Computer science

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"Computer sciences" redirects here. Computer science_sentence_0

For the American corporation, see Computer Sciences Corporation. Computer science_sentence_1

Computer science is the study of algorithmic processes and computational machines. Computer science_sentence_2

As a discipline, computer science spans a range of topics from theoretical studies of algorithms, computation and information to the practical issues of implementing computing systems in hardware and software. Computer science_sentence_3

Computer science addresses any computational problems, especially information processes, such as control, communication, perception, learning, and intelligence. Computer science_sentence_4

Its fields can be divided into theoretical and practical disciplines. Computer science_sentence_5

For example, the theory of computation concerns abstract models of computation and general classes of problems that can be solved using them, while computer graphics and computational geometry emphasize more specific applications. Computer science_sentence_6

Algorithmics have been called the heart of computer science. Computer science_sentence_7

Programming language theory considers approaches to the description of computational processes, while computer programming involves the use of them to create complex systems. Computer science_sentence_8

Computer architecture describes construction of computer components and computer-controlled equipment. Computer science_sentence_9

Artificial intelligence aims to synthesize goal-orientated processes such as problem-solving, decision-making, environmental adaptation, planning and learning found in humans and animals. Computer science_sentence_10

The fundamental concern of computer science is determining what can and cannot be automated. Computer science_sentence_11

Unlike other computing paradigms, computer scientists are focused on academic research. Computer science_sentence_12

History Computer science_section_0

Main article: History of computer science Computer science_sentence_13

The earliest foundations of what would become computer science predate the invention of the modern digital computer. Computer science_sentence_14

Machines for calculating fixed numerical tasks such as the abacus have existed since antiquity, aiding in computations such as multiplication and division. Computer science_sentence_15

Algorithms for performing computations have existed since antiquity, even before the development of sophisticated computing equipment. Computer science_sentence_16

Wilhelm Schickard designed and constructed the first working mechanical calculator in 1623. Computer science_sentence_17

In 1673, Gottfried Leibniz demonstrated a digital mechanical calculator, called the Stepped Reckoner. Computer science_sentence_18

Leibniz may be considered the first computer scientist and information theorist, for, among other reasons, documenting the binary number system. Computer science_sentence_19

In 1820, Thomas de Colmar launched the mechanical calculator industry when he invented his simplified arithmometer, the first calculating machine strong enough and reliable enough to be used daily in an office environment. Computer science_sentence_20

Charles Babbage started the design of the first automatic mechanical calculator, his Difference Engine, in 1822, which eventually gave him the idea of the first programmable mechanical calculator, his Analytical Engine. Computer science_sentence_21

He started developing this machine in 1834, and "in less than two years, he had sketched out many of the features of the modern computer". Computer science_sentence_22

"A crucial step was the adoption of a punched card system derived from the Jacquard loom" making it infinitely programmable. Computer science_sentence_23

In 1843, during the translation of a French article on the Analytical Engine, Ada Lovelace wrote, in one of the many notes she included, an algorithm to compute the Bernoulli numbers, which is considered to be the first published algorithm ever specifically tailored for implementation on a computer. Computer science_sentence_24

Around 1885, Herman Hollerith invented the tabulator, which used punched cards to process statistical information; eventually his company became part of IBM. Computer science_sentence_25

Following Babbage, although unaware of his earlier work, Percy Ludgate in 1909 published the 2nd of the only two designs for mechanical analytical engines in history. Computer science_sentence_26

In 1937, one hundred years after Babbage's impossible dream, Howard Aiken convinced IBM, which was making all kinds of punched card equipment and was also in the calculator business to develop his giant programmable calculator, the ASCC/Harvard Mark I, based on Babbage's Analytical Engine, which itself used cards and a central computing unit. Computer science_sentence_27

When the machine was finished, some hailed it as "Babbage's dream come true". Computer science_sentence_28

During the 1940s, with the development of new and more powerful computing machines such as the Atanasoff–Berry computer and ENIAC, the term computer came to refer to the machines rather than their human predecessors. Computer science_sentence_29

