferenceColorado_header_cell_6_0_3
Air Force FalconsColorado_cell_6_1_0 United States Air Force AcademyColorado_cell_6_1_1 Colorado SpringsColorado_cell_6_1_2 Mountain WestColorado_cell_6_1_3
Colorado BuffaloesColorado_cell_6_2_0 University of Colorado BoulderColorado_cell_6_2_1 BoulderColorado_cell_6_2_2 Pac-12Colorado_cell_6_2_3
Colorado State RamsColorado_cell_6_3_0 Colorado State UniversityColorado_cell_6_3_1 Fort CollinsColorado_cell_6_3_2 Mountain WestColorado_cell_6_3_3
Denver PioneersColorado_cell_6_4_0 University of DenverColorado_cell_6_4_1 DenverColorado_cell_6_4_2 NCHC / SummitColorado_cell_6_4_3
Northern Colorado BearsColorado_cell_6_5_0 University of Northern ColoradoColorado_cell_6_5_1 GreeleyColorado_cell_6_5_2 Big SkyColorado_cell_6_5_3

Economy Colorado_section_35

Main article: Economy of Colorado Colorado_sentence_336

See also: Colorado locations by per capita income Colorado_sentence_337

Colorado_unordered_list_4

  • Total employment (2016): 2,318,190Colorado_item_4_13
  • Number of employer establishments: 165,264Colorado_item_4_14

CNBC's list of "Top States for Business for 2010" has recognized Colorado as the third-best state in the nation, falling short only to Texas and Virginia. Colorado_sentence_338

The total state product in 2015 was $318,600 million. Colorado_sentence_339

Median Annual Household Income in 2016 was $70,666, 8th in the nation. Colorado_sentence_340

Per capita personal income in 2010 was $51,940, ranking Colorado 11th in the nation. Colorado_sentence_341

The state's economy broadened from its mid-19th-century roots in mining when irrigated agriculture developed, and by the late 19th century, raising livestock had become important. Colorado_sentence_342

Early industry was based on the extraction and processing of minerals and agricultural products. Colorado_sentence_343

Current agricultural products are cattle, wheat, dairy products, corn, and hay. Colorado_sentence_344

The federal government is also a major economic force in the state with many important federal facilities including NORAD (North American Aerospace Defense Command), United States Air Force Academy, Schriever Air Force Base located approximately 10 miles (16 kilometers) east of Peterson Air Force Base, and Fort Carson, both located in Colorado Springs within El Paso County; NOAA, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, and the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Boulder; U.S. Colorado_sentence_345

Geological Survey and other government agencies at the Denver Federal Center near Lakewood; the Denver Mint, Buckley Air Force Base, the Tenth Circuit Court of Appeals, and the Byron G. Rogers Federal Building and United States Courthouse in Denver; and a federal Supermax Prison and other federal prisons near Cañon City. Colorado_sentence_346

In addition to these and other federal agencies, Colorado has abundant National Forest land and four National Parks that contribute to federal ownership of 24,615,788 acres (99,617 km) of land in Colorado, or 37% of the total area of the state. Colorado_sentence_347

In the second half of the 20th century, the industrial and service sectors have expanded greatly. Colorado_sentence_348

The state's economy is diversified, and is notable for its concentration of scientific research and high-technology industries. Colorado_sentence_349

Other industries include food processing, transportation equipment, machinery, chemical products, the extraction of metals such as gold (see Gold mining in Colorado), silver, and molybdenum. Colorado_sentence_350

Colorado now also has the largest annual production of beer of any state. Colorado_sentence_351

Denver is an important financial center. Colorado_sentence_352

The state's diverse geography and majestic mountains attract millions of tourists every year, including 85.2 million in 2018. Colorado_sentence_353

Tourism contributes greatly to Colorado's economy, with tourists generating $22.3 billion in 2018. Colorado_sentence_354

A number of nationally known brand names have originated in Colorado factories and laboratories. Colorado_sentence_355

From Denver came the forerunner of telecommunications giant Qwest in 1879, Samsonite luggage in 1910, Gates belts and hoses in 1911, and Russell Stover Candies in 1923. Colorado_sentence_356

Kuner canned vegetables began in Brighton in 1864. Colorado_sentence_357

From Golden came Coors beer in 1873, CoorsTek industrial ceramics in 1920, and Jolly Rancher candy in 1949. Colorado_sentence_358

CF&I railroad rails, wire, nails, and pipe debuted in Pueblo in 1892. Colorado_sentence_359

Holly Sugar was first milled from beets in Holly in 1905, and later moved its headquarters to Colorado Springs. Colorado_sentence_360

The present-day Swift packed meat of Greeley evolved from Monfort of Colorado, Inc., established in 1930. Colorado_sentence_361

