Comic book

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This article is about periodicals containing comics. Comic book_sentence_0

For the comics art medium, see Comics. Comic book_sentence_1

A comic book, also called comic magazine or (in the United Kingdom and Ireland) simply comic, is a publication that consists of comics art in the form of sequential juxtaposed panels that represent individual scenes. Comic book_sentence_2

Panels are often accompanied by descriptive prose and written narrative, usually, dialogue contained in word balloons emblematic of the comics art form. Comic book_sentence_3

Although comics has some origins in 18th century Japan, comic books were first popularized in the United States and the United Kingdom during the 1930s. Comic book_sentence_4

The first modern comic book, Famous Funnies, was released in the US in 1933 and was a reprinting of earlier newspaper humor comic strips, which had established many of the story-telling devices used in comics. Comic book_sentence_5

The term comic book derives from American comic books once being a compilation of comic strips of a humorous tone; however, this practice was replaced by featuring stories of all genres, usually not humorous in tone. Comic book_sentence_6

The largest comic book market is Japan. Comic book_sentence_7

By 1995, the manga market in Japan was valued at ¥586.4 billion ($6–7 billion), with annual sales of 1.9 billion manga books (tankōbon volumes and manga magazines) in Japan, equivalent to 15 issues per person. Comic book_sentence_8

The comic book market in the United States and Canada was valued at $1.09 billion in 2016. Comic book_sentence_9

As of 2017, the largest comic book publisher in the United States is manga distributor Viz Media, followed by DC Comics and Marvel Comics. Comic book_sentence_10

Another major comic book market is France, where Franco-Belgian comics and Japanese manga each represent 40% of the market, followed by American comics at 10% market share. Comic book_sentence_11

Structure Comic book_section_0

Main article: Comics § Terminology Comic book_sentence_12

Comic books are reliant on their organization and appearance. Comic book_sentence_13

Authors largely focus on the frame of the page, size, orientation, and panel positions. Comic book_sentence_14

These characteristic aspects of comic books are necessary in conveying the content and messages of the author. Comic book_sentence_15

The key elements of comic books include panels, balloons (speech bubbles), text (lines), and characters. Comic book_sentence_16

Balloons are usually convex spatial containers of information that are related to a character using a tail element. Comic book_sentence_17

The tail has an origin, path, tip, and pointed direction. Comic book_sentence_18

Key tasks in the creation of comic books are writing, drawing, and coloring. Comic book_sentence_19

There are many technological formulas used to create comic books, including directions, axes, data, and metrics. Comic book_sentence_20

Following these key formatting procedures is the writing, drawing, and coloring. Comic book_sentence_21

American comic books Comic book_section_1

Main article: American comic book Comic book_sentence_22

Comics as a print medium have existed in the United States since the printing of The Adventures of Mr. Obadiah Oldbuck in 1842 in hardcover, making it the first known American prototype comic book. Comic book_sentence_23

Proto-comics periodicals began appearing early in the 20th century, with the first comic standard-sized comic being Funnies on Parade. Comic book_sentence_24

Funnies on Parades was the first book that established the size, duration, and format of the modern comic book. Comic book_sentence_25

Following this was, Dell Publishing's 36-page Famous Funnies: A Carnival of Comics as the first true newsstand American comic book; Goulart, for example, calls it "the cornerstone for one of the most lucrative branches of magazine publishing". Comic book_sentence_26

In 1905 G.W. Comic book_sentence_27

Dillingham Company published 24 select strips by the cartoonist Gustave Verbeek in an anthology book called 'The Incredible Upside-Downs of Little Lady Lovekins and Old Man Muffaroo'. Comic book_sentence_28

The introduction of Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster's Superman in 1938 turned comic books into a major industry and ushered in the Golden Age of Comic Books. Comic book_sentence_29

The Golden Age originated the archetype of the superhero. Comic book_sentence_30

According to historian Michael A. Amundson, appealing comic-book characters helped ease young readers' fear of nuclear war and neutralize anxiety about the questions posed by atomic power. Comic book_sentence_31

Historians generally divide the timeline of the American comic book into eras. Comic book_sentence_32

The Golden Age of Comic Books began in the 1930s, which is generally considered the beginning of the comic book as it is known today. Comic book_sentence_33

The Silver Age of Comic Books is generally considered to date from the first successful revival of the then-dormant superhero form, with the debut of the Flash in Showcase #4 (Oct. 1956). Comic book_sentence_34