As it became clear that computers could be used for more than just mathematical calculations, the field of computer science broadened to study computation in general. Computer science_sentence_30

In 1945, IBM founded the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University in New York City. Computer science_sentence_31

The renovated fraternity house on Manhattan's West Side was IBM's first laboratory devoted to pure science. Computer science_sentence_32

The lab is the forerunner of IBM's Research Division, which today operates research facilities around the world. Computer science_sentence_33

Ultimately, the close relationship between IBM and the university was instrumental in the emergence of a new scientific discipline, with Columbia offering one of the first academic-credit courses in computer science in 1946. Computer science_sentence_34

Computer science began to be established as a distinct academic discipline in the 1950s and early 1960s. Computer science_sentence_35

The world's first computer science degree program, the Cambridge Diploma in Computer Science, began at the University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory in 1953. Computer science_sentence_36

The first computer science department in the United States was formed at Purdue University in 1962. Computer science_sentence_37

Since practical computers became available, many applications of computing have become distinct areas of study in their own rights. Computer science_sentence_38

Although many initially believed it was impossible that computers themselves could actually be a scientific field of study, in the late fifties it gradually became accepted among the greater academic population. Computer science_sentence_39

It is the now well-known IBM brand that formed part of the computer science revolution during this time. Computer science_sentence_40

IBM (short for International Business Machines) released the IBM 704 and later the IBM 709 computers, which were widely used during the exploration period of such devices. Computer science_sentence_41

"Still, working with the IBM [computer] was frustrating […] if you had misplaced as much as one letter in one instruction, the program would crash, and you would have to start the whole process over again". Computer science_sentence_42

During the late 1950s, the computer science discipline was very much in its developmental stages, and such issues were commonplace. Computer science_sentence_43

The concept of a field-effect transistor was proposed by Julius Edgar Lilienfeld in 1925. Computer science_sentence_44

John Bardeen and Walter Brattain, while working under William Shockley at Bell Labs, built the first working transistor, the point-contact transistor, in 1947. Computer science_sentence_45

In 1953, the University of Manchester built the first transistorized computer, called the Transistor Computer. Computer science_sentence_46

However, early junction transistors were relatively bulky devices that were difficult to manufacture on a mass-production basis, which limited them to a number of specialised applications. Computer science_sentence_47

The metal–oxide–silicon field-effect transistor (MOSFET, or MOS transistor) was invented by Mohamed Atalla and Dawon Kahng at Bell Labs in 1959. Computer science_sentence_48

It was the first truly compact transistor that could be miniaturised and mass-produced for a wide range of uses. Computer science_sentence_49

The MOSFET made it possible to build high-density integrated circuit chips, leading to what is known as the computer revolution or microcomputer revolution. Computer science_sentence_50

Time has seen significant improvements in the usability and effectiveness of computing technology. Computer science_sentence_51

Modern society has seen a significant shift in the demographics which make use of computer technology; usage has shifted from being mostly exclusive to experts and professionals, to a near-ubiquitous user base. Computer science_sentence_52

Initially, computers were quite costly, and some degree of humanitarian aid was needed for efficient use—in part from professional computer operators. Computer science_sentence_53

As computer adoption became more widespread and affordable, less human assistance was needed for common usage. Computer science_sentence_54

See also: History of computing and History of informatics Computer science_sentence_55

Etymology Computer science_section_1

See also: Informatics § Etymology Computer science_sentence_56

Although first proposed in 1956, the term "computer science" appears in a 1959 article in Communications of the ACM, in which Louis Fein argues for the creation of a Graduate School in Computer Sciences analogous to the creation of Harvard Business School in 1921, justifying the name by arguing that, like management science, the subject is applied and interdisciplinary in nature, while having the characteristics typical of an academic discipline. Computer science_sentence_57

His efforts, and those of others such as numerical analyst George Forsythe, were rewarded: universities went on to create such departments, starting with Purdue in 1962. Computer science_sentence_58