Estes model rockets were launched in Penrose in 1958. Colorado_sentence_362

Fort Collins has been the home of Woodward Governor Company's motor controllers (governors) since 1870, and Waterpik dental water jets and showerheads since 1962. Colorado_sentence_363

Celestial Seasonings herbal teas have been made in Boulder since 1969. Colorado_sentence_364

Rocky Mountain Chocolate Factory made its first candy in Durango in 1981. Colorado_sentence_365

Colorado has a flat 4.63% income tax, regardless of income level. Colorado_sentence_366

On Nov. 3, 2020 voters authorized an initiative to lower that income tax rate to 4.55 percent. Colorado_sentence_367

Unlike most states, which calculate taxes based on federal adjusted gross income, Colorado taxes are based on taxable income—income after federal exemptions and federal itemized (or standard) deductions. Colorado_sentence_368

Colorado's state sales tax is 2.9% on retail sales. Colorado_sentence_369

When state revenues exceed state constitutional limits, according to Colorado's Taxpayer Bill of Rights legislation, full-year Colorado residents can claim a sales tax refund on their individual state income tax return. Colorado_sentence_370

Many counties and cities charge their own rates, in addition to the base state rate. Colorado_sentence_371

There are also certain county and special district taxes that may apply. Colorado_sentence_372

Real estate and personal business property are taxable in Colorado. Colorado_sentence_373

The state's senior property tax exemption was temporarily suspended by the Colorado Legislature in 2003. Colorado_sentence_374

The tax break was scheduled to return for assessment year 2006, payable in 2007. Colorado_sentence_375

As of December 2018, the state's unemployment rate was 4.2%. Colorado_sentence_376

The West Virginia teachers' strike in 2018 inspired teachers in other states, including Colorado, to take similar action. Colorado_sentence_377

Natural resources Colorado_section_36

Colorado has significant hydrocarbon resources. Colorado_sentence_378

According to the Energy Information Administration, Colorado hosts seven of the Nation's hundred largest natural gas fields, and two of its hundred largest oil fields. Colorado_sentence_379

Conventional and unconventional natural gas output from several Colorado basins typically account for more than five percent of annual U.S. natural gas production. Colorado_sentence_380

Colorado's oil shale deposits hold an estimated 1 trillion barrels (160 km) of oil—nearly as much oil as the entire world's proven oil reserves; the economic viability of the oil shale, however, has not been demonstrated. Colorado_sentence_381

Substantial deposits of bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite coal are found in the state. Colorado_sentence_382

Uranium mining in Colorado goes back to 1872, when pitchblende ore was taken from gold mines near Central City, Colorado. Colorado_sentence_383

The Colorado uranium industry has seen booms and busts, but continues to this day. Colorado_sentence_384

Not counting byproduct uranium from phosphate, Colorado is considered to have the third-largest uranium reserves of any U.S. state, behind Wyoming and New Mexico. Colorado_sentence_385

Uranium price increases from 2001 to 2007 prompted a number of companies to revive uranium mining in Colorado. Colorado_sentence_386

Price drops and financing problems in late 2008 forced these companies to cancel or scale back uranium-mining project. Colorado_sentence_387

Currently, there are no uranium producing mines in Colorado. Colorado_sentence_388

Colorado's high Rocky Mountain ridges and eastern plains offer wind power potential, and geologic activity in the mountain areas provides potential for geothermal power development. Colorado_sentence_389

Much of the state is sunny, and could produce solar power. Colorado_sentence_390

Major rivers flowing from the Rocky Mountains offer hydroelectric power resources. Colorado_sentence_391

Corn grown in the flat eastern part of the state offers potential resources for ethanol production. Colorado_sentence_392

Transportation Colorado_section_37

Main article: Transportation in Colorado Colorado_sentence_393

Colorado's primary mode of transportation (in terms of passengers) is its highway system. Colorado_sentence_394

Interstate 25 (I-25) is the primary north–south highway in the state, connecting Pueblo, Colorado Springs, Denver, and Fort Collins, and extending north to Wyoming and south to New Mexico. Colorado_sentence_395

I-70 is the primary east–west corridor. Colorado_sentence_396

It connects Grand Junction and the mountain communities with Denver, and enters Utah and Kansas. Colorado_sentence_397

The state is home to a network of US and Colorado highways that provide access to all principal areas of the state. Colorado_sentence_398

Many smaller communities are connected to this network only via county roads. Colorado_sentence_399

Denver International Airport (DIA) is the fifth-busiest domestic U.S. airport and twentieth busiest airport in the world by passenger traffic. Colorado_sentence_400

DIA handles by far the largest volume of commercial air traffic in Colorado, and is the busiest U.S. hub airport between Chicago and the Pacific coast, making Denver the most important airport for connecting passenger traffic in the western United States. Colorado_sentence_401