The Silver Age lasted through the late 1960s or early 1970s, during which time Marvel Comics revolutionized the medium with such naturalistic superheroes as Stan Lee and Jack Kirby's Fantastic Four and Lee and Steve Ditko's Spider-Man. Comic book_sentence_35

The demarcation between the Silver Age and the following era, the Bronze Age of Comic Books, is less well-defined, with the Bronze Age running from the very early 1970s through the mid-1980s. Comic book_sentence_36

The Modern Age of Comic Books runs from the mid-1980s to the present day. Comic book_sentence_37

A notable event in the history of the American comic book came with psychiatrist Fredric Wertham's criticisms of the medium in his book Seduction of the Innocent (1954), which prompted the American Senate Subcommittee on Juvenile Delinquency to investigate comic books. Comic book_sentence_38

Wertham claimed that comic books were responsible for an increase in juvenile delinquency, as well as potential influence on a child's sexuality and morals. Comic book_sentence_39

In response to attention from the government and from the media, the US comic book industry set up the Comics Magazine Association of America. Comic book_sentence_40

The CMAA instilled the Comics Code Authority in 1954 and drafted the self-censorship Comics Code that year, which required all comic books to go through a process of approval. Comic book_sentence_41

It was not until the 1970s that comic books could be published without passing through the inspection of the CMAA. Comic book_sentence_42

The Code was made formally defunct in November 2011. Comic book_sentence_43

Underground comic books Comic book_section_2

Main article: Underground comix Comic book_sentence_44

In the late 1960s and early 1970s, a surge of creativity emerged in what became known as underground comics. Comic book_sentence_45

Published and distributed independently of the established comics industry, most of such comics reflected the youth counterculture and drug culture of the time. Comic book_sentence_46

Underground comix "reflected and commented on the social divisions and tensions of American society". Comic book_sentence_47

Many had an uninhibited, often irreverent style; their frank depictions of nudity, sex, profanity, and politics had no parallel outside their precursors, the pornographic and even more obscure "Tijuana bibles". Comic book_sentence_48

Underground comics were almost never sold at newsstands, but rather in such youth-oriented outlets as head shops and record stores, as well as by mail order. Comic book_sentence_49

The underground comix encouraged creators to publish their work independently so that they would have full ownership rights to their characters. Comic book_sentence_50

Frank Stack's The Adventures of Jesus, published under the name Foolbert Sturgeon, has been credited as the first underground comic; while R. Comic book_sentence_51 Crumb and the crew of cartoonists who worked on Zap Comix popularized the form. Comic book_sentence_52

Alternative comics Comic book_section_3

Main article: Alternative comics Comic book_sentence_53

The rise of comic book specialty stores in the late 1970s created/paralleled a dedicated market for "independent" or "alternative comics" in the US. Comic book_sentence_54

The first such comics included the anthology series Star Reach, published by comic book writer Mike Friedrich from 1974 to 1979, and Harvey Pekar's American Splendor, which continued sporadic publication into the 21st century and which Shari Springer Berman and Robert Pulcini adapted into a 2003 film. Comic book_sentence_55

Some independent comics continued in the tradition of underground comics. Comic book_sentence_56

While their content generally remained less explicit, others resembled the output of mainstream publishers in format and genre but were published by smaller artist-owned companies or by single artists. Comic book_sentence_57

A few (notably RAW) represented experimental attempts to bring comics closer to the status of fine art. Comic book_sentence_58

During the 1970s the "small press" culture grew and diversified. Comic book_sentence_59

By the 1980s, several independent publishers – such as Pacific, Eclipse, First, Comico, and Fantagraphics – had started releasing a wide range of styles and formats—from color-superhero, detective, and science-fiction comic books to black-and-white magazine-format stories of Latin American magical realism. Comic book_sentence_60

A number of small publishers in the 1990s changed the format and distribution of their comics to more closely resemble non-comics publishing. Comic book_sentence_61

The "minicomics" form, an extremely informal version of self-publishing, arose in the 1980s and became increasingly popular among artists in the 1990s, despite reaching an even more limited audience than the small press. Comic book_sentence_62

Small publishers regularly releasing titles include Avatar Comics, Hyperwerks, Raytoons, and Terminal Press, buoyed by such advances in printing technology as digital print-on-demand. Comic book_sentence_63

