Computer graphics

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For more specific scientific fields, see Computer graphics (computer science). Computer graphics_sentence_0

For other uses, see Computer graphics (disambiguation). Computer graphics_sentence_1

Computer graphics is the branch of computer science that deals with generating images with the aid of computers. Computer graphics_sentence_2

Today, computer graphics is a core technology in digital photography, film, video games, cell phone and computer displays, and many specialized applications. Computer graphics_sentence_3

A great deal of specialized hardware and software has been developed, with the displays of most devices being driven by computer graphics hardware. Computer graphics_sentence_4

It is a vast and recently developed area of computer science. Computer graphics_sentence_5

The phrase was coined in 1960 by computer graphics researchers Verne Hudson and William Fetter of Boeing. Computer graphics_sentence_6

It is often abbreviated as CG, or typically in the context of film as computer generated imagery (CGI). Computer graphics_sentence_7

Some topics in computer graphics include user interface design, sprite graphics, rendering, ray tracing, geometry processing, computer animation, vector graphics, 3D modeling, shaders, GPU design, implicit surface visualization, image processing, computational photography, scientific visualization, computational geometry and computer vision, among others. Computer graphics_sentence_8

The overall methodology depends heavily on the underlying sciences of geometry, optics, physics, and perception. Computer graphics_sentence_9

Computer graphics is responsible for displaying art and image data effectively and meaningfully to the consumer. Computer graphics_sentence_10

It is also used for processing image data received from the physical world, such as photo and video content. Computer graphics_sentence_11

Computer graphics development has had a significant impact on many types of media and has revolutionized animation, movies, advertising, video games, and graphic design in general. Computer graphics_sentence_12

Overview Computer graphics_section_0

The term computer graphics has been used in a broad sense to describe "almost everything on computers that is not text or sound". Computer graphics_sentence_13

Typically, the term computer graphics refers to several different things: Computer graphics_sentence_14

Computer graphics_unordered_list_0

  • the representation and manipulation of image data by a computerComputer graphics_item_0_0
  • the various technologies used to create and manipulate imagesComputer graphics_item_0_1
  • methods for digitally synthesizing and manipulating visual content, see study of computer graphicsComputer graphics_item_0_2

Today, computer graphics is widespread. Computer graphics_sentence_15

Such imagery is found in and on television, newspapers, weather reports, and in a variety of medical investigations and surgical procedures. Computer graphics_sentence_16

A well-constructed graph can present complex statistics in a form that is easier to understand and interpret. Computer graphics_sentence_17

In the media "such graphs are used to illustrate papers, reports, theses", and other presentation material. Computer graphics_sentence_18

Many tools have been developed to visualize data. Computer graphics_sentence_19

Computer-generated imagery can be categorized into several different types: two dimensional (2D), three dimensional (3D), and animated graphics. Computer graphics_sentence_20

As technology has improved, 3D computer graphics have become more common, but 2D computer graphics are still widely used. Computer graphics_sentence_21

Computer graphics has emerged as a sub-field of computer science which studies methods for digitally synthesizing and manipulating visual content. Computer graphics_sentence_22

Over the past decade, other specialized fields have been developed like information visualization, and scientific visualization more concerned with "the visualization of three dimensional phenomena (architectural, meteorological, medical, biological, etc.), where the emphasis is on realistic renderings of volumes, surfaces, illumination sources, and so forth, perhaps with a dynamic (time) component". Computer graphics_sentence_23

History Computer graphics_section_1

See also: History of computer animation Computer graphics_sentence_24

Introduction Computer graphics_section_2

The precursor sciences to the development of modern computer graphics were the advances in electrical engineering, electronics, and television that took place during the first half of the twentieth century. Computer graphics_sentence_25

Screens could display art since the Lumiere brothers' use of mattes to create special effects for the earliest films dating from 1895, but such displays were limited and not interactive. Computer graphics_sentence_26

The first cathode ray tube, the Braun tube, was invented in 1897 – it in turn would permit the oscilloscope and the military control panel – the more direct precursors of the field, as they provided the first two-dimensional electronic displays that responded to programmatic or user input. Computer graphics_sentence_27

Nevertheless, computer graphics remained relatively unknown as a discipline until the 1950s and the post-World War II period – during which time the discipline emerged from a combination of both pure university and laboratory academic research into more advanced computers and the United States military's further development of technologies like radar, advanced aviation, and rocketry developed during the war. Computer graphics_sentence_28

New kinds of displays were needed to process the wealth of information resulting from such projects, leading to the development of computer graphics as a discipline. Computer graphics_sentence_29

1950s Computer graphics_section_3

Early projects like the Whirlwind and SAGE Projects introduced the CRT as a viable display and interaction interface and introduced the light pen as an input device. Computer graphics_sentence_30

Douglas T. Ross of the Whirlwind SAGE system performed a personal experiment in which a small program he wrote captured the movement of his finger and displayed its vector (his traced name) on a display scope. Computer graphics_sentence_31

One of the first interactive video games to feature recognizable, interactive graphics – Tennis for Two – was created for an oscilloscope by William Higinbotham to entertain visitors in 1958 at Brookhaven National Laboratory and simulated a tennis match. Computer graphics_sentence_32

In 1959, Douglas T. Ross innovated again while working at MIT on transforming mathematic statements into computer generated 3D machine tool vectors by taking the opportunity to create a display scope image of a Disney cartoon character. Computer graphics_sentence_33

Electronics pioneer Hewlett-Packard went public in 1957 after incorporating the decade prior, and established strong ties with Stanford University through its founders, who were alumni. Computer graphics_sentence_34

This began the decades-long transformation of the southern San Francisco Bay Area into the world's leading computer technology hub – now known as Silicon Valley. Computer graphics_sentence_35

The field of computer graphics developed with the emergence of computer graphics hardware. Computer graphics_sentence_36