Extensive public transportation bus services are offered both intra-city and inter-city—including the Denver metro area's extensive RTD services. Colorado_sentence_402

The Regional Transportation District (RTD) operates the popular RTD Bus & Rail transit system in the Denver Metropolitan Area. Colorado_sentence_403

As of January 2013 the RTD rail system had 170 light-rail vehicles, serving 47 miles (76 km) of track. Colorado_sentence_404

Amtrak operates two passenger rail lines in Colorado, the California Zephyr and Southwest Chief. Colorado_sentence_405

Colorado's contribution to world railroad history was forged principally by the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad which began in 1870 and wrote the book on mountain railroading. Colorado_sentence_406

In 1988 the "Rio Grande" acquired, but was merged into, the Southern Pacific Railroad by their joint owner Philip Anschutz. Colorado_sentence_407

On September 11, 1996, Anschutz sold the combined company to the Union Pacific Railroad, creating the largest railroad network in the United States. Colorado_sentence_408

The Anschutz sale was partly in response to the earlier merger of Burlington Northern and Santa Fe which formed the large Burlington Northern and Santa Fe Railway (BNSF), Union Pacific's principal competitor in western U.S. railroading. Colorado_sentence_409

Both Union Pacific and BNSF have extensive freight operations in Colorado. Colorado_sentence_410

Colorado's freight railroad network consists of 2,688 miles of Class I trackage. Colorado_sentence_411

It is integral to the U.S. economy, being a critical artery for the movement of energy, agriculture, mining, and industrial commodities as well as general freight and manufactured products between the East and Midwest and the Pacific coast states. Colorado_sentence_412

In August 2014, Colorado began to issue driver licenses to aliens not lawfully in the United States who lived in Colorado. Colorado_sentence_413

In September 2014, KCNC reported that 524 non-citizens were issued Colorado driver licenses that are normally issued to U.S. citizens living in Colorado. Colorado_sentence_414

Government Colorado_section_38

Main article: Government of Colorado Colorado_sentence_415

State government Colorado_section_39

Like the federal government and all other U.S. states, Colorado's state constitution provides for three branches of government: the legislative, the executive, and the judicial branches. Colorado_sentence_416

The Governor of Colorado heads the state's executive branch. Colorado_sentence_417

The current governor is Jared Polis, a Democrat. Colorado_sentence_418

Colorado's other statewide elected executive officers are the Lieutenant Governor of Colorado (elected on a ticket with the Governor), Secretary of State of Colorado, Colorado State Treasurer, and Attorney General of Colorado, all of whom serve four-year terms. Colorado_sentence_419

The seven-member Colorado Supreme Court is the state's highest court, with seven justices. Colorado_sentence_420

The Colorado Court of Appeals, with 22 judges, sits in divisions of three judges each. Colorado_sentence_421

Colorado is divided into 22 , each of which has a district court and a county court with limited jurisdiction. Colorado_sentence_422

The state also has a , which sits in seven distinct divisions around the state and which decides matters relating to water rights and the use and administration of water. Colorado_sentence_423

The state legislative body is the Colorado General Assembly, which is made up of two houses - the House of Representatives and the Senate. Colorado_sentence_424

The House has 65 members and the Senate has 35. Colorado_sentence_425

As of 2018, the Democratic Party holds a 19 to 16 majority in the Senate and a 41 to 24 majority in the House. Colorado_sentence_426

Most Coloradans are native to other states (nearly 60% according to the 2000 census), and this is illustrated by the fact that the state did not have a native-born governor from 1975 (when John David Vanderhoof left office) until 2007, when Bill Ritter took office; his election the previous year marked the first electoral victory for a native-born Coloradan in a gubernatorial race since 1958 (Vanderhoof had ascended from the Lieutenant Governorship when John Arthur Love was given a position in Richard Nixon's administration in 1973). Colorado_sentence_427

In the 2016 election, the Democratic party won the Colorado electoral college votes. Colorado_sentence_428

Tax is collected by the Colorado Department of Revenue. Colorado_sentence_429

Counties Colorado_section_40

Main article: List of counties in Colorado Colorado_sentence_430

The State of Colorado is divided into 64 counties. Colorado_sentence_431

Counties are important units of government in Colorado since the state has no secondary civil subdivisions such as townships. Colorado_sentence_432

Two of these counties, the City and County of Denver and the City and County of Broomfield, have consolidated city and county governments. Colorado_sentence_433

Nine Colorado counties have a population in excess of 250,000 each, while eight Colorado counties have a population of less than 2,500 each. Colorado_sentence_434

The ten most populous Colorado counties are all located in the Front Range Urban Corridor. Colorado_sentence_435