Graphic novels Comic book_section_4

Main article: Graphic novel Comic book_sentence_64

In 1964, Richard Kyle coined the term "graphic novel". Comic book_sentence_65

Precursors of the form existed by the 1920s, which saw a revival of the medieval woodcut tradition by Belgian Frans Masereel, American Lynd Ward and others, including Stan Lee. Comic book_sentence_66

In 1950, St. Comic book_sentence_67 John Publications produced the digest-sized, adult-oriented "picture novel" It Rhymes with Lust, a 128-page digest by pseudonymous writer "Drake Waller" (Arnold Drake and Leslie Waller), penciler Matt Baker and inker Ray Osrin, touted as "an original full-length novel" on its cover. Comic book_sentence_68

In 1971, writer-artist Gil Kane and collaborators devised the paperback "comics novel" Blackmark. Comic book_sentence_69

Will Eisner popularized the term "graphic novel" when he used it on the cover of the paperback edition of his work A Contract with God, and Other Tenement Stories in 1978. Comic book_sentence_70

Digital comics Comic book_section_5

See also: Digital comics Comic book_sentence_71

Market size Comic book_section_6

In 2017, the comic book market size for North America was just over $1 billion with digital sales being flat, book stores having a 1 percent decline, and comic book stores having a 10 percent decline over 2016. Comic book_sentence_72

Comic book collecting Comic book_section_7

Main article: Comic book collecting Comic book_sentence_73

The 1970s saw the advent of specialty comic book stores. Comic book_sentence_74

Initially, comic books were marketed by publishers to children because comic books were perceived as children's entertainment. Comic book_sentence_75

However, with increasing recognition of comics as an art form and the growing pop culture presence of comic book conventions, they are now embraced by many adults. Comic book_sentence_76

Comic book collectors are often lifelong enthusiasts of the comic book stories, and they usually focus on particular heroes and attempt to assemble the entire run of a title. Comic book_sentence_77

Comics are published with a sequential number. Comic book_sentence_78

The first issue of a long-running comic book series is commonly the rarest and most desirable to collectors. Comic book_sentence_79

The first appearance of a specific character, however, might be in a pre-existing title. Comic book_sentence_80

For example, Spider-Man's first appearance was in Amazing Fantasy #15. Comic book_sentence_81

New characters were often introduced this way and did not receive their own titles until there was a proven audience for the hero. Comic book_sentence_82

As a result, comics that feature the first appearance of an important character will sometimes be even harder to find than the first issue of a character's own title. Comic book_sentence_83

Some rare comic books include copies of the unreleased Motion Picture Funnies Weekly #1 from 1939. Comic book_sentence_84

Eight copies, plus one without a cover, emerged in the estate of the deceased publisher in 1974. Comic book_sentence_85

The "Pay Copy" of this book sold for $43,125 in a 2005 Heritage auction. Comic book_sentence_86

The most valuable American comics have combined rarity and quality with the first appearances of popular and enduring characters. Comic book_sentence_87

Four comic books have sold for over US$1 million as of December 2010, including two examples of Action Comics #1, the first appearance of Superman, both sold privately through online dealer in 2010, and Detective Comics #27, the first appearance of Batman, via public auction. Comic book_sentence_88

Updating the above price obtained for Action Comics #1, the first appearance of Superman, the highest sale on record for this book is $3.2 million, for a 9.0 copy. Comic book_sentence_89

Misprints, promotional comic-dealer incentive printings, and issues with extremely low distribution also generally have scarcity value. Comic book_sentence_90

The rarest modern comic books include the original press run of The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen #5, which DC executive Paul Levitz recalled and pulped due to the appearance of a vintage Victorian era advertisement for "Marvel Douche", which the publisher considered offensive; only 100 copies exist, most of which have been CGC graded. Comic book_sentence_91

(See Recalled comics for more pulped, recalled, and erroneous comics.) Comic book_sentence_92

In 2000, a company named Comics Guaranty (CGC) began to "slab" comics, encasing them in thick plastic and giving them a numeric grade. Comic book_sentence_93

Since then, other grading companies have arisen. Comic book_sentence_94

Because condition is important to the value of rare comics, the idea of grading by a company that does not buy or sell comics seems like a good one. Comic book_sentence_95