Further advances in computing led to greater advancements in interactive computer graphics. Computer graphics_sentence_37

In 1959, the TX-2 computer was developed at MIT's Lincoln Laboratory. Computer graphics_sentence_38

The TX-2 integrated a number of new man-machine interfaces. Computer graphics_sentence_39

A light pen could be used to draw sketches on the computer using Ivan Sutherland's revolutionary Sketchpad software. Computer graphics_sentence_40

Using a light pen, Sketchpad allowed one to draw simple shapes on the computer screen, save them and even recall them later. Computer graphics_sentence_41

The light pen itself had a small photoelectric cell in its tip. Computer graphics_sentence_42

This cell emitted an electronic pulse whenever it was placed in front of a computer screen and the screen's electron gun fired directly at it. Computer graphics_sentence_43

By simply timing the electronic pulse with the current location of the electron gun, it was easy to pinpoint exactly where the pen was on the screen at any given moment. Computer graphics_sentence_44

Once that was determined, the computer could then draw a cursor at that location. Computer graphics_sentence_45

Sutherland seemed to find the perfect solution for many of the graphics problems he faced. Computer graphics_sentence_46

Even today, many standards of computer graphics interfaces got their start with this early Sketchpad program. Computer graphics_sentence_47

One example of this is in drawing constraints. Computer graphics_sentence_48

If one wants to draw a square for example, they do not have to worry about drawing four lines perfectly to form the edges of the box. Computer graphics_sentence_49

One can simply specify that they want to draw a box, and then specify the location and size of the box. Computer graphics_sentence_50

The software will then construct a perfect box, with the right dimensions and at the right location. Computer graphics_sentence_51

Another example is that Sutherland's software modeled objects – not just a picture of objects. Computer graphics_sentence_52

In other words, with a model of a car, one could change the size of the tires without affecting the rest of the car. Computer graphics_sentence_53

It could stretch the body of car without deforming the tires. Computer graphics_sentence_54

1960s Computer graphics_section_4

The phrase "computer graphics" itself was coined in 1960 by William Fetter, a graphic designer for Boeing. Computer graphics_sentence_55

This old quote in many secondary sources comes complete with the following sentence: Computer graphics_sentence_56

Computer graphics_description_list_1

  • Fetter has said that the terms were actually given to him by Verne Hudson of the Wichita Division of Boeing.Computer graphics_item_1_3

In 1961 another student at MIT, Steve Russell, created another important title in the history of video games, Spacewar!. Computer graphics_sentence_57

Written for the DEC PDP-1, Spacewar! Computer graphics_sentence_58

was an instant success and copies started flowing to other PDP-1 owners and eventually DEC got a copy. Computer graphics_sentence_59

The engineers at DEC used it as a diagnostic program on every new PDP-1 before shipping it. Computer graphics_sentence_60

The sales force picked up on this quickly enough and when installing new units, would run the "world's first video game" for their new customers. Computer graphics_sentence_61

(Higginbotham's Tennis For Two had beaten Spacewar by almost three years; but it was almost unknown outside of a research or academic setting.) Computer graphics_sentence_62

At around the same time (1961-1962) in the University of Cambridge, Elizabeth Waldram wrote code to display radio-astronomy maps on a cathode ray tube. Computer graphics_sentence_63

E. E. Zajac, a scientist at Bell Telephone Laboratory (BTL), created a film called "Simulation of a two-giro gravity attitude control system" in 1963. Computer graphics_sentence_64

In this computer-generated film, Zajac showed how the attitude of a satellite could be altered as it orbits the Earth. Computer graphics_sentence_65

He created the animation on an IBM 7090 mainframe computer. Computer graphics_sentence_66

Also at BTL, Ken Knowlton, Frank Sinden, Ruth A. Weiss and Michael Noll started working in the computer graphics field. Computer graphics_sentence_67

Sinden created a film called illustrating Newton's laws of motion in operation. Computer graphics_sentence_68

Around the same time, other scientists were creating computer graphics to illustrate their research. Computer graphics_sentence_69

At Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Nelson Max created the films Flow of a Viscous Fluid and Propagation of Shock Waves in a Solid Form. Computer graphics_sentence_70

Boeing Aircraft created a film called Vibration of an Aircraft. Computer graphics_sentence_71

Also sometime in the early 1960s, automobiles would also provide a boost through the early work of Pierre Bézier at Renault, who used Paul de Casteljau's curves – now called Bézier curves after Bézier's work in the field – to develop 3d modeling techniques for Renault car bodies. Computer graphics_sentence_72

These curves would form the foundation for much curve-modeling work in the field, as curves – unlike polygons – are mathematically complex entities to draw and model well. Computer graphics_sentence_73

It was not long before major corporations started taking an interest in computer graphics. Computer graphics_sentence_74

TRW, Lockheed-Georgia, General Electric and Sperry Rand are among the many companies that were getting started in computer graphics by the mid-1960s. Computer graphics_sentence_75

IBM was quick to respond to this interest by releasing the IBM 2250 graphics terminal, the first commercially available graphics computer. Computer graphics_sentence_76

Ralph Baer, a supervising engineer at Sanders Associates, came up with a home video game in 1966 that was later licensed to Magnavox and called the Odyssey. Computer graphics_sentence_77

While very simplistic, and requiring fairly inexpensive electronic parts, it allowed the player to move points of light around on a screen. Computer graphics_sentence_78

It was the first consumer computer graphics product. Computer graphics_sentence_79

David C. Evans was director of engineering at Bendix Corporation's computer division from 1953 to 1962, after which he worked for the next five years as a visiting professor at Berkeley. Computer graphics_sentence_80

There he continued his interest in computers and how they interfaced with people. Computer graphics_sentence_81