Colorado_table_general_7

The 15 Colorado counties with a population of at least 50,000Colorado_table_caption_7
RankColorado_header_cell_7_0_0 CountyColorado_header_cell_7_0_1 2017 EstimateColorado_header_cell_7_0_2 2010 CensusColorado_header_cell_7_0_3 ChangeColorado_header_cell_7_0_4
1Colorado_cell_7_1_0 City and County of DenverColorado_cell_7_1_1 704,621Colorado_cell_7_1_2 600,158Colorado_cell_7_1_3 +17.41%Colorado_cell_7_1_4
2Colorado_cell_7_2_0 El Paso CountyColorado_cell_7_2_1 699,232Colorado_cell_7_2_2 622,263Colorado_cell_7_2_3 +12.37%Colorado_cell_7_2_4
3Colorado_cell_7_3_0 Arapahoe CountyColorado_cell_7_3_1 643,052Colorado_cell_7_3_2 572,003Colorado_cell_7_3_3 +12.42%Colorado_cell_7_3_4
4Colorado_cell_7_4_0 Jefferson CountyColorado_cell_7_4_1 574,613Colorado_cell_7_4_2 534,543Colorado_cell_7_4_3 +7.50%Colorado_cell_7_4_4
5Colorado_cell_7_5_0 Adams CountyColorado_cell_7_5_1 503,167Colorado_cell_7_5_2 441,603Colorado_cell_7_5_3 +13.94%Colorado_cell_7_5_4
6Colorado_cell_7_6_0 Larimer CountyColorado_cell_7_6_1 343,976Colorado_cell_7_6_2 299,630Colorado_cell_7_6_3 +14.80%Colorado_cell_7_6_4
7Colorado_cell_7_7_0 Douglas CountyColorado_cell_7_7_1 335,299Colorado_cell_7_7_2 285,465Colorado_cell_7_7_3 +17.46%Colorado_cell_7_7_4
8Colorado_cell_7_8_0 Boulder CountyColorado_cell_7_8_1 322,514Colorado_cell_7_8_2 294,567Colorado_cell_7_8_3 +9.49%Colorado_cell_7_8_4
9Colorado_cell_7_9_0 Weld CountyColorado_cell_7_9_1 304,633Colorado_cell_7_9_2 252,825Colorado_cell_7_9_3 +20.49%Colorado_cell_7_9_4
10Colorado_cell_7_10_0 Pueblo CountyColorado_cell_7_10_1 166,475Colorado_cell_7_10_2 159,063Colorado_cell_7_10_3 +4.66%Colorado_cell_7_10_4
11Colorado_cell_7_11_0 Mesa CountyColorado_cell_7_11_1 151,616Colorado_cell_7_11_2 146,723Colorado_cell_7_11_3 +3.33%Colorado_cell_7_11_4
12Colorado_cell_7_12_0 City and County of BroomfieldColorado_cell_7_12_1 68,341Colorado_cell_7_12_2 55,889Colorado_cell_7_12_3 +22.28%Colorado_cell_7_12_4
13Colorado_cell_7_13_0 Garfield CountyColorado_cell_7_13_1 59,118Colorado_cell_7_13_2 56,389Colorado_cell_7_13_3 +4.84%Colorado_cell_7_13_4
14Colorado_cell_7_14_0 La Plata CountyColorado_cell_7_14_1 55,589Colorado_cell_7_14_2 51,334Colorado_cell_7_14_3 +8.29%Colorado_cell_7_14_4
15Colorado_cell_7_15_0 Eagle CountyColorado_cell_7_15_1 54,772Colorado_cell_7_15_2 52,197Colorado_cell_7_15_3 +4.93%Colorado_cell_7_15_4

Metropolitan areas Colorado_section_41

Main article: Colorado statistical areas Colorado_sentence_436

The United States Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has defined one combined statistical area (CSA), seven Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs), and seven Micropolitan Statistical Areas (μSAs) in the state of Colorado. Colorado_sentence_437

The most populous of the 14 Core Based Statistical Areas in Colorado is the Denver-Aurora-Broomfield, CO Metropolitan Statistical Area. Colorado_sentence_438

This area had an estimated population of 2,888,227 on July 1, 2017, an increase of +13.55% since the 2010 United States Census. Colorado_sentence_439

The more extensive Denver-Aurora-Boulder, CO Combined Statistical Area had an estimated population of 3,515,374 on July 1, 2017, an increase of +13.73% since the 2010 United States Census. Colorado_sentence_440

The most populous extended metropolitan region in Rocky Mountain Region is the Front Range Urban Corridor along the northeast face of the Southern Rocky Mountains. Colorado_sentence_441

This region with Denver at its center had an estimated population of 4,495,181 on July 1, 2012, an increase of +3.73% since the 2010 United States Census. Colorado_sentence_442