However, there is some controversy about whether this grading service is worth the high cost, and whether it is a positive development for collectors, or if it primarily services speculators who wish to make a quick profit trading in comics as one might trade in stocks or fine art. Comic book_sentence_96

Comic grading has created valuation standards that online price guides such as GoCollect and GPAnalysis have used to report on real-time market values. Comic book_sentence_97

The original artwork pages from comic books are also collected, and these are perhaps the rarest of all comic book collector's items, as there is only one unique page of artwork for each page that was printed and published. Comic book_sentence_98

These were created by a writer, who created the story; a pencil artist, who laid out the sequential panels on the page; an ink artist, who went over the pencil with pen and black ink; a letterer, who provided the dialogue and narration of the story by hand lettering each word; and finally a colorist, who added color as the last step before the finished pages went to the printer. Comic book_sentence_99

When the original pages of artwork are returned by the printer, they are typically given back to the artists, who sometimes sell them at comic book conventions, or in galleries and art shows related to comic book art. Comic book_sentence_100

The original pages of the first appearances of such legendary characters as Superman, Batman, Wonder Woman and Spider-Man are considered priceless. Comic book_sentence_101

History of Race in U.S. Comic Books Comic book_section_8

Many early iterations of black characters in comics "became variations on the 'single stereotypical image of Sambo'." Comic book_sentence_102

Sambo was closely related to the coon stereotype but had some subtle differences. Comic book_sentence_103

They are both a derogatory way of portraying black characters. Comic book_sentence_104

"The name itself, an abbreviation of raccoon, is dehumanizing. Comic book_sentence_105

As with Sambo, the coon was portrayed as a lazy, easily frightened, chronically idle, inarticulate, buffoon." Comic book_sentence_106

This portrayal "was of course another attempt to solidify the intellectual inferiority of the black race through popular culture." Comic book_sentence_107

However, in the 1940s there was a change in portrayal of black characters. Comic book_sentence_108

"A cursory glance...might give the impression that situations had improved for African Americans in comics." Comic book_sentence_109

In many comics being produced in this time there was a major push for tolerance between races. Comic book_sentence_110

"These equality minded heroes began to spring to action just as African Americans were being asked to participate in the war effort." Comic book_sentence_111

During this time, a government ran program, the Writers' War Board, became heavily involved in what would be published in comics. Comic book_sentence_112

"The Writers' War Board used comic books to shape popular perceptions of race and ethnicity..." Not only were they using comic books as a means of recruiting all Americans, they were also using it as propaganda to, "[construct] a justification for race based hatred of America's foreign enemies." Comic book_sentence_113

The Writers' War Board created comics books that were meant to "[promote] domestic racial harmony". Comic book_sentence_114

However, "these pro-tolerance narratives struggled to overcome the popular and widely understood negative tropes used for decades in American mass culture..." However, they weren't accomplishing this agenda within all of their comics. Comic book_sentence_115

In Captain Marvel Adventures, a character named steamboat was an amalgamation of some of the worst stereotypes of the time. Comic book_sentence_116

The Writers' War Board did not ask for any change with this character. Comic book_sentence_117

"Eliminating Steamboat required the determined efforts of a black youth group in New York City." Comic book_sentence_118

Originally their request was refused by individuals working on the comic stating, "Captain Marvel Adventures included many kinds of caricatures 'for the sake of humor'." Comic book_sentence_119

The black youth group responded with, "this is not the Negro race, but your one-and-a-half millions readers will think it so." Comic book_sentence_120

Afterwards, Steamboat disappeared from the comics all together. Comic book_sentence_121

There was a comic created about the 99th squadron, also known as the Tuskegee Airmen, an all black air force unit. Comic book_sentence_122

Instead of making the comic about their story the comic the comic was about Hop Harrigan. Comic book_sentence_123

A white pilot who captures a Nazi, shows him videos of the 99th squadron defeating his man and then reveals to the Nazi that his men were defeated by African Americans which infuriated him as he sees them as a less superior race and can't believe they bested his men."... Comic book_sentence_124

[The] Tuskegee Airmen, and images of black aviators appear in just three of the fifty three panels...[the] pilots of the 99th squadron have no dialogue and interact with neither Hop Harrigan nor his Nazi captive." Comic book_sentence_125

During this time, they also used black characters in comic books as a means to invalidate the militant black groups that were fighting for equality within America. Comic book_sentence_126

"Spider-Man 'made it clear that militant black power was not the remedy for racial injustice'." Comic book_sentence_127