In 1966, the University of Utah recruited Evans to form a computer science program, and computer graphics quickly became his primary interest. Computer graphics_sentence_82

This new department would become the world's primary research center for computer graphics through the 1970s. Computer graphics_sentence_83

Also in 1966, Ivan Sutherland continued to innovate at MIT when he invented the first computer controlled head-mounted display (HMD). Computer graphics_sentence_84

It displayed two separate wireframe images, one for each eye. Computer graphics_sentence_85

This allowed the viewer to see the computer scene in stereoscopic 3D. Computer graphics_sentence_86

The heavy hardware required for supporting the display and tracker was called the Sword of Damocles because of the potential danger if it were to fall upon the wearer. Computer graphics_sentence_87

After receiving his Ph.D. from MIT, Sutherland became Director of Information Processing at ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency), and later became a professor at Harvard. Computer graphics_sentence_88

In 1967 Sutherland was recruited by Evans to join the computer science program at the University of Utah – a development which would turn that department into one of the most important research centers in graphics for nearly a decade thereafter, eventually producing some of the most important pioneers in the field. Computer graphics_sentence_89

There Sutherland perfected his HMD; twenty years later, NASA would re-discover his techniques in their virtual reality research. Computer graphics_sentence_90

At Utah, Sutherland and Evans were highly sought after consultants by large companies, but they were frustrated at the lack of graphics hardware available at the time so they started formulating a plan to start their own company. Computer graphics_sentence_91

In 1968, Dave Evans and Ivan Sutherland founded the first computer graphics hardware company, Evans & Sutherland. Computer graphics_sentence_92

While Sutherland originally wanted the company to be located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, Salt Lake City was instead chosen due to its proximity to the professors' research group at the University of Utah. Computer graphics_sentence_93

Also in 1968 Arthur Appel described the first ray casting algorithm, the first of a class of ray tracing-based rendering algorithms that have since become fundamental in achieving photorealism in graphics by modeling the paths that rays of light take from a light source, to surfaces in a scene, and into the camera. Computer graphics_sentence_94

In 1969, the ACM initiated A Special Interest Group on Graphics (SIGGRAPH) which organizes conferences, graphics standards, and publications within the field of computer graphics. Computer graphics_sentence_95

By 1973, the first annual SIGGRAPH conference was held, which has become one of the focuses of the organization. Computer graphics_sentence_96

SIGGRAPH has grown in size and importance as the field of computer graphics has expanded over time. Computer graphics_sentence_97

1970s Computer graphics_section_5

An important technological advance that enabled practical computer graphics technology was the emergence of metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) large-scale integration (LSI) technology in the early 1970s. Computer graphics_sentence_98

MOS LSI technology made possible large amounts of computational capability in small MOS integrated circuit chips, which led to the development of the Tektronix 4010 computer graphics terminal in 1972, as well as the microprocessor in 1971. Computer graphics_sentence_99

MOS memory, particularly the dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) chip introduced in 1970, was also capable of holding kilobits of data on a single high-density memory chip, making it possible to hold an entire standard-definition (SD) raster graphics image in a digital frame buffer, which was used by Xerox PARC to develop SuperPaint, the first video-compatible, raster-based computer graphics system, in 1972. Computer graphics_sentence_100

Subsequently, a number of breakthroughs in the field – particularly important early breakthroughs in the transformation of graphics from utilitarian to realistic – occurred at the University of Utah in the 1970s, which had hired Ivan Sutherland. Computer graphics_sentence_101

He was paired with David C. Evans to teach an advanced computer graphics class, which contributed a great deal of founding research to the field and taught several students who would grow to found several of the industry's most important companies – namely Pixar, Silicon Graphics, and Adobe Systems. Computer graphics_sentence_102

Tom Stockham led the image processing group at UU which worked closely with the computer graphics lab. Computer graphics_sentence_103

One of these students was Edwin Catmull. Computer graphics_sentence_104

Catmull had just come from The Boeing Company and had been working on his degree in physics. Computer graphics_sentence_105

Growing up on Disney, Catmull loved animation yet quickly discovered that he did not have the talent for drawing. Computer graphics_sentence_106

Now Catmull (along with many others) saw computers as the natural progression of animation and they wanted to be part of the revolution. Computer graphics_sentence_107

The first computer animation that Catmull saw was his own. Computer graphics_sentence_108

He created an animation of his hand opening and closing. Computer graphics_sentence_109

He also pioneered texture mapping to paint textures on three-dimensional models in 1974, now considered one of the fundamental techniques in 3D modeling. Computer graphics_sentence_110

It became one of his goals to produce a feature-length motion picture using computer graphics – a goal he would achieve two decades later after his founding role in Pixar. Computer graphics_sentence_111

In the same class, Fred Parke created an animation of his wife's face. Computer graphics_sentence_112

The two animations were included in the 1976 feature film Futureworld. Computer graphics_sentence_113

As the UU computer graphics laboratory was attracting people from all over, John Warnock was another of those early pioneers; he later founded Adobe Systems and create a revolution in the publishing world with his PostScript page description language, and Adobe would go on later to create the industry standard photo editing software in Adobe Photoshop and a prominent movie industry special effects program in Adobe After Effects. Computer graphics_sentence_114

James Clark was also there; he later founded Silicon Graphics, a maker of advanced rendering systems that would dominate the field of high-end graphics until the early 1990s. Computer graphics_sentence_115

A major advance in 3D computer graphics was created at UU by these early pioneers – hidden surface determination. Computer graphics_sentence_116

In order to draw a representation of a 3D object on the screen, the computer must determine which surfaces are "behind" the object from the viewer's perspective, and thus should be "hidden" when the computer creates (or renders) the image. Computer graphics_sentence_117

The 3D Core Graphics System (or Core) was the first graphical standard to be developed. Computer graphics_sentence_118