Despite its name, a significant amount of computer science does not involve the study of computers themselves. Computer science_sentence_59

Because of this, several alternative names have been proposed. Computer science_sentence_60

Certain departments of major universities prefer the term computing science, to emphasize precisely that difference. Computer science_sentence_61

Danish scientist Peter Naur suggested the term datalogy, to reflect the fact that the scientific discipline revolves around data and data treatment, while not necessarily involving computers. Computer science_sentence_62

The first scientific institution to use the term was the Department of Datalogy at the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1969, with Peter Naur being the first professor in datalogy. Computer science_sentence_63

The term is used mainly in the Scandinavian countries. Computer science_sentence_64

An alternative term, also proposed by Naur, is data science; this is now used for a multi-disciplinary field of data analysis, including statistics and databases. Computer science_sentence_65

In the early days of computing, a number of terms for the practitioners of the field of computing were suggested in the Communications of the ACM—turingineer, turologist, flow-charts-man, applied meta-mathematician, and applied epistemologist. Computer science_sentence_66

Three months later in the same journal, comptologist was suggested, followed next year by hypologist. Computer science_sentence_67

The term computics has also been suggested. Computer science_sentence_68

In Europe, terms derived from contracted translations of the expression "automatic information" (e.g. "informazione automatica" in Italian) or "information and mathematics" are often used, e.g. informatique (French), Informatik (German), informatica (Italian, Dutch), informática (Spanish, Portuguese), informatika (Slavic languages and Hungarian) or pliroforiki (πληροφορική, which means informatics) in Greek. Computer science_sentence_69

Similar words have also been adopted in the UK (as in the School of Informatics of the University of Edinburgh). Computer science_sentence_70

"In the U.S., however, informatics is linked with applied computing, or computing in the context of another domain." Computer science_sentence_71

A folkloric quotation, often attributed to—but almost certainly not first formulated by—Edsger Dijkstra, states that "computer science is no more about computers than astronomy is about telescopes." Computer science_sentence_72

The design and deployment of computers and computer systems is generally considered the province of disciplines other than computer science. Computer science_sentence_73

For example, the study of computer hardware is usually considered part of computer engineering, while the study of commercial computer systems and their deployment is often called information technology or information systems. Computer science_sentence_74

However, there has been much cross-fertilization of ideas between the various computer-related disciplines. Computer science_sentence_75

Computer science research also often intersects other disciplines, such as philosophy, cognitive science, linguistics, mathematics, physics, biology, Earth science, statistics, and logic. Computer science_sentence_76

Computer science is considered by some to have a much closer relationship with mathematics than many scientific disciplines, with some observers saying that computing is a mathematical science. Computer science_sentence_77

Early computer science was strongly influenced by the work of mathematicians such as Kurt Gödel, Alan Turing, John von Neumann, Rózsa Péter and Alonzo Church and there continues to be a useful interchange of ideas between the two fields in areas such as mathematical logic, category theory, domain theory, and algebra. Computer science_sentence_78

The relationship between Computer Science and Software Engineering is a contentious issue, which is further muddied by disputes over what the term "Software Engineering" means, and how computer science is defined. Computer science_sentence_79

David Parnas, taking a cue from the relationship between other engineering and science disciplines, has claimed that the principal focus of computer science is studying the properties of computation in general, while the principal focus of software engineering is the design of specific computations to achieve practical goals, making the two separate but complementary disciplines. Computer science_sentence_80

The academic, political, and funding aspects of computer science tend to depend on whether a department is formed with a mathematical emphasis or with an engineering emphasis. Computer science_sentence_81

Computer science departments with a mathematics emphasis and with a numerical orientation consider alignment with computational science. Computer science_sentence_82

Both types of departments tend to make efforts to bridge the field educationally if not across all research. Computer science_sentence_83

Philosophy Computer science_section_2

Main article: Philosophy of computer science Computer science_sentence_84

A number of computer scientists have argued for the distinction of three separate paradigms in computer science. Computer science_sentence_85