"The Falcon openly criticized black behavior stating' maybe it's important fo[sic] us to cool things down-so we can protect the rights we been fightin' for'." Comic book_sentence_128

This poor portrayal and character development of black characters can be partially blamed on the fact that, during this time, "there had rarely been a black artist or writer allowed in a major comics company" Comic book_sentence_129

Asian characters faced some of the same treatment in comics as black characters did. Comic book_sentence_130

They were dehumanized and the narrative being pushed was that they were "incompetent and subhuman." Comic book_sentence_131

"A 1944 issue of the United State Marines included a narrative entitled "The Smell of the Monkeymen...the story depicts Japanese soldiers as simian brutes whose sickening body odor betrays their concealed locations." Comic book_sentence_132

Chinese characters received the same treatment. Comic book_sentence_133

"By the time the United States entered WWII, negative perceptions of Chinese were an established part of mass culture..." However, concerned that the Japanese could use America's anti chinese material as propaganda they began "to present a more positive image of America's Chinese allies..." Just as they tried to show better representation for Black people in comics they did the same for Asian people. Comic book_sentence_134

However, "Japanese and filipino characters [were] visually indistinguishable. Comic book_sentence_135

Both groups have grotesque buckteeth, tattered clothing, and bright yellow skin." Comic book_sentence_136

"publishers...depicted America's Asian allies through derogatory images and language honed over the preceding decades." Comic book_sentence_137

Asian characters were previously portrayed as, "ghastly yellow demons". Comic book_sentence_138

During WWII, "[every] major superhero worth his spandex devoted himself to the eradication of asian invaders." Comic book_sentence_139

There was "a constant relay race in which one asian culture merely handed off the baton of hatred to another with no perceptible changes in the manner in which the characters would be portrayed." Comic book_sentence_140

"The only specific depiction of a Hispanic superhero did not end well. Comic book_sentence_141

In 1975 Marvel gave us Hector Ayala a.k.a The White Tiger." Comic book_sentence_142

"Although he fought for several years alongside the likes of much more popular heroes such as Spider-Man and Daredevil, he only lasted six years before sales of comics featuring him got so bad that Marvel had him retire. Comic book_sentence_143

The most famous Hispanic character is Bane, a villain from Batman. Comic book_sentence_144

The Native American representation in comic books "can be summed up in the noble savage stereotype" " a recurring theme...urg[ed] American indians to abandon their traditional hostility towards the United States. Comic book_sentence_145

They were, tragically, the ones painted as intolerant and disrespectful of the dominant concerns of white America" Comic book_sentence_146

East Asian comics Comic book_section_9

Japanese manga Comic book_section_10

Main article: Manga Comic book_sentence_147

Manga (漫画) are comic books or graphic novels originating from Japan. Comic book_sentence_148

Most manga conform to a style developed in Japan in the late 19th century, though the art form has a long prehistory in earlier Japanese art. Comic book_sentence_149

The term manga is used in Japan to refer to both comics and cartooning. Comic book_sentence_150

Outside Japan, the word is typically used to refer to comics originally published in the country. Comic book_sentence_151

Dōjinshi Comic book_section_11

Main article: Dōjinshi Comic book_sentence_152

Dōjinshi (同人誌, fan magazine), fan-made Japanese comics, operate in a far larger market in Japan than the American "underground comics" market; the largest dōjinshi fair, Comiket, attracts 500,000 visitors twice a year. Comic book_sentence_153

Korean manhwa Comic book_section_12

Main article: Manhwa Comic book_sentence_154

Korean manhwa has quickly gained popularity outside Korea in recent times as a result of the Korean Wave. Comic book_sentence_155

The manhwa industry has suffered through two crashes and strict censorship since its early beginnings as a result of the Japanese occupation of the peninsula which stunts the growth of the industry but has now started to flourish thanks in part to the internet and new ways to read manhwa whether on computers or through smartphones. Comic book_sentence_156

In the past manhwa would be marketed as manga outside the country in order to make sure they would sell well but now that is no longer needed since more people are now more knowledgeable about the industry and Korean culture. Comic book_sentence_157

Webtoons Comic book_section_13

Main article: Webtoons Comic book_sentence_158

Webtoons have become popular in South Korea as a new way to read comics. Comic book_sentence_159