A group of 25 experts of the ACM Special Interest Group SIGGRAPH developed this "conceptual framework". Computer graphics_sentence_119

The specifications were published in 1977, and it became a foundation for many future developments in the field. Computer graphics_sentence_120

Also in the 1970s, Henri Gouraud, Jim Blinn and Bui Tuong Phong contributed to the foundations of shading in CGI via the development of the Gouraud shading and Blinn-Phong shading models, allowing graphics to move beyond a "flat" look to a look more accurately portraying depth. Computer graphics_sentence_121

Jim Blinn also innovated further in 1978 by introducing bump mapping, a technique for simulating uneven surfaces, and the predecessor to many more advanced kinds of mapping used today. Computer graphics_sentence_122

The modern videogame arcade as is known today was birthed in the 1970s, with the first arcade games using real-time 2D sprite graphics. Computer graphics_sentence_123

Pong in 1972 was one of the first hit arcade cabinet games. Computer graphics_sentence_124

Speed Race in 1974 featured sprites moving along a vertically scrolling road. Computer graphics_sentence_125

Gun Fight in 1975 featured human-looking animated characters, while Space Invaders in 1978 featured a large number of animated figures on screen; both used a specialized barrel shifter circuit made from discrete chips to help their Intel 8080 microprocessor animate their framebuffer graphics. Computer graphics_sentence_126

1980s Computer graphics_section_6

The 1980s began to see the modernization and commercialization of computer graphics. Computer graphics_sentence_127

As the home computer proliferated, a subject which had previously been an academics-only discipline was adopted by a much larger audience, and the number of computer graphics developers increased significantly. Computer graphics_sentence_128

In the early 1980s, metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) very-large-scale integration (VLSI) technology led to the availability of 16-bit central processing unit (CPU) microprocessors and the first graphics processing unit (GPU) chips, which began to revolutionize computer graphics, enabling high-resolution graphics for computer graphics terminals as well as personal computer (PC) systems. Computer graphics_sentence_129

NEC's µPD7220 was the first GPU, fabricated on a fully integrated NMOS VLSI chip. Computer graphics_sentence_130

It supported up to 1024x1024 resolution, and laid the foundations for the emerging PC graphics market. Computer graphics_sentence_131

It was used in a number of graphics cards, and was licensed for clones such as the Intel 82720, the first of Intel's graphics processing units. Computer graphics_sentence_132

MOS memory also became cheaper in the early 1980s, enabling the development of affordable framebuffer memory, notably video RAM (VRAM) introduced by Texas Instruments (TI) in the mid-1980s. Computer graphics_sentence_133

In 1984, Hitachi released the ARTC HD63484, the first complementary MOS (CMOS) GPU. Computer graphics_sentence_134

It was capable of displaying high-resolution in color mode and up to 4K resolution in monochrome mode, and it was used in a number of graphics cards and terminals during the late 1980s. Computer graphics_sentence_135

In 1986, TI introduced the TMS34010, the first fully programmable MOS graphics processor. Computer graphics_sentence_136

Computer graphics terminals during this decade became increasingly intelligent, semi-standalone and standalone workstations. Computer graphics_sentence_137

Graphics and application processing were increasingly migrated to the intelligence in the workstation, rather than continuing to rely on central mainframe and mini-computers. Computer graphics_sentence_138

Typical of the early move to high-resolution computer graphics intelligent workstations for the computer-aided engineering market were the Orca 1000, 2000 and 3000 workstations, developed by Orcatech of Ottawa, a spin-off from Bell-Northern Research, and led by David Pearson, an early workstation pioneer. Computer graphics_sentence_139

The Orca 3000 was based on the 16-bit Motorola 68000 microprocessor and AMD bit-slice processors, and had Unix as its operating system. Computer graphics_sentence_140

It was targeted squarely at the sophisticated end of the design engineering sector. Computer graphics_sentence_141

Artists and graphic designers began to see the personal computer, particularly the Commodore Amiga and Macintosh, as a serious design tool, one that could save time and draw more accurately than other methods. Computer graphics_sentence_142

The Macintosh remains a highly popular tool for computer graphics among graphic design studios and businesses. Computer graphics_sentence_143

Modern computers, dating from the 1980s, often use graphical user interfaces (GUI) to present data and information with symbols, icons and pictures, rather than text. Computer graphics_sentence_144

Graphics are one of the five key elements of multimedia technology. Computer graphics_sentence_145

In the field of realistic rendering, Japan's Osaka University developed the LINKS-1 Computer Graphics System, a supercomputer that used up to 257 Zilog Z8001 microprocessors, in 1982, for the purpose of rendering realistic 3D computer graphics. Computer graphics_sentence_146

According to the Information Processing Society of Japan: "The core of 3D image rendering is calculating the luminance of each pixel making up a rendered surface from the given viewpoint, light source, and object position. Computer graphics_sentence_147

The LINKS-1 system was developed to realize an image rendering methodology in which each pixel could be parallel processed independently using ray tracing. Computer graphics_sentence_148

By developing a new software methodology specifically for high-speed image rendering, LINKS-1 was able to rapidly render highly realistic images. Computer graphics_sentence_149

It was used to create the world's first 3D planetarium-like video of the entire heavens that was made completely with computer graphics. Computer graphics_sentence_150

The video was presented at the Fujitsu pavilion at the 1985 International Exposition in Tsukuba." Computer graphics_sentence_151

The LINKS-1 was the world's most powerful computer, as of 1984. Computer graphics_sentence_152

Also in the field of realistic rendering, the general rendering equation of David Immel and James Kajiya was developed in 1986 – an important step towards implementing global illumination, which is necessary to pursue photorealism in computer graphics. Computer graphics_sentence_153