Municipalities Colorado_section_42

Main article: List of cities and towns in Colorado Colorado_sentence_443

The state of Colorado currently has 271 active incorporated municipalities, including 196 towns, 73 cities, and two consolidated city and county governments. Colorado_sentence_444

Colorado municipalities operate under one of five types of municipal governing authority. Colorado_sentence_445

Colorado has one town with a territorial charter, 160 statutory towns, 12 statutory cities, 96 home rule municipalities (61 cities and 35 towns), and two consolidated city and county governments. Colorado_sentence_446

Colorado_table_general_8

The 27 Colorado municipalities with a population of at least 25,000Colorado_table_caption_8
RankColorado_header_cell_8_0_0 MunicipalityColorado_header_cell_8_0_1 2017 EstimateColorado_header_cell_8_0_2 2010 CensusColorado_header_cell_8_0_3 ChangeColorado_header_cell_8_0_4
1Colorado_cell_8_1_0 City and County of DenverColorado_cell_8_1_1 704,621Colorado_cell_8_1_2 600,158Colorado_cell_8_1_3 +17.41%Colorado_cell_8_1_4
2Colorado_cell_8_2_0 City of Colorado SpringsColorado_cell_8_2_1 464,474Colorado_cell_8_2_2 416,427Colorado_cell_8_2_3 +11.54%Colorado_cell_8_2_4
3Colorado_cell_8_3_0 City of AuroraColorado_cell_8_3_1 366,623Colorado_cell_8_3_2 325,078Colorado_cell_8_3_3 +12.78%Colorado_cell_8_3_4
4Colorado_cell_8_4_0 City of Fort CollinsColorado_cell_8_4_1 165,080Colorado_cell_8_4_2 143,986Colorado_cell_8_4_3 +14.65%Colorado_cell_8_4_4
5Colorado_cell_8_5_0 City of LakewoodColorado_cell_8_5_1 154,958Colorado_cell_8_5_2 142,980Colorado_cell_8_5_3 +8.38%Colorado_cell_8_5_4
6Colorado_cell_8_6_0 City of ThorntonColorado_cell_8_6_1 136,978Colorado_cell_8_6_2 118,772Colorado_cell_8_6_3 +15.33%Colorado_cell_8_6_4
7Colorado_cell_8_7_0 City of ArvadaColorado_cell_8_7_1 118,807Colorado_cell_8_7_2 106,433Colorado_cell_8_7_3 +11.63%Colorado_cell_8_7_4
8Colorado_cell_8_8_0 City of WestminsterColorado_cell_8_8_1 112,812Colorado_cell_8_8_2 106,114Colorado_cell_8_8_3 +6.31%Colorado_cell_8_8_4
9Colorado_cell_8_9_0 City of PuebloColorado_cell_8_9_1 111,127Colorado_cell_8_9_2 106,595Colorado_cell_8_9_3 +4.25%Colorado_cell_8_9_4
10Colorado_cell_8_10_0 City of CentennialColorado_cell_8_10_1 110,250Colorado_cell_8_10_2 100,377Colorado_cell_8_10_3 +9.84%Colorado_cell_8_10_4
11Colorado_cell_8_11_0 City of BoulderColorado_cell_8_11_1 107,125Colorado_cell_8_11_2 97,385Colorado_cell_8_11_3 +10.00%Colorado_cell_8_11_4
12Colorado_cell_8_12_0 City of GreeleyColorado_cell_8_12_1 105,448Colorado_cell_8_12_2 92,889Colorado_cell_8_12_3 +13.52%Colorado_cell_8_12_4
13Colorado_cell_8_13_0 City of LongmontColorado_cell_8_13_1 94,341Colorado_cell_8_13_2 86,270Colorado_cell_8_13_3 +9.36%Colorado_cell_8_13_4
14Colorado_cell_8_14_0 City of LovelandColorado_cell_8_14_1 76,701Colorado_cell_8_14_2 66,859Colorado_cell_8_14_3 +14.72%Colorado_cell_8_14_4
15Colorado_cell_8_15_0 City and County of BroomfieldColorado_cell_8_15_1 68,341Colorado_cell_8_15_2 55,889Colorado_cell_8_15_3 +22.28%Colorado_cell_8_15_4
16Colorado_cell_8_16_0 City of Grand JunctionColorado_cell_8_16_1 62,475Colorado_cell_8_16_2 58,566Colorado_cell_8_16_3 +6.67%Colorado_cell_8_16_4
17Colorado_cell_8_17_0 Town of Castle RockColorado_cell_8_17_1 62,276Colorado_cell_8_17_2 48,231Colorado_cell_8_17_3 +29.12%Colorado_cell_8_17_4
18Colorado_cell_8_18_0 City of Commerce CityColorado_cell_8_18_1 55,923Colorado_cell_8_18_2 45,913Colorado_cell_8_18_3 +21.80%Colorado_cell_8_18_4
19Colorado_cell_8_19_0 Town of ParkerColorado_cell_8_19_1 54,202Colorado_cell_8_19_2 45,297Colorado_cell_8_19_3 +19.66%Colorado_cell_8_19_4
20Colorado_cell_8_20_0 City of LittletonColorado_cell_8_20_1 47,734Colorado_cell_8_20_2 41,737Colorado_cell_8_20_3 +14.37%Colorado_cell_8_20_4
21Colorado_cell_8_21_0 City of BrightonColorado_cell_8_21_1 40,562Colorado_cell_8_21_2 33,352Colorado_cell_8_21_3 +21.62%Colorado_cell_8_21_4
22Colorado_cell_8_22_0 City of NorthglennColorado_cell_8_22_1 38,928Colorado_cell_8_22_2 35,789Colorado_cell_8_22_3 +8.77%Colorado_cell_8_22_4
23Colorado_cell_8_23_0 City of EnglewoodColorado_cell_8_23_1 34,407Colorado_cell_8_23_2 30,255Colorado_cell_8_23_3 +13.72%Colorado_cell_8_23_4
24Colorado_cell_8_24_0 City of Wheat RidgeColorado_cell_8_24_1 31,294Colorado_cell_8_24_2 30,166Colorado_cell_8_24_3 +3.74%Colorado_cell_8_24_4
25Colorado_cell_8_25_0 City of FountainColorado_cell_8_25_1 29,804Colorado_cell_8_25_2 25,846Colorado_cell_8_25_3 +15.31%Colorado_cell_8_25_4
26Colorado_cell_8_26_0 City of LafayetteColorado_cell_8_26_1 28,328Colorado_cell_8_26_2 24,453Colorado_cell_8_26_3 +15.85%Colorado_cell_8_26_4
27Colorado_cell_8_27_0 Town of WindsorColorado_cell_8_27_1 25,330Colorado_cell_8_27_2 18,644Colorado_cell_8_27_3 +35.86%Colorado_cell_8_27_4