Thanks in part to different censorship rules, color and unique visual effects, and optimization for easier reading on smartphones and computers. Comic book_sentence_160

More manhwa have made the switch from traditional print manhwa to online webtoons thanks to better pay and more freedom than traditional print manhwa. Comic book_sentence_161

The webtoon format has also expanded to other countries outside of Korea like China, Japan, Southeast Asia, and Western countries. Comic book_sentence_162

Major webtoon distributors include Lezhin, Naver, and Kakao. Comic book_sentence_163

Chinese manhua Comic book_section_14

Main article: Manhua Comic book_sentence_164

European comics Comic book_section_15

Main article: European comics Comic book_sentence_165

Franco-Belgian comics Comic book_section_16

Main article: Franco-Belgian comics Comic book_sentence_166

France and Belgium have a long tradition in comics and comic books, called BDs (an abbreviation of bande dessinées) in French and strips in Dutch. Comic book_sentence_167

Belgian comic books originally written in Dutch show the influence of the Francophone "Franco-Belgian" comics but have their own distinct style. Comic book_sentence_168

The name bande dessinée derives from the original description of the art form as drawn strips (the phrase literally translates as "the drawn strip"), analogous to the sequence of images in a film strip. Comic book_sentence_169

As in its English equivalent, the word "bande" can be applied to both film and comics. Comic book_sentence_170

Significantly, the French-language term contains no indication of subject-matter, unlike the American terms "comics" and "funnies", which imply an art form not to be taken seriously. Comic book_sentence_171

The distinction of comics as le neuvième art (literally, "the ninth art") is prevalent in French scholarship on the form, as is the concept of comics criticism and scholarship itself. Comic book_sentence_172

Relative to the respective size of their populations, the innumerable authors in France and Belgium publish a high volume of comic books. Comic book_sentence_173

In North America, the more serious Franco-Belgian comics are often seen as equivalent to graphic novels, but whether they are long or short, bound or in magazine format, in Europe there is no need for a more sophisticated term, as the art's name does not itself imply something frivolous. Comic book_sentence_174

In France, the authors control the publication of most comics. Comic book_sentence_175

The author works within a self-appointed time-frame, and it is common for readers to wait six months or as long as two years between installments. Comic book_sentence_176

Most books first appear in print as a hardcover book, typically with 48, 56, or 64 pages. Comic book_sentence_177

British comics Comic book_section_17

Main article: British comics Comic book_sentence_178

Although Ally Sloper's Half Holiday (1884) was aimed at an adult market, publishers quickly targeted a younger demographic, which has led to most publications being for children and has created an association in the public's mind of comics as somewhat juvenile. Comic book_sentence_179

The Guardian refers to Ally Sloper as "one of the world's first iconic cartoon characters", and "as famous in Victorian Britain as Dennis the Menace would be a century later." Comic book_sentence_180

British comics in the early 20th century typically evolved from illustrated penny dreadfuls of the Victorian era (featuring Sweeney Todd, Dick Turpin and Varney the Vampire). Comic book_sentence_181

First published in the 1830s, penny dreadfuls were "Britain's first taste of mass-produced popular culture for the young." Comic book_sentence_182

The two most popular British comic books, The Beano and The Dandy, were first published by DC Thomson in the 1930s. Comic book_sentence_183

By 1950 the weekly circulation of both reached two million. Comic book_sentence_184

Explaining the enormous popularity of comics in the UK during this period, Anita O'Brien, director curator at London's Cartoon Museum, states: "When comics like the Beano and Dandy were invented back in the 1930s – and through really to the 1950s and 60s – these comics were almost the only entertainment available to children." Comic book_sentence_185

Dennis the Menace was created in the 1950s, which saw sales for The Beano soar. Comic book_sentence_186

He features in the cover of The Beano, with the BBC referring to him as the "definitive naughty boy of the comic world." Comic book_sentence_187

In 1954, Tiger comics introduced Roy of the Rovers, the hugely popular football based strip recounting the life of Roy Race and the team he played for, Melchester Rovers. Comic book_sentence_188

The stock media phrase "real 'Roy of the Rovers' stuff" is often used by football writers, commentators and fans when describing displays of great skill, or surprising results that go against the odds, in reference to the dramatic storylines that were the strip's trademark. Comic book_sentence_189

Other comic books such as Eagle, Valiant, Warrior, Viz and 2000 AD also flourished. Comic book_sentence_190