The continuing popularity of Star Wars and other science fiction franchises were relevant in cinematic CGI at this time, as Lucasfilm and Industrial Light & Magic became known as the "go-to" house by many other studios for topnotch computer graphics in film. Computer graphics_sentence_154

Important advances in chroma keying ("bluescreening", etc.) were made for the later films of the original trilogy. Computer graphics_sentence_155

Two other pieces of video would also outlast the era as historically relevant: Dire Straits' iconic, near-fully-CGI video for their song "Money for Nothing" in 1985, which popularized CGI among music fans of that era, and a scene from Young Sherlock Holmes the same year featuring the first fully CGI character in a feature movie (an animated stained-glass knight). Computer graphics_sentence_156

In 1988, the first shaders – small programs designed specifically to do shading as a separate algorithm – were developed by Pixar, which had already spun off from Industrial Light & Magic as a separate entity – though the public would not see the results of such technological progress until the next decade. Computer graphics_sentence_157

In the late 1980s, Silicon Graphics (SGI) computers were used to create some of the first fully computer-generated short films at Pixar, and Silicon Graphics machines were considered a high-water mark for the field during the decade. Computer graphics_sentence_158

The 1980s is also called the golden era of videogames; millions-selling systems from Atari, Nintendo and Sega, among other companies, exposed computer graphics for the first time to a new, young, and impressionable audience – as did MS-DOS-based personal computers, Apple IIs, Macs, and Amigas, all of which also allowed users to program their own games if skilled enough. Computer graphics_sentence_159

For the arcades, advances were made in commercial, real-time 3D graphics. Computer graphics_sentence_160

In 1988, the first dedicated real-time 3D graphics boards were introduced for arcades, with the Namco System 21 and Taito Air System. Computer graphics_sentence_161

On the professional side, Evans & Sutherland and SGI developed 3D raster graphics hardware that directly influenced the later single-chip graphics processing unit (GPU), a technology where a separate and very powerful chip is used in parallel processing with a CPU to optimize graphics. Computer graphics_sentence_162

The decade also saw computer graphics applied to many additional professional markets, including location-based entertainment and education with the E&S Digistar, vehicle design, vehicle simulation, and chemistry. Computer graphics_sentence_163

1990s Computer graphics_section_7

2000s Computer graphics_section_8

CGI became ubiquitous in earnest during this era. Computer graphics_sentence_164

Video games and CGI cinema had spread the reach of computer graphics to the mainstream by the late 1990s and continued to do so at an accelerated pace in the 2000s. Computer graphics_sentence_165

CGI was also adopted en masse for television advertisements widely in the late 1990s and 2000s, and so became familiar to a massive audience. Computer graphics_sentence_166

The continued rise and increasing sophistication of the graphics processing unit were crucial to this decade, and 3D rendering capabilities became a standard feature as 3D-graphics GPUs became considered a necessity for desktop computer makers to offer. Computer graphics_sentence_167

The Nvidia GeForce line of graphics cards dominated the market in the early decade with occasional significant competing presence from ATI. Computer graphics_sentence_168

As the decade progressed, even low-end machines usually contained a 3D-capable GPU of some kind as Nvidia and AMD both introduced low-priced chipsets and continued to dominate the market. Computer graphics_sentence_169

Shaders which had been introduced in the 1980s to perform specialized processing on the GPU would by the end of the decade become supported on most consumer hardware, speeding up graphics considerably and allowing for greatly improved texture and shading in computer graphics via the widespread adoption of normal mapping, bump mapping, and a variety of other techniques allowing the simulation of a great amount of detail. Computer graphics_sentence_170

Computer graphics used in films and video games gradually began to be realistic to the point of entering the uncanny valley. Computer graphics_sentence_171

CGI movies proliferated, with traditional animated cartoon films like Ice Age and Madagascar as well as numerous Pixar offerings like Finding Nemo dominating the box office in this field. Computer graphics_sentence_172

The Final Fantasy: The Spirits Within, released in 2001, was the first fully computer-generated feature film to use photorealistic CGI characters and be fully made with motion capture. Computer graphics_sentence_173

The film was not a box-office success, however. Computer graphics_sentence_174

Some commentators have suggested this may be partly because the lead CGI characters had facial features which fell into the "uncanny valley". Computer graphics_sentence_175

Other animated films like The Polar Express drew attention at this time as well. Computer graphics_sentence_176

Star Wars also resurfaced with its prequel trilogy and the effects continued to set a bar for CGI in film. Computer graphics_sentence_177

In videogames, the Sony PlayStation 2 and 3, the Microsoft Xbox line of consoles, and offerings from Nintendo such as the GameCube maintained a large following, as did the Windows PC. Computer graphics_sentence_178

Marquee CGI-heavy titles like the series of Grand Theft Auto, Assassin's Creed, Final Fantasy, BioShock, Kingdom Hearts, Mirror's Edge and dozens of others continued to approach photorealism, grow the video game industry and impress, until that industry's revenues became comparable to those of movies. Computer graphics_sentence_179

Microsoft made a decision to expose DirectX more easily to the independent developer world with the XNA program, but it was not a success. Computer graphics_sentence_180

DirectX itself remained a commercial success, however. Computer graphics_sentence_181

OpenGL continued to mature as well, and it and DirectX improved greatly; the second-generation shader languages HLSL and GLSL began to be popular in this decade. Computer graphics_sentence_182

In scientific computing, the GPGPU technique to pass large amounts of data bidirectionally between a GPU and CPU was invented; speeding up analysis on many kinds of bioinformatics and molecular biology experiments. Computer graphics_sentence_183

The technique has also been used for Bitcoin mining and has applications in computer vision. Computer graphics_sentence_184

2010s Computer graphics_section_9

In the 2010s, CGI has been nearly ubiquitous in video, pre-rendered graphics are nearly scientifically photorealistic, and real-time graphics on a suitably high-end system may simulate photorealism to the untrained eye. Computer graphics_sentence_185