Peter Wegner argued that those paradigms are science, technology, and mathematics. Computer science_sentence_86

Peter Denning's working group argued that they are theory, abstraction (modeling), and design. Computer science_sentence_87

Amnon H. Eden described them as the "rationalist paradigm" (which treats computer science as a branch of mathematics, which is prevalent in theoretical computer science, and mainly employs deductive reasoning), the "technocratic paradigm" (which might be found in engineering approaches, most prominently in software engineering), and the "scientific paradigm" (which approaches computer-related artifacts from the empirical perspective of natural sciences, identifiable in some branches of artificial intelligence). Computer science_sentence_88

Computer science focuses on methods involved in design, specification, programming, verification, implementation and testing of human-made computing systems. Computer science_sentence_89

Fields Computer science_section_3

Further information: Outline of computer science Computer science_sentence_90

As a discipline, computer science spans a range of topics from theoretical studies of algorithms and the limits of computation to the practical issues of implementing computing systems in hardware and software. Computer science_sentence_91

CSAB, formerly called Computing Sciences Accreditation Board—which is made up of representatives of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), and the IEEE Computer Society (IEEE CS)—identifies four areas that it considers crucial to the discipline of computer science: theory of computation, algorithms and data structures, programming methodology and languages, and computer elements and architecture. Computer science_sentence_92

In addition to these four areas, CSAB also identifies fields such as software engineering, artificial intelligence, computer networking and communication, database systems, parallel computation, distributed computation, human–computer interaction, computer graphics, operating systems, and numerical and symbolic computation as being important areas of computer science. Computer science_sentence_93

Theoretical computer science Computer science_section_4

Main article: Theoretical computer science Computer science_sentence_94

Theoretical Computer Science is mathematical and abstract in spirit, but it derives its motivation from the practical and everyday computation. Computer science_sentence_95

Its aim is to understand the nature of computation and, as a consequence of this understanding, provide more efficient methodologies. Computer science_sentence_96

Theory of computation Computer science_section_5

Main article: Theory of computation Computer science_sentence_97

According to Peter Denning, the fundamental question underlying computer science is, "What can be automated?" Computer science_sentence_98

Theory of computation is focused on answering fundamental questions about what can be computed and what amount of resources are required to perform those computations. Computer science_sentence_99

In an effort to answer the first question, computability theory examines which computational problems are solvable on various theoretical models of computation. Computer science_sentence_100

The second question is addressed by computational complexity theory, which studies the time and space costs associated with different approaches to solving a multitude of computational problems. Computer science_sentence_101

The famous P = NP? Computer science_sentence_102

problem, one of the Millennium Prize Problems, is an open problem in the theory of computation. Computer science_sentence_103

Information and coding theory Computer science_section_6

Main articles: Information theory and Coding theory Computer science_sentence_104

Information theory, closely related to probability and statistics, is related to the quantification of information. Computer science_sentence_105

This was developed by Claude Shannon to find fundamental limits on signal processing operations such as compressing data and on reliably storing and communicating data. Computer science_sentence_106

Coding theory is the study of the properties of codes (systems for converting information from one form to another) and their fitness for a specific application. Computer science_sentence_107

Codes are used for data compression, cryptography, error detection and correction, and more recently also for network coding. Computer science_sentence_108

Codes are studied for the purpose of designing efficient and reliable data transmission methods. Computer science_sentence_109

Data structures and algorithms Computer science_section_7

Main articles: Data structure and Algorithm Computer science_sentence_110

Data structures and algorithms are the studies of commonly used computational methods and their computational efficiency. Computer science_sentence_111

Programming language theory and formal methods Computer science_section_8

Main articles: Programming language theory and Formal methods Computer science_sentence_112

Programming language theory is a branch of computer science that deals with the design, implementation, analysis, characterization, and classification of programming languages and their individual features. Computer science_sentence_113

It falls within the discipline of computer science, both depending on and affecting mathematics, software engineering, and linguistics. Computer science_sentence_114