Unincorporated communities Colorado_section_43

Main article: List of census-designated places in Colorado Colorado_sentence_447

See also: Places in Colorado Colorado_sentence_448

In addition to its 271 municipalities, Colorado has 187 unincorporated Census Designated Places and many other small communities. Colorado_sentence_449

Colorado_table_general_9

The 16 Census Designated Places in Colorado with a population of at least 10,000Colorado_table_caption_9
RankColorado_header_cell_9_0_0 Census Designated PlaceColorado_header_cell_9_0_1 2010 CensusColorado_header_cell_9_0_2 2000 CensusColorado_header_cell_9_0_3 ChangeColorado_header_cell_9_0_4
1Colorado_cell_9_1_0 Highlands RanchColorado_cell_9_1_1 96,713Colorado_cell_9_1_2 70,931Colorado_cell_9_1_3 +36.35%Colorado_cell_9_1_4
2Colorado_cell_9_2_0 Security-WidefieldColorado_cell_9_2_1 32,882Colorado_cell_9_2_2 29,845Colorado_cell_9_2_3 +10.18%Colorado_cell_9_2_4
3Colorado_cell_9_3_0 Ken CarylColorado_cell_9_3_1 32,438Colorado_cell_9_3_2 30,887Colorado_cell_9_3_3 +5.02%Colorado_cell_9_3_4
4Colorado_cell_9_4_0 Dakota RidgeColorado_cell_9_4_1 32,005Colorado_cell_9_4_2 32,005Colorado_cell_9_4_3 0.00%Colorado_cell_9_4_4
5Colorado_cell_9_5_0 Pueblo WestColorado_cell_9_5_1 29,637Colorado_cell_9_5_2 16,899Colorado_cell_9_5_3 +75.38%Colorado_cell_9_5_4
6Colorado_cell_9_6_0 ColumbineColorado_cell_9_6_1 24,280Colorado_cell_9_6_2 24,095Colorado_cell_9_6_3 +0.77%Colorado_cell_9_6_4
7Colorado_cell_9_7_0 CliftonColorado_cell_9_7_1 19,889Colorado_cell_9_7_2 17,345Colorado_cell_9_7_3 +14.67%Colorado_cell_9_7_4
8Colorado_cell_9_8_0 SherrelwoodColorado_cell_9_8_1 18,287Colorado_cell_9_8_2 17,657Colorado_cell_9_8_3 +3.57%Colorado_cell_9_8_4
9Colorado_cell_9_9_0 Cimarron HillsColorado_cell_9_9_1 16,161Colorado_cell_9_9_2 15,194Colorado_cell_9_9_3 +6.36%Colorado_cell_9_9_4
10Colorado_cell_9_10_0 WelbyColorado_cell_9_10_1 14,846Colorado_cell_9_10_2 12,973Colorado_cell_9_10_3 +14.44%Colorado_cell_9_10_4
11Colorado_cell_9_11_0 Fort CarsonColorado_cell_9_11_1 13,813Colorado_cell_9_11_2 10,566Colorado_cell_9_11_3 +30.73%Colorado_cell_9_11_4
12Colorado_cell_9_12_0 Black ForestColorado_cell_9_12_1 13,116Colorado_cell_9_12_2 13,247Colorado_cell_9_12_3 −0.99%Colorado_cell_9_12_4
13Colorado_cell_9_13_0 BerkleyColorado_cell_9_13_1 11,207Colorado_cell_9_13_2 10,743Colorado_cell_9_13_3 +4.32%Colorado_cell_9_13_4
14Colorado_cell_9_14_0 Cherry CreekColorado_cell_9_14_1 11,120Colorado_cell_9_14_2 11,120Colorado_cell_9_14_3 0.00%Colorado_cell_9_14_4
15Colorado_cell_9_15_0 The PineryColorado_cell_9_15_1 10,517Colorado_cell_9_15_2 7,253Colorado_cell_9_15_3 +45.00%Colorado_cell_9_15_4
16Colorado_cell_9_16_0 EdwardsColorado_cell_9_16_1 10,266Colorado_cell_9_16_2 8,257Colorado_cell_9_16_3 +24.33%Colorado_cell_9_16_4