Texture mapping has matured into a multistage process with many layers; generally, it is not uncommon to implement texture mapping, bump mapping or isosurfaces or normal mapping, lighting maps including specular highlights and reflection techniques, and shadow volumes into one rendering engine using shaders, which are maturing considerably. Computer graphics_sentence_186

Shaders are now very nearly a necessity for advanced work in the field, providing considerable complexity in manipulating pixels, vertices, and textures on a per-element basis, and countless possible effects. Computer graphics_sentence_187

Their shader languages HLSL and GLSL are active fields of research and development. Computer graphics_sentence_188

Physically based rendering or PBR, which implements many maps and performs advanced calculation to simulate real optic light flow, is an active research area as well, along with advanced areas like ambient occlusion, subsurface scattering, Rayleigh scattering, photon mapping, and many others. Computer graphics_sentence_189

Experiments into the processing power required to provide graphics in real time at ultra-high-resolution modes like 4K Ultra HD are beginning, though beyond reach of all but the highest-end hardware. Computer graphics_sentence_190

In cinema, most animated movies are CGI now; a great many animated CGI films are made per year, but few, if any, attempt photorealism due to continuing fears of the uncanny valley. Computer graphics_sentence_191

Most are 3D cartoons. Computer graphics_sentence_192

In videogames, the Microsoft Xbox One, Sony PlayStation 4, and Nintendo Switch currently dominate the home space and are all capable of highly advanced 3D graphics; the Windows PC is still one of the most active gaming platforms as well. Computer graphics_sentence_193

Image types Computer graphics_section_10

Two-dimensional Computer graphics_section_11

Main article: 2D computer graphics Computer graphics_sentence_194

See also: Video display controller Computer graphics_sentence_195

2D computer graphics are the computer-based generation of digital images—mostly from models, such as digital image, and by techniques specific to them. Computer graphics_sentence_196

2D computer graphics are mainly used in applications that were originally developed upon traditional printing and drawing technologies such as typography. Computer graphics_sentence_197

In those applications, the two-dimensional image is not just a representation of a real-world object, but an independent artifact with added semantic value; two-dimensional models are therefore preferred because they give more direct control of the image than 3D computer graphics, whose approach is more akin to photography than to typography. Computer graphics_sentence_198

Pixel art Computer graphics_section_12

See also: Pixel art Computer graphics_sentence_199

A large form of digital art, pixel art is created through the use of raster graphics software, where images are edited on the pixel level. Computer graphics_sentence_200

Graphics in most old (or relatively limited) computer and video games, graphing calculator games, and many mobile phone games are mostly pixel art. Computer graphics_sentence_201

Sprite graphics Computer graphics_section_13

See also: Sprite (computer graphics) Computer graphics_sentence_202

A sprite is a two-dimensional image or animation that is integrated into a larger scene. Computer graphics_sentence_203

Initially including just graphical objects handled separately from the memory bitmap of a video display, this now includes various manners of graphical overlays. Computer graphics_sentence_204

Originally, sprites were a method of integrating unrelated bitmaps so that they appeared to be part of the normal bitmap on a screen, such as creating an animated character that can be moved on a screen without altering the data defining the overall screen. Computer graphics_sentence_205

Such sprites can be created by either electronic circuitry or software. Computer graphics_sentence_206

In circuitry, a hardware sprite is a hardware construct that employs custom DMA channels to integrate visual elements with the main screen in that it super-imposes two discrete video sources. Computer graphics_sentence_207

Software can simulate this through specialized rendering methods. Computer graphics_sentence_208

Vector graphics Computer graphics_section_14

See also: Vector graphics Computer graphics_sentence_209

Vector graphics formats are complementary to raster graphics. Computer graphics_sentence_210

Raster graphics is the representation of images as an array of pixels and is typically used for the representation of photographic images. Computer graphics_sentence_211

Vector graphics consists in encoding information about shapes and colors that comprise the image, which can allow for more flexibility in rendering. Computer graphics_sentence_212

There are instances when working with vector tools and formats is best practice, and instances when working with raster tools and formats is best practice. Computer graphics_sentence_213

There are times when both formats come together. Computer graphics_sentence_214

An understanding of the advantages and limitations of each technology and the relationship between them is most likely to result in efficient and effective use of tools. Computer graphics_sentence_215

Three-dimensional Computer graphics_section_15

Main article: 3D computer graphics Computer graphics_sentence_216

See also: Graphics processing unit Computer graphics_sentence_217

3D graphics, compared to 2D graphics, are graphics that use a three-dimensional representation of geometric data. Computer graphics_sentence_218

For the purpose of performance, this is stored in the computer. Computer graphics_sentence_219

This includes images that may be for later display or for real-time viewing. Computer graphics_sentence_220

Despite these differences, 3D computer graphics rely on similar algorithms as 2D computer graphics do in the frame and raster graphics (like in 2D) in the final rendered display. Computer graphics_sentence_221

In computer graphics software, the distinction between 2D and 3D is occasionally blurred; 2D applications may use 3D techniques to achieve effects such as lighting, and primarily 3D may use 2D rendering techniques. Computer graphics_sentence_222

3D computer graphics are the same as 3D models. Computer graphics_sentence_223

The model is contained within the graphical data file, apart from the rendering. Computer graphics_sentence_224

However, there are differences that include the 3D model is the representation of any 3D object. Computer graphics_sentence_225

Until visually displayed a model is not graphic. Computer graphics_sentence_226

Due to printing, 3D models are not only confined to virtual space. Computer graphics_sentence_227

3D rendering is how a model can be displayed. Computer graphics_sentence_228

Also can be used in non-graphical computer simulations and calculations. Computer graphics_sentence_229

Computer animation Computer graphics_section_16

See also: Computer animation Computer graphics_sentence_230

Computer animation is the art of creating moving images via the use of computers. Computer graphics_sentence_231