It is an active research area, with numerous dedicated academic journals. Computer science_sentence_115

Formal methods are a particular kind of mathematically based technique for the specification, development and verification of software and hardware systems. Computer science_sentence_116

The use of formal methods for software and hardware design is motivated by the expectation that, as in other engineering disciplines, performing appropriate mathematical analysis can contribute to the reliability and robustness of a design. Computer science_sentence_117

They form an important theoretical underpinning for software engineering, especially where safety or security is involved. Computer science_sentence_118

Formal methods are a useful adjunct to software testing since they help avoid errors and can also give a framework for testing. Computer science_sentence_119

For industrial use, tool support is required. Computer science_sentence_120

However, the high cost of using formal methods means that they are usually only used in the development of high-integrity and life-critical systems, where safety or security is of utmost importance. Computer science_sentence_121

Formal methods are best described as the application of a fairly broad variety of theoretical computer science fundamentals, in particular logic calculi, formal languages, automata theory, and program semantics, but also type systems and algebraic data types to problems in software and hardware specification and verification. Computer science_sentence_122

Computer systems and computational processes Computer science_section_9

Artificial intelligence Computer science_section_10

Main article: Artificial intelligence Computer science_sentence_123

Artificial intelligence (AI) aims to or is required to synthesize goal-orientated processes such as problem-solving, decision-making, environmental adaptation, learning, and communication found in humans and animals. Computer science_sentence_124

From its origins in cybernetics and in the Dartmouth Conference (1956), artificial intelligence research has been necessarily cross-disciplinary, drawing on areas of expertise such as applied mathematics, symbolic logic, semiotics, electrical engineering, philosophy of mind, neurophysiology, and social intelligence. Computer science_sentence_125

AI is associated in the popular mind with robotic development, but the main field of practical application has been as an embedded component in areas of software development, which require computational understanding. Computer science_sentence_126

The starting point in the late 1940s was Alan Turing's question "Can computers think? Computer science_sentence_127

", and the question remains effectively unanswered, although the Turing test is still used to assess computer output on the scale of human intelligence. Computer science_sentence_128

But the automation of evaluative and predictive tasks has been increasingly successful as a substitute for human monitoring and intervention in domains of computer application involving complex real-world data. Computer science_sentence_129

Computer architecture and organisation Computer science_section_11

Main articles: Computer architecture, Computer organisation, and Computer engineering Computer science_sentence_130

Computer architecture, or digital computer organization, is the conceptual design and fundamental operational structure of a computer system. Computer science_sentence_131

It focuses largely on the way by which the central processing unit performs internally and accesses addresses in memory. Computer science_sentence_132

Computer engineers study computational logic and design of computer hardware, from individual processor components, microcontrollers, personal computers to supercomputers and embedded systems. Computer science_sentence_133

Concurrent, parallel and distributed computing Computer science_section_12

Main articles: Concurrency (computer science) and Distributed computing Computer science_sentence_134

Concurrency is a property of systems in which several computations are executing simultaneously, and potentially interacting with each other. Computer science_sentence_135

A number of mathematical models have been developed for general concurrent computation including Petri nets, process calculi and the Parallel Random Access Machine model. Computer science_sentence_136

When multiple computers are connected in a network while using concurrency, this is known as a distributed system. Computer science_sentence_137

Computers within that distributed system have their own private memory, and information can be exchanged to achieve common goals. Computer science_sentence_138

Computer networks Computer science_section_13

Main article: Computer network Computer science_sentence_139

This branch of computer science aims to manage networks between computers worldwide Computer science_sentence_140

Computer security and cryptography Computer science_section_14

Main articles: Computer security and Cryptography Computer science_sentence_141

Computer security is a branch of computer technology with the objective of protecting information from unauthorized access, disruption, or modification while maintaining the accessibility and usability of the system for its intended users. Computer science_sentence_142

Cryptography is the practice and study of hiding (encryption) and therefore deciphering (decryption) information. Computer science_sentence_143