Special districts Colorado_section_44

The state of Colorado has more than 3,000 districts with taxing authority. Colorado_sentence_450

These districts may provide schools, law enforcement, fire protection, water, sewage, drainage, irrigation, transportation, recreation, infrastructure, cultural facilities, business support, redevelopment, or other services. Colorado_sentence_451

Some of these districts have authority to levy sales tax and well as property tax and use fees. Colorado_sentence_452

This has led to a hodgepodge of sales tax and property tax rates in Colorado. Colorado_sentence_453

There are some street intersections in Colorado with a different sales tax rate on each corner, sometimes substantially different. Colorado_sentence_454

Some of the more notable Colorado districts are: Colorado_sentence_455

Colorado_unordered_list_5

  • The Regional Transportation District (RTD), which affects the counties of Denver, Boulder, Jefferson, and portions of Adams, Arapahoe, Broomfield, and Douglas CountiesColorado_item_5_15
  • The Scientific and Cultural Facilities District (SCFD), a special regional tax district with physical boundaries contiguous with county boundaries of Adams, Arapahoe, Boulder, Broomfield, Denver, Douglas, and Jefferson CountiesColorado_item_5_16
    • It is a 0.1% retail sales and use tax (one penny on every $10).Colorado_item_5_17
    • According to the Colorado statute, the SCFD distributes the money to local organizations on an annual basis. These organizations must provide for the enlightenment and entertainment of the public through the production, presentation, exhibition, advancement or preservation of art, music, theater, dance, zoology, botany, natural history or cultural history.Colorado_item_5_18
    • As directed by statute, SCFD recipient organizations are currently divided into three "tiers" among which receipts are allocated by percentage.Colorado_item_5_19
      • Tier I includes regional organizations: the Denver Art Museum, the Denver Botanic Gardens, the Denver Museum of Nature and Science, the Denver Zoo, and the Denver Center for the Performing Arts. It receives 65.5%.Colorado_item_5_20
      • Tier II currently includes 26 regional organizations. Tier II receives 21%.Colorado_item_5_21
      • Tier III has more than 280 local organizations such as small theaters, orchestras, art centers, and natural history, cultural history, and community groups. Tier III organizations apply for funding to the county cultural councils via a grant process. This tier receives 13.5%.Colorado_item_5_22
    • An 11-member board of directors oversees the distributions in accordance with the Colorado Revised Statutes. Seven board members are appointed by county commissioners (in Denver, the Denver City Council) and four members are appointed by the Governor of Colorado.Colorado_item_5_23
  • The Football Stadium District (FD or FTBL), approved by the voters to pay for and help build the Denver Broncos' stadium Sports Authority Field at Mile HighColorado_item_5_24
  • Local Improvement Districts (LID) within designated areas of southeast Jefferson and Boulder countiesColorado_item_5_25
  • The Metropolitan Major League Baseball Stadium District, approved by voters to pay for and help build the Colorado Rockies' stadium Coors FieldColorado_item_5_26
  • Regional Transportation Authority (RTA) taxes at varying rates in Basalt, Carbondale, Glenwood Springs, Gunnison CountyColorado_item_5_27