It is a subfield of computer graphics and animation. Computer graphics_sentence_232

Increasingly it is created by means of 3D computer graphics, though 2D computer graphics are still widely used for stylistic, low bandwidth, and faster real-time rendering needs. Computer graphics_sentence_233

Sometimes the target of the animation is the computer itself, but sometimes the target is another medium, such as film. Computer graphics_sentence_234

It is also referred to as CGI (Computer-generated imagery or computer-generated imaging), especially when used in films. Computer graphics_sentence_235

Virtual entities may contain and be controlled by assorted attributes, such as transform values (location, orientation, and scale) stored in an object's transformation matrix. Computer graphics_sentence_236

Animation is the change of an attribute over time. Computer graphics_sentence_237

Multiple methods of achieving animation exist; the rudimentary form is based on the creation and editing of keyframes, each storing a value at a given time, per attribute to be animated. Computer graphics_sentence_238

The 2D/3D graphics software will change with each keyframe, creating an editable curve of a value mapped over time, in which results in animation. Computer graphics_sentence_239

Other methods of animation include procedural and expression-based techniques: the former consolidates related elements of animated entities into sets of attributes, useful for creating particle effects and crowd simulations; the latter allows an evaluated result returned from a user-defined logical expression, coupled with mathematics, to automate animation in a predictable way (convenient for controlling bone behavior beyond what a hierarchy offers in skeletal system set up). Computer graphics_sentence_240

To create the illusion of movement, an image is displayed on the computer screen then quickly replaced by a new image that is similar to the previous image, but shifted slightly. Computer graphics_sentence_241

This technique is identical to the illusion of movement in television and motion pictures. Computer graphics_sentence_242

Concepts and principles Computer graphics_section_17

Images are typically created by devices such as cameras, mirrors, lenses, telescopes, microscopes, etc. Computer graphics_sentence_243

Digital images include both vector images and raster images, but raster images are more commonly used. Computer graphics_sentence_244

Pixel Computer graphics_section_18

In digital imaging, a pixel (or picture element) is a single point in a raster image. Computer graphics_sentence_245

Pixels are placed on a regular 2-dimensional grid, and are often represented using dots or squares. Computer graphics_sentence_246

Each pixel is a sample of an original image, where more samples typically provide a more accurate representation of the original. Computer graphics_sentence_247

The intensity of each pixel is variable; in color systems, each pixel has typically three components such as red, green, and blue. Computer graphics_sentence_248

Graphics are visual presentations on a surface, such as a computer screen. Computer graphics_sentence_249

Examples are photographs, drawing, graphics designs, maps, engineering drawings, or other images. Computer graphics_sentence_250

Graphics often combine text and illustration. Computer graphics_sentence_251

Graphic design may consist of the deliberate selection, creation, or arrangement of typography alone, as in a brochure, flier, poster, web site, or book without any other element. Computer graphics_sentence_252

Clarity or effective communication may be the objective, association with other cultural elements may be sought, or merely, the creation of a distinctive style. Computer graphics_sentence_253

Primitives Computer graphics_section_19

Primitives are basic units which a graphics system may combine to create more complex images or models. Computer graphics_sentence_254

Examples would be sprites and character maps in 2D video games, geometric primitives in CAD, or polygons or triangles in 3D rendering. Computer graphics_sentence_255

Primitives may be supported in hardware for efficient rendering, or the building blocks provided by a graphics application. Computer graphics_sentence_256

Rendering Computer graphics_section_20

Rendering is the generation of a 2D image from a 3D model by means of computer programs. Computer graphics_sentence_257

A scene file contains objects in a strictly defined language or data structure; it would contain geometry, viewpoint, texture, lighting, and shading information as a description of the virtual scene. Computer graphics_sentence_258

The data contained in the scene file is then passed to a rendering program to be processed and output to a digital image or raster graphics image file. Computer graphics_sentence_259

The rendering program is usually built into the computer graphics software, though others are available as plug-ins or entirely separate programs. Computer graphics_sentence_260

The term "rendering" may be by analogy with an "artist's rendering" of a scene. Computer graphics_sentence_261

Although the technical details of rendering methods vary, the general challenges to overcome in producing a 2D image from a 3D representation stored in a scene file are outlined as the graphics pipeline along a rendering device, such as a GPU. Computer graphics_sentence_262

A GPU is a device able to assist the CPU in calculations. Computer graphics_sentence_263

If a scene is to look relatively realistic and predictable under virtual lighting, the rendering software should solve the rendering equation. Computer graphics_sentence_264

The rendering equation does not account for all lighting phenomena, but is a general lighting model for computer-generated imagery. Computer graphics_sentence_265

'Rendering' is also used to describe the process of calculating effects in a video editing file to produce final video output. Computer graphics_sentence_266

Computer graphics_description_list_2

  • 3D projection: 3D projection is a method of mapping three dimensional points to a two dimensional plane. As most current methods for displaying graphical data are based on planar two dimensional media, the use of this type of projection is widespread. This method is used in most real-time 3D applications and typically uses rasterization to produce the final image.Computer graphics_item_2_4

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  • Shading refers to depth in 3D models or illustrations by varying levels of darkness. It is a process used in drawing for depicting levels of darkness on paper by applying media more densely or with a darker shade for darker areas, and less densely or with a lighter shade for lighter areas. There are various techniques of shading including cross hatching where perpendicular lines of varying closeness are drawn in a grid pattern to shade an area. The closer the lines are together, the darker the area appears. Likewise, the farther apart the lines are, the lighter the area appears. The term has been recently generalized to mean that shaders are applied.Computer graphics_item_5_6