Some comics, such as Judge Dredd and other 2000 AD titles, have been published in a tabloid form. Comic book_sentence_191

Underground comics and "small press" titles have also appeared in the UK, notably Oz and Escape Magazine. Comic book_sentence_192

The content of Action, another title aimed at children and launched in the mid-1970s, became the subject of discussion in the House of Commons. Comic book_sentence_193

Although on a smaller scale than similar investigations in the US, such concerns led to a moderation of content published within British comics. Comic book_sentence_194

Such moderation never became formalized to the extent of promulgating a code, nor did it last long. Comic book_sentence_195

The UK has also established a healthy market in the reprinting and repackaging of material, notably material originating in the US. Comic book_sentence_196

The lack of reliable supplies of American comic books led to a variety of black-and-white reprints, including Marvel's monster comics of the 1950s, Fawcett's Captain Marvel, and other characters such as Sheena, Mandrake the Magician, and the Phantom. Comic book_sentence_197

Several reprint companies became involved in repackaging American material for the British market, notably the importer and distributor Thorpe & Porter. Comic book_sentence_198

Marvel Comics established a UK office in 1972. Comic book_sentence_199

DC Comics and Dark Horse Comics also opened offices in the 1990s. Comic book_sentence_200

The repackaging of European material has occurred less frequently, although The Adventures of Tintin and Asterix serials have been successfully translated and repackaged in softcover books. Comic book_sentence_201

The number of European comics available in the UK has increased in the last two decades. Comic book_sentence_202

The British company Cinebook, founded in 2005, has released English translated versions of many European series. Comic book_sentence_203

In the 1980s, a resurgence of British writers and artists gained prominence in mainstream comic books, which was dubbed the "British Invasion" in comic book history. Comic book_sentence_204

These writers and artists brought with them their own mature themes and philosophy such as anarchy, controversy and politics common in British media. Comic book_sentence_205

These elements would pave the way for mature and "darker and edgier" comic books and jump start the Modern Age of Comics. Comic book_sentence_206

Writers included Alan Moore, famous for his V for Vendetta, From Hell, Watchmen, Marvelman, and The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen; Neil Gaiman with The Sandman mythos and Books of Magic; Warren Ellis, creator of Transmetropolitan and Planetary; and others such as Mark Millar, creator of Wanted and Kick-Ass. Comic book_sentence_207

The comic book series John Constantine, Hellblazer, which is largely set in Britain and starring the magician John Constantine, paved the way for British writers such as Jamie Delano. Comic book_sentence_208

At Christmas, publishers repackage and commission material for comic annuals, printed and bound as hardcover A4-size books; "Rupert" supplies a famous example of the British comic annual. Comic book_sentence_209

DC Thomson also repackages The Broons and Oor Wullie strips in softcover A4-size books for the holiday season. Comic book_sentence_210

On 19 March 2012, the British postal service, the Royal Mail, released a set of stamps depicting British comic book characters and series. Comic book_sentence_211

The collection featured The Beano, The Dandy, Eagle, The Topper, Roy of the Rovers, Bunty, Buster, Valiant, Twinkle and 2000 AD. Comic book_sentence_212

Spanish comics Comic book_section_18

Main article: Spanish comics Comic book_sentence_213

It has been stated that the 13th century Cantigas de Santa María could be considered as the first Spanish "comic", although comic books (also known in Spain as historietas or tebeos) made their debut around 1857. Comic book_sentence_214

The magazine TBO was influential in popularizing the medium. Comic book_sentence_215

After the Spanish Civil War, the Franco regime imposed strict censorship in all media: superhero comics were forbidden and as a result, comic heroes were based on historical fiction (in 1944 the medieval hero El Guerrero del Antifaz was created by Manuel Gago and another popular medieval hero, Capitán Trueno, was created in 1956 by Víctor Mora and Miguel Ambrosio Zaragoza). Comic book_sentence_216

Two publishing houses — Editorial Bruguera and Editorial Valenciana — dominated the Spanish comics market during its golden age (1950–1970). Comic book_sentence_217

The most popular comics showed a recognizable style of slapstick humor (influenced by Franco-Belgian authors such as Franquin): Escobar's Carpanta and Zipi y Zape, Vázquez's Las hermanas Gilda and Anacleto, Ibáñez's and 13. Comic book_sentence_218 Rue del Percebe or Jan's Superlópez. Comic book_sentence_219