Politics Colorado_section_45

Main article: Politics of Colorado Colorado_sentence_456

See also: Political party strength in Colorado and United States presidential elections in Colorado Colorado_sentence_457

Colorado is considered a swing state or (more recently) a blue state in both state and federal elections. Colorado_sentence_458

In presidential elections, it had not been won until 2020 by double digits since 1984, and has backed the winning candidate in 9 of the last 11 elections. Colorado_sentence_459

Coloradans have elected 17 Democrats and 12 Republicans to the governorship in the last 100 years. Colorado_sentence_460

In presidential politics, Colorado was considered a reliably Republican state during the post-World War II era, voting for the Democratic candidate only in 1948, 1964, and 1992. Colorado_sentence_461

However, it became a competitive swing state in the 1990s. Colorado_sentence_462

Since the mid-2000s, it has swung heavily to the Democrats, voting for Barack Obama in 2008 and 2012, Hillary Clinton in 2016 and Joe Biden in 2020. Colorado_sentence_463

Colorado politics has the contrast of conservative cities such as Colorado Springs and Grand Junction and liberal cities such as Boulder and Denver. Colorado_sentence_464

Democrats are strongest in metropolitan Denver, the college towns of Fort Collins and Boulder, southern Colorado (including Pueblo), and a number of western ski resort counties. Colorado_sentence_465

The Republicans are strongest in the Eastern Plains, Colorado Springs, Greeley, and far Western Colorado near Grand Junction. Colorado_sentence_466

Colorado is represented by two United States Senators: Colorado_sentence_467

Colorado_unordered_list_6

Colorado is represented by seven Representatives to the United States House of Representatives: Colorado_sentence_468

Colorado_unordered_list_7

Significant Initiatives and Legislation Enacted in Colorado Colorado_section_46

In 1881 Colorado voters approved a referendum that selected Denver as the state capital. Colorado_sentence_469

Colorado was the first state in the union to enact, by voter referendum, a law extending suffrage to women. Colorado_sentence_470

That initiative was approved by the state's voters on Nov. 7, 1893. Colorado_sentence_471

On the November 8, 1932 ballot, Colorado approved the repeal of alcohol prohibition more than a year before the Twenty-first Amendment to the United States Constitution was ratified. Colorado_sentence_472

Colorado has banned, via C.R.S. Colorado_sentence_473

section 12-6-302, the sale of motor vehicles on Sunday since at least 1953. Colorado_sentence_474

In 1972 Colorado voters rejected a referendum proposal to fund the 1976 Winter Olympics, which had been scheduled to be held in the state. Colorado_sentence_475

Denver had been chosen by the International Olympic Committee as host city on May 12, 1970. Colorado_sentence_476

In 2006 voters passed Amendment 43, which purported to ban gay marriage in Colorado. Colorado_sentence_477

That initiative was nullified by the U.S. Colorado_sentence_478 Supreme Court's 2015 decision in Obergefell v. Hodges. Colorado_sentence_479

In 2012, voters amended the state constitution protecting "personal use" of marijuana for adults, establishing a framework to regulate cannabis in a manner similar to alcohol. Colorado_sentence_480

The first recreational marijuana shops in Colorado, and by extension the United States, opened their doors on January 1, 2014. Colorado_sentence_481

On May 29, 2019, Governor Jared Polis signed House Bill 1124 immediately prohibiting law enforcement officials in Colorado from holding undocumented immigrants solely on the basis of a request from U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement. Colorado_sentence_482

Education Colorado_section_47

Main article: List of colleges and universities in Colorado Colorado_sentence_483

See also: List of colleges and universities in Colorado, Table of Colorado school districts, and Table of Colorado charter schools Colorado_sentence_484

Colorado_unordered_list_8

Military installations Colorado_section_48

Colorado_unordered_list_9

Former Military installations and outposts include: Colorado_sentence_485

Colorado_unordered_list_10

Protected areas Colorado_section_49

Main articles: List of federal lands in Colorado and Colorado State Parks Colorado_sentence_486

See also: Colorado trails and Colorado scenic and historic byways Colorado_sentence_487

See also: List of the prehistoric life of Colorado Colorado_sentence_488

Colorado is home to 4 national parks, 8 national monuments, 2 national recreation areas, 2 national historic sites, 3 national historic trails, a national scenic trail, 11 national forests, 2 national grasslands, 42 national wilderness areas, 2 national conservation areas, 8 national wildlife refuges, 44 state parks, 307 state wildlife areas, and numerous other scenic, historic, and recreational areas. Colorado_sentence_489

Units of the National Park System in Colorado: Colorado_sentence_490

Colorado_unordered_list_11

See also Colorado_section_50

Colorado_unordered_list_12


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colorado.