Computer graphics_description_list_6

  • Texture mapping: Texture mapping is a method for adding detail, surface texture, or colour to a computer-generated graphic or 3D model. Its application to 3D graphics was pioneered by Dr Edwin Catmull in 1974. A texture map is applied (mapped) to the surface of a shape, or polygon. This process is akin to applying patterned paper to a plain white box. Multitexturing is the use of more than one texture at a time on a polygon. Procedural textures (created from adjusting parameters of an underlying algorithm that produces an output texture), and bitmap textures (created in an image editing application or imported from a digital camera) are, generally speaking, common methods of implementing texture definition on 3D models in computer graphics software, while intended placement of textures onto a model's surface often requires a technique known as UV mapping (arbitrary, manual layout of texture coordinates) for polygon surfaces, while non-uniform rational B-spline (NURB) surfaces have their own intrinsic parameterization used as texture coordinates. Texture mapping as a discipline also encompasses techniques for creating normal maps and bump maps that correspond to a texture to simulate height and specular maps to help simulate shine and light reflections, as well as environment mapping to simulate mirror-like reflectivity, also called gloss.Computer graphics_item_6_7

Computer graphics_description_list_7

  • Anti-aliasing: Rendering resolution-independent entities (such as 3D models) for viewing on a raster (pixel-based) device such as a liquid-crystal display or CRT television inevitably causes aliasing artifacts mostly along geometric edges and the boundaries of texture details; these artifacts are informally called "jaggies". Anti-aliasing methods rectify such problems, resulting in imagery more pleasing to the viewer, but can be somewhat computationally expensive. Various anti-aliasing algorithms (such as supersampling) are able to be employed, then customized for the most efficient rendering performance versus quality of the resultant imagery; a graphics artist should consider this trade-off if anti-aliasing methods are to be used. A pre-anti-aliased bitmap texture being displayed on a screen (or screen location) at a resolution different than the resolution of the texture itself (such as a textured model in the distance from the virtual camera) will exhibit aliasing artifacts, while any procedurally defined texture will always show aliasing artifacts as they are resolution-independent; techniques such as mipmapping and texture filtering help to solve texture-related aliasing problems.Computer graphics_item_7_8

Volume rendering Computer graphics_section_21

Volume rendering is a technique used to display a 2D projection of a 3D discretely sampled data set. Computer graphics_sentence_267

A typical 3D data set is a group of 2D slice images acquired by a CT or MRI scanner. Computer graphics_sentence_268

Usually these are acquired in a regular pattern (e.g., one slice every millimeter) and usually have a regular number of image pixels in a regular pattern. Computer graphics_sentence_269

This is an example of a regular volumetric grid, with each volume element, or voxel represented by a single value that is obtained by sampling the immediate area surrounding the voxel. Computer graphics_sentence_270

3D modeling Computer graphics_section_22

Main article: 3D modeling Computer graphics_sentence_271

3D modeling is the process of developing a mathematical, wireframe representation of any three-dimensional object, called a "3D model", via specialized software. Computer graphics_sentence_272

Models may be created automatically or manually; the manual modeling process of preparing geometric data for 3D computer graphics is similar to plastic arts such as sculpting. Computer graphics_sentence_273

3D models may be created using multiple approaches: use of NURBs to generate accurate and smooth surface patches, polygonal mesh modeling (manipulation of faceted geometry), or polygonal mesh subdivision (advanced tessellation of polygons, resulting in smooth surfaces similar to NURB models). Computer graphics_sentence_274

A 3D model can be displayed as a two-dimensional image through a process called 3D rendering, used in a computer simulation of physical phenomena, or animated directly for other purposes. Computer graphics_sentence_275

The model can also be physically created using 3D Printing devices. Computer graphics_sentence_276

Pioneers in computer graphics Computer graphics_section_23

Computer graphics_description_list_8

Computer graphics_description_list_9

  • Donald P. Greenberg: Donald P. Greenberg is a leading innovator in computer graphics. Greenberg has authored hundreds of articles and served as a teacher and mentor to many prominent computer graphic artists, animators, and researchers such as Robert L. Cook, Marc Levoy, Brian A. Barsky, and Wayne Lytle. Many of his former students have won Academy Awards for technical achievements and several have won the SIGGRAPH Achievement Award. Greenberg was the founding director of the NSF Center for Computer Graphics and Scientific Visualization.Computer graphics_item_9_10

Computer graphics_description_list_10

  • A. Michael Noll: Noll was one of the first researchers to use a digital computer to create artistic patterns and to formalize the use of random processes in the creation of visual arts. He began creating digital art in 1962, making him one of the earliest digital artists. In 1965, Noll along with Frieder Nake and Georg Nees were the first to publicly exhibit their computer art. During April 1965, the Howard Wise Gallery exhibited Noll's computer art along with random-dot patterns by Bela Julesz.Computer graphics_item_10_11

Other pioneers Computer graphics_section_24

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Organizations Computer graphics_section_25

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Study of computer graphics Computer graphics_section_26

Main article: Computer graphics (computer science) Computer graphics_sentence_277

The study of computer graphics is a sub-field of computer science which studies methods for digitally synthesizing and manipulating visual content. Computer graphics_sentence_278

Although the term often refers to three-dimensional computer graphics, it also encompasses two-dimensional graphics and image processing. Computer graphics_sentence_279

As an academic discipline, computer graphics studies the manipulation of visual and geometric information using computational techniques. Computer graphics_sentence_280

It focuses on the mathematical and computational foundations of image generation and processing rather than purely aesthetic issues. Computer graphics_sentence_281

Computer graphics is often differentiated from the field of visualization, although the two fields have many similarities. Computer graphics_sentence_282

Applications Computer graphics_section_27

Computer graphics may be used in the following areas: Computer graphics_sentence_283

Computer graphics_unordered_list_13

See also Computer graphics_section_28

Computer graphics_unordered_list_14


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer graphics.