Modern cryptography is largely related to computer science, for many encryption and decryption algorithms are based on their computational complexity. Computer science_sentence_144

Databases and data mining Computer science_section_15

Main articles: Database and Data mining Computer science_sentence_145

A database is intended to organize, store, and retrieve large amounts of data easily. Computer science_sentence_146

Digital databases are managed using database management systems to store, create, maintain, and search data, through database models and query languages. Computer science_sentence_147

Data mining is a process of discovering patterns in large data sets. Computer science_sentence_148

Computer graphics and visualization Computer science_section_16

Main article: Computer graphics (computer science) Computer science_sentence_149

Computer graphics is the study of digital visual contents and involves the synthesis and manipulation of image data. Computer science_sentence_150

The study is connected to many other fields in computer science, including computer vision, image processing, and computational geometry, and is heavily applied in the fields of special effects and video games. Computer science_sentence_151

Digital signal, image and sound processing Computer science_section_17

Main article: Information processing Computer science_sentence_152

Information can take the form of images, sound, signals or data. Computer science_sentence_153

Bits of information streams change over the time. Computer science_sentence_154

Its processing is the central notion of informatics, the European view on computing, which studies information processing algorithms independently of the type of information carrier - whether it is electrical, mechanical or biological. Computer science_sentence_155

This field plays important role in information theory, telecommunications, information engineering and has applications in medical image computing, speech synthesis and electrical engineering. Computer science_sentence_156

Applied computer science Computer science_section_18

Computational science, finance and engineering Computer science_section_19

Main articles: Computational science, Computational finance, and Computational engineering Computer science_sentence_157

Scientific computing (or computational science) is the field of study concerned with constructing mathematical models and quantitative analysis techniques and using computers to analyze and solve scientific problems. Computer science_sentence_158

A major usage of scientific computing is simulation of various processes, including computational fluid dynamics, physical, electrical, and electronic systems and circuits, as well as societies and social situations (notably war games) along with their habitats, among many others. Computer science_sentence_159

Modern computers enable optimization of such designs as complete aircraft. Computer science_sentence_160

Notable in electrical and electronic circuit design are SPICE, as well as software for physical realization of new (or modified) designs. Computer science_sentence_161

The latter includes essential design software for integrated circuits. Computer science_sentence_162

Software engineering Computer science_section_20

Main article: Software engineering Computer science_sentence_163

See also: Computer programming Computer science_sentence_164

Software engineering is the study of designing, implementing, and modifying the software in order to ensure it is of high quality, affordable, maintainable, and fast to build. Computer science_sentence_165

It is a systematic approach to software design, involving the application of engineering practices to software. Computer science_sentence_166

Software engineering deals with the organizing and analyzing of software—it doesn't just deal with the creation or manufacture of new software, but its internal arrangement and maintenance. Computer science_sentence_167

Human-computer interaction Computer science_section_21

Main article: Human-computer interaction Computer science_sentence_168

Research that develops theories, principles, and guidelines for user interface designers. Computer science_sentence_169

Discoveries Computer science_section_22

The philosopher of computing Bill Rapaport noted three Great Insights of Computer Science: Computer science_sentence_170

Computer science_unordered_list_0

Computer science_description_list_1

  • Computer science_item_1_1
    • All the information about any computable problem can be represented using only 0 and 1 (or any other bistable pair that can flip-flop between two easily distinguishable states, such as "on/off", "magnetized/de-magnetized", "high-voltage/low-voltage", etc.).Computer science_item_1_2

See also: Digital physics Computer science_sentence_171

Computer science_unordered_list_2

  • Alan Turing's insight: there are only five actions that a computer has to perform in order to do "anything".Computer science_item_2_3

Computer science_description_list_3

  • Computer science_item_3_4
    • Every algorithm can be expressed in a language for a computer consisting of only five basic instructions:Computer science_item_3_5
      • move left one location;Computer science_item_3_6
      • move right one location;Computer science_item_3_7
      • read symbol at current location;Computer science_item_3_8
      • print 0 at current location;Computer science_item_3_9
      • print 1 at current location.Computer science_item_3_10