After the end of the Francoist period, there was an increased interest in adult comics with magazines such as Totem, El Jueves, 1984, and El Víbora, and works such as Paracuellos by Carlos Giménez. Comic book_sentence_220

Spanish artists have traditionally worked in other markets finding great success, either in the American (e.g., Eisner Award winners Sergio Aragonés, Salvador Larroca, Gabriel Hernández Walta, Marcos Martín or David Aja), the British (e.g., Carlos Ezquerra, co-creator of Judge Dredd) or the Franco-Belgian one (e.g., Fauve d'Or winner or Blacksad authors Juan Díaz Canales and Juanjo Guarnido). Comic book_sentence_221

Italian comics Comic book_section_19

Main article: Italian comics Comic book_sentence_222

In Italy, comics (known in Italian as fumetti) made their debut as humor strips at the end of the 19th century, and later evolved into adventure stories. Comic book_sentence_223

After World War II, however, artists like Hugo Pratt and Guido Crepax exposed Italian comics to an international audience. Comic book_sentence_224

Popular comic books such as Diabolik or the Bonelli line—namely Tex Willer or Dylan Dog—remain best-sellers. Comic book_sentence_225

Mainstream comics are usually published on a monthly basis, in a black-and-white digest size format, with approximately 100 to 132 pages. Comic book_sentence_226

Collections of classic material for the most famous characters, usually with more than 200 pages, are also common. Comic book_sentence_227

Author comics are published in the French BD format, with an example being Pratt's Corto Maltese. Comic book_sentence_228

Italian cartoonists show the influence of comics from other countries, including France, Belgium, Spain, and Argentina. Comic book_sentence_229

Italy is also famous for being one of the foremost producers of Walt Disney comic stories outside the US; Donald Duck's superhero alter ego, Paperinik, known in English as Superduck, was created in Italy. Comic book_sentence_230

Comics in other countries Comic book_section_20

See also: List of comics by country Comic book_sentence_231

Distribution Comic book_section_21

Distribution has historically been a problem for the comic book industry with many mainstream retailers declining to carry extensive stocks of the most interesting and popular comics. Comic book_sentence_232

The smartphone and the tablet have turned out to be an ideal medium for online distribution. Comic book_sentence_233

Digital distribution Comic book_section_22

On November 13, 2007, Marvel Comics launched Marvel Digital Comics Unlimited, a subscription service allowing readers to read many comics from Marvel's history online. Comic book_sentence_234

The service also includes periodic release new comics not available elsewhere. Comic book_sentence_235

With the release of Avenging Spider-Man #1, Marvel also became the first publisher to provide free digital copies as part of the print copy of the comic book. Comic book_sentence_236

With the growing popularity of smartphones and tablets, many major publishers have begun releasing titles in digital form. Comic book_sentence_237

The most popular platform is comiXology. Comic book_sentence_238

Some platforms, such as Graphicly, have shut down. Comic book_sentence_239

Comic collections in libraries Comic book_section_23

Many libraries have extensive collections of comics in the form of graphic novels. Comic book_sentence_240

This is a convenient way for many in the public to become familiar with the medium. Comic book_sentence_241

Guinness World Records Comic book_section_24

On 5 August 2018, the Guinness World Records title for the "Largest comic book ever published" was awarded to the Brazilian comic book Turma da Mônica — O Maior Gibi do Mundo!, published by Panini Comics Brasil and Mauricio de Sousa Produções. Comic book_sentence_242

The comic book measures 69.9 cm by 99.8 cm (2 ft 3.51 in by 3 ft 3.29 in). Comic book_sentence_243

The 18-page comic book had a print run of 120 copies. Comic book_sentence_244

In 2015, the Japanese manga creator Eiichiro Oda was awarded the Guinness World Records title for having the "Most copies published for the same comic book series by a single author". Comic book_sentence_245

His manga series One Piece, which he writes and illustrates, has been serialized in the Japanese magazine Weekly Shonen Jump since December 1997, and by 2015, 77 collected volumes had been released. Comic book_sentence_246

Guinness World Records reported in their announcement that the collected volumes of the series had sold a total of 320,866,000 units. Comic book_sentence_247

One Piece also holds the Guinness World Records title for "Most copies published for the same manga series". Comic book_sentence_248

See also Comic book_section_25

Comic book_unordered_list_0

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: book.