See also: Turing machine Computer science_sentence_172

Computer science_unordered_list_4

  • Corrado Böhm and Giuseppe Jacopini's insight: there are only three ways of combining these actions (into more complex ones) that are needed in order for a computer to do "anything".Computer science_item_4_11

Computer science_description_list_5

  • Computer science_item_5_12
    • Only three rules are needed to combine any set of basic instructions into more complex ones:Computer science_item_5_13
      • sequence: first do this, then do that;Computer science_item_5_14
      • selection: IF such-and-such is the case, THEN do this, ELSE do that;Computer science_item_5_15
      • repetition: WHILE such-and-such is the case, DO this.Computer science_item_5_16
    • Note that the three rules of Boehm's and Jacopini's insight can be further simplified with the use of goto (which means it is more elementary than structured programming).Computer science_item_5_17

See also: Structured program theorem Computer science_sentence_173

Programming paradigms Computer science_section_23

Main article: Programming paradigm Computer science_sentence_174

Programming languages can be used to accomplish different tasks in different ways. Computer science_sentence_175

Common programming paradigms include: Computer science_sentence_176

Computer science_unordered_list_6

  • Functional programming, a style of building the structure and elements of computer programs that treats computation as the evaluation of mathematical functions and avoids state and mutable data. It is a declarative programming paradigm, which means programming is done with expressions or declarations instead of statements.Computer science_item_6_18
  • Imperative programming, a programming paradigm that uses statements that change a program's state. In much the same way that the imperative mood in natural languages expresses commands, an imperative program consists of commands for the computer to perform. Imperative programming focuses on describing how a program operates.Computer science_item_6_19
  • Object-oriented programming, a programming paradigm based on the concept of "objects", which may contain data, in the form of fields, often known as attributes; and code, in the form of procedures, often known as methods. A feature of objects is that an object's procedures can access and often modify the data fields of the object with which they are associated. Thus object-oriented computer programs are made out of objects that interact with one another.Computer science_item_6_20

Many languages offer support for multiple paradigms, making the distinction more a matter of style than of technical capabilities. Computer science_sentence_177

Academia Computer science_section_24

Further information: List of computer science conferences and :Category:Computer science journals Computer science_sentence_178

Conferences are important events for computer science research. Computer science_sentence_179

During these conferences, researchers from the public and private sectors present their recent work and meet. Computer science_sentence_180

Unlike in most other academic fields, in computer science, the prestige of conference papers is greater than that of journal publications. Computer science_sentence_181

One proposed explanation for this is the quick development of this relatively new field requires rapid review and distribution of results, a task better handled by conferences than by journals. Computer science_sentence_182

Education Computer science_section_25

Main article: Computer science education Computer science_sentence_183

Computer Science, known by its near synonyms, Computing, Computer Studies, Information Technology (IT) and Information and Computing Technology (ICT), has been taught in UK schools since the days of batch processing, mark sensitive cards and paper tape but usually to a select few students. Computer science_sentence_184

In 1981, the BBC produced a micro-computer and classroom network and Computer Studies became common for GCE O level students (11–16-year-old), and Computer Science to A level students. Computer science_sentence_185

Its importance was recognised, and it became a compulsory part of the National Curriculum, for Key Stage 3 & 4. Computer science_sentence_186

In September 2014 it became an entitlement for all pupils over the age of 4. Computer science_sentence_187

In the US, with 14,000 school districts deciding the curriculum, provision was fractured. Computer science_sentence_188

According to a 2010 report by the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) and Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA), only 14 out of 50 states have adopted significant education standards for high school computer science. Computer science_sentence_189

Israel, New Zealand, and South Korea have included computer science in their national secondary education curricula, and several others are following. Computer science_sentence_190

See also Computer science_section_26

Main articles: Glossary of computer science and Outline of computer science Computer science_sentence_191


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer science.